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CONCEPT OF WIRELESS ELECTRICITY WITRICITY

A SEMINAR REPORT Submitted by

NAVEEN GUPTA
ROLL NO: 0935331029 in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
in

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

APOLLO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KANPUR

GAUTAMA BUDDHA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY LUCKNOW
DATE OF SUBMISSION: MARCH,2012

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report CONCEPT OF WIRELESS ELECTRICITY- WITRICITY is the bonafide work of NAVEEN KUMAR GUPTA B.TECH-3rd year Electronics and Communication Engineering who carried out the project work under my supervision, and I express my delight on it successful completion. I wish his success in all his future endeavors.

RISHISH MISHRA HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION DEPTT. APOLLO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ,KANPUR

PREFACE:WITRICITY is nothing but Wireless Electricity. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is said to be Wireless electricity or WITRICITY. Witricity’s wireless power transfer technology can be applied in a wide variety of applications and environments. The ability of this technology is to transfer power safely, efficiently, and over distance can improve products by making them more convenient, reliable, and environmentally friendly.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SR NO. I II TITLE BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE PREFACE PAGE NO. 2 3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF WIRELESS POWER LITERATURE SURVEY WHAT ACTUALLY WITRICITY IS PRINCIPLE BEHIND WITRICITY BRAIN BEHIND WITRICITY PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION MIT’S EXPERIMENT UNIQUENESS OF THE EXPERIMENT FIGURE REPRESENTING WITRICITY HOW SAFE IS WITRICITY FEATURES AND BENEFIT OF WITRICITY FUTURE AND SCOPES OF WITRICITY ADVANTAGE AND APPLICATIONS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

5-6 7-8 9 10-14 15-17 18 19 19-20 21-22 23 24 25-26 27 28-34 35-36 37

Wireless spower transmission is not a new idea. while not interchanging the surroundings. ubiquitous power wire. In any system of coupled resonators there often exists a so-called “strongly coupled” regime of operation. Due to which it does not effect the environment surrounding.1. laptop computers and other portable electronics capable of charging themselves without ever being plugged in. Imagine a future in which wireless power transfer is feasible: cell phones. Another technique includes transfer of power through microwaves using rectennas. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently. the energy transfer can be very efficient . ABSTRACT We cannot imagine the world without electric power. In 2006 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soijacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. hazardous and tangled wiring. The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as Witricity.This is particularly suitable for long range distances ranging kilometers. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100watts. If one ensures to operate in that regime in a given system. This report describes an original idea to eradicate the hazardous usage of electrical wires which involve lot of confusion in particularly organizing them. This paper includes the techniques of transmitting power without using wires with an efficiency of about 95% with non-radiative methods. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. The researchers demonstrated the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. household robots. These techniques includes resonating inductive coupling in sustainable moderate range. Some of these devices might not even need their bulky batteries to operate. The coupling consists of an inductor along with a capacitor with its own resonating frequency. With this we can avoid the confusion and danger of having long. mp3 players. freeing us from that final. . Witricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Generally the power is transmitted through wires. They have dubbed this technology as Witricity.

As witricity is in the development stage. . lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency. moving robots and fuel free rockets. Another application of WPT is moving targets such as fuel free airplanes. Generating power by placing satellites with giant solar arrays in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and transmitting the power as microwaves to the earth known as Solar Power Satellites (SPS) is the largest application of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). fuel free electric vehicles.

The name of this new technology is “PROTO TYPE POWER SYSTEM” So far we have seen the wireless data transferring. Any problem can be solved by state–of-the-art technology. Through this technology the information available in one mobile phone can transmitted to another mobile without any wire connection. According to the World Resources Institute (WRI). Numbers published by various Indian government agencies put that number at 30%. INTRODUCTION One of the major issue in power system is the losses occurs during the transmission and distribution of electrical power. The above discussed problem can be solved by choose an alternative option for power transmission which could provide much higher efficiency. the transmission is still inefficient. The main reason for power loss during transmission and distribution is the resistance of wires used for grid. fan. This kind transmission is made possible with Bluetooth technology. The percentage of loss of power during transmission and distribution is approximated as 26%. As the demand increases day by day. Due to blue tooth technology the information is transferring very conveniently from one electronic .2. India’s electricity grid has the highest transmission and distribution losses in the world – a whopping 27%. In future without wire connection the electrical home appliances such as light. But. The major amount of power loss occurs during transmission and distribution. 40% and greater than 40%. Recently the Sony Company has developed this technology. the power generation increases and the power loss is also increased. The efficiency of power transmission can be improved to certain level by using high strength composite over head conductors and underground cables that use high temperature super conductor. TV. This miracle will be happened with “wireless current”. This is attributed to technical losses (grid’s inefficiencies) and theft. Microwave Power Transmission is one of the promising technologies and may be the righteous alternative for efficient power transmission. Fridge may works in our homes. low transmission cost and avoid power theft. At present the power can be transmitted from one place to another place through the wire connection only.

may works without wire connections only. To maintain the working mode status of electronic devices the power transmission is compulsory. Any how the transmission of power is compulsory through alternative current or direct current. But all the electrical equipments available in home will start their function on your command. Without wire connections the TV and Fridge the electronics and electrical equipments will function in our homes. Then there is no necessity to keep the TV and fridge wires connections in current plugs. Now-a-days this method of transferring of information is become very common. This kind of technology is reaching to the public in a very short period. so as to keep the two electronic devices in working mode and then only the transmission of information from one electronic device to another electronic device is possible. This power is transmitted through one wire called as AC (alternative current) or transmitted through battery (direct current) DC. The electrical home wiring is not required. As a matter of fact it is a magic and wonder.device to another electronic device. In the same manner all the electrical equipments. fans. If the same blue tooth technology can be used in the power transmission system. In this process the two electronic devices should be kept in working mode only.. . washing machine. lights. Electrical iron box and Geyser etc.

The source of the transmitted electricity was to be the Niagara Falls power plant. Dr. Nikola Tesla shows us that he is indeed the "Father of the Wireless. In spite of this he had made numerous experiments of high quality to validate his claim of possibility of wireless transmission of electricity . This was to be the first broadcasting system in the world. rather than telegraphy. But this was an unfortunate incidence that people of that century was not in a position to recognize his splendid work otherwise today we may transmit electricity wirelessly and will convert our mother earth a wonderful adobe full of electricity.3. Tesla wanted to transmit electricity from this Tower to the whole globe without wires using the Ionosphere. The most popular concept known is Tesla Theory in which it was firmly believed that Wardenclyffe would permit wireless transmission and reception across large distances with negligible losses. even in the present day systems." The most well-known and famous Wardenclyffe Tower (Tesla Tower) was designed and constructed mainly for wireless transmission of electrical power. This was to be the first broadcasting system in the world. The 187-foot Wardenclyffe Tower (Tesla Tower) in 1903. are based. Tesla wanted to transmit electricity from this Tower to the whole globe without wires using the Ionosphere. . The source of the transmitted electricity was to be the Niagara Falls power plant[1]. BACKGROUND OF WIRELESS POWER In this remarkable discovery of the "True Wireless" and the principles upon which transmission and reception.

showing that communications signals can be sent without using wires.[101] 1897: Tesla files his first patent application dealing specifically with wireless transmission .[99][100] • 1896: Tesla demonstrates wireless transmission over a distance of about 48 kilometres (30 mi).857 describing a system for power transmission at 3 kHz.S. 1831: Michael Faraday develops Faraday’s law of induction describing the electromagnetic force induced in a conductor by a time-varying magnetic flux. 1836: Nicholas Callan invents the electrical transformer. "System of Electric Lighting. espouse long held view that inductive energy transfer should be possible.[92] 1893: Tesla publicly demonstrates wireless power before a meeting of the National Electric Light Association in St.[26][93][94] 1894: Tesla lights incandescent lamps wirelessly at the 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York City by means of "electro-dynamic induction" or resonant inductive coupling. experiments and equations of electricity. magnetism and optics into a consistent theory and mathematically models the behavior of electromagnetic radiation. Patent # 527. Louis.[95][96][97] • 1894: Hutin & LeBlanc.[98] • 1894: Jagdish Chandra Bose ignites gunpowder and rings a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves. 454. • 1888: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz confirms the existence of electromagnetic radiation. • • • • 1891: Tesla improves Hertz-wave wireless transmitter RF power supply or exciter in his patent No. Hertz’s "apparatus for generating electromagnetic waves" was a VHF or UHF "radio wave" spark gap transmitter. LITERATURE SURVEY OR TIMELINE OF WIRELESS POWER:• • • • 1820: André-Marie Ampère develops Ampere’s law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field. 1864: James Clerk Maxwell synthesizes the previous observations.4." 1893: Tesla demonstrates the wireless illumination of phosphorescent lamps of his design at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. they received U.622.

"the inferiority of the induction method would appear immense as compared with the disturbed charge of ground and air method. Louis World's Fair.[103] • 1904: At the St.S.701. . It is not radiated."[105] • • • • 1917: Tesla's Wardenclyffe tower is demolished. Brown is technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beams 30 kW over a distance of 1600 meters (1 mile) at 84% efficiency. time and frequency domain spread spectrum telecommunications. 1926: Shintaro Uda and Hidetsugu Yagi publish their first paper on Uda's "tuned high-gain directional array"[33] better known as the Yagi antenna.[citation needed] • 1968: Peter Glaser proposes wirelessly transmitting solar energy captured in space using "Powerbeaming" technology. "In my [disturbed charge of ground and air] system. a prize is offered for a successful attempt to drive a 0. Patent Interference No. electronic logic gates in general. John Boys at The University of Auckland in New Zealand. • • • • 1971: Prof.[108][109] This is usually recognized as the first description of a solar power satellite.[110] 1975: Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex does experiments in the tens of kilowatts. Don Otto develops a small trolley powered by induction at The University of Auckland. Brown publishes an article exploring possibilities of microwave power transmission. wireless power transmission. System of Signaling (wireless). Between 1969 and 1975.[citation needed] 1973: The world's first passive RFID system is demonstrated at Los-Alamos National Lab.U. .• 1899: Tesla continues his wireless power transmission research in Colorado Springs and writes. it is conserved. . that energy is radiated. Reginald Fessenden . develops an inverter using novel engineering materials . in New Zealand.[106][107] 1964: Brown demonstrates on CBS News with Walter Cronkite a model helicopter that receives all of the power needed for flight from a microwave beam.[34][35][36] 1988: A power electronics group led by Prof. 1961: William C. you should free yourself of the idea that there is [electromagnetic] radiation. 21."[102] • 1902: Nikola Tesla vs.1 horsepower (75 W) airship motor by energy transmitted through space at a distance of at least 100 feet (30 m).[104] • 1916: Tesla states.

S. the commercial company of The University of Auckland. 1999: Dr. to develop technology for car assembly plants and materials handling providing challenging technical requirements including multiplicity of vehicles. patents the technology.C. Consumer Electron.” PCT Patent PCT/AU03/00 721. A first prototype for a contact-less power supply is built. ICCE’00 Int. Auckland UniServices Patents the technology.” in Proc. EP(GB)0935263B • 2000: Prof. Auckland Uniservices. John Boys team develops novel technology enabling multiple vehicles to run on the same inductive power loop and provide independent control of each vehicle. • 2000: Based on the coreless PCB transformer developed by Prof.[citation needed] • 1996: Auckland Uniservices develops an Electric Bus power system using electrodynamic induction to charge (30-60 kW) opportunistically commencing implementation in New Zealand. Choi and his team at Kyungpook National University publish a paper on “A new contactless battery charger for portable telecommunication/computing electronics. 2000.C. S. pp. in New Zealand. Prof John Boys Team commission 1st commercial IPT Bus in the world at Whakarewarewa. a Japanese company.. Ron Hui. The coreless PCB transformer is used to wirelessly charge a mobile phone. Tang of the City University of Hong Kong file a patent on "Coreless Printed-Circuit-Board (PCB) transformers and operating techniques". Prof.[citation needed] • 1990: Prof. • 2001 Prof. 2000. which form the basis for future planar charging surface with "vertical flux" leaving the planar surface. Conf. B. Herbert L. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Mr. engages Auckland Uniservices Ltd. Becker powers a lamp and a hand held fan from a distance of 30 feet.and power electronics and conclude that power transmission by means of electrodynamic induction should be achievable. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Dr. A patent is filed on "Apparatus and method of an inductive battery charger.[citation needed] • 1989: Daifuku.[citation needed] • • • 1998: RFID tags are powered by electrodynamic induction over a few feet. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui invent a planar wireless charging pad using the "vertical flux" approach and resonant power transfer for charging portable consumer electronic products. Tang file a patent on "Planar PrintedCircuit-Board Transformers with Effective Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) . The circuit uses resonant circuits for wireless power transfer.[citation needed] 1999: Prof. 58–59.

Xun Liu and Prof. A team of Philips Research Center Aachen. May 2001. Eberhard Waffenschmidt. • 2004: Electrodynamic induction used by 90 percent of the US$1 billion clean room industry for materials handling equipment in semiconductor. GB2389720 and GB 2389767. iPod etc. Uses coupled resonant coils in a flat "pad" style to transfer tens of watts into a variety of consumer devices. Ron Hui for the wireless charging pad with free-positioning feature. [citation needed] • 2007: A localized charging technique is reported by Dr.501. The EM shield consists of a thin layer of ferrite and a thin layer of copper sheet. phone. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui extends the planar wireless charging pad concept using the vertical flux approach to incorporate free-positioning feature for multiple loads. W. This is achieved by using a multilayer planar winding array structure. Volume: 16 Issue: 3 . • 2005: Prof Boys' team at The University of Auckland.Shielding". PDA. Ho of City University of Hong Kong publish their work in the IEEE Transactions on a planar wireless charging platform with free-positioning feature. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics.[citation needed] • 2002: Prof. With the aid of the double-layer EM shields enclosing the transmitter and receiver coils. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Dr. Patent were granted as "Planar Inductive Battery Charger". 2001: Splashpower formed in the UK.[citation needed] • 2005: Prof. . Ron Hui's team demonstrate that the coreless PCB transformer can transmit power close to 100W in ‘A low-profile low-power converter with coreless PCB isolation transformer. the localized charging selects the right transmitter coil so as to minimize flux leakage and human exposure to radiation. LCD and plasma screen manufacture. The planar wireless charging pad is able to charge several loads simultaneously on a flat surface.C. • 2001: Prof. refines 3-phase IPT Highway and pick-up systems allowing transmission of power to moving vehicles in the lab. led by Dr. It enables the underneath of the future wireless charging pads to be shielded with a thin EM shield structure with thickness of typically 0. use it to power • • an 100W lighting device in their paper "Size advantage of coreless transformers in the MHz range" in the European Power Electronics Conference in Graz. Patent: US6. including lamp.364.7mm or less.

• 2007: Using electro dynamic induction a physics research group. This product is developed by Wireless Power & Communication. wirelessly power a 60W light bulb with 40% efficiency at a 2 meters (6. at Brunel University makes a wireless lamp incorporating a high efficiency 3W LED. John Boys group's 1988 follow-up experiments by wirelessly powering a nearby light bulb with 75% efficiency. breaking several world records in power and distance. Marin Soljacic's follow-up research on Tesla's electro . 2008: Intel reproduces Tesla's original 1894 implementation of electro dynamic induction and Prof. • • • 2008: Bombardier offers a new wireless power transmission product PRIMOVE. a Norway based company. 2009: An Ex approved Torch and Charger aimed at the offshore market is introduced.[114] 2009: A Consortium of interested companies called the Wireless Power Consortium announce they are nearing completion for a new industry standard for low-power inductive charging • • 2009: Palm (now a division HP) launches the Palm Pre smart phone with the Palm Touchstone wireless charger. 60 W over 50 cm 2010: Haier Group debuts “the world's first” completely wireless LCD television at CES 2010 based on Prof.[113] • 2008: Greg Leyh and Mike Kennan of the Nevada Lightning Laboratory publish a paper on Tesla's disturbed charge of ground and air method of wireless power transmission with circuit • • simulations and test results showing an efficiency greater than can be obtained using the electro dynamic induction method. at MIT. • • 2009: Sony shows a wireless electro dynamic-induction powered TV set. • 2009: A simple analytical electrical model of electro dynamic induction power transmission is proposed and applied to a wireless power transfer system for implantable devices.6 ft) distance with two 60 cm-diameter coils. led by Prof. 2008: Industrial designer Thanh Tran. by transmitting over a kilowatt more than several hundred meters. a system for use on trams and light-rail vehicles. • 2009: Laser motive uses diode laser to win $900k NASA prize in power beaming. Marin Soljacic.

direction. which causes certain types of materials to attract or repel each other. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WITRICITY. Magnetic Induction: A loop or coil of conductive material like copper. laptops. is a very efficient structure for generating or capturing a magnetic field. Electromagnetism: A term for the interdependence of time-varying electric and magnetic fields. and extent of magnetic fields are often represented and visualized by drawings of the magnetic field lines. Understanding how it works is a bit more involved. A convenient way for energy to get from one place to another! Magnetism: A fundamental force of nature. A second conducting loop. The strength. or charges through the atmosphere (like lightning). iPods and other power hungry devices get charged on their own. like the ones on your refrigerator and the earth’s magnetic field.dynamic induction wireless energy transmission method and the Wireless Home Digital Interface (WHDI). Permanent magnets. . WiTricity is nothing but wireless electricity. and can be generated by alternating current (AC) flowing on a wire.eliminating the need of plugging them in. 5. Oscillating magnetic fields vary with time. it will generate an oscillating magnetic field in the vicinity of the loop. For example. and work our way up to the WiTricity technology. brought close enough to the first. If a conductive loop is connected to an AC power source. Even better. Understanding what WiTricity technology is—transferring electric energy or power over distance without wires—is quite simple. carrying an alternating current (AC). because of WiTricity some of the devices won’t require batteries to operate. are examples of objects having constant magnetic fields. WHAT ACTUALLY WITRICITY IS. may “capture” some portion of that oscillating magnetic field. but it doesn’t require an engineering degree. We’ll start with the basics of electricity and magnetism. WiTricity will ensure that the cellphones. which in turn. Electricity: The flow of electrons (current) through a conductor (like a wire). it turns out that an oscillating magnetic field produces an electric field and an oscillating electric field produces a magnetic field.

Some common examples of devices based on magnetic induction are electric transformers and electric generators. The current generated in the second coil may be used to power devices. . This type of electrical power transfer from one loop or coil to another is well known and referred to as magnetic induction.generates or induces an electric current in the second coil.

One simple example is a locomotive pulling a train car—the mechanical coupling between the two enables the locomotive to pull the train. Magnetic coupling occurs when the magnetic field of one object Resonance: Resonance is a property that exists in many different physical systems. It can be thought of as the natural frequency at which energy can most efficiently be added to an oscillating system. and the sound energy is converted to mechanical vibrations of the glass itself. Note that this diagram also shows how the magnetic field (blue lines) can wrap around a conductive obstacle between the power source and the capture device. Resonant coupling occurs when the natural frequencies of the two objects are approximately the same. the train moves. The child swings back and forth at a rate that is determined by the length of the swing. .Energy/Power Coupling: Energy coupling occurs when an energy source has a means of transferring energy to another object. The swing is oscillating at its resonant frequency and the simple movements of the child efficiently transfer energy to the system. WiTricity Technology: WiTricity power sources and capture devices are specially designed magnetic resonators that efficiently transfer power over large distances via the magnetic near-field. Sound waves traveling through the air are captured by the glass. When the singer hits the note that matches the resonant frequency of the glass. Another example of resonance is the way in which a singer can shatter a wine glass by singing a single loud. is connected to AC power. A playground swing is an example of an oscillating system involving potential energy and kinetic energy. The child can make the swing go higher if she properly coordinates her arm and leg action with the motion of the swing. and overcome the forces of friction and inertia that keep the train still—and. thickness of the glass. Resonant Magnetic Coupling: Magnetic coupling occurs when two objects exchange energy through their varying or oscillating magnetic fields. The WiTricity power source. The yellow lines represent the flow of energy from the source to the WiTicity capture coil. In this example. left. The resonant frequency of the glass depends on the size. the wine glass is the resonant oscillating system. These proprietary source and device designs and the electronic systems that control them support efficient energy transfer over distances that are many times the size of the sources/devices themselves. which is shown powering a light bulb. begins vibrating. clear note. and can eventually even shatter. the glass absorbs energy. The blue lines represent the magnetic near field induced by the power source. shape. and how much wine is in it.

shown in yellow. The blue and red color bands illustrate their magnetic fields. The coupling of their respective magnetic fields is indicated by the connection of the colorbands. When the current reverses direction.The blue lines represent the magnetic field that is created when current flows through a coil. Two idealized resonant magnetic coils. . the magnetic field also reverses its direction.is flowing it give rise to the magnetic field An illustration representing the earth's magnetic field An electric transformer is a device that uses magnetic induction . As current I.

This is known as 'coupled resonance' and is the principle behind Witricity.6. What's the Principle behind Witricity? Witricity .Wireless Electricity. if you want to understand it.The concept behind this fascinating term is a little complex. The electric power from the power source causes the copper coil connected to it to start oscillating at a particular (MHz) frequency. Consider two self resonating copper coils of same resonating frequency with a diameter 20 inches each. . try and picture what I state in the next few lines. while the other copper wire is connected to the device (Witricity Receiver). connected to it to start oscillating at a Subsequently. This generated magnetic field further transfers the power to the other copper coil connected to the receiver. One copper wire is connected to the power source (Witricity transmitter). Since this coil is also of the same frequency. However. the space around the copper coil gets filled with non. it starts oscillating at the same frequency as the first coil.magnetic radiations. these words are simpler said than done.

instead he tried to figure out if there existed any physical phenomenon which could be of some help. He didn't just stand there wondering.7. 8. Marin Soljacic from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Soljacic. The Brain behind Witricity? Prof. is the one who has proved that magnetic coupled resonance can be utilized in order to transfer energy without wires. just like any of us was fed up of his 'low battery' beeping cellphone and wondered just like any of us if there was a way to get rid of this 'charging problem'. here is where the difference between Soljacic and any of us comes in. PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION . What's even more interesting is how he came about this idea. However. He remembered Michael Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction (1831) and used it to come up with WiTricity.

but receiver must be located adjacent to the transmitter which means the terminal must have a battery. The more rapidly the energy decreases and the current dies out along the circuit. The effective range is probably 1cm or less. Energy is transferred from a conductor that produces the fields (the primary) to any conductor on which the fields impinge (the secondary). A high frequency current does not pass for long distances along a conductor but rapidly transfers its energy by induction to adjacent conductors. Part of the energy of the primary conductor passes inductively across space into secondary conductor and the energy decreases rapidly along the primary conductor. Large amounts of power can be transmitted by electromagnetic induction. .Electromagnetic Induction usually provides high power levels which can provide output of several watts (W) to several hundred KW. The higher the frequency the more preponderant become the inductive effects that transfer energy from circuit to circuit across space. Higher induction resulting from the higher frequency is the explanation of the apparent difference in the propagation of high frequency disturbances from the propagation of the low frequency power of alternating current systems. The higher the frequency the more intense the induction effect. the more local is the phenomenon. Electromagnetic induction is proportional to the intensity of the current and voltage in the conductor which produces the fields and to the frequency.

MIT's Experiment: In 2007. Marin Soljacic led a five member team of researchers at MIT (funded by Army Research Office. and did not radiate to the surrounding environment. National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy) and experimentally demonstrated transfer of electricity without the use of wires. The system worked with 40% efficiency and the power that wasn't utilized remained in the vicinity of the transmitter itself. These researchers were able to light a 60W bulb from a source placed seven feet away. . The bulb glowed even when different objects (like a wooden panel) were placed between the two coils.Representation of Electromagnetic Induction 9. with absolutely no physical contact between the bulb and the power source. The first copper coil (24 inches in diameter) was connected to the made to resonate at a frequency of 10 MHz.

but remains in the vicinity of the transmitter. . If the object to be charged is in the vicinity of the WiTricity source. Aristeidis Karalis says that their coupling resonance system is one million times more efficient as compared to that of Nikola Tesla. What's so Unique about Soljacic's experiment? What Soljacic's team has done is that they have specifically tuned the transmitting unit to the receiving device. The transmission is also not hindered by the presence of any object in the line of sight. the electric energy that is not used up by the receiver does not get radiated into the surrounding environment. One of the five researchers.9. This ensures safety as well as minimal wastage of power. In this 'coupling resonance' system. Dr. then the energy transfer will undoubtedly take place.

FIGURE REPRESENTING THE WITRICITY .10.

11. How Safe is WiTricity? .

a world renowned physicist. This design results in levels of electric and magnetic fields which fall well within regulatory guidelines. Non-Radiative Energy Transfer is Safe for People and Animals WiTricity’s technology is a non-radiative mode of energy transfer. But it doesn't respond to magnetic fields. relying instead on the magnetic near field." Evidence of the safety of magnetic fields is illustrated by the widespread acceptance and safety of household magnetic induction cooktops. Limits for human exposure to magnetic fields are set by regulatory bodies such as the FCC. and so are not prone to cause any damage to any living beings. As far as we know the body has almost zero response to magnetic fields in terms of the amount of power it absorbs. However. Through proprietary design of the WiTricity source. explains: “The body really responds strongly to electric fields. does magnetic coupling or resonance coupling have any harmful effects on humans? MIT's researchers are quite confident that WiTricity's 'coupling resonance' is safe for humans. electric fields are almost completely contained within the source.Human beings or other objects placed between the transmitter and receiver do not hinder the transmission of power. and are based on broad scientific and medical consensus. They say that the magnetic fields tend to interact very weakly with the biological tissues of the body. . ICNIRP. Thus WiTricity technology doesn’t give rise to radio frequency emissions that interfere with other electronic devices. WiTricity technology is being developed to be fully compliant with applicable regulations regarding magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation. which is why you can cook a chicken in a microwave. and is not a source of electric and magnetic field levels that pose a risk to people or animals. Magnetic fields interact very weakly with biological organisms—people and animals—and are scientifically regarded to be safe. Professor Sir John Pendry of Imperial College London.

And WiTricity sources only transfer energy when it is needed. Contact WiTricity to learn the efficiency and distance ranges that can be achieved in your applications. The benefits of highly efficient energy transfer over distance can be achieved at power levels ranging from milliwatts to several kilowatts. brick. When a WiTricity powered device no longer needs to capture additional energy. textiles. or industrial environment. such as wood. plastics. This enables WiTricity technology to be used in applications as diverse as powering a wireless mouse or keyboard (milliwatts) to recharging an electric . the magnetic near field has the ability to “wrap around” many metallic obstacles that might otherwise block the magnetic fields. In addition. efficiency can exceed 90%. the WiTricity power source will automatically reduce its power consumption to a power saving “idle” state. glass. divided by the amount of energy that is drawn by the WiTricity source. FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF WITRICITY TECHNOLOGY Highly Resonant Strong Coupling Provides High Efficiency Over Distance WiTricity's mode of wireless power transfer is highly efficient over distances ranging from centimeters to several meters. We define efficiency as the amount of usable electrical energy that is available to the device being powered. and concrete are essentially “transparent” to magnetic fields— enabling WiTricity technology to efficiently transfer power through them. Most common building and furnishing materials. In many applications. WiTricity’s applications engineering team will work with you to address the materials and environmental factors that may influence wireless energy transfer in your application. Scalable Design Enables Solutions from milliwatts to Kilowatts WiTricity systems can be designed to handle a broad range of power levels. gypsum wall board.12. commercial. Energy Transfer via Magnetic Near Field Can Penetrate and Wrap Around Obstacles The magnetic near field has several properties that make it an excellent means of transferring energy in a typical consumer.

Flexible Geometry Allows Witricity Devices to be Embedded into OEM Products Witricity technology is being designed so that it can be easily embedded into a wide variety of products and systems. . transferring only as much energy as the powered device requires. The physics of resonant magnetic coupling enables WiTricity engineers to design power sources and devices of varying shapes and sizes. to match both the packaging requirements and the power transfer requirements in a given OEM application. WiTricity technology operates in a “load following” mode.passenger vehicle (kilowatts). WiTricity has designed power capture devices compact enough to fit into a cell phone.

electric cars. WiTricity. charging devices placed anywhere in the room and even robots on factory floors. Currently. Cool. another coil nearby resonates with the first field. if tuned to the same frequency. Over the past few years. which is all well and good for information transfer. researchers at Intel showcased a wirelessly charged iPod speaker. digital camera's getting self charged! Wow! Let's hope the researchers will be able to come up with the commercial system soon. a central hub could be charging your batteries. FUTURE AND SCOPES OF WITRICITY MIT's Witricity is only 40 to 45% efficient and according to Soljacic. The . In 2007. Till then. we wait in anticipation! The electronic revolution of the past century has been a tangled affair. Imagine cellphones. they will come up with a WiTricity system for commercial use. The magnetic field lets energy flow regardless of obstacles in the way. laptops. if successful will definitely change the way we live. you name it… right through the air.13. You might never untangle a wire again. But what about energy itself? New research is bringing energy transfer into the wireless world. the type of radiation involved can only resonate within a few meters. televisions. so the current can travel through walls. they have to be twice as efficient to compete with the traditional chemical batteries. and creates an electromagnetic field. can resonate with one another. The researchers are also currently working on the health issues related to this concept and have said that in another three to five years time. researchers at MIT revealed a similar project that powered a lightbulb remotely. One coil is plugged into the wall. a number of companies have been racing to put wireless energy on the market. picking up some energy in the process to fuel your electronics. Remember when phones were always wired into the wall? When the internet required one more cord from the back of your computer? Wireless is the future. right? Wireless energy is built on the principle of resonant coupling. laptop. Soon. The team's next aim is to get a robotic vacuum or a laptop working. Last week. The devices use copper coils that.

Eliminates the use of power transmission lines. The power failure due to short circuit and fault on cables would never exist in the transmission and power theft would be not possible at all. Mobiles Phones and I-Pods are charging wirelessly.1 Advantages Wireless Power Transmission system would completely eliminates the existing high-tension power transmission line cables. 3. 2. which is leading the pack in developing a commercially viable product. cables and substations. therefore. thus reducing the cost of electrical energy. Even mobile transmitters and receivers can be chosen for the WPT system. It has more freedom of choice of both receiver and transmitters. Power is available at the rectenna as long as the WPT is operating. More freedom of choice of both receiver and transmitter. . Loss of transmission is negligible level in the Wireless Power Transmission. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS 14. towers and sub stations between the generating station and consumers and facilitates the interconnection of electrical generation plants on a global scale. The cost of transmission and distribution become less and the cost of electrical energy for the consumer also would be reduced.physicist and project leader Marin Soljacic (winner of a MacArthur “genius grantFellowship) went on to found the start-up WiTricity. 14. 1. The power could be transmitted to the places where the wired transmission is not possible. the efficiency of this method is very much higher than the wired transmission. Power can be transferred to the places where wired transmission is not possible.

3. orprecipitation. The zero gravity and high vacuum condition in space would allow much lighter. The power density would be uninterrupted by darkness. No waste product. No moving parts. low maintenance structures and collectors. 8. 1. clouds. The realization of the SPS concept holds great promises for solving energy crisis 6. The main draw back of solar energy transfer from orbit is the storage of electricity during off peak demand hours. The full solar irradiation would be available at all times expect when the sun is eclipsed by the earth .4. . Some of the major disadvantages are: 1. Disadvantage of SPS:The concept of generating electricity from solar energy in the space itself has its inherent disadvantages also. To reduce the Faults because of Short Circuit of wires and cables Advantage of SPS :The idea collecting solar energy in space and returning it to earth using microwave beam has many attractions. which are the problems encountered with earth based solar arrays. To make the recharge of electronic devices more convenient for consumer especially for the elderly and the disabled 6. Disadvantage:The Capital Cost for practical implementation of WPT seems to be very high and the other disadvantage of the concept is interference of microwave with present communication systems. 5. 5. Thus about five times energy could be collected. No fuel required. The power could be directed to any point on the earth’s surface. Low transmission loss. compared with the best terrestrial sites 2. thus increasing the efficiency. 7. 4.

5. Radiation hazards associated with the system. Thus public exposure to WPT fields would also be below existing safety guidelines. But the studies in this domain repeatedly proves that the microwave radiation level would be never higher than the dose received while opening the microwave oven door. High power microwave source and high gain antenna can be used to deliver an intense burst of energy to a target and thus used as a weapon.. a fuel-free electric vehicle (EV). In the late 1980's. One application is the MPT for moving target.45 GHz and this frequency is used by communication satellites also. Wireless sensors and RF Power Adaptive Rectifying Circuits (PARC). The idea is to float an unmanned light-weight airplane for a long period. fuel-less . 14.High cost and require much time for construction. fuel free electric vehicles. 6. To maintain the platform floating for weeks or months. 14. e. 4. a fuel-free airplane. 3. circling at an altitude of about 21 km for the purpose of relaying radio communications signals over a wide area.The frequency of beamed radiation is planned to be at 2. Cellular telephones operate with power densities at or below the ANSI/IEEE exposure standards.The entire structure is massive. and moving robot in a limited area. The other applications of WPT are Ubiquitous Power Source (or) Wireless Power Source.2 Biological Impacts Common beliefs fear the effect of microwave radiation. 7.2. Risks involved with malfunction. meaning it is slightly higher than the emissions created by cellular telephones. a program to develop a long endurance high altitude platform called SHARP (Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform) was proposed in Canada.3 Applications Of WPT Generating power by placing satellites with giant solar arrays in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and transmitting the power as microwaves to the earth known as Solar Power Satellites (SPS) is the largest application of WPT. Another application of WPT is moving targets such as fuel free airplanes. moving robots and fuel free rockets.g.

the use of the microwave is very similar to tha t in the communication system. So the MPT can be used an emergency power supply. In the Japanese experiment. Two experiments were carried out in U. In Japan. Lifted Airplane experiment). fundamental data on microwave power transmission were collected under various weather conditions and experiments on the connection of the recentness were carried out. Laboratory experiments have been already carried out in a shielded room. unavailable or with The Japanese experiment was called MILAX (Microwave . where power is fed via microwave.S. one can extract electric power from weak microwaves anywhere and at any time.airplanes powered by microwave energy transmitted from the ground was proposed and experimented in Canada and in Japan. In the concept of the UPS. * The most recently proposed MPT application is “Ubiquitous Power Source” or “Wireless Power Source”. in 1975 and in Japan in 1995-96. The merits of the G-to-G MPT are quick installation and easy disassembly because there are no lines between the transmitter and the receivers.Another application of the MPT is ground-to-ground (G-to-G) power transmission without wires toward a distant place where wired power distribution networks are either very poor distribution. The emitted microwave expands and weak microwave power is received in many receivers. In a “Ubiquitous Power Space”.A. the MPT to an electric vehicle (EV) was also proposed and the MPT experiment was carried out with small scale functional model of the EV.

COMPONENTS FOR CHARGING THE CAR . The system provides an efficient wireless energy transfer solution that completely avoids the need for the driver to plug in their battery electric vehicle or PHEV.15. SMART APPLICATION OF WITRICITY TO CHARGE A VEHICLE WiT-3300 Deployment Kit The WiT-3300 Deployment Kit is a wireless “Park-and-Charge” self-charging system for electric vehicles.

minimal EMI  Low implementation cost  4x smaller. 2x lighter. and more forgiving than traditional magnetic induction .3kW)  User friendly (tolerant to parking misalignment)  Works through pavement (can be installed directly into a floor) and is weather resistant  Safe for people and animals.Benefits  High efficiency (90% at 18cm)  High power transfer rates (up to 3.

our strongly coupled magnetic resonance energy transfer provides products which . showing the phenomenon of Charging procedure Energy transfer over a distance and through paving materials The WiT-3300 Deployment Kit is designed to transfer energy over distances ranging from 10-20cm. and custom configurations can be provided for vehicles having higher or lower ground clearance. Technological Advantage WiTricity’s patented energy transfer system does not require the source and capture resonator pairs to be perfectly aligned in order to achieve efficient energy transfer. which means that the source device can be installed beneath a garage floor or paved parking space. In addition.Fig. Wireless energy transfer can occur through any non-metallic material.

are 4x smaller. lots of work is to be done to use it for wireless power applications. Before the establishment of this technology the detailed study must be done to check whether it cause any harm on any living beings. 2x lighter. We proved that power can be transmitted via resonantly coupled coils. Multiple resonant frequencies found at many coil spacing. Major problem arises in wireless electricity transfer through resonance inductive coupling are- . and more efficient than solutions based on traditional magnetic induction. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100w. SPECIFICATION AND ATTRIBUTES OF THE COMPONENTS 15. CONCLUSION Wireless electricity transfer is in development stage.

We can expect with certitude that in next few years’ wonders will be wrought by its applications if all the conditions are favorable. Many countries will benefit from this service. Wireless transmission of electricity have tremendous merits like high transmission integrity and Low Loss (90 – 97 % efficient) and can be transmitted to anywhere in the globe and eliminate the need for an inefficient. It has negligible demerits like reactive power which was found insignificant and biologically compatible. or copper wires to receive power. the advantages. It has a tremendous economic impact to human society. At high voltage such as 220 volts. At very low supply voltage (12-15v). 2. and capital intensive grid of cables. when you want it. Not availability of particular value of capacitance parameters. biological impacts and applications of WPT are also discussed. The concept of Microwave Power transmission (MPT) and Wireless Power Transmission system is presented. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and get rid of the landscape of wires. in real time”. Undesired variation of frequency in out of frequency generator. . and transmission towers. 4. The electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance. The technological developments in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT). Dr. and substations. 5. cables. The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility. Neville of NASA states “You don’t need cables.1. qualitative and quantitative. costly. We can send it to you like a cell phone call – where you want it. disadvantages. 3. experiments and measurements. very low efficiency occurs (20-30%). pipes. sparking occurs across winding terminals. This concept offers greater possibilities for transmitting power with negligible losses and ease of transmission than any invention or discovery heretofore made. it is now a reality. Many researchers have established in numerous observations. towers. To determine the values of inductance and capacitance at such a high resonant frequency as 100-150 MHz.

BIBLIOGRAPHY en.org/wiki/Wireless_energy_transfer http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/id/Wireless-Power-Transmission-Over-Short-Distances-U/ http://www.wikipedia.witricity.16.instructables.com .htm http://www.com/wireless-power.