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Product Version Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

V100R001 Product Name: WCDMA RNP

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WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance
For internal use only

Prepared by: Reviewed by: Reviewed by: Approved by:

URNP-SANA

Date: Date: Date: Date:

2003-12-15

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All rights reserved

WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance

For Intanal Use

Revision Record
Date 2003/12/15 2005/03/16 1.0 Rev. Version Initial transmittal Change the date, no content updated. Description Author Znag Liang Qinyan

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WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction................................................................................................................................................ 7 2 Handover Algorithm Analysis ................................................................................................................... 7 2.1 Handover Measurement ........................................................................................................................ 7 2.1.1 Intra-Frequency Measurement................................................................................................... 8 2.1.2 Inter-Frequency Measurement................................................................................................. 13 2.1.3 Inter-System Measurement ...................................................................................................... 14 2.1.4 UE Internal Measurement......................................................................................................... 15 2.2 Handover Algorithms.......................................................................................................................... 16 2.2.1 Softer Handover and Soft Handover Algorithms ................................................................... 16 2.2.2 Intra-Frequency Hard Handover Algorithm ............................................................................ 17 2.2.3 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Algorithm ............................................................................ 17 2.2.4 Inter-System Handover Algorithm ........................................................................................... 19 2.2.5 Handover Caused by Load Balancing .................................................................................... 19 2.2.6 Cell Penalty ................................................................................................................................. 20 2.2.7 Active Set Synchronization Maintenance ............................................................................... 21 2.2.8 Direct Retry Algorithm ............................................................................................................... 22 2.2.9 Principle for Generating Adjacent Cell List............................................................................. 23 3 Handover Parameter Setting .................................................................................................................... 24 3.1 Description .......................................................................................................................................... 24 3.2 Handover Common Parameters........................................................................................................... 25 3.2.1 Maximum Number of Cells in Active Set ................................................................................ 26 3.2.2 Penalty Time ............................................................................................................................... 26 3.2.3 Event 6F Trigger Threshold...................................................................................................... 27 3.2.4 Event 6G Trigger Threshold ..................................................................................................... 27 3.2.5 Time-to-Trigger Parameters for Events 6F and 6G .............................................................. 28 3.2.6 BE Service Handover Rate Decision Threshold.................................................................... 28 3.2.7 Soft Handover Method Select Switch ..................................................................................... 29 3.2.8 Handover Algorithm Switches .................................................................................................. 30 3.3 Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Algorithm Parameters........................................................ 31 3.3.1 Soft Handover Relative Thresholds......................................................................................... 31 3.3.2 Soft Handover Absolute Thresholds ....................................................................................... 32 3.3.3 Intra-Frequency Measurement Filter Coefficient (FilterCoef).............................................. 33 3.3.4 Hysteresis Related to Soft Handover...................................................................................... 35 3.3.5 Time-to-Trigger Parameters Related to Soft Handover ....................................................... 36 3.3.6 WEIGHT ...................................................................................................................................... 37 3.3.7 Detected Set Statistics Switch ................................................................................................. 38 3.4 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithm Parameters .............................................................................. 38 3.4.1 Inter-Frequency Measurement Filter Coefficient (FilterCoef).............................................. 38 3.4.2 Cell Location Property ............................................................................................................... 39 3.4.3 Hysteresis Related to Inter-Frequency Handover................................................................. 40 3.4.4 Time-to-Trigger Parameters Related to Inter-Frequency Hard Handover......................... 41 3.4.5 Compressed Mode Enable/Disable Threshold Denoted by RSCP .................................... 42 3.4.6 Compressed Mode Enable/Disable Threshold Denoted by Ec/No..................................... 42 3.4.7 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover RSCP Threshold ............................................................... 43 3.4.8 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Ec/No Threshold ............................................................... 44 3.5 inter-system handover measurement algorithm parameter.................................................................. 44 3.5.1 inter-system measurement filter coefficient FilterCoef ......................................................... 44 3.5.2 Inter-System Hard Handover Decision Threshold ................................................................ 45 3.5.3 Inter-system Hard Handover Hysteresis................................................................................. 45 3.5.4 Time-to-Trigger Parameter for Inter-System Hard Handover.............................................. 46 3.5.5 Inter-System Measurement Periodic Report Interval............................................................ 46 3.6 Compressed Mode Algorithm Parameter ............................................................................................ 47 3.6.1 CFN Offset to Enable Compressed Mode.............................................................................. 47

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WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance

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3.6.2 Spreading Factor Threshold..................................................................................................... 48 3.7 Direct Retry Algorithm Parameter ...................................................................................................... 48 3.7.1 Maximum Direct Retry Times ................................................................................................... 48 3.7.2 Candidate Set Absolute Threshold.......................................................................................... 49 3.7.3 Minimum Ec/No Value............................................................................................................... 50 3.7.4 Linear Factor of Relative Threshold and Time Interval ........................................................ 50 3.7.5 Maximum Relating Time for Direct Retry Decision ............................................................... 51

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WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance

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List of Tables
table 1 Recommended Soft Handover Hysteresis Settings for Different Movement Speeds............. 35 table 2 Recommended Time-to-Trigger Settings for Different Movement Speeds................. 36 table 3 Recommended Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Hysteresis Settings for Different Movement Speeds ................................................................................................................................ 40 table 4 Recommended Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Time-to-Trigger Settings for Different Movement Speeds ................................................................................................................ 41

List of Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Measurement Model.............................................................................................................. 8 Example of Event 1A and Trigger Delay............................................................................ 9 Periodic Reporting Triggered by Event 1A ...................................................................... 10 Example of Event 1C .......................................................................................................... 11 Example of Event 1D .......................................................................................................... 11 Restriction of measurement reporting by means of hysteresis..................................... 12 Example of Event 1E........................................................................................................... 12 Example of Event 1D1F...................................................................................................... 13 Power Control Timing.......................................................................................................... 21 MML Client ................................................................................................................. 25

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Finally.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Key words: handover algorithm. hard handover. so that correct and effective handover parameter adjustments can be carried out based on the actual requirements during network optimization. inter-system handover. List of abbreviations: (Omitted) 06-6-7 Confidential Page 6 of 52 . soft handover. it provides a detailed guidance for the setting of various types of handover parameters. parameter setting Abstract: This document first describes the measurements involved in the handover algorithms. and then analyzes the measurement control and decision rules in the implementation of the algorithm of each type of handover.

2 Handover Algorithm Analysis Mobility management is an important part of radio resource management. and then makes handover decision and guides the handover execution according to the reported measurement result. The latest 06-6-7 Confidential Page 7 of 52 . Handover measurement is specific to the physical layer. this document provides detailed descriptions of the specific parameter setting methods value assignment recommendations and ranges of effect of the related algorithms of various types of handover. handover control method and handover type selection required for the handover decision. this document discusses the measurement control. including handover. we should first analyze handover measurement. The measurement result will go twice through smoothening processing. to analyze a handover algorithm. soft handover. intra-frequency hard handover. In Chapter 2. reporting rules and related handover decision algorithms involved in various types of handover. 2. The first processing is in the physical layer. and the purpose is to filter off the influence of fast fading before the physical layer reports the measurement result to the higher layer. Based on the measurement value.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 1 Introduction Handover types include softer handover. which provides measurement of various items for the higher layers.1 Handover Measurement The radio resource management module (RRM) initiated measurements include dedicated measurement and common measurement. so as to trigger various functions. The second processing is implemented by the higher layer on the measurement result reported by the physical layer before event evaluation. A handover algorithm involves such contents as measurement control and handover decision. inter-frequency hard handover and inter-system hard handover. In Chapter 3. Handover algorithms largely present themselves in the configuration of measurement control parameters. so as to provide a clear and practical guidance for parameter adjustments in network optimization. This processing is to determine the filter coefficient according to the time relation and implemented weighted averaging processing of the measurement result. A typical handover process is: measurement control → measurement report → handover decision → handover execution → new measurement control. Therefore. All the measurements in the UE are dedicated measurement. the handover algorithm determines how the UE carry out handover measurements and report the measurement result. based on the knowledge of the handover algorithms. while handover algorithms are the most important part of mobility management.

WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use measurement result after L3 filtering is used for evaluation of the reporting rule. Monitored sets include intra-frequency monitored sets. Monitored set cells: Among the cells included in the adjacent cell list delivered by the RNC. The process is as follows: Parameter Parameter A L1 filtering B L3 filtering C C' Evaluation of reporting rule D Figure 1 Measurement Model The reporting types include “on-demand reporting”. in the measurement report mechanism field. 2. then when a primary pilot channel enters the 06-6-7 Confidential Page 8 of 52 . namely in soft handover and softer handover. and the remaining cells are in monitored sets. rather than the cells in the active sets and monitored set. inter-frequency monitored sets and inter-system monitored sets. Event 1A: A primary pilot channel enters the reporting range If the network. Detected set cell: Detected set cells refer to those cells detected by the UE itself. the last two types of measurement reporting are involved in handover. “periodic reporting” and “event triggered reporting” (Event A to Event F).1. some adjacent cells may have already entered the active set at the time of soft handover. Generally. Active set cells refer to those that are demodulated and correlatively combined at the UE and communicate with the UE in the FDD mode. requires the UE to report event 1A while the UE has entered the Cell_DCH state. All intra-frequency measurement report events are identified with 1X.1 Intra-Frequency Measurement UTRAN uses the measurement control message to inform the UE what events need to trigger measurement reporting. In the UE. which will be discussed in the following paragraphs. The types of measurement involved in handover include intra-frequency measurement. inter-frequency measurement and inter-system measurement. and as the reported result. Cells in an active set are surely intra-frequency cells. measured cells are divided into the following three types: Active set cells: Cells in an active set communicate with the UE simultaneously.

MNew is the measurement result of the cell that has entered the reporting range Mi is the measurement result of the cells in the active set NA is the number of cells in the current active set MBest is the measurement result of the best cell in the current active set W is the weight factor R is the reporting range. the UE deems that a primary pilot channel has entered the reporting range: 1. and UTRAN will deliver an ACTIVE SET UPDATE signaling message to update the active set.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance reporting range. For Intanal Use When the measurement values satisfy the following formulas. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ Where. R equals to the signal strength of the best cell in the current active set minus a value H1a is the hysteresis value of event 1A In order to reduce the signaling traffic flow of the measurement report. An example of measurement reporting triggered by event 1A is given below: Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 Reporting range P CPICH 2 P CPICH 3 Time-to-trigger Reporting event 1A Time Figure 2 Example of Event 1A and Trigger Delay Generally. the TIME-TO-TRIGGER parameter is used so that the UE will not trigger measurement reporting before the primary pilot enters the reporting range and is maintained for a certain period of time. the UE will send a measurement report. if event 1A is triggered. Path loss: ⎛ NA ⎞ 10 ⋅ LogM New ≤ W ⋅10 ⋅ Log ⎜ ∑ M i ⎟ + (1 − W ) ⋅10 ⋅ LogM Best + ( R − H 1a / 2). ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2. the UE will send a measurement report to UTRAN. This parameter is also used in other events. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 9 of 52 . With the signal strength as an example. Other measurement values: ⎛ NA ⎞ 10 ⋅ LogM New ≥ W ⋅10 ⋅ Log ⎜ ∑ M i ⎟ + (1 − W ) ⋅10 ⋅ LogM Best − ( R − H 1a / 2).

the UE 06-6-7 Confidential Page 10 of 52 . the UE deems that a primary pilot channel has left the reporting range 1. UTRAN may give no response after the UE sends the measurement report (for example. The UE will not stop sending periodically the measurement report until this cell is successfully added into the active set or leaves the reporting range. and the content of the measurement report includes the information of the cells in the active set and the cells in the monitored set that has entered the reporting range. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2. due to insufficient capacity). ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ i =1 Where.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use However. as shown below: PCPICH 1 PCPICH 2 Reporting range Reporting terminated Periodic report Event-triggered report Periodic report PCPICH 3 Figure 3 Periodic Reporting Triggered by Event 1A Event 1B: A primary pilot channel leaves the reporting range When the following formulas are satisfied. In this case. MOld is the measurement result of the cell that has left the reporting range Mi is the measurement result of the cell in the active set NA is the number of cells in the current active set MBest is the measurement result of the best cell in the current active set W is the weighted factor R is the reporting range H1a is the hysteresis value of event 1A If several cells satisfy the reporting condition simultaneously after the trigger delay. Other measurement values: ⎞ ⎛ NA 10 ⋅ LogM Old ≤ W ⋅ 10 ⋅ Log ⎜ ∑ M i ⎟ + (1 − W ) ⋅ 10 ⋅ LogM Best − ( R + H 1b / 2). the UE will shift from event reporting to periodic reporting mechanism. Path loss: ⎛ NA ⎞ 10 ⋅ LogM Old ≥ W ⋅ 10 ⋅ Log ⎜ ∑ M i ⎟ + (1 − W ) ⋅ 10 ⋅ LogM Best + ( R + H 1a / 2).

the cells where P CPICH 1. P CPICH 2 and P CPICH 3 are belong to an active set. This event is used to replace the poor cells in the active set.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use will sort the cells according to the measurement values and report all the measurement results. if the number of cells in the active set reaches or exceeds active set replacement threshold. Event 1D: The best cell changes Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 P CPICH3 Reporting event 1D Time Figure 5 Example of Event 1D 06-6-7 Confidential Page 11 of 52 . Event 1C: The primary pilot channel in a non active set is better than the primary pilot channel in an active set This event can be described through the following example: Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 P CPICH 3 P CPICH 4 Reporting event 1C Reporting event 1C Time Figure 4 Example of Event 1C In this example. while that of P CPICH 4 does not.

event 1D reporting is not triggered. as shown below: Measurement quantity P CCPCH 1 Hysteresis P CCPCH 2 Hysteresis Reporting event 1D Time Figure 6 Restriction of measurement reporting by means of hysteresis As we can see. This parameter can also be used in other events. we can use the hysteresis parameter.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use In order to prevent frequent triggering of event 1D due to signal fluctuations when the channel difference is small. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 12 of 52 . as the hysteresis condition is not met at the second time. which results in unnecessary increase of the air interface signaling traffic flow. Event 1E: The measurement value of a primary pilot channel exceeds the absolute threshold Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 Absolute threshold P CPICH 3 Reporting event 1E Time Figure 7 Example of Event 1E Event 1E can be used to trigger the measurement reports of cells including those detected by the UE before it receives the adjacent cell list.

⎟ ⎠ Qcarrierj is the logarithmic form of the estimated quality value of frequency j Mcarrier j is the estimated quality value of frequency j Mi j is the measurement result of cell i with the frequency of j in the virtual active set NA j is the number of cells with the frequency of j in the virtual active set MBest j is the measurement result of the best cell with the frequency of j in the virtual active set Wj is the weight factor H is the hysteresis value Before we describe events 2x. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 13 of 52 . we should make the following two concepts understood: “non-used frequency” refer to the frequency that the UE needs to measure but that is not in the active set. 2D and 2E is defined as follows: ⎛ NA j Qcarrier j = 10 ⋅ LogM carrier j = W j ⋅ 10 ⋅ Log ⎜ ∑ M i ⎜ i =1 ⎝ Where. 2C.2 Inter-Frequency Measurement Inter-frequency measurement events are identified with 2X. and “used frequency” refers to the frequency that the UE needs to measure and that is in the active set. 2B.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use Event 1F: The measurement value of a primary pilot channel is lower than the absolute threshold Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 Absolute threshold P CPICH 3 Reporting event 1F Time Figure 8 Example of Event 1D1F 2. The frequency quality estimation involved in events 2A.1. j ⎞ ⎟ + (1 − W j ) ⋅ 10 ⋅ LogM Best j − H .

and the hysteresis value and the “time to trigger” conditions are satisfied.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Event 2A: The best frequency changes For Intanal Use If the estimated quality value of the non-used frequency is better than that of the best cell in the used frequency.1. event 2A will be triggered. Event 2B: The estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower than a certain threshold. Event 2F: The estimated quality value of the used frequency is higher than a certain threshold Event 2F can be used to disable the compressed mode to stop inter-frequency measurement. while that of the non-used frequency is higher than the threshold defined by IE “Threshold non-used frequency” delivered in the measurement control message. 2. event 2B will be triggered. Event 2C: The estimated quality value of the non-used frequency is higher than a certain threshold This threshold is specified by IE “Threshold non-used frequency” in the measurement control message delivered by UTRAN. This threshold is specified by IE “Threshold used frequency” in the measurement control message delivered by UTRAN.3 Inter-System Measurement 06-6-7 Confidential Page 14 of 52 . This type of parameters can be modified through MML commands. Event 2D: The estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower than a certain threshold Event 2D can be used to enable the compressed mode to perform inter-frequency measurement. Event 2E: The estimated quality value of the non-used frequency is lower than a certain threshold This threshold is specified by IE “Threshold non-used frequency” in the measurement control message delivered by UTRAN. and that of the non-used frequency is higher than a certain threshold If the estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower than the threshold defined by IE “Threshold used frequency” delivered in the measurement control message. and the hysteresis value and the “time to trigger” condition are satisfied. This threshold is specified by IE “Threshold used frequency” in the measurement control message delivered by UTRAN.

1. Event 3D: The best cell in the other system changes 2. QUTRAN is the logarithmic form of the estimated quality value of the UTRAN frequency currently in use MUTRAN is the estimated quality value of the UTRAN frequency currently in use Mi is the measurement result of cell i in the active set NA is the number of cells in the active set MBest result is the measurement result of the best cell in the active set W is the weight factor Event 3A: The estimated quality value of the used UTRAN frequency is lower than a certain threshold. Event 3C: The estimated quality value of the other system is higher than a certain threshold This threshold is specified by IE “Threshold other system” in the measurement control message. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ Where.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use Inter-system measurement events are identified with 3X. 3C and 3D is defined as follows: ⎛ NA ⎞ QUTRAN = 10 ⋅ LogM UTRAN = W ⋅ 10 ⋅ Log ⎜ ∑ M i ⎟ + (1 − W ) ⋅ 10 ⋅ LogM Best . event 3A will be triggered. 3B. and that of the other system is higher than a certain threshold If the estimated quality value of the used UTRAN frequency is lower than the threshold defined by IE “Threshold own system” delivered in the measurement control message. The quality estimation of a UTRAN active set involved in events 3A.4 UE Internal Measurement Two UE internal measurement events are involved in the handover algorithms: 6F and 6G. Event 6F: The time difference between downlink receiving and uplink transmission of the UE is bigger than an absolute threshold This threshold is specified in IE “UE Rx-Tx time difference threshold” delivered by UTRAN. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 15 of 52 . Event 3B: The estimated quality value of the other system is lower than a certain threshold This threshold is specified by IE “Threshold other system” in the measurement control message. while that of the other system is higher than the threshold defined by IE “Threshold other system” delivered in the measurement control message. and the hysteresis value and the “time to trigger” condition are satisfied.

The user can make selection between these two algorithms through the algorithm switch. remove any cell among non-best cells and then add the reported best cell. Loose-mode algorithm 1) When either event 1A or event 1E (referred to as “1A or 1E”) is satisfied. By default. then no processing will be made. 2. it is deemed as the trigger condition for removing a soft handover branch. namely. event 1A and event 1E reporting is stopped. 4) If handover is triggered when either event 1B or event 1F is received. and measurement control changes. If the active set is full. but the triggered cell is the best cell. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 16 of 52 . based on the best cell operation algorithm. relative threshold algorithm is enabled. 8) Event 1D occurs in the monitored set cell. The contents of this section include softer handover and soft handover algorithms. and event 1C reporting starts 6) Event 1C is the trigger condition for cell replacement in the active set. load balancing handover algorithm. it will be deemed as the trigger condition for adding a soft handover branch. 2) After event 1A or 1E is received. the measurement control change process is started. 1.2 Handover Algorithms This section will describer the handover-related algorithms already supported by RNC V1.1 Softer Handover and Soft Handover Algorithms Presently.2 uses two soft handover algorithms: loose-mode algorithm and relative threshold algorithm. inter-system hard handover algorithm.2. RNC V1.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use Event 6G: The time difference between downlink receiving and uplink transmission of the UE is smaller than an absolute threshold This threshold is specified in IE “UE Rx-Tx time difference threshold” delivered by UTRAN. if the number of cells in the active set is 3. 3) When neither the relative threshold nor the absolute threshold (event 1B and 1F) is satisfied. inter-frequency hard handover algorithm. cell penalty. 5) When the UE active set is full. and mark it as the best cell. After successful operation. no processing will be implemented. 2. so as to provide algorithm guidance for network optimization and parameter adjustments. and this cell is added into the active set. intra-frequency hard handover algorithm. direct retry algorithm and active set synchronization maintenance and adjacent cell list maintenance method. algorithm 2.2. 7) Event 1D occurs in the active set cell.

then the braches are sequenced and removed in the order of poor quality to good quality (CPICH Ec/No) (in case that multiple cells report event 1B). then this cell link will be added (if the active set is full. until only one link is left. between which no Iur interface is available. if there are more than one links in the active set. 4) In case of event 1D. Namely. then it will be marked as the best cell and measurement control is updated. handover between intra-frequency adjacent cells that belong to different RNCs. if the active set is already full at this moment and the replaced cell is not the best cell in the active set. until the active set is full. Event 1D is used as the judgment criterion for event intra-frequency hard handover. then links are sequenced and added in the order of good quality to poor quality (CPICH Ec/No) (in case that multiple cells report event 1A). because too much forward capacity will be occupied if soft handover is adopted in this case. no processing will be made. if the triggered cell is an active set cell. 2) When event 1B is received.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 2.2. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 17 of 52 . no processing will be made. if there is only one in the active set. The characteristic is that the cell does have an intra-frequency adjacent cell in a certain direction.2 Intra-Frequency Hard Handover Algorithm Intra-frequency hard handover will occur in two cases: 1. Basic concepts Carrier coverage verge cell: a cell located at the outmost verge of a carrier coverage area.3 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Algorithm 1. If the active set is not full. one of the non-best cell will be removed before this link is added) and marked as the best cell. handover of high-rate PS Best Effort services that exceeds the rate threshold. 2. then the triggered cell link will be added. 2. the event 1D triggered cell acts as the target cell of the handover. 2. if the triggered cell doe not belong to the active set. then this cell link will be removed. with measurement control updated. 3) In case of event 1C. Relative threshold algorithm 1) When event 1A report is received. the UE will report the replacing and replaced cells in the event trigger list.2. if the active set is not full. if the active set is already full.

if the active set quality rises and becomes higher than the disabling threshold. CPICH RSCP can also be used as the inter-frequency measurement quantity. different physical measurement quantities (CPICH RSCP and CPICH Ec/No) and handover thresholds are used for handover decision.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use Carrier coverage center cell: a cell other than carrier coverage verge cells. but CPICH Ec/No can better reflect the actual link communication quality and the load situation of the cell. event 2D will be reported. 3. and inter-frequency measurement will be enabled through decision. CPICH Ec/No or RSCP measurement quantity and thresholds will be adopted respectively according to the location property of the best cell in the active set (carrier coverage center or carrier coverage verge as previously described). In a carrier coverage verge cell. the CPICH Ec/No changes slowly because CPICH RSCP has the same speed with the fading of interference. Enabling/disabling inter-frequency measurement Because inter-frequency measurement may use the compressed mode. for a carrier coverage verge cell. we generally hope that inter-frequency measurement is not enabled unless necessary. then event 2F reporting will be triggered and inter-frequency measurement will be stopped. The characteristic is that the cell has intra-frequency adjacent cells in all directions.2. 2. Inter-frequency hard handover decision Presently. the inter-frequency handover algorithm based on CPICH Ec/No measurement has actually failed.2 decides to enable or disable inter-frequency measurement through the reporting of event 2D and event 2F. if the inter-frequency handover algorithm is enabled and an inter-frequency adjacent cell list is available for the best cell. the periodic measurement reporting mode is used for inter-frequency measurement. then the measurement of event 2D and 2F is configured. which usually affects the link quality and system capacity. if the measurement values exceed the absolute threshold and the hysteresis values and the “time to 06-6-7 Confidential Page 18 of 52 . it is more suitable and more efficient to use CPICH RSCP as the inter-frequency measurement quantity. RNC V1. Therefore. Simulation shows that CPICH Ec/No can still reach -12dB or so when CPICH RSCP is already lower than the demodulation threshold (about -110dBm). When the UE enters the CELL_DCH state or when the best cell is updated. According to different cell properties (carrier coverage verge cell and carrier coverage center cell). In RNC V1. Currently. Based on the inter-frequency measurement result periodically reported by the UE. The absolute thresholds of events 2D and 2F are the enabling/disabling thresholds of inter-frequency measurement. If the measurement quantity is lower than the enabling threshold . At this moment. the absolute threshold decision method based on cell properties is used for inter-frequency handover decision. For a carrier coverage center cell. when the UE moves towards the direction in which the cell has no intra-frequency adjacent cell.

such as load balancing. Since handover algorithms obtain the Ec/No of the common pilot channel of 06-6-7 Confidential Page 19 of 52 . 2. BASIC identification and BASIC reconfirm. when the compressed-mode measurement of inter-system handover is enabled.2. Presently. the algorithm implements load balancing by changing the power of the common pilot channel between adjacent cells. 2. In this case. 2) Inter-system handover algorithms and inter-frequency handover algorithms are mutually exclusive. the parameters can be selected and configured based on the cell characteristics and user mobility statistics characteristics. 3) Cells at the verge of WCDMA FDD system coverage are identified through the configuration of GSM/GPRS adjacent cell list for them. the load control algorithm will balance the loads between the adjacent cells through handover. then the RNC will implement inter-frequency hard handover with the reported cell as the handover target cell. the compressed-mode measurement of inter-frequency handover must be disabled. and the configuration of parameters is oriented to the cell type. while disable the compressed mode at the carrier coverage center by means of parameter configuration (by setting the absolute threshold of event 2D to the minimum) to disable inter-frequency hard handover. Note: Due to lack of a special compressed mode control policy. it is recommended that inter-frequency handover be used only for necessary handover caused by discontinuous carrier coverage.4 Inter-System Handover Algorithm RNC V1. three compressed mode style sequences are used for concurrent measurement of GSM RSSI. namely. 6) Periodic measurement reports are used for inter-system handover. Generally.5 Handover Caused by Load Balancing When the loads of the adjacent cells become unbalanced.2 supports 3G->GSM/GPRS handover. 4) For inter-system handover.2.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use trigger” condition is met. 5) For inter-system handover. That is. 1) Inter-system handover is enabled only in cells located at the verge of WCDMA FDD system coverage. and the RNC decides whether to implement hard handover according to the measurement reports. CPICH RSCP is used as the physical measurement quantity and events 2D and 2F are used to decide enabling or disabling the compressed mode. we can consider to enable the compressed mode only at the carrier coverage verge. are not supported. and other types of inter-system handover. inter-system handover is used only for inter-system handover caused by discontinuous coverage of 3G networks.

and the event periodic reporting interval is required to be equal to the penalty time. otherwise. but it only “forwards” the decision command made by the load control entity. the timming re-initiation hard handover procedure is used here. after a handover failure. (2) UEs with inconsistent SRNC and CRNC are not selected. it will reject the request and indicate the reason. and on the other the periodic 06-6-7 Confidential Page 20 of 52 . the load control entity sends the source cell information and the target cell information to the selected UEs’ Handover Control entities . Upon receiving the load transfer signaling. Thus.2 does not support immediate macro diversity. If so. In this case. while the Iur is an open interface.2. Upon selecting the UEs. At this time. on one hand penalty is exerted on the target cell involved in the handover failure. Therefore. the performance of the entire system may deteriorate. because this kind of transfer involves signaling interworking on the Iur interface. the handover entity actually does not make any specific decision. When the loads become unbalanced among cells of different frequencies in the same Node B. 2. the handover entity first implements handover decision to judge whether the two conditions previously mentioned are satisfied. it will necessarily result in damage to the soft handover state of this UE. and what the handover entity should to do is just to give out the handover command based on the message it has received. the involved UE will be restricted from initiating any further handover request to the same cell within the penalty time. Load balancing between different NodeBs is transparent to the handover algorithm. if a UE in soft handover state is selected at this moment for load transfer. and increase call drop risk. while the handover thresholds of various cells are also obtained through the RNC database. in case of a handover failure (including soft handover and hard handover).WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use adjacent cells through the measurement by the UE. the load balancing control algorithm is transparent to handover algorithms. the load control entity selects the specific UEs. it will proceed with the next step of processing. In order to avoid making redundant judgments. without this type of signaling. the load control algorithm will notify the handover algorithm to switch some UEs on heavy-load carries onto light-load carriers thus to balance the loads. we mainly analyze handover requests caused by load balancing between different carriers in the same coverage area. In this kind of handover. without any direct interface in between. two principles are followed for UE selection: (1) UEs in soft handover are not selected. In this kind of handover.6 Cell Penalty The purpose of cell penalty caused by handover failure is to prevent the handover algorithm from deciding again on the handover of this UE to a cell that already has no more capacity. Since the target cell’s synchronization information may be unavailable. As RNC V1.

when the UE complete receiving the downlink PILOT bit. The Connection-oriented cell penalty algorithm is as follows: (1) The cell penalty algorithm is to deny any handover access to the cell in penalty within the specified period of time. When the UE is in the soft handover state. (2) After the penalty time expires. 2. Other ways of measurement are allowed to achieve accurate SIR estimation.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use reporting interval is made equal to the penalty time. so that large waste of processing capability is avoided. The penalty flag is set to 1. it has the time of 512 chips to generate the TPC bit for downlink power control according to the PILOT bit.214 protocol.7 Active Set Synchronization Maintenance According to the 25. the involved UE is not allowed to initiate any further handover request to this cell.2. and the penalty flag is set to 0. Figure 9 Power Control Timing As illustrated in the diagram.2 *3 PILOT The SIR measurement periods illustrated here are examples. If there is not enough time for UTRAN to respond to the TPC. the action can be delayed until the next slot. the generation of the TPC bit should be based on 06-6-7 Confidential Page 21 of 52 . the penalty is released. there should be a 1024-chip delay. as shown below: Slot (2560 chips) DL DPCCH at UTRAN PILOT Data1 T TF P CI C Data2 PILOT T Data1 P C Propagation delay DL-UL timing offset (1024 chips) Response To TPC (*3) Data2 PILOT Data1 T P C DL DPCCH at UE PILOT Data1 T TF P CI C 512 chips Response to TPC DL SIR measurement (*1) UL DPCCH at UE PILOT Slot (2560 chips) Propagation delay TFCI TPC PILOT UL SIR measurement (*2) TFCI TPC PILOT UL DPCCH at UTRAN *1. namely. so as to ensure the normal 1-slot uplink and downlink power control. from the downlink receiving moment of the UE to the corresponding uplink transmission moment.

Plus errors in the UE movement speed and clock drift. when the Rx-Tx time difference is within the range of 1024±148 chips. it will be likely that the downlink 1-slot power control cannot be guaranteed. The direct retry algorithm needs the following parameters: 1) DRMaxNumber: the maximum direct retry times for each direct retry candidate cell 2) DRDCSThreshold: a basic threshold for entering the candidate set 06-6-7 Confidential Page 22 of 52 . and it will be likely that the uplink 1-slot power control cannot be guaranteed. There are two UE internal measurement events for the measurement of the protocol-provided synchronization maintenance information: event 6F and event 6G. delays and hysteresis values of events 6F and 6G are used as algorithm parameters. D) The cell with its link released may retrigger other events and then new RL could be added to the active set. the system will be unable to guarantee the 1-slot power control requirement. the design of UE and NodeB should be able to satisfy the 1-slot power control requirement. the UE-end processing time will be reduced. the NodeB-end processing will be reduced. which can be adjusted through background configuration.2. b) The thresholds. in the actual system. and. The UE Rx-Tx time difference is measured once every 10 frames. When the Rx-Tx time difference is smaller than 876 (1024–148) chips. because the selection of the downlink transmission time is obtained by the NodeB based on the RNC-configured frame offset and code offset after roundup by 256 chips (the minimum time resolution of the NodeB is 256 chips). Algorithm description: a) After the UE enters the CELL_DCH state. another best cell will be selected for an access attempt based on the RACH measurement report previously reported by the UE. the algorithm enables the UE to report event 6F and event 6G through measurement control. the network side will release this radio link. as described previously. when it is out of this range. That is. 2.8 Direct Retry Algorithm When the UE requests to leave the IDLE mode and enter the CONNECTION mode. if the admission fails. c) Once event 6F or event 6G occurs on a radio link.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use the PILOT calculation of all links. when the Rx-Tx time difference is greater than 1172 (1024+148) chips. there is an error of ±128 chips between the actual transmission time and the RNC-configured time. However. there will be an error of ±(128+20) chips at the UE side. as result. resulting in power control performance deterioration. Such an access attempt is called direct retry.

(3) When the UE initiates an RRC setup requests.9 Principle for Generating Adjacent Cell List There are two adjacent cell list control methods: 1. continue to retry. deletes the originally saved cell measurement information after the RNC receives a new RACH measurement report. (2) The direct retry algorithm buffers the cell measurement value in the RACH measurement report of the UE. Adjacent cell list control method based on the best cell When the adjacent cell list is controlled based on the best cell. and discards the cells of which the buffering time is bigger than MaxRelatingTime 2) Based on the measurement value in the buffered RACH report and the LinearFactor. the basic policy is as follows: 06-6-7 Confidential Page 23 of 52 . convert the estimated value of the current cell signal quality: cell measurement value (CPICH Ec/No) – buffer time (s) × LinearFactor (dB/s) 3) Put the cells of which the estimated quality value is greater than DRDCSThreshold into the candidate set of the direct retry algorithm. until the number of attempts reaches the maximum retry times (DRMaxNumber). until all the available cells (candidate cells) fail and the number of attempts reaches the maximum retry times. If retry fails. 2. if the connection setup fails. the RNC will choose a new cell with the best quality for a further access attempt based on the cell measurement information in the RACH measurement report carried in the RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message. calculate the buffering time of the cell measurement value. and records the reporting time. buffers the cells of which the measurement signal CPICH Ec/No is greater than MinSignalRequierd (basic access threshold). (5) Retry with the cell having the best estimated quality from the candidate set cells. (4) Candidate cells are picked up as follows: 1) Read the current system time.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 3) MaxRelatingTime: the maximum time that the RACH measurement report can continue to be used 4) LinearFactor: the linear factor for the relative threshold and time interval during candidate set screening 5) MinSignalRequired: basic access threshold.2. Algorithm description: (1) The direct retry algorithm is effective only when the UE initiates RRC setup request.

The adjacent cell list is generated by means of the following method: Step 1: Add active set cells. a new best cell will be selected based on the information obtained during the removal action. starting from the adjacent cells of the best cell. (6) If event 1D occurs on a cell in the active set. (3) If a cell is added by an event other than event 1D. Control method based on all the cells in the active set A control method that can take the adjacent cells of all the cells in the active set is a good policy. remove randomly cells added in this step. 3 Handover Parameter Setting 3. and the adjacent cell list will be modified after successful removal of the best cell. the adjacent cell list will not be changed. If there are more than 32 adjacent cells after this action.2 version supports the adjacent cell list control method based on the best cell. remove randomly cells added in this step. Step 3: Add the common adjacent cells of every two active set cells into the adjacent cell list. (4) If the best cell has not been removed.1 Description 06-6-7 Confidential Page 24 of 52 . but is may bring the problem of inaccurate control for UEs under the macro diversity. remove cells by starting from the worst cell. after it is successfully added. Note: The RNC V1. the adjacent cell list will be modified. Step 2: Add the common adjacent cells of the cells of all the active sets (3 active sets) into the adjacent cell list. Step 4: Consider adding the common adjacent cells of each active set cell into the adjacent cell list. (5) If the best cell has been removed. If there are more than 32 adjacent cells after this action. the adjacent cell list will not be changed. (7) This method is relative simple.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use (1) If there only one cell. 2. If there are more than 32 adjacent cells after this action. the adjacent cell list will be controlled based on this cell. the adjacent cell list will be controlled based on this cell. (2) If a cell is added by event 1D.

Both RNC-oriented setting commands and cell-oriented setting commands are available for the configuration of intra-frequency handover measurement algorithm parameters. Generally. the adjustments of these parameters during network optimization are all cell-oriented settings. This utility provide convenient command navigation and function description. detailed usage and parameter descriptions of various commands. inter-frequency handover measurement algorithm parameters and inter-system handover measurement algorithm parameters. while RNC-oriented global parameter configuration commands facilitate modification of whole-network handover parameters. Figure 10 MML Client According to the functioning scope. Handover common parameter configuration is RNC-oriented global parameter setting.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use The MML client utility can be used for handover parameter setting. 3. For one same parameter. handover algorithm parameter configuration commands are divided into categories: RNC-oriented global parameter configuration and cell-oriented parameter configuration.2 Handover Common Parameters 06-6-7 Confidential Page 25 of 52 . the cell-oriented command has higher priority.

use the command lst hocomm.. According to the general traffic statistics result. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 26 of 52 . Scope Per RNC Range and unit Integer(1..2. namely the penalty time is 30 seconds Balance in setting The setting of this parameter is related to traffic statistics.3) Recommended value 3 Balance in setting Modification of value is not recommended. cell penalty time parameter..3) Working range Integer(1. use the command set hocomm. and this is bad for link QoS improvement. use the command set hocomm. to view the current configuration of the parameter. Working range Integer(1..60) Recommended value 30. radio links will fail to be timely added. if this value is too big. use the command lst hocomm.1 Maximum Number of Cells in Active Set Definition MaxCellInActiveSet. to view the current configuration of the parameter.6. 3. so the actual value range of this parameter is 1 to 60 seconds. maximum number of cells in the active set Scope Per RNC Range and unit Integer(1. and therefore the penalty is meaningless.2 Penalty Time Definition PenaltyTime. If this value is too small. s.2. as described in Section 2.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 3. the average duration of a call is 60s. the resources will not be timely released.255).2. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter.

To guarantee the 1-slot power control. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Integer(768. To guarantee the 1-slot power control. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Integer(768. use the command lst hocomm. chip. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 27 of 52 .WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 3.4 Event 6G Trigger Threshold Definition RxTxtoTrig6G. event 6F will be triggered. Working range Integer(1024.3 Event 6F Trigger Threshold Definition RxTxtoTrig6F.2. to view the current configuration of the parameter. Namely. Working range Integer(768. the trigger threshold of event 6F. it could be increased..1024)chip Recommended value 876 Balance in setting The value of this parameter should not be too close to 1024.. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter.1280)chip Recommended value 1172 Balance in setting The value of this parameter should not be too close to 1024. decrease the value of this parameter.2. otherwise. It is recommended that this parameter be adjusted within the range of 1172±3 chips. use the command set hocomm. if the time interval between the UE’s downlink receiving and the corresponding uplink transmission is greater than this absolute threshold. 3. otherwise radio links will be removed too early. it could be increased.. increase the value of this parameter.1280). absolute threshold for triggering event 6G. otherwise.1280). It is recommended that this parameter be adjusted within the range of 876±3 chips. chip. otherwise radio links will be removed too early..

D640. D240. D320.6 BE Service Handover Rate Decision Threshold Definition BEBitRateThd. 2560. D160. 200. Working range Enum(0. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 28 of 52 . a delay can be set in the event trigger time. D64. including TrigTime6F and TrigTime6G. 384k) bps. 144k. 100. 60. 160. 240. 20.5 Time-to-Trigger Parameters for Events 6F and 6G Definition Time-to-trigger parameters for event 6F and event 6G. D100. 80. use the command lst hocomm. D5000). 3. To avoid wrong judgment caused by measurement errors of the UE. D128. 640.2. D32. 32k.5 chips. D144. 256k. intra-frequency hard handover will be implemented. D256. 10. use the command set hocomm. 1280. D120. D20. 5000)ms Recommended value D240. to view the current configuration of the parameter. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Enum (D8. D384). so that the UE can perform measurement at least twice for judgment. with measurement accuracy being 1. use the command set hocomm. corresponding to (8k. to view the current configuration of the parameter. 320. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. D2560. 3. The time delay on internal processing shall also be taken into consideration.2. Balance in setting UE Rx-Tx time difference type1 is measured once per 100ms. 64k. 120. D200. 40. When the PS BE service rate exceeds this threshold. D10. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Enum(D0. soft handover will be implemented. when it is lower than this threshold. We recommend that this parameter be set at 240ms. D80. 128k.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Modification/query For Intanal Use To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. D1280. ms. D40. D60. use the command lst hocomm.

which does not involve events 1E and 1F.D256. when the maximum rate of the BE service transmission channel exceeds this threshold. Algorithm 2 is the relative threshold algorithm. use the command lst hocomm. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Enum(SHO_METHOD1.2. to view the current configuration of the parameter. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. SHO_METHOD2). and removes a cell from the active set as soon as it triggers event 1B. Balance in setting For Intanal Use It is the rate decision threshold deciding whether soft handover is to be implemented for the BE service.D384) Recommended value D64.D144. It adds a cell into the active set as soon as it triggers event 1A. the system will perform soft handover for the service user so as to ensure the QoS for the user. Modification/query 06-6-7 Confidential Page 29 of 52 . and removes a cell only after it triggers both event 1B and event 1F simultaneously. soft handover algorithm 2 Working range Enum(SHO_METHOD1. soft handover algorithm 1.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Working range Enum(D8. the system will implement intra-frequency hard handover for the service user so as to prevent excessive influence on the system capacity caused by soft handover. Balance in setting Algorithm 1 is the loose-mode algorithm that adds a cell into the active set no matter the cell triggers event 1A or event 1E. used to select the loose-mode algorithm or the relative threshold algorithm for soft handover decision.D64. use the command set hocomm.D32.D128. When the maximum rate of the BE service transmission channel is smaller than this threshold. SHOMETHOD2) Recommended value Soft handover algorithm 2. 3.7 Soft Handover Method Select Switch Definition SHOMechod.

use the command set hocomm. The specific algorithm parameters can function only after the corresponding algorithm switches being enabled. namely 00000010010000111: Soft handover — On (1) Compressed mode maintenance algorithm at soft handover synchronization — On (1) Intra-frequency hard handover — On (1) 06-6-7 Confidential Page 30 of 52 .WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. each bit can be set at 0 or 1 to control a handover algorithm. 0~4294967295. 3. Scope Per RNC Range and unit 32 bits.8 Handover Algorithm Switches Definition This parameter defines the switches of various algorithms related to connection-oriented handover. Currently there are the 17 handover algorithm switches.2. arranged as follows from the lowest bit to the highest: Soft handover Compressed mode maintenance algorithm at soft handover synchronization Intra-frequency hard handover Inter-frequency hard handover 3G-2G inter-system hard handover 2G-3G inter-system hard handover Compressed mode Uplink compressed mode 6G & 6F measurement Cell penalty Location RTT enhanced location Relocation Relocation based on time delay optimization Relocation based on Iur transmission resource optimization CS UE relocation based on Iur transmission resource optimization Direct retry Working range Integer(0~32767) Recommended value 1159. to view the current configuration of the parameter. use the command lst hocomm.

then it is the quality of the best cell). 1) Test compressed mode: compressed mode switch should be enabled. the following three will not function Relocation based on time delay optimization enable switch Relocation based on Iur transmission resource optimization enable switch CS UE relocation based on Iur transmission resource optimization enable switch Modification/query For RNC-oriented settings. 3) Test inter-system hard handover : inter-system handover enabled + compressed mode switch should be enabled. When the main switch is off.3 Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Algorithm Parameters 3.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Inter-frequency hard handover — Off (0) 3G-2G inter-system hard handover — Off (0) 2G-3G inter-system hard handover— Off (0) Compressed mode — Off (0) Uplink compressed mode — On (1) 6G & 6Fmeasurement — Off (0) Cell penalty — Off (0) Location — On (1) RTT enhanced location — Off (0) Relocation — Off (0) Relocation based on time delay optimization — Off (0) Relocation based on Iur transmission resource optimization — Off (0) For Intanal Use CS UE relocation based on Iur transmission resource optimization — Off (0) Direct retry — Off (0) Balance in setting Corresponding configuration should be carried out based on the implementation of each version of algorithm. 2) Test inter-frequency hard handover: inter-frequency hard handover + compressed mode switch should be enabled. The relative threshold parameters for soft handover include 06-6-7 Confidential Page 31 of 52 .3. use the command set/lst corrmalgoswitch. 4) Test relocation: relocation enable switch — a main switch. 3.1 Soft Handover Relative Thresholds Definition These parameters define the difference between the quality of a cell (currently it is evaluated with PCPICH Ec/No) and the overall quality of the active set (if w=0.

In a CDMA system.5dB. To save system resources. namely. 3. Balance in setting Settings of these parameters determine the size of the soft handover area and the soft handover subscriber proportion. In addition. instead. L3 filter coefficient and hysteresis value should used to reduce the ping-pong effect. the relative thresholds for events 1A and 1B should generally be kept consistent. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(0~29). The soft handover absolute threshold parameters include IntraAblThdFor1E (absolute threshold for event 1E) and IntraAblThdFor1F (absolute threshold for event 1F). it is required that the UE proportion in soft handover should be 30% to 40% so as to ensure smooth handover.3. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellintrafreqho. the time-to-trigger setting. if the adjustment of the hysteresis values for events 1A and 1B is insufficient for good control of the ping-pong effect. in special applications. configuration step: 1 (0. However.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use IntraRelThdFor1A (relative threshold for event 1A) and IntraRelThdFor1B (relative threshold for event 1B). use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set intrafreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. Based on the simulation result. the relative threshold for event 1B can be set larger than that for event A to reduce the ping-pong effect. the proportion of UEs in the soft handover state (number of active set cells ≥ 2) is around 35%. but it must be bigger than 3dB. For example. when the relative thresholds are set at 5dB. The default configuration is 5dB. Working range Integer(0~16) Recommended value 10. 5dB.2 Soft Handover Absolute Thresholds Definition These parameters correspond to the signal strength that satisfies the basic QoS assurance. Scope 06-6-7 Confidential Page 32 of 52 . It is recommended that this value be slightly bigger in the early stage of deployment (5 to 7dB). Otherwise. this figure can be gradually decreased with the growth of the number of subscribers.5dB). different relative threshold values can be set for event 1A and event 1B to reduce the ping-pong effect and change the soft handover proportion in some special applications. corresponding to 0 to 14.

5. 7. D1. D7. D3. D6.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(-20. D15. 15.. D5. D2. D17. This value affects the trigger of events 1E and 1F. With value settings in IS-95 and the lower threshold of -20dB. but not a sufficient one. D1. D13. D11. this value should be relative loose. D3. corresponding to (0. Fn: the updated measurement result after filtering processing. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 33 of 52 . D5.. Fn-1: the old measurement result of the previous moment after filtering processing.3 Intra-Frequency Measurement Filter Coefficient (FilterCoef) Definition The measurement filtering coefficient used in L3 filtering of intra-frequency measurement report Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(D0. D8. 9. 6. 19) Working range Enum(D0. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellintrafreqho. 1. 3. 3. D2. 13. D4.-10).3. corresponding to the signal strength that satisfies the basic QoS assurance. namely 5 Balance in setting The following formula is used for the calculation of measurement value filtering: Fn = (1 − a) ⋅ Fn−1 + a ⋅ M n Where. 2. D19). for access judgment. 4. Working range Integer(-20. D8) Recommended value D5. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set intrafreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. D7. 11. -18dB is deemed to be a reasonable value. Otherwise. Because an absolute threshold is only a necessary condition. dB. 8. Balance in setting For Intanal Use This value is the absolute threshold value used in the measurement reports of events 1E and 1F in the soft handover algorithm.-10)dB Recommended value -18. D9. D6. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. 17. D4.

a balance must be made. Otherwise. typical values are recommended as follows: a.2 6 8. in the CELL_DCH state. Intra-Frequency Tracking Time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 85 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 21 30 42 The table above lists the iteration times required when different filter coefficients are used to obtain 85% of the final output value. if the cell covers suburbs. When such factors as hysteresis and trigger delay in event judgment are taken into account.4 0. When k=0 and a=1. the intra-frequency filter coefficient can be 7. L1 reports the intra-frequency measurement result to L3 at a cycle of 200ms. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellintrafreqho. where. the intra-frequency filter coefficient can be 3. c. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set/lst intrafreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. the table above will become: Filter 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 coefficient Intra-freque 0. if the cell covers urban area. the intra-frequency filter coefficient can be 6. When the iteration times are substituted with Intra-frequency tracking time. we recommend that the commonly used value of the filter coefficient be in the range of {0. a = (1/2)(k/2). for different cell coverage types.2. but the weaker the signal tracking capability will be. the stronger the burr filtering capability will be. the typical handover distance between two cells is about 150m. According to R2-000809.6}.4. According to 25.5. Therefore. and this parameter can be adjusted according to the actual situation. if the cell covers rural area. the distance between two NodeBs is 1000m.4 17 To implement cell-oriented settings.133.4 2 3 4.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Mn: The latest measurement value received from the physical layer.1. A mobile station that is moving at the speed of 20km/h goes across the handover area in averagely 20 to 30 seconds. Calculated based on the typical handover area size [3].6 1 1.2 ncy tracking time (s) Modification/query 0. while calculated based on the 40%soft handover ratio of the entire system. Table 1 Filter coefficient Iteration times Filter Coefficient vs. Based on the analysis above. In addition. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 34 of 52 . b. FilterCoef should be configured as follows: 5 as the default setting for intra-frequency filter coefficient. namely “FilterCoef” here. the tacking time needs to be further reduced. For Intanal Use k is from IE "Filter coefficient".3. L3 filtering is not implemented. The bigger the filter coefficient is. while it takes only 5 to 6 seconds for a mobile station that is moving at the speed of 100km/h to go across the handover area.

1C and 1D. and 8(4dB) for events Balance in setting For UEs entering the soft handover area. Hystfor1D.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 3.3.. In addition. 1F. corresponding to 0. In addition. and thus the better the ping-pong effect will be suppressed. not only the radio environment (slow fading characteristic) but also the actual handover distance and the UE movement speed should be taken into due consideration. otherwise. increase of the hysteresis value means decrease of the soft handover range. there will be no influence on the actual soft handover proportion.5dB) Working range table 1 Recommended Soft Handover Hysteresis Settings for Different Movement Speeds Speed (km/h) 5 50 120 Typical configuration Recommended value 6(3dB) for events 1A and 1E. hysteresis adjustment should generally be considered together with the filter coefficient and time-to-trigger settings. In order to ensure timely handover. 1A and 1E are critical events. including Hystfor1A. it means increase of the soft handover range. The bigger the hysteresis value is. the soft handover proportion will be affected. As events that add cells to the active set. but the slower the handover algorithm can react on signal changes. Therefore. the hysteresis value for event 1A can be smaller.4 Hysteresis Related to Soft Handover Definition Hysteresis for event triggering.. than those for 1B.15) . The setting of this parameter can be adjusted within the range of 2 to 5dB. If the number of UEs entering the handover area is the same as the number of UEs leaving the handover area. Hystfor1B. the stronger the signal fluctuation resistance capability will be. Hystfor1E and Hystfor1F Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(0. in the setting of this parameter. configuration step 1(0.5dB.7. but not be too smaller. Modification/query Range 6~10(3~5dB) 4~10(2~5dB) 2~6(1~3dB) 4~10(2~5dB) Recommended Value 10(5dB) 6(3dB) 2(1dB) 6(3dB) 06-6-7 Confidential Page 35 of 52 . while for UEs leaving the soft handover area. Hystfor1C.

5 Time-to-Trigger Parameters Related to Soft Handover Definition Time-to-trigger parameters. D1280. 640 640. TrigTime1E and TrigTime1F. Therefore. 240. 1280 Recommended value (ms) 1280 640 640 640 06-6-7 Confidential Page 36 of 52 .133V3. while it is less sensitive when the mobile station is in low-speed movement. 640. D120. 2560. and ping-pong handover and mis-handover are suppressed to a certain extent. 5000)ms Working range Enum(D0.0 that the physical layer of intra-frequency measurement updates the measurement result every 200ms. corresponding to the six events for intra-frequency measurement respectively. D240. The bigger the hysteresis value is. 200. 20. D100. 320. 100. D640. In addition. TrigTime1D. D40. the increase of the hysteresis value will bring more risks of call drop. 160. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set intrafreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. D640. D20.3. D80. D240. 3. TrigTime1B. 640 240. Otherwise. TrigTime1C. D5000). 120. Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(D0. D1280. 1280 240. D160. 60. D2560. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellintrafreqho. However. D60. 40. The call drop rate is more sensitive to the time-to-trigger value when the mobile station is in high-speed movement.6. D5000) Recommended value table 2 Recommended Time-to-Trigger Settings for Different Movement Speeds Speed (km/h) 5 50 120 Typical configuration Balance in setting Simulation shows that the setting of the hysteresis value can effectively reduce the average handover times and mis-handover times. a time-to-trigger value below 200ms does not make any practical sense. the less the average handover timers will be. D320. 80. D2560. corresponding to (0. including TrigTime1A. and it should be as close as possible to an integral multiple of 200ms. Range (ms) 640. D10. D200. simulation also shows that mobile stations moving at different speeds respond differently to the time-to-trigger value. and thus can prevent the occurrence of unwanted handover. It is stipulated in TS 25. 1280. D200. 10.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use To implement cell-oriented settings.

6 WEIGHT Definition Weighted factor (see formulas on Section 2. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings.. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellintrafreqho. the time-to-trigger value is set mainly to reduce ping-pong handover.1.3. the initial setting can be the same as that for event 1A and event 1E. while events that replace cells in the active set (event 1C and event 1D) generally require low ping-pong handover and mis-handover and do have produce remarkable influence on the call drop rate. this value can be relatively small.1 Working range Integer(0. Different types of events have different requirements on the time-to-trigger setting: events that add cells to the active set (event 1A and event 1E) generally require a small time-to-trigger setting. the determination of soft handover relative threshold is related to only the best cell in the active set. For the latter type of events. When W=0. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. the time-to-trigger setting can be properly big.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use Therefore. while for cells where there are more low-speed moving mobile stations. the higher the relative threshold obtained under the same condition will be. namely 1 Balance in setting This parameter is used to determine the soft handover relative threshold based on the measurement value of each cell in the active set. this value can be relatively big. step: 0. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set intrafreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. 3. Otherwise.10) Recommended value 10. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 37 of 52 . use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set intrafreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellintrafreqho. for cells where there are more high-speed moving mobile stations.20). Otherwise.1) Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(0.2. For events that remove cells from the active set (event 1Band event 1F).. The bigger this parameter is. and can be properly adjusted based on the actual network statistics result.. corresponding to 0.

1. when you are not absolutely sure about the adjacent cell configuration. 17. 9. D15. D2. D7. D5. D6. D8. 15.3. this switch can be set to ON so that missed adjacent cells can be detected and thus handover can be smoothly implemented. 3. 6. After network optimization.1 Inter-Frequency Measurement Filter Coefficient (FilterCoef) Definition The measurement smoothening coefficient used in L3 filtering of inter-frequency measurement report Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(D0. D5. D9. D19). OFF) Working range Enum(ON. D8) Recommended value 06-6-7 Confidential Page 38 of 52 . Otherwise. so as to provide statistics data for future network optimization. D7. 5. D6.4 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithm Parameters 3. D11. D4. 8.4. used to control whether the UE measurement report contains the information of cells in the detected set. D1. D17. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellintrafreqho. 2. Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(ON. 11.7 Detected Set Statistics Switch Definition DetectStatSwitch. D4. 3. 13. D3. 19) Working range Enum(D0. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. D1. D2. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set intrafreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. this switch can be set to OFF. D3. 7. corresponding to (0. D13. 4.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 3.OFF) Recommended value OFF Balance in setting In the beginning of network operation.

Fn-1: the old measurement result of the previous moment after filtering processing. the inter-frequency filter coefficient can be 6. (cell located at carrier coverage verge / cell located at carrier coverage center) Working range Enum(CARRIER_FREQUENCY_VERGE_CELL. the inter-frequency filter coefficient can be 7. the inter-frequency filter coefficient can be 3. For different cell coverage types. k is from IE "Filter coefficient". if the cell covers rural area. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. L3 filtering is not implemented. CARRIER_FREQUENCY_CENTER_CELL). Scope Per CELL Range and unit Enum(CARRIER_FREQUENCY_VERGE_CELL. When k=0 and a=1. if the cell covers suburbs. Otherwise. typical values are recommended as follows: a. Therefore. where.4. we recommend that the commonly used value of the filter coefficient be in the range of {0. Fn: the updated measurement result after filtering processing.3. b. if the cell covers urban area. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interfreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. CARRIER_FREQUENCY_CENTER_CELL) Recommended value None Balance in setting 06-6-7 Confidential Page 39 of 52 . According to R2-000809. indicating whether the cell is located at the verge or center of the carrier coverage. namely 5 Balance in setting For Intanal Use The following formula is used for the calculation of measurement value filtering: Fn = (1 − a ) ⋅ Fn −1 + a ⋅ M n Where.1. a balance must be made. the stronger the burr filtering capability will be. but the weaker the signal tracking capability will be. Mn: The latest measurement value received from the physical layer. c. namely “FilterCoef” here.6}. a = (1/2)(k/2).2 Cell Location Property Definition CellProperty (cell location property).WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance D5. 3.5. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterfreqho.4.2. The bigger the filter coefficient is.

the stronger the signal fluctuation resistance capability will be. it is located at the verge of carrier coverage. 3. configuration step 1(0. in the setting of this parameter. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interfreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. Otherwise. hysteresis adjustment should generally be considered together with the filter coefficient and time-to-trigger settings. The location property of a cell determines whether RSCP or Ec/No should be used as the measurement object for event 2D and event 2F. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterfreqho. Therefore.4.3 Hysteresis Related to Inter-Frequency Handover Definition Hysteresis for event triggering. Range 6~10(3~5dB) 4~10(2~5dB) 2~6(1~3dB) 4~10(2~5dB) Recommended Value 10(5dB) 6(3dB) 2(1dB) 6(3dB) 06-6-7 Confidential Page 40 of 52 . In addition.5dB.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use If a cell has intra-frequency adjacent cells around it in all directions. including Hystfor2D (hysteresis for event 2D).7..15) .5dB) Working range table 3 Recommended Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Hysteresis Settings for Different Movement Speeds Speed (km/h) 5 50 120 Typical configuration Recommended value 6(3dB) Balance in setting The bigger the hysteresis value is. use the command add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterfreqho. not only the radio environment (slow fading characteristic) but also the actual handover distance and the UE movement speed should be taken into due consideration. Modification/query For cell-oriented settings. and thus the better the ping-pong effect will be suppressed. Hystfor2F (hysteresis for event 2F) and HystforHHO (hysteresis for hard handover) Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(0. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. but the slower the handover algorithm can react on signal changes. otherwise.. this cell is located at the center of carrier coverage. corresponding to 0. The setting of this parameter can be adjusted within the range of 2 to 5dB.

640 240. 200. 2560. The setting can be properly adjusted based on Range 240. D2560. 160. 10.133V3. and thus can prevent the occurrence of unwanted handover.4. a time-to-trigger value below 200ms does not make any practical sense. However. while it is less sensitive when the mobile station is in low-speed movement. while for cells where there are more low-speed moving mobile stations. D5000). including TrigTime2D (time-to-trigger for event 2D). Therefore.4 Time-to-Trigger Parameters Related to Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Definition Time-to-trigger parameters. D20. this value can be relatively big. D80. D160. D5000) Recommended value table 4 Recommended Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Time-to-Trigger Settings for Different Movement Speeds Speed (km/h) 5 50 120 Typical configuration Balance in setting Simulation shows that the setting of the hysteresis value can effectively reduce the average handover times and mis-handover times. D1280. D40. D240. this value can be relatively small. D200. It is stipulated in TS 25. 20. and ping-pong handover and mis-handover are suppressed to a certain extent. D640. The call drop rate is more sensitive to the time-to-trigger value when the mobile station is in high-speed movement. D320. D100. D640. simulation also shows that mobile stations moving at different speeds respond differently to the time-to-trigger value. D120. D200. 320. 640. TrigTime2F (time-to-trigger for event 2F) and TrigTimeHHO (time-to-trigger for hard handover) Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(D0. 60. D60. 640 640. the less the average handover timers will be. In addition. Therefore. The bigger the hysteresis value is. corresponding to (0. the increase of the hysteresis value will bring more risks of call drop.0 that the physical layer of intra-frequency measurement updates the measurement result every 200ms. 5000)ms The value range of TrigTimeHHO is 0 to 64000ms Working range Enum(D0. 120. 1280 (ms) Recommended value (ms) 1280 640 640 640 640.6. for cells where there are more high-speed moving mobile stations. D1280. D10. D240. D2560. 40.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 3. 240. 80. 1280. and it should be as close as possible to an integral multiple of 200ms. 100. 1280 06-6-7 Confidential Page 41 of 52 .

use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterfreqho.. dBm.4. Otherwise. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interfreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interfreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell.-25)dBm Recommended value -95dBm Balance in setting Events 2D and 2F are the switches to enable/disable the compressed mode. including InterThdUsedFreqFor2DRSCP (absolute threshold for event 2D) and InterThdUsedFreqFor2FRSCP (absolute threshold for event 2F) Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(-115. if you hope to enable the compressed mod as early as possible. otherwise.. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterfreqho.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance the actual network statistics result. 3. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. Therefore. Working range Integer(-115. When the cell is located the verge of carrier coverage. set a small value. the RSCP measurement value will be used as the decision criterion for event 2D and event 2F.4. Otherwise. 3. including InterThdUsedFreqFor2DEcNo (absolute threshold for event 2D) and InterThdUsedFreqFor2FEcNo (absolute threshold for event 2F) Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit 06-6-7 Confidential Page 42 of 52 .6 Compressed Mode Enable/Disable Threshold Denoted by Ec/No Definition This parameter corresponds to the absolute thresholds for inter-frequency measurement events when Ec/No is used as the measurement object. set a big value. Modification/query For Intanal Use To implement cell-oriented settings.-25).5 Compressed Mode Enable/Disable Threshold Denoted by RSCP Definition This parameter corresponds to the absolute thresholds for inter-frequency measurement events when RSCP is used as the measurement object.

Therefore. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterfreqho. set a big value. dBm..7 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover RSCP Threshold Definition This parameter corresponds to the absolute threshold for inter-frequency hard handover when RSCP is used for measurement. Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(-115. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interfreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. it may result in excessively frequent verge hard handover. Otherwise.-25).4. the Ec/No measurement value will be used as the decision criterion for event 2D and event 2F. the periodic reported RSCP measurement value will be used as the decision criterion for inter-frequency hard handover. set a small value. HHOThdRSCP. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interfreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Integer(-24.0)dB Recommended value -24dB Balance in setting For Intanal Use Events 2D and 2F are the switches to enable/disable the compressed mode. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings.-25)dBm Recommended value -85dBm Balance in setting When RSCP is used as the physical measurement quantity and the quality of the measure cell is higher than this threshold. Working range Integer(-24. 3. Working range Integer(-115. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. this cell can be used as the target cell for inter-frequency hard handover.0).. If this cell is located at the verge of carrier coverage. if you hope to enable the compressed mod as early as possible. otherwise. call drop is likely to occur due to failure of timely initiation of inter-frequency hard handover. When the cell is located the center of carrier coverage. If this value is too big. dB.. Otherwise. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 43 of 52 .. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterfreqho. if it is too small.

D2. it may result in excessively frequent verge hard handover or call drop after handover due to weak signals of the target cell. If this value is too big. dB. this cell can be used as the target cell for inter-frequency hard handover. D8.. D17. If this cell is located at the center of carrier coverage. call drop is likely to occur due to failure of timely initiation of inter-frequency hard handover. D8) 06-6-7 Confidential Page 44 of 52 . use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterfreqho. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. 11. 13. 3. D11. D13. D7. D6. D19). Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(-24. D1. the Ec/No measurement value will be used as the decision criterion for inter-frequency hard handover. 19) Working range Enum(D0. if it is too small. D15. D6. D4. 4. 17. D5.1 inter-system measurement filter coefficient FilterCoef Definition The measurement smoothening coefficient used in L3 filtering of inter-system measurement report Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(D0. HHOThdEcNo. 7. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interfreqho as the configuration for the concerned cell. D1.4.5 inter-system handover measurement algorithm parameter 3. 5.0). 1.. Working range Integer(-24.5.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use 3. 3. D3. D4. D3. D9. D2. D5. 8.0)dB Recommended value -16dB Balance in setting When Ec/No is used as the physical measurement quantity and the quality of the measure cell is higher than this threshold. Otherwise. D7. 6.8 Inter-Frequency Hard Handover Ec/No Threshold Definition This parameter corresponds to the absolute threshold for inter-frequency hard handover when Ec/No is used for measurement. 2. corresponding to (0. 15. 9.

.63). Otherwise. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interratho as the configuration for the concerned cell. namely 4 Balance in setting For Intanal Use See Section 3.7. . the better the signal filtering effect will be. and the stronger the anti-fading capability will be.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Recommended value D4.2 Inter-System Hard Handover Decision Threshold Definition GSMRssiThd.. The bigger this parameter value is. 63:-48 ) dBm. Note: ”0” in the parameter value range means the value is smaller than -110dBm. 3. This value should be adjusted according to the actual network situation. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings..5dB) Working range 06-6-7 Confidential Page 45 of 52 .1.5. configuration step: 1(0. Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(0. inter-system hard handover hysteresis.4. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterratho... use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interratho as the configuration for the concerned cell 3. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterratho.. Otherwise.15). corresponding relation: (1:-110. namely -85dBm Balance in setting The quality requirement for inter-system cells during inter-system handover.. Working range Integer(0.5. corresponding to 0.3 Inter-system Hard Handover Hysteresis Definition HystThd. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(0. 2:-109.5dB. but the weaker the signal tracking capability will be.63) Recommended value 26. namely the RSSI threshold required for handover to the GSM system.

D200. this value can be relatively small. D120. 20. 120. D1280. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. the network will start the inter-system handover process. D2560. 10.5 Inter-System Measurement Periodic Report Interval 06-6-7 Confidential Page 46 of 52 . Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. this value can be relatively big. 200. D640. D200.4 Time-to-Trigger Parameter for Inter-System Hard Handover Definition TimeToTrigForSysHo. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterratho. 40. 1280. Otherwise. D5000) Recommended value 5000 Balance in setting If the inter-system quality satisfies the decision condition for inter-system handover within the time specified by this parameter. 2560.15) Recommended value 4(2dB) Balance in setting For Intanal Use This parameter and the inter-system quality threshold jointly decide whether to trigger a inter-system handover decision. 80. For cells where there are more high-speed moving mobile stations. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interratho as the configuration for the concerned cell. The setting can be properly adjusted based on the actual network statistics result. Otherwise. D2560. This value can be properly decreased in areas with small shadow fading and properly increased in areas with big shadow fading. while for cells where there are more low-speed moving mobile stations. 640. 60. D1280. D640. D10. 3. D160. 5000)ms The value range of TimeToTrigForSysHo is 0 to 64000ms Working range Enum(D0. D100. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterratho. D40. D320. D240.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Integer(0. 100.5. 160. D80. D240. D60. time to trigger Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(D0. D5000). corresponding to (0. 240.5. 320. D20. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interratho as the configuration for the concerned cell.. 3.

If the value of this parameter is too small.255)frame 06-6-7 Confidential Page 47 of 52 .6 Compressed Mode Algorithm Parameter 3. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Integer(0. D12000. D2000. D32000. D4000. D20000. D6000. the delay of the compressed mode enabling moment in relation to the current processing moment should be preset. resulting in increase of the signaling burden of the system. Modification/query To implement cell-oriented settings. D12000. D16000.255) . Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(D250. the measurement result may fail to be timely reported. frame Working range Integer(0. 28000. Otherwise. 1000..WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Definition For Intanal Use RptInterval. 24000. 32000.corresponding to the physical range of (250. 6000. D20000. 12000. use the RNC-oriented global settings configured with the command set interratho as the configuration for the concerned cell. D24000. D4000. 500. the time interval at which the UE reports the inter-system measurement result to the RNC. D64000) . D32000. D1000. 8000. D28000. D3000. 16000. D16000. 20000.6. use the commands add/mod/rmv/lst cellinterratho. 4000. 64000) ms Working range Enum(D250.1 CFN Offset to Enable Compressed Mode Definition DeltaCFN. D500. D8000. In order to ensure that the UE and the NodeB enable the compressed mode simultaneously. D6000.. D28000. the measurement result will be frequently reported. D500. 3. D3000. D2000. D1000. resulting in handover failure. 3000. D24000. D64000) Recommended value D1000 Balance in setting If the value this parameter is too big. D8000. and thus the best handover chance may be missed. 2000.

D16.64.2 Spreading Factor Threshold Definition SFTurnPoint. use the command set cmcf. use the command add/mod/lst/rmv cellcmcf to add/modify/remove cell-oriented parameter settings. 3.32. use the command lst cmcf. 3. Alternatively.D8.128.16.7 Direct Retry Algorithm Parameter 3. so the recommended value of this parameter is between 50 and 150.D256) Recommended value D64 Balance in setting None Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter.D128. use the command lst cmcf.6. to view the current configuration of the parameter.D16.256 Working range Enum(D4. and it is generally between 500 and 1500ms.D8. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. to view the current configuration of the parameter.D32.D64.D32. use the command set cmcf.1 Maximum Direct Retry Times Definition 06-6-7 Confidential Page 48 of 52 . Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Enum(D4. the compressed mode will be implemented in priority by means of the spreading factor minus half. In WCDMA. corresponding to 4.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Recommended value 80 Balance in setting For Intanal Use The value of this parameter depends on the sum of the maximum delay in the transmission of signaling from the RNC to the UE and NodeB and hardware preparation time required to start the compressed mode. otherwise the compressed mode will be implemented by means of the punching method in priority.D256). the duration of one frame is 10ms.D128. When the spreading factor used in the downlink is greater than or equal to this parameter. a parameter used to select the compressed mode implementation method.D64.8.7. which has a higher priority.

Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(-19..WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use DRMaxNumber.2 Candidate Set Absolute Threshold Definition CsThreshold. and thus the UE will not be able to access timely the adjacent cells. use the command set drd.7.. use the command lst drd. and a large amount of time will be used on retry attempts.0) Working range Integer(-19.. the maximum allowed retry times for the direct retry module after the initial failure. if this threshold is too low. use the command set drd. which makes direct retry meaningless.5) Working range Integer(1. which will all turn out to be failures. to view the current configuration of the parameter. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 49 of 52 . 3. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. as described in Section 2. Alternatively. If this threshold is too high.8. to view the current configuration of the parameter. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Integer(1.0) Recommended value -16 Balance in setting After the UE fails to initiate an access process.5) Recommended value 2 Balance in setting None Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter.. many cells can enter the candidate set but they may be all of low quality. the direct retry algorithm will automatically initiate direct retry request to the cells in the candidate set. When the signal quality of a cell is higher than this threshold. use the command lst drd.2. this cell will be included in the direct retry candidate set. it will be difficult for the adjacent cells to enter the candidate set.

namely the minimum requirement of the UE form the receiving CPICH Ec/No density during normal demodulation.100).100) Recommended value 80 06-6-7 Confidential Page 50 of 52 ..8.2.0) Recommended value -18 Balance in setting In the direct retry algorithm.3 Minimum Ec/No Value Definition MinSignalRequired. use the command lst drd.8..4 Linear Factor of Relative Threshold and Time Interval Definition LinearFactor.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance For Intanal Use use the command add/mod/lst/rmv celldrd to add/modify/remove cell-oriented parameter settings. 3. 3. Scope Per RNC/CELL Range and unit Integer(-19. The basic access threshold described in Section 2..7. Alternatively. otherwise the cells with poor signal quality will be neglected. the linear factor for the relative threshold and time interval during candidate set selection. This parameter and the candidate set absolute threshold can jointly prevent the occurrence of latter case mentioned above. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Integer(0. which has a higher priority.7. as described in Section 2. Use the command set drd. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. to view the current configuration of the parameter. use the command add/mod/lst/rmv celldrd to add/modify/remove cell-oriented parameter settings. which has a higher priority.. the cell signal measurement value in the RACH report must be higher than this threshold before the direct retry algorithm can consider this cell.0) Working range Integer(-19.01 Working range Integer(0.00.2. step: 0. which means 0 to 1.

while in areas with small shadow fading (such as open areas or the suburbs). then a lot of useful measurement information is likely to be discarded. the maximum time that the RACH measurement report can continue to be used for the direct retry candidate set.. if it is too small. Scope Per RNC Range and unit Integer(0. this parameter can be properly increased. Use the command set drd. In areas with big shadow fading (such as a town center full of tall buildings). Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. step: 100 Working range Integer(0. use the command lst drd. to view the current configuration of the parameter.WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance Balance in setting For Intanal Use This parameter reflects to what an extent the signal quality varies with the time. Modification/query To configure this RNC-oriented global handover parameter. 06-6-7 Confidential Page 51 of 52 .5 Maximum Relating Time for Direct Retry Decision Definition MaxRelatingTime. to view the current configuration of the parameter. the measurement report will become invalid.. 3. Use the command set drd.29) Recommended value 20 Balance in setting If the duration from the time the measurement report is received to the time the measurement report is processed exceeds the value of this parameter.29). This parameter reflects the maximum effective time of the measurement report used for direct retry.7. meaning 0 to 2900ms. this parameter can be properly decreased. If the value of this parameter is too big. use the command lst drd. the measurement result used for judgment may vary from the actual situation due too long a duration and affect the judgment.

WCDMA RNO Handover Algorithm Analysis and Parameter Configuration Guidance List of references: [1] 3GPP R99 25_series. 2003/6 [4] Li Zhen. 3Ghandover planning. 2002/09 [2] Xie Zhibin. WCDMA RNC V100R002 RAA Handover Parameter Configuration Specification. 2001/08 For Intanal Use [3] Li Zhen. WCDMA RNC V100R002 RAA Handover Algorithm Requirement Specification. 2003/10 [5] Zhou Xinjie. WCDMA RNP System Parameter Setting Guidance. 2003/04 06-6-7 Confidential Page 52 of 52 .