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Geography AS Level Case Studies Rivers, Floods and Management Unit

Case Study How a river changes its course River flooding in LEDC

Example Rive Ouse, Yorkshire Brahmaputra, Bangladesh, 2007


River Flooding in MEDC

Boscastle, August 2004.

Flood management in different areas of the world

 

Colorado, USA Brahmaputra, Bangladesh

 75% of Bangladesh is less than 10m above sea level and 80% is flood plain  On August 1, there was flooding on the Padma and Brahmaputra rivers  500,000 people had been marooned  more than 150,000 people had diarrhoea or other waterborne diseases  more than 400,000 people were in temporary shelters  Five million people were displaced  The estimated death toll was nearly 2,500  August 16th 2004, the monthly average of rain fell in just 12 hours.  Steep sided valley with only one narrow river for water to run into the sea.  No fatalities  100 homes and 75 were destroyed  Local tourist industry affected for the following year as well. Colorado:  Approx 1,500km  16 dams  Over 45% of water is used for irrigation in the USA  Significantly lower discharge in Mexico, cause for tension  Fish species dying due to saltation of lake reservoirs. Brahmaputra:  Approx 2,900km  1 dam built by the Chinese to supply southern china with water for irrigation  Limited embankment strengthening projects due to the river tendency to flood, which helps the rice famers, keep their rice paddies fertile, which therefore make such schemes unpopular.

A £14 million sea wall defence system was built to protect these areas from coastal erosion. Tourism makes a significant contribution to the economy of Hornsea.5 m a year on average or 2 million tonnes of material a year.Coastal Environments Case Study Coastal erosion Example  Holderness Facts  The highest rate of coastal erosion in Europe: 1.5% of the working population Industrial activity the main employer in the area is the Easington and Dimlington gas terminals on the east coast (costing £8 million each). which are generated by tropical cyclone. due to lack of accommodation.  There have been three areas of life in Holderness that have been affected by erosion. These cyclones are predominant during the post-monsoon (October and November) and pre-monsoon (April to June) period. The British Petroleum chemical works at Saltend uses condensates from the gas refining process and is a major employer in the area. cause extensive damage to life and property. In 2010 agriculture employed 8. the number of tourists year on year fall. These terminals process gas from the North Sea gas fields. have been lost. Withernsea and Freeport attracting around a million visitors each year. . However as seaside campsites have started to fall into the sea as a result of erosion. to the south.  Some of this is transported by longshore drift with about 3% of material being deposited at Spurn Head spit.   Coastal flooding in an MEDC and an LEDC   Bangladesh 1953 Storm surge Bangladesh:  Floods due to storm surges in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.  Agriculture is the traditional employment of the area and as more coastal land is lost people are turning to agriculture as a stable alternative.  Since the Roman era. including at least 23 towns/villages.

600 km of coastline was damaged.  Bangladesh is an LEDC and its lack of money and heavy national debt means that little money is available to spend on flood protection methods / defences and many existing defences lack upkeep and are of questionable use. this has increased erosion south of Mappleton. In Essex. and 24. However.     Soft engineering  Holderness Soft engineering options are often less expensive than hard engineering options. A coastal management scheme costing £2 million was introduced involving two types of hard engineering .000 km². Flooding forced 30.000 properties were seriously damaged. Canvey Island was inundated with the loss of 58 lives In 1991.000 people to be evacuated from their homes. Benefits in one area might have a negative effect on another. inundating 1. 1953 Storm surge:     Hard engineering  Holderness     Over 1. the decision was taken to protect Mappleton. means that other places will need to consider the sustainability of coastal defence strategies for the future.In 1998 10.placing rock armour along the base of the cliff and building two rock groynes. The increased threat of sea level rise due to climate change. 38 died at Felixstowe in Suffolk when wooden prefabricated homes in the West End area of the town were flooded. and sea walls were breached. Mappleton and the cliffs are no longer at great risk from erosion. The rock groynes have stopped beach material being moved south from Mappleton along the coast.000 deaths 30 million people homeless Causes: Increasing population pressure in Bangladesh itself has resulted in the sinking of many new wells resulting in the lowering of the water table and the subsequent subsidence of land making it even more prone to flooding. They are .

1. but people will need to be compensated for loss of buildings and farmland. Beaches also attract tourists. .eg places not being used for housing or farmland. o The main advantage is that beaches are a natural defence against erosion and coastal flooding. o It is a relatively inexpensive option but requires constant maintenance to replace the beach material as it is washed away. Beach management o This replaces beach or cliff material that has been removed by erosion or longshore drift. There are two main types of soft engineering.usually more long-term and sustainable. 2. with less impact on the environment. Managed retreat o Areas of the coast are allowed to erode and flood naturally. Usually this will be areas considered to be of low value . o Managed retreat is a cheap option. o The advantages are that it encourages the development of beaches (a natural defence) and salt marshes (important for the environment) and cost is low.

 It officially restricts married. law enforcement). overwhelmed social services (such as health. slums. and strain on the ecosystem from abuse of fertile land and production of high volumes of waste.  There has been criticism of the policies ‘heavy-handed’ tactics to persuade people from not having more than one child. including ‘forced’ sterilisation and couples having to pay for a second child.54 in 2011. and parents without any siblings themselves. ethnic minorities. including rural couples. like epidemics. than it would have had otherwise.Population Issues: Case Study Example 2 case studies of  China managing  Singapore population change at different stages of development Facts China (Stage 3): One child Policy  The one-child policy refers to the one-child limitation applying to approximately 35. Singapore (Stage 4): Population limitation policy The government also added a gradually increasing array of disincentives penalising parents for having more than two children between 2000.  Chinese authorities thus consider the policy as a great success in helping to implement China's current economic growth.9% of China's population in the population control policy of the People's Republic of China (PRC). the fertility rate in China fell from over three births per woman in 1980 to approximately 1. .  After the introduction of the one-child policy. urban couples to having only one child. China still has one million more births than deaths every five weeks.8 in 2008 and 1. while allowing exemptions for several cases.  The reduction in the fertility rate and thus population growth has reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation.2011.  Even with the one-child policy in place. education.  The Chinese government estimated that it had three to four hundred million fewer people in 2008 with the one-child policy.

. Top priority in top-tier primary schools would be given only to children whose parents had been sterilised before the age of forty.g. Income tax deductions would only be given for the first two children Large families were penalised in housing assignments. Ethiopia: Because of the high birth rates the bottom age group of the graph is full with a large percentage of living people there while higher up it tapers off. This is due to the high mortality rate from birth upwards and also due to the short life expectancy in these countries. The policy has been dubbed a success as the average births per couple have been reduced to just over 2 per family. structures and change for countries at different stages of development (including stages of DTM)   Ethiopia: Stage 1 Canada: Stage 4   Workers in the public sector would not receive maternity leave for their third child or any subsequent children Hospitals were required to charge incrementally higher fees for each additional child. Third or fourth children were given lower priorities in education. Population Structure and Demographic Change: Stage 1 e.       Population indicators.

g. Canada: Stage four would be a convex graph shape because there are about as many deaths as births and more people are reaching middle age as mentioned in stage 3 but here the population is stable. .  Population Structure and Demographic Change: Stage 4 e.

The increased mortality in this region will result in a smaller skilled population and labour force. it is estimated to be home to 69% of all people living with HIV and to 72% of all AIDS deaths in 2009. Increased mortality will also weaken the mechanisms that generate human capital and investment in people. An increase in workers’ time off to look after sick family members or for sick leave will also lower productivity. prescriptions . The forecast is that this will probably cause a collapse of economies and societies in countries with a significant AIDS population. In some heavily infected areas. The health service is payed for by taxpayers as an additional tax on earnings.5% of the world's population. All children’s and old age pensioners prescriptions and glasses eye tests are free. . blood tests. HIV and AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital. This smaller labour force will be predominantly young people. Although Africa is home to about 14.Heath Issues unit: Case Study Case study of an infectious disease Example  HIV/AIDS Facts           Different approaches to healthcare   UK USA   HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in Africa. They will not only be unable to work. the epidemic has left behind many orphans cared for by elderly grandparents. but will also require significant medical care. It should also be noted that most insurance schemes require a payment by the person at the point of service this includes doctor visits . and most other health related needs. The USA health is funded by each individual via insurance contributions often as part of their employment contract often with the employer providing a percentage of the premium and the employee having the other percentage deducted from their salary . through loss of income and the death of parents The UK has a National Health Service that is based on the principle of free health care for all based on free at the point of service. with reduced knowledge and work experience leading to reduced productivity.

There are 2 systems in place that cover old age and the poorest sections of society Medicare and Medic-aide. but both require the person to apply for them and coverage mostly only provides the basic cover and little choice in service supplier. . There are in addition many charities that provide help to the most needy.  The disadvantage to this system is that only those with sufficient money receive the full medical cover and many of the poorest sections of society are left with little or no cover.