Drives
Basem M. Badr, Ali M. Eltamaly, and A. I. Alolah
Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA.
Email: bbadr1@ksu.edu.sa, eltamaly@ksu.edu.sa, and alolah@ksu.edu.sa
Abstract— Because of the low maintenance and robustness
induction motors have many applications in the industries. Most
of these applications need fast and smart speed control system.
This paper introduces a smart speed control system for
induction motor using fuzzy logic controller. Induction motor is
modeled in synchronous reference frame in terms of dq form.
The speed control of induction motor is the main issue achieves
maximum torque and efficiency. Two speed control techniques,
Scalar Control and Indirect Field Oriented Control are used to
compare the performance of the control system with fuzzy logic
controller. Indirect field oriented control technique with fuzzy
logic controller provides better speed control of induction motor
especially with high dynamic disturbances. The model is carried
out using Matlab/Simulink computer package. The simulation
results show the superiority of the fuzzy logic controller in
controlling threephase induction motor with indirect field
oriented control technique.
Keywords— Vector control, Fuzzy logic, Induction motor
drive.
I. INTRODUCTION
The variable speed systems took a great importance in the
industry and in the research and require multidisciplinary
knowledge in the field of the electric genius [1]. The
induction motor is considered since its discovery as actuator
privileged in the applications of constant speed, and it has
many advantages, such as low cost, high efficiency, good self
starting, its simplicity of design, the absence of the collector
brooms system, and a small inertia [13]. However, induction
motor has disadvantages, such as complex, nonlinear, and
multivariable of mathematical model of induction motor, and
the induction motor is not inherently capable of providing
variable speed operation [34]. These limitations can be
solved through the use of smart motor controllers and
adjustable speed controllers, such as scalar and vector control
drive [1, 5]. Field Oriented Control (FOC) or vector control
was invented in the late 1960 [1]. As the induction motors
were controlled using scalar control methods like the volt
hertz control, the magnitude and frequency of the stator
voltages are determined from steadystate properties of the
motor, which leads to poor dynamic performance. In FOC the
magnitude, frequency and instantaneous position of voltage,
current and flux linkage vector are controlled and valid for
steady state as well as transient conditions. FOC is a
technique that provides a method of decoupling the two
components d and q of stator current: one producing the air
gap flux and the other producing the torque respectively.
Therefore, it provides independent control of torque and
flux, which is similar to a separately excited DC machine.
The FOC schemes are classified into two groups: the direct
method of field orientation proposed by Blaschke [6] and the
indirect method of field orientation proposed by Hasse [7].
The direct method requires flux acquisition, which is mostly
obtained by computation techniques using machine terminal
quantities, where as indirect method avoids the requirement
of flux acquisition by using known motor parameters to
compute the appropriate motor slip speed ω
sl
to obtain the
desired flux position. The scheme of indirect is simpler to
implement than the direct method of FOC hence, indirect
method has become more popular [812].
Conventional control of an induction motor is difficult due
to strong nonlinear magnetic saturation effects and
temperature dependency of the motor’s electrical parameters.
As the conventional control approaches require a complex
mathematical model of the motor to develop controllers for
quantities such as speed, torque, and position. Recently, to
avoid the inherent undesirable characteristics of conventional
control approaches, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is being
developed. FLC offers a linguistic approach to develop
control algorithms for any system. It maps the inputoutput
relationship based on human expertise and hence, does not
require an accurate mathematical model of the system and
can handle the nonlinearities that are generally difficult to
model. This consequently makes the FLC tolerant to
parameter variation and more accurate and robust [1315].
This paper will demonstrate the improvement in the motor
drive performance using FLC to implement scalar and
Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC). This paper shows the
space phasor model of threephase induction motor in section
II. In section III, various control techniques are used to
control speed and improve performance of induction motor
drive using fuzzy control. The implementation of scalar and
vector control using FLC in Matlab/Simulink environment
and their simulation results are given to demonstrate and
compare between scalar and vector control in section IV.
Conclusions and reference are mentioned in the last section.
II. INDUCTION MOTOR MODEL
The dynamic model of the induction motor is derived by
transforming the threephase quantities into two phase direct
and quadrature axes quantities. The equivalence between the
threephase and twophase machine models is derived from
the concept of power invariance [16]. Induction motor model
in the synchronous reference frame is shown in equation (1)
and subscript e denotes this reference frame, the model is
discussed in more details in [8]:
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎡
⋅
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎡
+ − − − −
− + −
− + −
+
=
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎡
e
dr
e
qr
e
ds
e
qs
r r r r s m m r s
r r s r r m r s m
m m s s s s s
m s m s s s s
e
dr
e
qr
e
ds
e
qs
i
i
i
i
P L R )L ω (ω P L )L ω (ω
)L ω (ω P L R )L ω (ω P L
P L L ω P L R L ω
L ω P L L ω P L R
v
v
v
v
The electromagnetic torque is:
⎥
⎦
⎤
⎢
⎣
⎡
− = ) i i i (i L
2
P
2
3
T
e
qr
e
ds
e
dr
e
qs
m e
where
s
ω : Synchronous speed,
r
ω : Electrical speed (rotor speed),
P : Number poles of IM,
e T : Electromagnetic torque,
m L : Mutual inductance,
s
L : Stator leakage inductance,
r
L : Rotor leakage inductance,
s
R : Stator resistance,
r
R : Rotor resistance,
e
qs
i : Stator current in synchronous frame on qaxis,
e
ds
i : Stator current in synchronous frame on daxis,
e
dr
i : Rotor current in synchronous frame on daxis,
e
qr
i : Rotor current in synchronous frame on qaxis,
e
qs
v : Stator voltage in synchronous frame on qaxis,
e
ds
v : Stator voltage in synchronous frame on daxis,
e
qr
v : Rotor voltage in synchronous frame on qaxis,
e
dr
v : Rotor voltage in synchronous frame on daxis.
The dynamic equations of the induction motor in
synchronous reference frames can be represented by using
flux linkages as variables. This involves the reduction of
number of variables in dynamic equations, which greatly
facilitates their solution. The fluxlinkages representation is
used in motor drives to highlight the process of the
decoupling of the flux and torque channels in the induction
machine. The stator and rotor flux linkages in the
synchronous reference frames are defined as in [8, 12, 16]:
e
qr
m
e
qs
s
e
qs
i L i L λ + =
(3)
e
dr
m
e
ds
s
ds
i L i L λ + =
e
(4)
e
qs
m
e
qr
r
e
qr
i L i L λ + =
(5)
e
ds
m
e
dr
r
e
dr
i L i L λ + =
(6)
) i (i L λ
e
qr
e
qs
m
e
qm
+ =
(7)
) i (i L λ
e
dr
e
ds
m
e
dm
+ =
(8)
where
λ
dm
: Mutual flux on daxis,
λ
qm
: Mutual flux on qaxis,
λ
ds
: Stator flux on daxis,
λ
dr
: Rotor flux on daxis,
λ
qs
: Stator flux on qaxis,
λ
qr
: Rotor flux on qaxis.
The stator and rotor fluxlinkage phasors are the resultant
stator and rotor flux linkages and are found by taking the
vector sum of the respective d and q components of the flux
linkages. Note that the fluxlinkage phasor describes its
spatial distribution. Instead of using two axes such as the d
and q for a balanced polyphase machine, the fluxlinkage
phasors can be thought of as being produced by equivalent
singlephase stator and rotor windings, as space phasor model
that has many advantages [812, 17]:
• The system equations could be compact and be reduced
from four to two;
• The system reduces to a twowindings system like the dc
machine, hence the apparent similarity of them in control to
obtain a decoupled independent flux and torque control as
in the dc machine;
• Easier analytical solution of dynamic transients of the key
machine variables, involving only the solution of two
differential equations with complex coefficients. Such an
analytical solution improves the understanding of the
machine behavior in terms of machine parameters, leading
to the formulation of the machine design requirements for
variablespeed applications.
The space phasor model of the induction motors can be
presented in state space equations from previous equation, so
it can be expressed in the synchronously rotating dq
reference frame as follows [1718]:
X
= AX +Bu (9)
where
X = j
e
ds
i
e
qs
i
e
dr
λ
e
qr
λ [
1
u = 
e
ds
v
e
qs
v ]
1
A =
o
1
w
c
o
2
L
m
w
r
c L
s
L
r
w
c
o
1

L
m
w
r
c L
s
L
r
o
2
L
m
R
r
L
r
u
 R
r
L
r
w
c
 w
¡
u
L
m
R
r
L
r
w
c
+ w
¡
 R
r
L
r
B =
o
3
u
u o
3
u u
u u
(2)
(1)
o
1
= 
R
s
oI
s

(1 o)R
¡
o I
¡
o
2
=
I
m
R
¡
o I
s
I
¡
2
o
3
=
1
o I
s
o = 1 
L
m
2
L
s
L
r
.
III. THE PROPOSED CONTROL SYSTEM
Due to poor dynamic performance in openloop of
induction motor, various control technique have been widely
used in many applications to achieve high dynamic
performance, get tracking speed, and generate maximum
torque of induction motor, namely scalar control and FOC.
A. Scalar Control
Scalar control as the name indicates, is due to magnitude
variation of the control variables only, and disregards the
coupling effect in the machine. Scalar control has been
widely used in industry, the fact that they are easy to
implement. The scalar control strategy is based on simplified
volts/Hertz control scheme with stator frequency regulation
as shown in fig.1. As the controller generates the slip speed
ω
sl
signal that is added with electrical speed that yields
synchronous speed ω
s
that is used in induction motor model
with synchronous reference frame and generate the voltage
command through Volts/HZ function to keep flux constant
[1920].
B. Vector control
Vector control of an induction motor is analogous to the
control of a separately excited DC motor. In a DC motor the
field flux ϕ
f
produced by the field current I
f
is perpendicular
to the armature flux ϕ
a
produced by the armature current I
a
.
These fields are decoupled and stationary with respect to each
other. Therefore, torque is controlled by armature current the
field flux remains unaffected enabling a fast transient
response. As scalar control technique is relatively simple to
implement but gives a sluggish response because of the
inherent coupling effect due to torque and flux being
functions of current and frequency. The vector approach
overcomes the sluggish transient response associated with
scalar control of induction motors. In vector control, the
current phasor i
s
produces the rotor flux λ
r
and the torque T
e
.
The component of current producing the rotor flux phasor
should be in phase with λ
r
. Therefore, resolving the stator
current phasor along λ
r
reveals that the component i
f
is the
fieldproducing component [2224].
Fig. 1. Block diagram of scalar controller for IM.
The perpendicular component i
T
is hence the torque
producing component, as shown in fig. 2.
Vector control schemes are classified according to how the
field angle is acquired. If the field angle is calculated using
terminal voltages and currents by Hall sensors or fluxsensing
windings, then it is known as direct vector control. The field
angle can be obtained by rotor position measurements but not
any other variables, such as voltages or currents; using this
field angle leads to a class of control schemes known as
indirect vector control. Indirect field orientation does not
have inherent low speed problems and is thus preferred in
most systems which must operate near zero speed [1921].
C. Indirect Field Oriented Control
The rotor voltage equations of the induction motor in the
synchronous reference frame equal zero because of squirrel
cage of induction motor and can be written as:
R
¡
i
q¡
c
+ P z
q¡
c
+ w
sI
z
d¡
c
=0
(10)
R
¡
i
d¡
c
+ p z
d¡
c
 w
sI
z
q¡
c
=0
(11)
As the rotor flux z
¡
lays on daxis of the synchronous
frame, so the flux equation can be written as:
z
¡
= z
Jr
c
(12)
z
q¡
c
= 0 (13)
Rotor currents can be derived from the flux linkage
equations as following:
i
q¡
c
= 
L
m
L
r
i
qs
c
(14)
i
d¡
c
=
x
r
L
r

I
m
I
r
i
qs
c
(15)
From previous equations, so stator currents can be derived
from the flux linkage equations and slip speed that can be
written:
i
qs
c
= w
sI
L
s
x
r
R
r
L
m
= i
1
(16)
i
ds
c
=
1
I
m
 z
r
+
L
r
R
r
d x
r
dt
] = i
]
(17)
w
sI
=
L
m
R
r
ì
T
L
r
x
r
(18)
Since the current component responsible for generating
field must be in phase with the rotor flux, the daxis stator
current is established as i
]
. Hence the perpendicular
component i
qs
must be the torqueproducing factor and is i
T
,
the Phase of the current signal is the sum of θ
I
(field angle)
and θ
T
where:
θ
1
= ton
1
ì
T
ì
]
(19)
The electromagnetic torque is written as [911]:
I
c
=
3 p L
m
4 L
r
z
¡
i
1
(20)
Fig. 2. Phasor diagram of the vector controller.
Fig. 3 shows the implementation block of indirect vector
control. As FOC block contains the previous equations that
yield the stator current and the field angle. The field angle is
the sum of slip angle 0
sI
and rotor angle 0
¡
that are obtained
by the integration of slip speed and rotor speed respectively.
The stator currents are calculated and are sent to the inverter
that generates pulses to drive the induction motor [2223].
D. Fuzzy Logic Controller
FLC is a technique to embody humanlike thinking into a
control system. FLC can be designed to emulate human
deductive thinking, that is, the process people use to infer
conclusions from what they know. FLC has been primarily
applied to the control of processes through fuzzy linguistic
descriptions [15, 18].
FLC is utilized to design controllers for plants with
complex dynamics and high nonlinearity model. In a motor
control system, the function of FLC is to convert linguistic
control rules into control strategy based on heuristic
information or expert knowledge. FLC approach is very
useful for induction motor speed drives since no exact
mathematical model of the induction motor or the closedloop
system is required [24]. FLC has a fixed set of control rules,
usually derived from expert’s knowledge. The membership
function (MF) of the associated input and output linguistic
variables is generally predefined on a common universe of
discourse. For the successful design of FLC’s proper
selection of input and output scaling factors (gains) or tuning
of the other controller parameters are crucial jobs, which in
many cases are done through trial and error to achieve the
best possible control performance [19, 24]. The structure of
FLC is shown in fig.4. The structure shows four functions,
each one materialized by block [1, 25].
Fig. 3. Indirect Field Oriented Control of IM.
Fig. 4. Structure of fuzzy control.
• A fuzzification interface, the fuzzy control initially converts
the crisp error and its rate of change in displacement into
fuzzy variables; then they are mapped into linguistic labels.
Membership functions are defined within the normalized
range (1, 1), and associated with each label: NB (Negative
Big), NM (Negative Medium), NS (Negative Small), NVS
(Negative Very Small), ZE (Zero), NPS (Positive Very
Small), PS (Positive Small), PM (Positive Medium), and PB
(Positive Big). Seven MFs are chosen for e(pu) and ce(pu)
signals and nine for output. All the MFs are symmetrical for
positive and negative values of the variables. Thus,
maximum 7х7 = 49 rules can be formed as tabulated in
Table 1. The surface error and membership functions for the
inputs (error and change of error) and output of fuzzy
control for scalar and vector control are shown in fig. 5.
• A knowledge base (a set of IfThen rules), which contains
the definition of the fuzzy subsets, their membership
functions, their universe discourse and the whole of the
rules of inference to achieve good control.
• An inference mechanism (also called an “inference engine”
or “fuzzy inference” module), which is heart of a fuzzy
control, posses the capacity of feign the human decisions
and emulates the expert’s decision making in interpreting
and applying knowledge about how best to control the
plant.
• A defuzzification interface, which converts the conclusions
of the inference mechanism into actual inputs for the
process. In this work; Center Of Area (COA) is used as a
deffuzification method, which can be presented as:
X
c¡ìsp
=
∑ x
i
µ
A
(x
i
)
n
i=1
∑ µ
A
(x
i
)
n
i=1
(21)
where
n: Number of the discrete elements.
x
ì
: The value of the discrete element
p
A
(x
ì
) : The corresponding MF value at the point x
ì
.
The gains G
1
, G
2
, and G
3
are scaling factors to adapt the
variables to the normalized scale. However, the inference
strategy is the mamdani algorithm, so the ifthen rules for
fuzzy scalar control and fuzzy vector control for torque
control will be forty nine rules.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 5. (a) Inputs membership function, (b) Output membership function,
(c) Surface error.
Tabel 1. RULES FOR FUZZT CONTROLLER
ce e NB NM NS Z PS PM PB
NB NB NB NB NM NS NVS Z
NM NB NB NM NS NVS Z PVS
NS NB NM NS NVS Z PVS PS
Z NM NS NVS Z PVS PS PM
PS NS NVS Z PVS PS PM PB
PM NVS Z PVS PS PM PB PB
PB Z PVS PS PM PB PB PB
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
Simulation results have been realized under
Matlab/Simulink environment. A simullink model is carried
out to realize induction motor equation (9) using parameters
in Table 2. Fig 6 and fig 7 show the implementation of fuzzy
controller for scalar and vector control respectively in
Matlab/Simulink, where the implementation of fuzzy
controller for vector control has three fuzzy controllers:
speed, flux, torque controller. As the sample time is selected
as 0.1 msec. The obtained results of speed, torque and flux for
closedloop of scalar and vector control using fuzzy control
are shown in fig 8 to fig.11 respectively. Fig 8 shows the
speed of the induction motor using scalar and vector control,
as the speed in scalar control tracks the reference speed, but it
has small overshoot, when the reference change suddenly and
load torque is applied at 0.8 sec and faster response than
vector control, however, the speed of vector control tracks the
reference, and it has more delay time than scalar control and
smooth response, when the reference change suddenly and
applying load torque. Although, fig. 9 shows the developed
electromagnetic torque for scalar and vector control, that
achieve good tracking.
Table 2. PARAMETERS OF INDUCTION MACHINE [26]
As in vector control the developed control has smoother
performance than scalar control, when changing speed and
applied load torque at 0.8 sec. Fig. 10 and fig 11 show the dq
of flux, as in scalar control, the fluxes have oscillation, when
the reference changes suddenly and load torque is applied,
however, in vector control, the flux have smooth and fixed
response, in transient conditions, when the reference changes
suddenly and load torque is applied.
Fig. 6. Scalar control of induction motor in Matlab/Simulink.
Fig. 7. The implementation of vector control of induction motor in
Matlab/Simulink.
Fig. 8. Speed response of scalar and vector control.
Rated
voltage
220 v Rated load torque 10 N.m
Pole pairs 2 Stator resistance
3.1 0
Rated speed 1500 rpm Rotor resistance
1.7 0
Rotor inertia 0.2 Kg.m Stator inductance 0.328 H
Damping
factor
0.002
N.rad/sec
Rotor inductance 0.337 H
Rated
current
6.4 A
Mutual
inductance
0.32 H
Fig 9. Torque response of scalar and vector control.
Fig. 10. Flux response of scalar control.
Fig. 11. Flux response of vector control.
V. CONCLUSIONS
Fuzzy logic controller shows fast control response with
threephase induction motor. Two different control
techniques are used with Fuzzy logic controllers which are
scalar and field oriented control techniques. Fuzzy logic
controller system shows better response with these two
techniques. Meanwhile, the scalar controller has a sluggish
response than FOC because of the inherent coupling effect in
field and torque components. However, the developed fuzzy
logic control with FOC shows fast response, smooth
performance, and high dynamic response with speed
changing and transient conditions.
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qs v e : Stator voltage in synchronous frame on daxis. ds i e : Rotor current in synchronous frame on daxis. λqm: Mutual flux on qaxis. Lm : Mutual inductance. which greatly facilitates their solution. ds v e : Rotor voltage in synchronous frame on qaxis. Te : Electromagnetic torque. (7) (8) The electromagnetic torque is: 3P ⎡ ⎤ Te = Lm(i e i e − i e i e )⎥ qs dr ds qr ⎢ 22 ⎣ ⎦ where ωs : Synchronous speed. leading to the formulation of the machine design requirements for variablespeed applications. Such an analytical solution improves the understanding of the machine behavior in terms of machine parameters. Instead of using two axes such as the d and q for a balanced polyphase machine. involving only the solution of two differential equations with complex coefficients. P : Number poles of IM. The fluxlinkages representation is used in motor drives to highlight the process of the decoupling of the flux and torque channels in the induction machine. qr v e : Stator voltage in synchronous frame on qaxis. 12. λqs: Stator flux on qaxis. Note that the fluxlinkage phasor describes its spatial distribution. hence the apparent similarity of them in control to obtain a decoupled independent flux and torque control as in the dc machine. λds: Stator flux on daxis. 16]: ie ds ie qs λe dr λe qr ve ds ve qs λ e = Lsi e + Lmi e qs qs qr e λ ds = Lsi e + Lmi e ds dr (3) (4) (5) (6) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 λ = Li +L i e qr e r qr e m qs λ e = Lri e + Lmi e dr dr ds . so it can be expressed in the synchronously rotating dq reference frame as follows [1718]: (9) where v e : Rotor voltage in synchronous frame on daxis. The space phasor model of the induction motors can be presented in state space equations from previous equation. The stator and rotor flux linkages in the synchronous reference frames are defined as in [8. the model is discussed in more details in [8]: ωs Ls LmP ωs Lm ⎤ ⎡ie ⎤ ⎡ve ⎤ ⎡ Rs + Ls P qs qs ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ e⎥ ⎢ Rs + Ls P LmP ⎥ ⎢ie ⎥ − ωs Lm ⎢vds ⎥ = ⎢ − ωs Ls ⎥ ⋅ ds (1) ⎢ve ⎥ ⎢ LmP (ωs − ωr )Lm Rr + Lr P (ωs − ωr )Lr ⎥ ⎢ie ⎥ qr qr ⎢ e⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ LmP − (ωs − ωr )Lr Rr + Lr P ⎦ ⎢ie ⎥ ⎢vdr ⎥ ⎣− (ωs − ωr )Lm ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ λ e = Lm(i e + i e ) qm qs qr λ e = Lm(ie + i e ) dm ds dr where λdm: Mutual flux on daxis. dr The dynamic equations of the induction motor in synchronous reference frames can be represented by using flux linkages as variables.in the synchronous reference frame is shown in equation (1) and subscript e denotes this reference frame. • The system reduces to a twowindings system like the dc machine. as space phasor model that has many advantages [812. (2) ωr : Electrical speed (rotor speed). 17]: • The system equations could be compact and be reduced from four to two. R r : Rotor resistance. R s : Stator resistance. i e : Stator current in synchronous frame on qaxis. dr i e : Rotor current in synchronous frame on qaxis. L r : Rotor leakage inductance. L s : Stator leakage inductance. This involves the reduction of number of variables in dynamic equations. the fluxlinkage phasors can be thought of as being produced by equivalent singlephase stator and rotor windings. λqr : Rotor flux on qaxis. λdr: Rotor flux on daxis. qs i e : Stator current in synchronous frame on daxis. • Easier analytical solution of dynamic transients of the key machine variables. qr The stator and rotor fluxlinkage phasors are the resultant stator and rotor flux linkages and are found by taking the vector sum of the respective d and q components of the flux linkages.
The perpendicular component iT is hence the torqueproducing component. Scalar Control Scalar control as the name indicates. Block diagram of scalar controller for IM. torque is controlled by armature current the field flux remains unaffected enabling a fast transient response. A. the Phase of the current signal is the sum of θ (field angle) and θT where: θ The electromagnetic torque is written as [911]: (20) (19) Fig. Indirect field orientation does not have inherent low speed problems and is thus preferred in most systems which must operate near zero speed [1921]. so stator currents can be derived from the flux linkage equations and slip speed that can be written: = 1 (16) (17) (18) Since the current component responsible for generating field must be in phase with the rotor flux. and disregards the coupling effect in the machine. C. is due to magnitude variation of the control variables only. then it is known as direct vector control. the daxis stator . namely scalar control and FOC. such as voltages or currents. If the field angle is calculated using terminal voltages and currents by Hall sensors or fluxsensing windings. so the flux equation can be written as: =0 (12) (13) Rotor currents can be derived from the flux linkage equations as following: = (14) (15) From previous equations. as shown in fig. As scalar control technique is relatively simple to implement but gives a sluggish response because of the inherent coupling effect due to torque and flux being functions of current and frequency. 2. the current phasor is produces the rotor flux λr and the torque Te. Therefore. Scalar control has been widely used in industry. Vector control Vector control of an induction motor is analogous to the control of a separately excited DC motor. various control technique have been widely used in many applications to achieve high dynamic performance. THE PROPOSED CONTROL SYSTEM Due to poor dynamic performance in openloop of induction motor. In vector control. Indirect Field Oriented Control The rotor voltage equations of the induction motor in the synchronous reference frame equal zero because of squirrel cage of induction motor and can be written as: +P +p + =0 =0 (10) (11) lays on daxis of the synchronous As the rotor flux frame. 1. The component of current producing the rotor flux phasor should be in phase with λr. the fact that they are easy to implement.1 1 =1 .1. get tracking speed. As the controller generates the slip speed ωsl signal that is added with electrical speed that yields synchronous speed ωs that is used in induction motor model with synchronous reference frame and generate the voltage command through Volts/HZ function to keep flux constant [1920]. In a DC motor the field flux ϕf produced by the field current If is perpendicular to the armature flux ϕa produced by the armature current Ia. The vector approach overcomes the sluggish transient response associated with scalar control of induction motors. III. The field angle can be obtained by rotor position measurements but not any other variables. B. Vector control schemes are classified according to how the field angle is acquired. and generate maximum torque of induction motor. using this field angle leads to a class of control schemes known as indirect vector control. Therefore. These fields are decoupled and stationary with respect to each other. resolving the stator current phasor along λr reveals that the component if is the fieldproducing component [2224]. Hence the perpendicular current is established as component must be the torqueproducing factor and is iT . . The scalar control strategy is based on simplified volts/Hertz control scheme with stator frequency regulation as shown in fig.
their membership functions. The stator currents are calculated and are sent to the inverter that generates pulses to drive the induction motor [2223]. For the successful design of FLC’s proper selection of input and output scaling factors (gains) or tuning of the other controller parameters are crucial jobs. ZE (Zero). Indirect Field Oriented Control of IM. 25]. then they are mapped into linguistic labels. which is heart of a fuzzy control. : The value of the discrete element : The corresponding MF value at the point . which can be presented as: ∑ ∑ (21) where n: Number of the discrete elements. the function of FLC is to convert linguistic control rules into control strategy based on heuristic information or expert knowledge. so the ifthen rules for fuzzy scalar control and fuzzy vector control for torque control will be forty nine rules. Fig. FLC has been primarily applied to the control of processes through fuzzy linguistic descriptions [15. All the MFs are symmetrical for positive and negative values of the variables. However. The field angle is the sum of slip angle and rotor angle that are obtained by the integration of slip speed and rotor speed respectively. the fuzzy control initially converts the crisp error and its rate of change in displacement into fuzzy variables. Structure of fuzzy control. . FLC approach is very useful for induction motor speed drives since no exact mathematical model of the induction motor or the closedloop system is required [24].Fig. NS (Negative Small). 24]. 3 shows the implementation block of indirect vector control. As FOC block contains the previous equations that yield the stator current and the field angle. maximum 7х7 = 49 rules can be formed as tabulated in Table 1. FLC is utilized to design controllers for plants with complex dynamics and high nonlinearity model. which converts the conclusions of the inference mechanism into actual inputs for the process. PM (Positive Medium). and G3 are scaling factors to adapt the variables to the normalized scale. In this work. NPS (Positive Very Small). The gains G1. • A defuzzification interface. The membership function (MF) of the associated input and output linguistic variables is generally predefined on a common universe of discourse. posses the capacity of feign the human decisions and emulates the expert’s decision making in interpreting and applying knowledge about how best to control the plant. The surface error and membership functions for the inputs (error and change of error) and output of fuzzy control for scalar and vector control are shown in fig. and PB (Positive Big). FLC can be designed to emulate human deductive thinking. G2. and associated with each label: NB (Negative Big). 5. 1). FLC has a fixed set of control rules. • A fuzzification interface. 2. NVS (Negative Very Small). Fig. each one materialized by block [1. usually derived from expert’s knowledge. 18]. the process people use to infer conclusions from what they know. 4. • A knowledge base (a set of IfThen rules). • An inference mechanism (also called an “inference engine” or “fuzzy inference” module). the inference strategy is the mamdani algorithm. which contains the definition of the fuzzy subsets. PS (Positive Small). Phasor diagram of the vector controller. 3. Membership functions are defined within the normalized range (1. which in many cases are done through trial and error to achieve the best possible control performance [19. NM (Negative Medium). Center Of Area (COA) is used as a deffuzification method.4. Seven MFs are chosen for e(pu) and ce(pu) signals and nine for output. Thus. The structure of FLC is shown in fig. The structure shows four functions. their universe discourse and the whole of the rules of inference to achieve good control. In a motor control system. D. that is. Fig. Fuzzy Logic Controller FLC is a technique to embody humanlike thinking into a control system.
328 H 0.7 0.32 H (b) (c) Fig.electromagnetic torque for scalar and vector control. Fig. when the reference change suddenly and load torque is applied at 0. in vector control. (a) Inputs membership function.1 msec. Scalar control of induction motor in Matlab/Simulink. 7. however. but it has small overshoot. PARAMETERS OF INDUCTION MACHINE [26] (a) Rated voltage Pole pairs Rated speed Rotor inertia Damping factor Rated current 220 v 2 1500 rpm 0. Tabel 1. IV. the speed of vector control tracks the reference. fig. Fig. torque controller. as the speed in scalar control tracks the reference speed. Table 2. . (b) Output membership function.337 H 0.1 1.m 0. as in scalar control. when the reference changes suddenly and load torque is applied. when changing speed and applied load torque at 0. (c) Surface error. Speed response of scalar and vector control. in transient conditions. Fig 8 shows the speed of the induction motor using scalar and vector control.2 Kg. flux. 8. torque and flux for closedloop of scalar and vector control using fuzzy control are shown in fig 8 to fig. As the sample time is selected as 0. Fig 6 and fig 7 show the implementation of fuzzy controller for scalar and vector control respectively in Matlab/Simulink.11 respectively. A simullink model is carried out to realize induction motor equation (9) using parameters in Table 2. however. the fluxes have oscillation.4 A Rated load torque Stator resistance Rotor resistance Stator inductance Rotor inductance Mutual inductance 10 N. when the reference changes suddenly and load torque is applied.rad/sec 6. The obtained results of speed.002 N. when the reference change suddenly and applying load torque. that achieve good tracking. 6. 9 shows the developed Fig. SIMULATION RESULTS Simulation results have been realized under Matlab/Simulink environment. As in vector control the developed control has smoother performance than scalar control.m 3. 10 and fig 11 show the dq of flux. the flux have smooth and fixed response. where the implementation of fuzzy controller for vector control has three fuzzy controllers: speed. and it has more delay time than scalar control and smooth response.8 sec. The implementation of vector control of induction motor in Matlab/Simulink. RULES FOR FUZZT CONTROLLER ce NB NM NS Z PS PM PB e NB NB NB NB NM NS NVS Z NM NB NB NM NS NVS Z PVS NS NB NM NS NVS Z PVS PS Z NM NS NVS Z PVS PS PM PS NS NVS Z PVS PS PM PB PM NVS Z PVS PS PM PB PB PB Z PVS PS PM PB PB PB Fig.8 sec and faster response than vector control. Although. 5.
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