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THE PREVALENCE OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG CHILDREN IN FIVE OF THE MOST POPULATED PRIVATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN ZAMBOANGA CITY

AND A DESCRIPTION OF THEIR EXISTING GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROGRAMS

A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL ATENEO DE ZAMBOANGA UNIVERSITY ZAMBOANGA CITY

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH

BY: JEMUEL ARNAN R CRISTOBAL APRIL 13, 2009

APPROVAL SHEET This Thesis entitled THE PREVALENCE OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG CHILDREN IN FIVE OF THE MOST POPULATED PRIVATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN ZAMBOANGA CITY prepared and submitted by Jemuel Arnan Ramos Cristobal, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH is hereby accepted.

________________________ Dr. Servando D. Halili, PhD Adviser

Approved by the Oral Examination Committee with a grade of PASSED

___________________________ Dr. Rosemarie S. Arciaga, MD Chairperson

___________________________ Dr. Fortunato L. Cristobal, MD Member

________________________ Dr. Jocelyn D. Partosa, PhD Member

_______________________ Dr. Ricardo Angeles, MD Member

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Public Health ________________________ Dr. Servando D. Halili, PhD Dean, Graduate School Ateneo de Zamboanga University

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ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL,JEMUEL ARNAN R.

ABSTRACT The major objective of the current study is to determine the prevalence rate of behavioral problems among school age children studying in five of the most populated private schools in Zamboanga City. Composed of two phases, the first of which sought to address the major objective by randomly selecting 356 out of 3,177 elementary school children from the five schools included in the study. They were rated by their class advisers with the use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results show that 58 children or 16.2% are found to have behavioral problems. A breakdown of this overall prevalence revealed that out of the 58 children found to have behavioral problems, 38 (65.5%) had conduct problems, 24 (41.37%) had peer problems, 23 (39.65%) had hyperactivity, and 15 (25.86%) had emotional problems. The second phase of the research involved describing each schools’ guidance and counseling programs through in depth interviews with each guidance counselor and the use of a formulated checklist. It was found out that majority of the existing guidance counseling programs of each school did not adequately address the identified behavioral problems among the children of these schools. Through the use of the checklist only one school out of five was evaluated as having a good guidance and counseling program, while the rest were rated as having only a fair program. The conclusion is that the prevalence of behavioral problems among school age children studying in private elementary schools may be higher than the usually expected in similar populations. In addition to this there is a need for majority of the existing guidance and counseling programs to improve to significantly address the identified behavioral problems among their students.

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iii ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. for his constant words of encouragement and optimism through this research. To Janice. in my today. for your steadfast prayers for me. . My loving sister Lois for always putting a smile on my face when things seemed down. not to mention sustaining me with all the expenses for this project.JEMUEL ARNAN R. your constant encouragement and understanding and love. and in my tomorrow.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Looking back over everything that has transpired. for seeing me through thus far…enabling me to see His hand in my yesterday. My parents for their encouragement throughout the whole MPH course. Halili. the following people deserve more than a simple recognition for the support and help they have offered. To my adviser Dr. so much so that this paper could not have done without. for always being available for consultations. Finally to my Heavenly Father.

............................TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE APPROVAL SHEET .....14 g...................12 e.....................................................) f........................................JEMUEL ARNAN R....................................................................................19 Sampling Design ...................48 iv ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL..............................................................................3 c..................................................................................2 b.........................................................................15 METHODOLOGY a.) g.......................................................................................) Statement of the Problem................... ...........18 Research Setting ..................................26 II PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ....... Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ..46 B..................) d.....................) Related Literature ....................13 f.20 Research Instruments .) e.........................................................43 IV BIBLIOGRAPHY .....46 A........................................................................................ iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ....................................) III Research Design .....................................................................10 d..) Definition of Terms .............................) Background of the Study ....................27 CONCLUSSION .............................................................................24 Data Analysis ...................... v LIST OF FIGURES ................45 APPENDICES ........................................................................................) b..................................... ii ABSTRACT ....................)Significance of the Study ................18 Respondents ................................... vi CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING a...............................................) Scope and Delimitations of the Study ................................................................. vi LIST OF TABLES ..................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ..........) c.......................................................) Conceptual Framework ............................................21 Data Gathering Procedure ................................... In Depth Interview Trigger Questions .....................................................

........................................ Checklist to Rate Guidance Counseling Programs Per School ..........62 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Conceptual Framework Flow of Activities Prevalence of Behavioral Problems Among Five of the Most Populated Private Elementary Number of Cases of Specific Types of Behavioral Problems Page 12 Page 24 Page 28 Figure 4 Page 29 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Demographic Profile of All Children According to Grade Level Rating of the guidance counseling program of each school based on the checklist Page 27 Table 2 Page 38 v ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.50 a............................. Immaculate Conception Archdiocese School (Calarian Branch) ....................56 e... Ateneo de Zamboanga University .................. ...........58 f.... Zion Evangelical School ....................................... Immaculate Conception Archdiocese School (Tetuan) ........ In Depth Interview Verbatim Transcription ....C.54 d.....49 D.............JEMUEL ARNAN R. Bethany Child Development Center ..... Claret ...................52 c....50 PAGE b.............................

Several studies however have been conducted in Zamboanga City. and would increase to 8% among children 12-18 years of age. It is an established fact that such behavioral problems may be manifested as early as childhood.CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Background of the study In the international setting the number of researches regarding behavioral problems has constantly been increasing. mostly regarding only ADHD among private schools. Aggressive behavior noticed at the early age of 8 positively predicted later behavioral problems at age 14. poor educational attainment. such as alcoholism. eventually predicting future unemployment at age 36. 1 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. emotional problems such as depression could in turn be at a prevalence rate of 1-2% among children 5-11 years old. while no data exists in the Philippines which give us a general picture as to exactly how many children in the local setting are expected to have behavioral problems. . In another article by Tynan (2006). Psychiatrists on the other hand claim to see a lot of behavioral problems among children in their private practice. increased number of school drop-outs. Much of the data available at present which give prevalence estimates of child populations with behavioral problems are from the United States and Europe. with at least one new case seen out of the many already diagnosed per week. An article by Goodman and Gurian (2006) entitled About Conduct Disorders reports that an estimate of 6% of children in any given setting would have conduct disorders.JEMUEL ARNAN R. resulting to a lack of occupational alternatives at the age of 27. A longitudinal study done by Kokko and Pulkkinen (2000) observed children from 8 years old until they reached the age of 36.

such results show that emotional problems can be existing but subtle and easily overlooked.JEMUEL ARNAN R. And the school. Review of Related Literature Farrales (1997) conducted a study which focused on determining the prevalence of behavioral problems among children 5-12 years of age who consulted at the Zamboanga City Medical Center Out Patient Department. the current research has been conducted with the purpose of identifying the prevalence of behavioral problems among five of the most populated elementary schools in Zamboanga City. With the use of a Random Questionnaire Checklist. is in such a strategic placement as to address such existing behavioral problems. . remaining 2 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. While the aforementioned study focuses more on possible co-existing. fever and colds.There is at present a lack of documentation regarding behavioral problems in general. looking into whether or not such existing programs appropriately address the identified behavioral problems. It further delves deeper into investigating the kind of guidance and counseling programs of each of these schools. if not causative psychological problems along with medical complaints. playing a very vital part in a child’s development. out of 50 respondents. most of which go undetected by both parents and teachers in the setting of the school and the home. In light of all this. Therefore the identification of such existing behavioral problems is needed. Such behavioral problems that are not known of and identified. can never be properly addressed. being one of the places where the child spends most of his time. 15% were found out to have maladjustment problems underlying the presenting medical complaints of cough. and the school ought to know that such problems exist.

Fernandez (2006) conducted a research looking into the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Grade I students of Baliwasan Central School. which has been estimated to be within 3-5% of the child population. This study involved 374 students evaluated by their parents and subject teachers. Conduct Problems and Hyperactivity. Peer Problems.JEMUEL ARNAN R. then most certainly it is vital we determine the true prevalence of behavioral problems among children. an estimate which falls under the prevalence rate proposed by the American Psychological Association.3% were identified to have ADHD. as many may present with physical ailments. Zamboanga City. Another research done by De Leon (2007) entitled The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among students of private elementary schools in Zamboanga City sought to address the most commonly diagnosed behavioral problem among children in the United States. If such is the case. Through proportionate random sampling. 6% or 3 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. assessed through a behavioral problem checklist administered to subject teachers of the children included in this study. . and with the use of the SWAN scale. This study is similar to the current research in terms of its dealing with a specific type of behavioral problem among school age children. Results showed that out of the total population. but are with nevertheless underlying serious emotional problems. this study by Fernandez could give the researcher an estimate of how many children might be found out to have hyperactivity problems in the given setting. 401 students from 19 different private schools were included in the study.undetected unless sought for. Although the current research aims to determine four different types of behavioral problems. 5. namely Emotional Problems.

in a rural setting. determining the prevalence of four different types of behavioral problems yielded that hyperactivity was one of the least prevalent.9% each. ADHD has been most of the time focused on regarding determining its prevalence rate among school age children. Results of the current study could be compared to the current study. Cristobal (2008) did a research entitled The Effect of Lecture Intervention on the Knowledge of Parents and Teachers Regarding Behavioral Problems of School Age Children in Three Elementary Schools within the Municipality of Sergio Osmena. and Hyperactivity. The difference is that the former specifically focuses on ADHD. Conduct Problems. This study is similar to the current research in that both deal with behavioral problems among school age children. Peer Problems.24 children were found to have ADHD as rated by their teachers. to determine other behavioral problems other than hyperactivity and ADHD. The least of behavioral problems noted was Hyperactivity. while the current research aims to emphasize namely on four different types of behavioral problems. A breakdown of the different types of behavioral problems noted were as follows: Peer Problems were the most numerous. Through the use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). .JEMUEL ARNAN R. Results could yield other prevalent behavioral problems not initially identified in prior studies. with 21. class advisers identified 225 children out of 923 (24. According to the above studies. followed by Conduct and Emotional Problems. But according to the last study mentioned. which might even be of 4 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. reaching 10. while only 3% or 12 children were in turn found to have ADHD by their parents. reaching a rate of 46. namely Emotional Problems.8%.4%) to have behavioral problems.7%.

to determine whether or not they are appropriate in addressing the identified problems at hand. scrutinizing the prevalence rate of such behavioral problems in the public and private school setting. the current study desires to take a step further and delve into the guidance counseling programs of several schools chosen to take part in this research. is small beautiful? Published by the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Results can in turn be compared. The current study will be making use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to screen and identify children with possible behavioral problems. Goodman and Scott (1999) in their study entitled Comparing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). This aforementioned study affirms the use of the SDQ as a good screening tool for detecting behavioral problems in children. which is even as good as the tried and tested. but very long and tedious CBCL. evaluated the efficacy and accuracy of both tools in detecting moderate to severe cases of 64 prediagnosed children with behavioral problems. 41 (64%) preferred the SDQ over the CBCL. Another study by Goodman et al (2006) entitled Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to Screen for Child Psychiatric Disorders in a Community 5 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. being equally able to discriminate between children of low and high risks despite that the fact that the SDQ had only 25 items while the CBCL has 118 items.greater number which could still remain undetected. This research is also similar in several respects to the current thesis in that it sought to determine the prevalence of four different types of behavioral problems mentioned above through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Yielded results showed a high correlation for both questionnaires. . In addition to these.JEMUEL ARNAN R. In addition. out of 64 parent informants.

career. the following literature has been obtained by the researcher: In a book entitled Introduction to Counseling and Guidance (Gibson and Mitchell 1999) the authors highlighted one of the more popular Guidance Counseling Programs devised by the American School Counselors Association (ASCA) in the year 1997.JEMUEL ARNAN R. 2003). and in their personal and social areas. This approach to the formulating of a guidance counseling program emphasized 4 areas that 6 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.3% sensitivity for detecting behavioral problems. . with 3 areas of emphasis. This program’s rationale states that a good guidance counseling program should be developmental in nature. Results showed that identified cases by the SDQ yielded a 94. proactive and preventive with a goal of providing all students with equal chance for life long success. had the goal of assessing the SDQ as a potential for improving the detection of child psychiatric problems. teachers and students themselves as informants. for community screening programs. using the SDQ would potentially increase efficacy in the detection of behavioral problems among school age children. A sample of 7984 children 5-15 years of age from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey were included in this study. Such programs exist to promote and enhance children’s learning process. Shifting the emphasis from research involving behavioral problems among children to at this point focusing on articles regarding Guidance Counseling Programs. discussed in a book entitled Counseling in Schools: Essential Services and Comprehensive Programs (Schmidt. called the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model. Another school of thought was developed by Gyspers and Henderson. with parents.4% specificity and a 63.Sample published by the British Journal of Psychiatry. The paper concluded that. their development in academics.

integration of the guidance curriculum into the school curriculum. namely the child’s educational development. It also stresses the importance of structural competency. and systems support to maintain the program. as well as career. in case of traumatic experiences from children. and the addressing of crisis. a clear vision and mission for the existence of the program. An equally popular model for guidance counseling programs is the Strategic Comprehensive Model. 2003). personal and social competencies at an early age. referring to the preventive phase of this program. 7 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. This approach stresses the importance of guidance counselors to have the appropriate training before being responsible for the schools guidance programs. responsive services involving counseling and crisis intervention. similar to the prior models. namely individual planning to cater to each student’s needs. It emphasizes on 3 specific areas of development. remedial measures. The third aspect. . Crisis intervention refers to actual crisis debriefing. where this school of thought emphasizes that all programs must address four specific areas. resorted to when the first two phases have failed. namely normal development. to ensure normal development and progress. School programs should cater to the school children to enhance their academic. prevention.need to be addressed by the program. With early detection through testing and observation. that they must be certified and accredited.JEMUEL ARNAN R. necessary measures may be taken to address the identified problems. grief counseling and crisis resolution. refers to specific programs that address real problems identified. with a degree and license to practice their said profession. The fourth model is called the Essential Services Model by John Schmidt (Counseling in Schools: Essential Services and Comprehensive Programs. remedial. personal and social development.

namely Hyperactivity. good for screening use in identifying children with behavioral problems.Through this model. while ADHD falls within the proposed estimate by the American Psychological Association. However at present there are no national guidelines that provide ideal models for 8 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. coordinating services. It also takes a step further into looking into the guidance counseling programs of each school. consulting services. virtually all schools have adopted this new approach to holistic education. Regarding the researches done by Fernandez (2006) and De Leon (2007). With the aforementioned articles and researches. Emotional Problems. The latter took a step further to look into a citywide prevalence rate of ADHD among children studying in all private schools of this city. it was suggested that guidance programs be grouped into four major headings. Results of these studies yield a generally large prevalent rate of behavioral problems among this age group. which are counseling services. The current research is unique in comparison to these former researches in the fact that it deals with establishing the prevalence rate of behavioral problems among 5 of the most populated schools in this city. determining whether or not such programs address the behavioral problems identified. it can be concluded that several studies regarding behavioral problems among children have already been conducted. both dealt with a specific type of behavioral problem. especially in the community setting. Peer Problems and Conduct Problems. both in the local rural and urban settings.JEMUEL ARNAN R. With the emerging trend of incorporating guidance counseling programs into the school setting. . namely ADHD. and the appraisal of the schools programs. Through the review of related literature it can also be concluded that the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is a tried and tested tool. Such prevalence is yet to be determined for the urban setting.

as recommended by the Ateneo de Zamboanga University Guidance Counseling Office. numerous models are already in existence. however. Conduct Problems and Hyperactivity. Looking into these specific programs would give us a picture of the ideal programs that our schools in the local setting should pattern their guidance programs after. and what is the description of their existing guidance counseling programs?” General objectives: To determine the prevalence of behavioral problems among children studying in five of the most populated private elementary schools in Zamboanga City and to give a description of their existing guidance counseling programs.JEMUEL ARNAN R.guidance counseling programs. In the United States. and address certain behavioral problems which were identified by the current research. Peer Problems. Specific objectives: 1. through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) among children studying in 5 of the most populated private elementary schools in Zamboanga City . Statement of the problem: This study aimed to address the question: “What is the prevalence of behavioral problems among children studying in five of the most populated private elementary schools in Zamboanga City. of which 4 of the more popular models were named above. 9 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. . To determine the prevalence of the following behavioral problems: Emotional Problems. It would also give us a measure as to whether or not such existing programs in our schools are sufficient to meet the children’s needs.

2.JEMUEL ARNAN R. To describe the Guidance Counseling programs of each school in terms of their appropriateness in addressing the most prevalent behavioral problems based on in depth interviews and a devised checklist patterned after the four models of Guidance Counseling Programs used by the Ateneo de Zamboanga University College Guidance Counseling Office. . 10 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.

.JEMUEL ARNAN R.Conceptual framework: In depth interview w/ guidance counselors Evaluation of programs w/ a formulated checklist PREVALENCE OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS MATCH (?) EXISTING GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROGRAMS Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Figure 1: Conceptual Framework 11 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.

the issue of behavioral problems among school children is not given enough attention to by research. This was achieved through the use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire devised and validated by Dr Robert Goodman.The above figure illustrates in a nutshell the gist of the whole research. her private practice. and with the use of a researcher-prepared checklist. most of which have dealt with a specific type. hyperactivity has been the least prevalent (Cristobal 2008). showing us a lack of documentation in this area. the first of which sought to determine the most prevalent of behavioral problems among 5 of the most populated private schools in Zamboanga City. through in depth interviews with their guidance counselors. However. Significance of the Study: Though several researches have already been done in this city regarding behavioral problems in children. she sees at least 1 12 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. . The purpose behind this was to determine whether or not such existing programs were appropriate to meet their students needs in addressing the identified behavioral problems. There are no exisiting concrete data regarding such issues. other studies done in the rural setting have shown that comparing prevalence rates of behavioral problems. The second phase of the research purposed to look into each of the five private schools’ guidance counseling programs. Having 2 phases.JEMUEL ARNAN R. This comes to show that there might be other behavioral problems still undetected among school age children in the urban setting. According to a recognized Psychiatrist in this city. namely ADHD. identified as the most common of behavioral problem among school children in the United States.

our primary and secondary educational institutions simply come up with a guidance office and implement their own guidance programs in ways that they deem appropriate. and appropriate in addressing already existing behavioral problems is yet to be answered. and results cannot be generalized to reflect the prevalence rate of behavioral problems to include other private schools and those children studying in government public schools. and much more she claims remain undetected.new case of behavioral problem among children a week. Secondly results as well cannot be generalized to include children who are not affiliated to any educational institution. The tool to be used to screen and determine children with early manifestations of behavioral problems is a 25 item checklist entitled the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire by Robert Goodman. The question of whether or not such existing programs are of quality and sufficiency to meet the children’s needs. .JEMUEL ARNAN R. It seems that since the trend nowadays is for every school to have such a program. Equally important is the issue of the appropriateness of the guidance counseling programs of today’s schools. Cases did not have any cross evaluation by a professional Psychiatrist. Scope and Delimitations of the Study: The current research is limited in several aspects: first of all as this study dealt with school age children of only 5 private schools. One of the tools used to give a description of the appropriateness of the said guidance counseling programs of each school in addressing the identified behavioral problems was a checklist devised by the researcher aided by the Ateneo de Zamboanga University Guidance Counseling Office. There are no existing checklists that serve as 13 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.

This is a checklist of 25 items devised and validated by Dr. Trigger questions were also formulated to facilitate discussions for in depth interviews with each of the guidance counselors. namely Peer Problems. and was pretested at a nearby private school in this city. is picked on or bullied by others. Robert Goodman in 1997 that measures four behavioral constructs among children. Definition of Terms: Maladaptive Behavior: refers to full blown behavioral problems seen in later developmental stages of life as a result of failure in early detection of these behavioral problems in childhood and subsequent lack of interventions to address them. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): the tool used to determine and identify behavioral problems among school age children. Peer Problems: as defined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. refers to behavior seen as rather solitary. 14 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. Emotional Problems and Hyperactivity.JEMUEL ARNAN R. The mentioned checklist was patterned after these guidelines. and gets on better with adults than with same age children.quick rating tools for guidance counseling programs. Conduct Problems. There are however several theories which suggest ideal programs that ought to be included in any given guidance counseling plan. edited by the Guidance Office of the college of Ateneo de Zamboanga University. . tends to play by himself. is generally not liked by others.

downhearted or tearful. easily distracted with wandering concentration. children are confirmed to have a Behavioral Problem. does not think before acting. as well as personal and social growth. constantly fidgeting or squirming.JEMUEL ARNAN R. often lies and cheats and often steals things. frequently fights with other children or bullies them. generally disobedient. Its purpose is to aid in the school’s vision and mission. has many worries. nervous or clingy in new situations. refers to behavior such as often complaining of headaches. Behavioral Problem: this refers to the difficulty index according to the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. managed and run by the guidance counselor/s of the elementary schools included for this study. Emotional Problems: as defined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. refers to behavior such as: often hot tempered. refers to behaviors such as restless. Hyperactivity: as defined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. and does not see tasks through to the end. is often seen as unhappy. has many fears and is easily scared. stomacheaches. cannot stay still for long. by ensuring the equal development of all their students in academics. When these total scores reach 16-40. It is the total sum of the scores (Total Difficulties Score) of each of the behavioral constructs except the Prosocial Construct.Conduct Problems: as defined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. overactive. . 15 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. Guidance Counseling Program: a comprehensive program devised.

such program is described as fair. as to whether they meet the appropriate criteria followed by the Ateneo de Zamboanga University College Guidance and Counseling Office. Such evaluation will be achieved through in depth interviews with the guidance counselors. as well as evaluation through a checklist to be filled up by the researcher during the interviews. the programs will either be identified as appropriate or not in terms of addressing behavioral problems among children identified through the current research. At the end of each evaluation. The scoring method for the checklist is as follows: out of 23 items. and if a score of at least 18 and above is achieved. the program is described as good. if a score of 11 to 17 is achieved. a score of 10 and below would mean that the existing guidance counseling program is poor. 16 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. .Appropriateness of Guidance Counseling Programs: refers to the description and evaluation of each guidance counseling program.JEMUEL ARNAN R.

The second phase aimed to determine whether the existing guidance counseling programs by these schools appropriately address the needs of the children. This in turn will be achieved through in depth interviews among guidance counselors of the schools included in this study. A checklist was also formulated in aiding to achieve this goal. For the second phase of the study. Children randomly selected per school to represent the sample population 17 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. as well as a devised checklist rated by the researcher during the interviews. Phase 1: 1. class advisers of children studying within the 5 most populated elementary schools in this city served as informants who rated the children with the use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires. .CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY Research design: This research is a cross sectional study with two phases. Inclusion Criteria. The first aimed to identify the prevalence of behavioral problems among the 5 most populated private elementary schools in Zamboanga City.JEMUEL ARNAN R. utilizing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. as well as the identified behavioral problems. guidance counselors of the same schools underwent in depth interviews with the researcher to determine the appropriateness of the existing programs to address the behavioral problems identified. Respondents: For the first phase of the study.

There are currently 21 elementary schools operating in this city certified by the Department of Education for school year 2008-2009. and finally Zion Evangelical School with 257 students. 265 students. Pilar Elementary School and Bethany Child Development Center. three of them are of Catholic background. which was next in line in terms of number of elementary students. . Immaculate Conception Archdiocese School (combined ICAS tetuan and ICAS calarian). Schools with the most number of grade school enrollees were Ateneo de Zamboanga University. Claret Elementary School. Since Pilar Elementary School did not approve the researcher’s request to conduct the current study in their institution. The remaining two schools. The breakdown of the number of elementary students per school are as follows: Ateneo de Zamboanga University with 1. these children were selected according to the population size of each school and stratified according to grade level and section Inclusion Criteria. Immaculate Conception Archdiocese School and the Claret Elementary School. Claret Elementary School with 758 students. Phase 2: All heads of the guidance counseling offices of each school included in the study Research setting: The current study was conducted among 5 of the most populated private elementary schools in Zamboanga City. Immaculate Conception Archdiocese School with 543 (Tetuan and Calarian branches combined). 18 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. namely the Ateneo de Zamboanga University.JEMUEL ARNAN R.2. Bethany Child Development Center with 354 students.177 students in all. bringing us to a total of 3. this was replaced with Zion Evangelical School. Out of the five schools included in this study.

obtaining a number of 355 students to represent the total population. In order to compute for the proportionate sample size per school. All of them however are open to accept enrollees from any religious sect. representing the number of children the researcher needed to randomly select from Claret Elementary School. for Zion Evangelical School it was 29 19 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. For the first phase of this study. the answer of which is added w/ 1. Sampling design: A total of 3. For example.Bethany Child Development Center and the Zion Evangelical School were of Protestant background. using this formula to compute for the proportionate sample size of Claret Elementary School. the researcher used the following formula: school population was divided by the total number of the population (N) and multiplied by the sample size. Simply to divide 355 by 5 (the number of schools) would not suffice. its school population (758) was divided by the total population of all five schools (3177). This was achieved by summing up the population of each individual school (N) multiplied by the square of 0. The next step was to obtain a relatively equivalent sample size from each of the five schools. then divided by the total population of all five schools (N). The answer obtained was 85. considering that their individual populations were of differing numbers.5 (constant). with the use of the Sloven’s formula the researcher computed for the sample size. multiplied by the sample size (355). .JEMUEL ARNAN R. With the use of this formula the researcher achieved to come up with a proportionate sample size for each school.177 elementary students are presently studying in the 5 most populated schools included in this paper.

to give a description of their existing guidance counseling programs. for Immaculate Conception Archdiocese School it was 61. Using the fishbowl method. This tool was formulated by Robert Goodman (1997) and was first published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. for Claret Elementary School it was 85. and for the Bethany Child Development Center it was 40. in order to have a stratification per section. and has been translated into 30 different languages. For the second phase of the research. 20 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. in depth interviews were held separately for each of the Guidance Counseling Heads of each school. developmental and clinical researchers. Those selected were rated by each of their class advisers through the use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). . Volume 38. It is a brief behavioral screening questionnaire with 25 items that provides a balanced coverage of assessing children and young people’s behaviors. the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was utilized. Each proportionate sample size per school was divided by the number of sections each school had from grades 1 to grades 6.students.JEMUEL ARNAN R. emotions and relationships. for the Ateneo de Zamboanga University it was 141. students were randomly selected per section to represent the total population. A devised checklist was also utilized during the interview to achieve this purpose. routine clinical and educational practitioners. This questionnaire is currently used worldwide by epidemiologists. Research instruments: In order to determine the prevalence rate of behavioral problems among school children enrolled in the 5 most populated private schools included in the current research.

while identifying the construct with the highest number of children as the most prevalent of the four. If the total sum for scores of the negative constructs reaches 16 – 40. The researcher sought advise from the guidance counselors of the Ateneo de Zamboanga University College Guidance Counseling Office. In addition to determining the total number of children with behavioral problems.JEMUEL ARNAN R. Emotional Problems. or Certainly True. The resultant scores if tallied can range from 0 – 40. . with a set of corresponding points. and in terms of addressing the identified behavioral problems by the researcher. the prevalent behavioral problem is determined by counting the number of children with Difficulty Index scores described by the SDQ. to determine if they indeed are appropriate to address the needs of the children. Each item can be rated as either Not True. A checklist was also devised to help achieve this goal. the 21 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. some positive and others negative. The second phase of the research involved in depth interviews with each guidance counselor of each school in order to look into their specific guidance programs. These SDQs were rated by each of the class advisers of students randomly selected from 5 of the most populated private schools of this city. Somewhat True. All scores except the Prosocial Behavior are summed to generate a Total Difficulties Score. Emotional Problems. then the child is considered to have a behavioral problem. These 25 items are divided between 5 scales of 5 items each – covering Conduct Problems. Peer Problems. the prevalence of the four different constructs (Hyperactivity. Hyperactivity and Prosocial Behavior. Out of the total study population. With their help.The SDQ assesses 25 attributes. Peer Problems and Conduct Problems) was also done.

researcher came up with trigger questions to ask for the in depth interviews. those who faired between 11-17 were rated to have a fair program. these were marked with a “yes”. Of items that were found to be present in a certain guidance counseling program. Both the trigger questions and checklist were first pretested and dry run in a local private elementary school not included in the current research. . The scoring procedure was as follows. This was patterned after the Four Models of Guidance and Counseling used by the Ateneo de Zamboanga University Guidance Counseling Office. composed of 23 items. A checklist was also devised with their aid in order to be filled up by the researcher.JEMUEL ARNAN R. 22 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. schools which had a total of 10 “yes” marks or below were rated to have a poor guidance counseling program. while those who had a mark of at least 18 and above were rated as having a good guidance program. determining what programs and services should be present for it to be considered an appropriate guidance counseling program. and those that were absent were marked with a “no”.

give ample time for completion Collection of questionnaires. requesting permission to include their schools in the research Computation of sample size.JEMUEL ARNAN R. collation and analysis of data Develop interview trigger questions and checklist to investigate guidance counseling programs In depth interview with guidance counselors Writing of formal paper Figure 2: Flow of Activities 23 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. . with random selection of students to be rated by advisers Administer SDQ checklists to class advisers.Data Gathering Procedure: Visit DepEd. obtain formal list of all certified and registered private elementary schools of Zamboanga City Inquire as to which 5 schools are the most populated Formal visitation of principals of the 5 most populated schools.

Ample time was allowed for these advisers to complete these checklists. to determine whether or not the programs of their guidance offices are indeed appropriate in addressing the identified behavioral problems by the researcher through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. and upon collection data was collated and analyzed. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was then given to each of the class advisers of students selected to be rated by them. Upon obtaining the needed information. After computation of sample size with the Sloven’s formula and stratification of samples per class. random selection was done via fishbowl method. as well as a checklist of guidance counseling services. Claret Elementary School with 758 students. and 5 schools with the most number of enrollees from grades one to six for school year 2008-2009 were looked into. the Bethany Child Development Center with 354 students and finally Zion Evangelical School with 257 students. 265 students. After visiting the Department of Education office of this city.The following portion maps out the steps the researcher took in the conduct of the current research. A group of trigger questions was then devised with the help of the Ateneo de Zamboanga University College Guidance and Counseling Office.JEMUEL ARNAN R. With these the researcher did an in depth interview with each of the guidance counselors of the five schools included in the said study. a formal list of all certified and registered private elementary schools of this city were obtained. 24 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. These were the Ateneo de Zamboanga University (ADZU). . with 1. Immaculate Conception Archdiocese School with 543 students (both Tetuan and Calarian). formal writing of the paper was then done.

JEMUEL ARNAN R. 25 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. .Data Analysis: To determine the prevalence of behavioral problems among school children studying in the 5 most populated private schools of Zamboanga City. frequency distribution was utilized.

followed by the prevalence of behavioral problems identified. Demographic Profile of Children: Table 1: Demographic profile of all children according to grade level School A Grade I Grade II Grade III Grade IV Grade V Grade VI TOTAL 16 12 8 8 20 8 72 School B 10 15 15 15 15 15 85 School C 25 20 25 16 20 20 126 School D 9 6 6 9 6 6 42 School E 6 5 5 5 5 5 31 The above table shows how many students per grade level of each school have been randomly selected to be evaluated by their class advisers through the use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. 356 children were randomly selected to 26 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. 177 children from five private schools selected to take part in the study.JEMUEL ARNAN R.CHAPTER III PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The following presentation of results have been divided into the following parts. Out of the 3. and finally a description of each guidance and counseling programs through in depth interviews and a formulated checklist. the first of which refers to the demographic profile of the children. .

177 children studying in 5 of the most populated private schools in Zamboanga City. 58 (16%) behavioral problems no behavioral problems 298 (84%) Figure 3: Prevalence of behavioral problems among 5 of the most populated private elementary schools in Zamboanga City The above figure shows that out of the 356 children selected to represent the total population of 3. as well as the breakdown of the four types of behavioral problems identified by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. for school B 85 children. with 181 females (51%) and 175 males (49%) respectively. the male to female sex ratio was quite equal. For School A 72 children were randomly selected. 58 of them were found to have behavioral problems. for school D 42 children. or 16. stratified according to section per grade level.represent the total population. for school C 126 children.2% of the total population. Out of this sample population. 27 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. Prevalence of Behavioral Problems among Children: The following results refer to the prevalence of behavioral problems among the children included in the study. . and finally for school E 31 children.JEMUEL ARNAN R.

Take note that one child may manifest several types of behavioral problems and not just be confined to a specific type. 42 of them were males (72%) while 16 were females (28%).37%) manifesting such symptoms. 28 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. gets into fights. who tend to play alone. with 24 children (41. 356 children were randomly selected to represent the total population. but do not show the individual results per child. behavior expressed as one who often bullies. generally get along better with people of older age.JEMUEL ARNAN R. and who are not liked by other kids. And out of 58 children found to have behavioral problems. Peer problems is the next most commonly found behavioral problem.5%) were found to have Conduct Problems. Results show only the number of children with the specific types of behavioral problems. steals. Out of the 3. lies and is generally disobedient. Apparently behavioral problems seem to be more predominant among male children compared to females. Specifically these children are seen to not have any friends. 38 (65.Out of this total number of children identified. cheats. . peer problems conduct problems emotional problems hyperactivity 0 5 10 15 20 24 38 15 23 25 30 35 40 Figure 4: number of cases of specific types of behavioral problems The above figure in turn shows us a breakdown of the specific types of behavioral problems identified through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.177 children from 5 of the most populated private elementary schools.

prevalence rates of behavioral problems are not quite the same. 16. In contrast to a similar study done by Cristobal (2008). who often get into temper tantrums. while among 12 to 18 year olds it would reach a rate of 8%. In the United States. amounting to 15 out of 58 (25. This is an 29 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. though foreign give an idea that behavioral problems may range from 2 to 9%. who do not see tasks through to the end.86%) of the children with behavioral problems.2% of children have behavioral problems. Emotional problems as depression may in turn be seen among 5 to 11 year olds at a prevalence of 1 to 2%. And according to the American Psychological Association. who are often clingy and nervous. These are children who often complain of headaches and stomacheaches. Finally emotional problems among the children were also observed. In comparison to statistics given in the international setting. results showed that 24. where he looked into the prevalence of behavioral problems in 3 public schools in the setting of a rural community. with very short attention span.4% of children had behavioral problems.65%) of the children identified with behavioral problems. an alarmingly large number. . depending on the type of problem being talked about. as reported by Tynan (2006). This behavior is seen in children who are unable to sit still for a period of time.JEMUEL ARNAN R. with many fears and worries. ADHD cases may range from 2 to 5% among children of any given population. Results show that out of 5 private elementary schools included in this study. such disorders range from 2 to 9% of all children. According to an article by Doodman and Gurian (2006) entitled About Conduct Disorders posted at the NYU Child Study Center reports that 6% of children in any given setting may be expected to have conduct disorders. These statistics.Hyperactivity was also found in 23 out of 58 (39.

Hyperactivity. the second most common behavioral problem is Peer Problem. This problem is manifested as children having difficulty in socialization and establishing friendships and peers. Although such cases have not been cross referenced by Psychiatrists. probably stemming from a number of factors and causes. most probably that of poor self image and low self esteem. The above breakdown of behavioral problems suggest that the most common type found among elementary school children in the 5 most populated private schools of this city is conduct problems. that if left unattended to would lead to future maladaption in the adulthood (Kokko and Pulkkinen.equally large amount. In reference to the results mentioned above. where several 30 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. Such behavioral problems may in turn be caused by deeper issues. as defiance and aggression among our children is common place. 2000). . some even come from parents who abuse them physically. One could possibly be due to family background. The least of the four behavioral problems identified by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is Emotional Problems. although such behavioral problems seem to be more prevalent in rural setting. accordingly the most common behavioral problem in the United States only ranks as the third most common behavioral problem in our local setting. aggression seen at the setting of the home are picked up by the children and manifested elsewhere. Such family background could have a negative effect on the children. manifested as physical aggression. One issue pointed out by virtually all the guidance counselors is that a lot of their problematic children come from broken homes and have parents who are separated. they nonetheless could be cases of early manifestations that could eventually lead to ADHD. if left undetected and ignored. This is quite alarming.JEMUEL ARNAN R.

Such cases in turn could come from deeper problems of the home that ought to be delved deeper into. Training received by the Guidance Counselor’s of each school has also been looked into. together with a few statements taken verbatim. which is in its 13th year now. Description of the Guidance Counseling Programs of Each School: With the help of the Ateneo de Zamboanga University College Guidance Office the researcher developed trigger questions which were used for the in depth interviews with the guidance counselors of each school included in the study. referring to School D. A complete compilation of each interview is found at the appendices section. and a frequent appearance of being sad and downhearted.JEMUEL ARNAN R. and School A in turn with a program which is in its 4th year at present. Referring to the duration of the individual guidance counseling programs of each school. Only 2 schools had guidance programs which have been operational for less than 10 years. clinginess to new situations. Each school claimed that their individual mission and vision all are the same with that of their respective schools. The following section is a summary of their answers during the interview. Three of the schools’ counselors claimed to have been in their position for more than 10 years now. . with a program since 7 years ago. majority of them already had such programs for more than 10 years now. only School A has a counselor who is licensed to practice her profession as the head of the guidance office. The longest running guidance program was that of School E.children were noted by their advisers to manifest constant fears and worries. Out of the three. 31 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.

with both counselors from School A and C claiming they have received masteral training in guidance counseling. I also received my masters…as well as another one of us…no thesis yet. the institution with the longest running guidance program has a counselor for all these years who does not have any training in guidance counseling whatsoever. School D in turn has a guidance counselor who has been in office for less than one year. We are four counselors…one of us had masters in guidance counseling in Diliman. I am a pastor. but we have complete units for the course… It is interesting to note that School E. Its been so difficult when I started. my background really qualifies as to hold the guidance counseling office. but only the latter received her license as a certified guidance counselor. From the time I started at 2003. I had no idea what to do…I had no background at all at counseling…when I am confronted with the different 32 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.I took my masters in counseling but am without thesis…recently a group of guidance counselors in Zamboanga were accredited to be certified…so I am licensed. The counselors from School B in turn have had some training in counseling but are not yet certified guidance counselors. a master in Christian education and doctorate on Christian education. .JEMUEL ARNAN R. although they still want me to take up masters in Guidance Counseling… The remaining guidance counselors claim that they have been working in their profession for less than 5 years now. who acknowledges that she has had no formal training in guidance and counseling.

to be by myself…I teach. while all of them work without any assistants to do clerical and filing work. I am by myself. everything…I even plan to go abroad!. and this is so difficult. im not even sure if these are even my roles…I am at a loss how to handle them… In reference to the updating of these counselors regarding the latest information on guidance and counseling. and overwhelmed with all the responsibilities of the guidance office. .if I have the opportunity I would leave this work…its difficult… But I am by myself. I don’t know how to start dealing with the children…so difficult…no training. School C attends such training workshops in a regular basis. both local and national congresses. two of the schools’ counselors agree that they have not taken part in any seminars or training workshops for this school year. I don’t want to take this job. The general framework of the guidance counseling program of each school has not been patterned according to standards set by a recognized guidance and counseling program.problems.. especially during the mornings. no seminars…but if I am to choose. There are no other guidance counselors. They are overworked. Majority have only one guidance counselor. The rest of the schools attend local seminars at least once a year. I handle everything. Most of the programs in general have been in existence before the present 33 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.JEMUEL ARNAN R. filing. lack of manpower. but whatever task given to me I will do my best… Manpower has been another issue which was discussed among the guidance counselors of the five schools in this study..

and usually parents are unreceptive… They also agree that most of the problems are from the high school students.counselors took office. Counseling. as they seem to not have much behavioral issues to deal with. School A. not all students get sessions with the counselors. Through the years these programs have evolved and have been added upon according to what was seen fit to address certain needs the guidance office identified.JEMUEL ARNAN R. all of them generally do counseling. B and C in turn offer more holistic and complete services. and agree with certain measures to take in addressing these problems. the heart of each program still falls on counseling. with little attention given for counseling to the grade school. They also schedule meetings with the parents of these children to talk to them. Basically their main focus is counseling those who are referred to their office because of misbehavior in class or problems with academics. . The programs offered by the counseling office of Schools A. Both the latter 2 schools 34 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. D and E have similarities in the fact that all counselors here agree that their programs are still in need of much improvement. As to the specific programs each school offers. anybody can just come in…but usually these are referrals from teachers who cannot handle the children…(we also) meet with the parents to inform them how the students are… …if the offense is serious. only those who are referred. In other words. one on one. I call them up (parents) and have a conference with them…(we) come up with an agreement. The function of the guidance counselors in these schools seem to overlap with that of the school disciplinarian. In these schools.

to a certain extent neglecting the elementary school children.JEMUEL ARNAN R. only School C offers group counseling aside from individual counseling. due to the lack of their manpower in the guidance counseling office. In fact. etc. In addition to the above mentioned. arranged as files in the guidance office. They also offer testing for the children. but also to parents to improve on parenting skills. most of which are tests that measure learning styles. Only the guidance office of School C claims to have referral of certain cases they encounter to specialists like psychiatrists and pediatricians. Among the lectures catered to the children are those about career information. A general misconception among many individuals is the fact that behavioral problems are not common among our school children. and teachers to enhance their knowledge on guidance and counseling. Those with failing grades and those who are problematic are scheduled for several other counseling sessions. only Schools B and C do formal evaluations in a regular basis to determine the effectiveness of these specific programs. Only School A does not have such counseling for each student. it could be noted that almost all of the guidance counselors interviewed claim that their programs in the guidance office are geared to address the high school. In turn. .schedule at least one session of counseling each school year for all students. They claim that such behavioral problems are more rampant among the former than the latter. lectures on friendship and communication. Another commonality between the three schools mentioned above is that they all have individual profiling of each of their students. drug addicion. All three of the aforementioned schools conduct several workshops catering not only to the students. learning difficulties and personality tests. Counseling and referrals are also done with the parents and teachers. Such misconceptions cloud majority of the minds of 35 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.

early alcoholism and drug addiction (Kokko and Pulkinen 2000). then these children with early manifestations of such behavioral problems would develop into further problems in the adulthood identified as possible poor school performance.today. majority are left undetected and unidentified. if nothing would be done. 36 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. . but exist in an alarmingly large number. further contributing to the lack of identification of such behavioral problems among this age group. drop outs. And ironically. Results from the current research prove that such behavioral problems among our children not only exist.JEMUEL ARNAN R. If such is the case.

Rating of each guidance counseling program based on the checklist Aside from the in depth interviews conducted. emotional and social Profiling for student records Referrals to specialists Seminars for parents Seminars for teachers Seminars for children: educational. social. for academics and career Coordinating with other departments within the school Coordinating with other organizations outside the school Appraisal Program TOTAL SCORE School A No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes School B No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes School C Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes School D No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes School E No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No 12(fair) Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 14(fair) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 23(good) No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 11(fair) No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 11(fair) 37 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. instruction on career. career. a checklist was also devised to look into each guidance counseling program of the 5 schools included in the study. Table 2: Rating of the guidance counseling program of each school based on the checklist Variables Manpower Ideal ratio of counselor to students Licensed guidance counselors With assistants for clerical work Facilities Must have separate guidance office Office with good space. education. privacy Tables and chairs for sessions Counseling Program Individual Counseling for all students Walk in counseling and referrals from teachers Group counseling for students Counseling for teachers and parents Crisis debriefing Consulting Program For students.JEMUEL ARNAN R. advice Provides parents and teachers updates how the child is Seeks consultation from parents and teachers on child’s behavior in class and home Coordinating Program Testing: academic. .

while the rest of the schools were found to have guidance programs which ranked as fair.JEMUEL ARNAN R. in reference to manpower. to identify how each school has fared in terms of the evaluation of their guidance counseling programs. any given guidance counseling program should have all of the mentioned services for it to be considered appropriate in meeting the needs of the children. The checklist was filled up during each interview by the researcher. it was found that most of the schools. as well as several trigger questions used for in depth interview. However. Scoring was also devised by the researcher. Ideally. All other schools have a single guidance office for both grade school 38 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. only School C meets the standard as to appropriate ratio for each guidance counselor to number of students. are inadequate to meet the needs of their children. either Good. only School B’s guidance counseling program was rated as good. with consultation with the Ateneo de Zamboanga University College Guidance Office. this too is still inadequate. Those schools who have been rated to have 10 or less out of 23 of the programs identified have been rated with a mark of Poor. serving as a guide in identifying the available programs of each guidance office. Fair or Poor. while those who were rated to have 11 to 17 in turn were rated to be Fair.With the use of a checklist devised with the help of the Ateneo de Zamboanga University College Guidance Office. . while those schools with a rate of 18 above received a mark of Good. Out of the five schools rated with the checklist. Looking into the relevant details of the above checklist. Probably the school that comes closest to having a complete and holistic guidance program is that of School C. This checklist was derived from the 4 most commonly used guidance counseling standards from the United States. though with guidance counselors who implement their own guidance counseling programs.

teachers and parents. only Schools A and C offer group counseling. namely A. namely Schools A and C. only Schools B and C schedule individual counseling for all students. Only School C refer special cases to psychiatrists and pediatricians for further evaluation and treatment. while the same schools among the rest have assistants for clerical work. the Essential Services Model. Since there is at present a lack of a standard in the local setting for which to pattern the guidance counseling programs. B and C. while only 2 schools regularly appraise their programs. while the rest of the counselors cater to only problematic students. Only 3 schools offer testing services.JEMUEL ARNAN R. schools in the Philippines rely on the patterns devised by several international organizations. In addition to this. namely Schools B and C. However all of the schools in the study provide consulting programs for the students. all guidance counseling programs meet the general guidelines for the physical set up and arrangement of the guidance office. In turn all schools offer lectures and seminars on appropriate topics. . and offers counseling for both teachers and parents. while School C has a separate office and program for each. The latter school as well is the only school which addresses certain crisis debriefing. In terms of facilities. while only a few offer relevant topics for the parents and teachers.and high school. With reference to the counseling program. In turn only 2 schools have licensed guidance counselors. the Strategic Comprehensive 39 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. Finally all guidance counselors coordinate with other departments within the school as well as with organizations outside the school. Those of which were mentioned by the Department Head of the College Guidance Office of Ateneo were the Comprehensive Guidance Program Model. as well as student profiling.

guidance programs by schools must be tailored after one of the four different models mentioned. All guidance programs should start its implementation for students as early as the kindergarten level. these four models of guidance counseling were taken into account. and the model devised by the American School Counselors Association (ASCA).JEMUEL ARNAN R. career. Majority of the schools do not have licensed guidance counselors who are handling the guidance program. In addition to these. These models proposed that the appropriate ratio of guidance counselors to children is at least 1:250-500. with adequate training and experience. The essential services that are expected for the guidance program to provide may be divided into counseling services. but to the parents and teachers as well. coordinating and appraisal services. Such programs ought to be patterned to complement the school’s vision and mission. as it may seem that there are 40 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. with programs that specifically address each group. addressing 3 areas of a child’s development. In formulating the trigger questions for the interviews done with the guidance counselors. which is in direct violation of the standards set by the four models identified. and most importantly personal and social.Model. . The formulating of the checklist for rating each guidance program was patterned after the four different models as well. Accordingly. It must cater not only to the children. consulting services. Similarities among the four models were as follows. most of the schools claim that there is not much need to address the children in the elementary level. each recommends that those who would man the guidance program be certified and licensed guidance counselors. academic. all the way to high school. with the presence of assistants to aid in clerical work.

This is not congruent with the findings of the current study. as most schools do not have any services in this area.not much problems encountered with them.JEMUEL ARNAN R. with less attention to the social and personal aspects of development. Another short coming of these existing guidance programs is the over emphasis on the academic development of the children.2% of children are found to have behavioral problems. and those that do. and further observation of such children. 41 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. and these clearly go unnoticed. Sadly out of all schools which have been interviewed. claiming that what they do seems to work. These problems. as mentioned earlier. neglecting equally important issues concerning children’s personal and social development. or simply intervene in their own ways. where most of the programs cater to. according to them are heavier and more pressing in the high school level. Since one of the limitations of guidance counselors is the fact that diagnosis and treatment of behavioral problems are out of their jurisdiction. only School C does referrals to specialists. while referral to specialists is truly expected of them. Testing is also inadequate. the most that can be done by them is early identification of suspected behavioral problems. prioritize on the academic testing and IQ testing. as 16. The rest either do not notice any behavioral problems among their students. . testing of personality.

Out of the 5 schools. Regarding the description of the existing guidance and counseling programs of each of the schools.86%).JEMUEL ARNAN R.2%. if not identified and addressed. the prevalence of behavioral problems among school age children studying in 5 of the most populated private elementary schools is 16. only one was rated to have a good guidance counseling program. an in depth interview was done with each of the guidance counselors. But despite such significant prevalence of behavioral problems. would develop into worse problems in the adulthood seen as alcoholism. there is a significant prevalence of behavioral problems among school age children. In conclusion. A checklist was also used to describe each program. then Hyperactivity with 23 cases (39. .CHAPTER IV SUMMARY. followed by Peer Problems. The specific prevalence of each of the four behavioral problems included in this study is as follows: Conduct problems with 38 cases (65. CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATIONS In reference to the general objective stated at the start of this paper. and unemployment. Specifically the most prevalent behavioral problems are Conduct Problems. and finally Emotional Problems with 15 cases (25. 42 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. This is followed by Peer Problems with 24 cases (41.65%).37%). while the rest were rated to have fair programs in terms of their appropriateness in addressing the identified prevalent behavioral problems among children in their schools.5%) out of 356 children randomly selected to represent the total population. school drop out. there is a general inadequacy of existing guidance counseling programs in the schools which fail to address the identified behavioral problems. Prior researches have proven that conduct problems manifested at an early age.

It is also recommended that further investigation and evaluation of the existing guidance and counseling programs be done among the elementary schools. It would be interesting to see what the evaluations would turn out to be. which has been the focus of several papers already conducted. without such evaluation and research. Currently the Ateneo de Zamboanga University College Guidance and Counseling Office is conducting a city wide study regarding the evaluation of the different guidance programs made available by different schools in this city. superseded by Conduct Problems and Peer Problems respectively. probably involving both private and public schools in the local setting. It is suggested that further research be done in a much wider scale. as to establish a concrete prevalence of behavioral problems among children for the entire city. . 43 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. appears to be the third most prevalent behavioral problem.JEMUEL ARNAN R. After all. there would be no room for improvement of these existing programs. As mentioned earlier. most of the schools’ guidance and counseling programs were found to be inadequate in addressing such behavioral problems. And alarmingly. Hyperactivity and ADHD.The current research has yielded quite a large number of behavioral problems among just five private schools.

Meltzer H 2006. A survey on behavioral problems on children seen at the zamboanga city medical center. Goodman. http://www. Robin and Gurian. 44 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. .html Goodman R. About conduct disorders. Fernandez.org/cgi/content/full/177/6/534 Goodman R and Scott 1999. Conduct Disorder. Using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. An estimate of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among grade one students in baliwasan central school. Agression in childhood and long-term unemployment in adulthood: a cycle of maladaption and some protective factors. Comparing the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) and the child behavior checklist (CBCL). Boston.htm Schmidt. New Jersey. Upper Saddle River. The effect of lecture intervention on the knowledge of parents and teachers regarding behavioral problems of school age children in three elementary schools within the municipality of sergio osmena.org/aboutour/articles/about_conduct. 2008.repsych.emedicine. http://bjp. John J (2003) Counseling in Schools: Essential Services and Comprehensive Programs (Fourth Edition). Developmental Psychology. 36:463-472 Tynan. is small beautiful? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27:17-24.aboutourkids. Marianne H (1999) Introduction to Counseling and Guidance (Fifth Edition). J. De Leon. Douglas.JEMUEL ARNAN R. Warlito 2007. Ford T. Gibson. British Journal of Psychiatry 177:534-539. Anita. http://www. Gatward R. C. Simmons H.com/plarticles/mi_mogoz/is_1_27/ai_54422552/pg_1 Kokko K and Pulkkinen L. 2002.com/ped/topic2793. 2006. A. NYU Child Study Center. zamboanga city.findarticles. Robert L. 2006. 1997. http://www.BIBLIOGRAPHY Cristobal. Mitchell. 2006. Farrales. Arlington Street. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd) among students of private elementary schools in zamboanga city.

concentration wanders Nervous or clingy in new situations. It would help us if you answered all items as best as you can even if you are not absolutely certain or the item seems daft! Please give your answers on the basis of the child’s behaviour over the last six months or this school year. please mark the box for Not True. etc) Often has temper tantrums or hot tempers Rather solitary. toys. Somewhat True or Certainly True.JEMUEL ARNAN R. school or elsewhere Gets on better with adults than with other children Many fears. upset or feeling ill Constantly fidgeting or squirming Has at least one good friend Often fights with other children or bullies them Often unhappy. usually does what adults request Many worries. overactive.APPENDIX A Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire For each item. easily loses confidence Kind to younger children Often lies or cheats Picked on or bullied by other children Often volunteers to help others (parents. cannot stay still for long Often complains of headaches. tends to play alone Generally obedient. often seems worried Helpful if someone is hurt. . other children) Thinks things out before acting Steals from home. downhearted or tearful Generally liked by other children Easily distracted. stomachaches or sickness Shares readily with other children (treats. teachers. easily scared Somewhat True Certainly True Male/Female 45 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. Child’s Name …………………………………………………………… Date of Birth ………………………… Not True Considerate of other people’s feelings Restless. pencils.

good attention span Signature ………………………………………. Parent/Teacher/Other (please specify) Thank you very much for your help Dr.JEMUEL ARNAN R.Sees tasks through to the end. .. Robert Goodman. 1997 Date ………………… 46 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.

What are the qualifications of those who work as staff member? .Any networking and coordination? o With other departments (DSA. crisis? .how do you integrate the different programs you have into academics and the whole school experience? .JEMUEL ARNAN R.IN DEPTH INTERVIEW TRIGGER QUESTIONS INTRO TO THE SCHOOLS GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROGRAM: . remedial.usually what cases do you see among the gradeschool? . disciplinarian office. etc) o With other schools? o With specialists? .how long has the program been ongoing? .any consultations with parents and teachers or vice versa that you do? APPRAISAL: .Is the ratio enough to meet the children’s needs? . prevention.What is the Vision and Mission of the schools guidance office? .How many staff members do you have? . .where did you pattern the program from? .What specific programs do you have to address these? PRESENT MY DATA TO THE COUNSELORS 47 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.how do you know that your programs meet your goals/are effective? CASES: .how long have you been head of the guidance counseling program? .What is your experience? Any qualifications and training? .Please share about the whole guidance counseling program that you have MANPOWER: .What is the breakdown of your programs in specific? Please share… o Do you have testing? What type o Do you offer counseling? What type? How? o Do you cater to walk ins and referrals? o Do you address certain crises? o What programs do you have that address the child’s development.Any means of updating yourselves? GUIDANCE COUNSELING PRORGAM: .

privacy Tables and chairs for sessions Counseling Program Individual Counseling for all students Walk in counseling and referrals from teachers Group counseling for students Counseling for teachers and parents Crisis debriefing Consulting Program For students. advice Provides parents and teachers updates how the child is Seeks consultation from parents and teachers on child’s behavior in class and home Coordinating Program Testing: academic. for academics and career Coordinating with other departments within the school Coordinating with other organizations outside the school Appraisal Program ICAS CLARET ADZU ZION BETHANY 48 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.JEMUEL ARNAN R. education. instruction on career. social.CHECKLIST TO RATE GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROGRAMS PER SCHOOL WICAS Manpower Ideal ratio of counselor to students Licensed guidance counselors With assistants for clerical work Facilities Must have separate guidance office Office with good space. emotional and social Profiling for student records Referrals to specialists Seminars for parents Seminars for teachers Seminars for children: educational. career. .

researches…one of the things the accreditors require us to focus more on…research on behavioral problem of children…we lack manpower…more guidance counseling sessions for children ANOTHER QUESTION.. ANY MEANS OF UPDATING YOURSELVES. with the problems coming up. which takes effect this march. its really the. DO YOU JOIN NAT CONGRESES TO UPDATE YOURSELVES OF CURRENT GC PROGRAMS Yes we do.AS OF NOW HOW MANY ARE WORKING AT THE GUIDANCE OFFICE… There are 3 counselors…started 5 years ago since we are also increasing in number and population…I was trying to assert we have to maintain 1 is to 5 ratio of children to counselors so we could really optimally help the children. As we evolved.i was an ex-nun…I took my masters in Guidance and 49 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. I was able to get one more. since less people would mean less counseling. I include that in the budget. 1-2-3. no formal training or experience… THE NEXT Q THAT I HAVE MAM. YOU MENTIONED EARLIER THE RATIO OF GC TO STUDENTS. MENTIONING EARLIER THERE WAS JUST TWO OF YOU. with psych background and masteral degree…. DO YOU HAVE YOUR OWN VISION AND MISSION? Sure we do have. Not only the counselors. took masters in guidance…there are 3 of us…we divide the work.. that no one can sit as a coordinator unless he or she is accredited guidance counselor.JEMUEL ARNAN R. I take jr. plus assistant students for inventory and filing. . follow up of graduates. the demands of improving and adding more services. PAP.. FOR YOU THE RATIO…IS IT ADEQUATE? I feel we need more. but also the teachers and parents and community…for reffereal ABOUT MANPOWER. we see to it we are members of the Philippine guidance. first we wish to contribute to the optimum development of the children in our guidance program. pacers…I do it twice a year. SO YOU ARE 3 GC AND YOU DIVIDE THE WORK AMONGST YOURSELVES…THE NEXT QUESTION.VERBATIM TRANSCRIPTION OF IN DEPTH INTERVIEWS ADZU INTERVIEWER: HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN WORKING FOR THE GUIDANCE OFFICE? 11 years now…the guidance program started at that time…we were 2 teachers at that time. prep 4-5-6. IS THAT ASIDE FROM THE VISION AND MISSION OF THE ADZU. GC is growing in importance to the admin. having to comply to the guidance act.the pioneering 2 of us sent to study after 2 years.

other programs involve helping improve and enhance parenting skills…also with career guidance…that is the gist…yes we also have profiles per student… FOR THE COUNSELING We have individual and group SPECIFICALLY WHAT TESTS? Personality tests. budet for suppies. failure scores. intelligence tests and achievement tests… ANY TEST FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BP None… DO YOU CATER TO WALK INS? Yes we do…and same for parents when they need to talk 50 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. research…. inventory: all kids have files and data is there. esp in grade 3. the admission. trying to look at their programs. carreer education. and grade two.counseling…but haven’t taken the board exams…but just recently a law was passed. etc…guidance program for teachers to enhance their counseling skills…2x a year in sept and summer invite guest speakers to professionalize guidance skills for teachers. the early school personality questionnaire. budget for student assistant.JEMUEL ARNAN R. but all budgets are merged…where we get funds for attending seminars. read comprehensive counseling programs. . the Guidance Counseling Act…they granted a few of us our lisence. autis lennon (?)RPM AND CEM diagnostic tests… Grade one they take the cpq. I think it is enough THE GC PROGRAM ITSELF…ANY PATTERN YOU FOLLOWED? There was an existent program many years ago. diagnostic test. certified as guidance counselors… IS THE BUDGET ADEQUATE? We do have a budget. parent background. RA 9252. just adding into what we see needs improvement… WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT PROGRAMS YOU HAVE? The heart is the counseling…of course the testing. children personality questionnaire. communication skills. giving of the reports and feedbacking of the test results. having meeting with the unit heads. parenting. autis lennon and RPM 4-6 grades. I just added. how to handle parents and improve their gc skills…. improved on it…we have GC meeting with the colleges.

when I came here the program was already hear. we change the programs DO YOU HAVE A MISSION AND VISION? The same with the school’s WHAT ARE THE PROGRAMS? We have orientation for the new parents. I had training in debriefing and trauma counseling…we were the first batch HOW DO YOU INTEGRATE ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WITH COUNSELING PROGRAM. talk to the parents…when a child is being referred to me. and presentation of employees every start of school years…. the college DO YOU DO ANY REFERRALS TO CERTAIN PSYCHIATRISTS WHEN YOU SEE A SERIOUS PROB Yes. it should be quarterly… WHAT CASES DO YOU USUALLY SEE? Mostly hyperactive children.DEV PROG Those who have failing marks are supposed to be called for guidance. im not sure…every year we update. I took work 1997.. DEBRIEFING I had one…a child of an employee 4 years ago.only the new parents and give them the policy of the school and the tour 51 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. provide make up classes and tutors…. neurologists…to do further evaluation and diagnosis HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE PROGRAMS YOU HAVE Once a year.TO ADDRESS CRISIS. who have short attention span. look into what is happening. learning difficulties. cannot be contained within the classroom. we talk to the children. but lately not so often…this is an area we have to improve on. we have a list of people…at brent someone who could do testing. . defiance and aggressiveness. it started maybe a few years earlier. KIDNAPPING. we look into their files and records to see what is happening There is a networking with the GC offices of the high school. CLARET HOW MANY YEARS IN EXISTANCE? As the guidance counselor. stress in the family when parents are OFWs.those in poor performance we have remedial classes. bordering into ADHD.JEMUEL ARNAN R.

We have individual inventory for filing and data for the children, these are filled up by the teachers and parents, included here are learning style inventories, tests from ADZU. Results are written down in the file sheets. This was done just last year Other tests are SBA, for the kids…qualifying tests and entrance tests for all levels, ongoing Examination for new employees as they come we schedule the tests we forward to the HRO We have counselings…and every child has a schedule for counseling…not just walk ins or referreed by the teachers, not just the problematic children … Additional programs we have are seminars for the children, self awareness, friendship, most for all high school…human sexuality, career choices, making of vision boards, exposure and information drive…we bring them to the different colleges, expose them to different jobs to be exposed…career talk we invite professionals who are alumni of the school so the students can see the products of the schools, career talk, etc Other services, we rate and appraise the different departments and the programs we have, the faculties and the students are given sheets to evaluate everything, and give their personal feedbacks, to evaluate…to see what we could improve on…what can they say about the different services. We tabulate and forward the results to the HRO MANPOWER? We are four counselors in the office. One of us had Masters in GC from diliman, I also received my masters training, as well as another of us…but we just all lack dissertation, no thesis yet…but we have complete units for the course…. IS THE MANPWER ENOUGH? No it is not enough, as we do all things here in the office ANY MEANS OF UPDATING YOURSELVES Ateneo provides seminars, we attend them annually or 2x a year WHERE DID YOU PATTERN THE PROGRAM? When I started it was already existing…we would improve on them, update the programs, etc… DO YOU CATER TO WALK INS? Yes those who would want to talk, anytime we would entertain, not just students, also to teachers and parents HOW DO YOU INTEGRATE THE PRGORAMS TO ACADEMICS referrals to the disciplinarians for misbehavior…referrals by teachers to the guidance office for children who are problematic in behavior, pati sa mga bagsak na grades… 52
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DO YOU LINK WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS FROM INSIDE THE SCHOOL AND FROM OUTSIDE? Yes we do… USUALLY WHAT PROBLEMS DO YOU HAVE FOR CHILDREN Mostly bullying… ANY PROGRAMS TO ADDRESS TEHES ISSUES? Usually counseling takes effect… WICAS

HOW LONG HAS THE GC PROGRAM BEEN EXISTING I started 4 years ago, I was in the classrooms at first. I was informally helping in the programs…in my own little way as values teachers I could help, give counseling…then I went formal educations in guidance counseling, but am without my thesis I started as the guidance counselor 4 years ago, the school started 1993…around 15 years, and the GC program started 4 years ago formally …then we were able to get into testing, started information sheets, the problem here is teachers just come and go…its so difficult to lose teachers then have to re train new ones all over again… HOW ABOUT YOUR OWN MISSION AND VISION? It is integrated with the school only, as we are a catholic institute, we are existing to promote holistic formation, excellence in education. TALKING ABOUT MANPOWER, IS IT ENOUGH? There are no other guidance counselors, I am by myself, and this is difficult, to be by myself…I teach, I handle everything, filing, everything… it is not enough I even plan to go abroad! I also took up care giving…the administration is passed from one to the next, next year it will change…the organization is not so good…and if I have the opportunity I would leave this work,…its difficult… ANY MEANS OF UPDATING YOURSELF? with the busy schedule, I haven’t had the chance to attend seminars or workshops…Ateneo offers them I think once every year…but recently I have been so very busy… DO YOU HAVE STUDENT RECORDS IN THE GC OFFICE: no we don’t have that… WHERE DID YOU PATTERN YOUR GC PROGRAM?

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It was just formed according to the children’s needs…what is needed we address as best we could… DO YOU OFFER ANY TESTING? We offer testing, mostly for the high school none for the grade school. We get our tests from the ADZU, they do the interpretation and scoring and send the results back to us…none about behavioral problems, none about diagnosis of emotional problems and personality WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS OF CHIDLREN? Most problems are in high school…usually if for grade school problems would be hyperactivity, teasing… DO YOU CATER TO CRISIS DEBRIEFING, ETC No we don’t…I have no training for that WHAT OTHER PROGRAMS WE HAVE Counseling, one on one, any body can just come in…but usually these are referrasl from teachers who cannot handle the children…meetings with the parents to inform them how the students are… We give personality test for children, diagnostic to determine their learning, their learning problems, no behavioral problems At times we have home visitations HOW DO YOU INTEGRATE YOUR PROGRAMS WITH ACADEMIC PROGRAMS OF THE SCHOOL? The gc office links with the teachers, to help the students, the teachers inform me about children problems, I talk to them and address them, so we help each other…and to determine disciplinary actions… Also interact with the parents, I call them and determine what the problems are, and come up with plans as to how to deal with the problems DO YOU LINK WITH THE ADZU? No we don’t… DO YOU REFER ANY PROBLEMATIC CASES WITH PSYCHIATRISTS? No we don’t… HOW DO YOU APPRAISE YOUR PROGRAMS… …..

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the guidance. But my office is just open to anybody who would wish to come in… DO WE GIVE ANY TESTS? I think only for special cases only. I don’t know what to do. lack of founds WHAT OTHER PROGRAMS? 55 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. I am at a loss how to handle them. maam connie recommends them to ADZU. . its sad to know that as a gc I thought the role would just be counseling. we had to start all over again from nothing… AS HEAD OF THE GC OFFICE. the gc program I think had existed since the time of teacher darling probably. re scheduling for another appointment for counseling…I don’t want them to miss their classes. then unknowingly given to me…I don’t have any background at all…I have to handle whatever is entruseted to me. I have to do the disciplining. teacher Darlene. I call them up. they would miss their classes. have a conference with them and before implementing any punishment I tell the parents. but after she left. if I would detain them with me. lack of manpower.… but witht eh guidance of teacher enang and teacher conny. the counseling. etc HOW ABOUT MANPOWER? But I am by myself. come up with an agreement.BETHANY HOW LONG HAS THE GC PROGRAM BEEN IN EXISTENCE Well.though its so hard for me. etc…no tests. If I would ground them I would do so only for the first class. WHAT ARE YOUR ROLES? I usually deal with cases. they refuse to accept… HOW IS THE COUNSELING Most of the time by referrals from the class advisers…when they cannot handle things anymore by themselves. and usually parents are unreseptive. im not even sure if these are even my roles. then to teacher daisy. I have to play many roles.JEMUEL ARNAN R. mostly…if the offense is serious. SO YOU ALSO DEAL WITH PARENTS? Yes of course. for students who manifest serious problems…but these tests are given at ADZU. it started I think 7 years ago…a certain psychologist was hired and she for the very first time started the guidance counseling program. then I will send them back to class. I am already old. At the start I really was lost. or those with problematic behavior are usually sent to me. but with Gods grace…. and from then on we had it.. late students who come. teacher henry was handling the guidance…but it started with teacher yen. but on our own we do not have any tests of our own…none also for academics. but I found out that since our system is just like this. then having to deal with all these problems. things were going quite well. especially during the early mornings. but before we had it. Now I remember.

I don’t want to take this job…but whatever task given to me I will do my best….. . WHAT OTHER PROGRAMS DO WE HAVE? For pupils with low academic performance. their failing marks. Counseling individually also helps. and I survived! Its been so difficult. no seminars. if I just could say no I would…but since we lack the manpower. other than that I am by myself… ANY MEANS OF UPDATING YOURSELF? With the busy schedule there has been no opportunity to join training and seminar workshops… GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROGRAM. problems we have with them…but not just for the guidance office. WHERE WAS IT PATTERNED FROM? 56 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. WHAT IS THE VISION AND MISSION OF THE GUIDANCE COUNSELING OFFICE It is integrated with the vision and mission of the school itself… a child center for development and transformation education in this city…our mission is to equip the child for life and living WHAT IS YOUR BACKGROUND. they still have to do their assignments and tests. maam connie who acts as my adviser. but they are not the sole records for guidance counseling office…the academic records are mixed with other records. My office is open for walk ins… HOW MANY YEARS HAVE YOU BEEN AS THE HEAD? This is my first year! Thank God its already closing. in what way we could. just trusting the Lord HOW MANY STAFF MEMBERS ARE RUNNING THE GC PROGRAM? We have one teacher who is the disciplinarian..when I am confronted with the different problems. another teacher. offenses. ANY EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING TO HANDLE THE GC OFFICE DO WE HAVE RECORDS OF STUDENTS? Yes. they still are under close supervision. we refer them to teacher connie. I have no formal training at all!. I had no idea what to do…I just was able to swim trhough the currents…I had no background at all at counseling…. I even help them.We have family focus annually for the parents. we call it the home bound studies…when they are suspended. when I started. I dnot know how to start dealing with the children and how to talk with the parents…so difficult…no training. etc…but if I am to choose. we do not kick them out immediately. for child rearing. but at home…they are not allowed to come into school for a certain period of time. if the need arises for those who cannot be controlled at school.JEMUEL ARNAN R. for whatever measures to be taken for help. I accepted it.in fact when I was given this task.

mr ibanes…until present I am just by myself with Mr ibanez…I just started with individual profiles for the children…then we hooked with UZ with their testing materials…. at an early age. and with that we have PERSONALITY TESTS. Textbooks were also changed with the standardized tests…. AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS OUTSIDE THE SCHOOL? Yes we do…our greatest might be with the ADZU…when we seek their help in terms of testing… HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE PROGRAMS THAT YOU HAVE? That is one thing that we must really look into…but as of now the GC program is still in development and is not so advanced… USUALLY WHAT CASES DO YOU SEE. or the department heads meet at a regular basis. .OSLAT an IQ tests for all kids as basis for performance.last year with the tests. we also started with APSA also an aptitude test. and just adjust…just try to fit the needs and trust the Lord WHAT OTHER GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROGRAMS DO YOU HAVE? DO YOU CATER TO CRISIS DEBRIEFING? No we don’t… HOW DO YOU INTEGRATE THE GC PROGRAM WITH THE OVERALL ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES? As much as possible the teachers from different departments. time of monsignor david. CEN as a diagnostic tool also for learning levels of the children The results we put into records…like example we found children to have problems with reading comprehension. his first program was to have a guidance counseling program. HOW LONG HAS THE GC PROGRAM BEEN IN EXISTENCE I was designated as the head since 1998. At next year I started with just simple programs…. and little by little we get from ADZU some other tests.JEMUEL ARNAN R. and the nice point is 57 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. update each other and look into ways as to how we could help each other… DO YOU LINK WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS OF THE SCHOOL. hyperactivity… ICAS FIRST OF ALL. PROBLEMS AMONG THE GRADE SCHOOL CHILDREN? Mostly naughtiness. cursing and swearing and saying bad words. as a result our academic activities were also tailored to meet the needs of the children. with their mental abilities and their performance at class and attitudes…that’s where we started. finding any learning problems of children. we share our ideas. too much teasing…sometimes fighting. and we interact.We just look into what is needed by the children.with my assistant.

in the noon I work in the GC office.JEMUEL ARNAN R. she is the one also who is handling the children.but very informal. and other problems…what can be handled by the advisers. This is also used to help the ranking system of the high schools Other tests at the middle of the school years. any time they can just come in. For the elementary we have a program on religious studies. both students and teachers. even parents…most of the time the problems are with families. But so far there are no impossible cases. only when children come in we sit in groups. informally Usually the counseling would focus on the academics of the children. they handle. but given to the high school only. but in our case due to lack of manpower I only handle those cases that are referred. in charge of values studies. When there are problems that are quite serious we call the parents. Poor academics. In y case.as the need arises I have group counseling too…. who can no longer be controlled and dealt with by their advisers. When I have some problems with decision making I also go to the principal so that my decisions would hold water. But this individual counseling only for those referred. separated families…others neglect their children due to the busy work they have. they handle it among themselves YOUR OFFICE IS OPEN? It is open for walk ins. I cannot cater to all…the proper talaga is that GC should be full time. most for the HS. to test how far they have gone…. It is a requirement ideally that all children have a appointment at least 1x a year to have counseling with the GC. would have aouthority WHAT IS YOUR MISSION AND VISION? Ummm…we have the same mission and vision of the school…yes… ANY PROGRAMS FOR THE CHILDREN? None at all. . also teach at the college. Since we lack the manpower. not for the grade school. absent parents…but most of the parents are cooperative naman din… 58 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. but must be careful as some problems are very confidential. Other programs we have I give individual and group counseling. counseling are for those children who are referred to my office.that is for the testing service.that what is the result of each tests are consistent for giving an intelligence level for the children and determining learning needs and weaknesses… As of now our books have to jive with the needs of the children as identified by the exams I used to give iq and personality tests at the beginning of the school year. Another program is that class advisers do home visitations for children with problems. But not so much with problems on children. I am teaching the children in the AM.

We have tapped the TESDA. and results are just sent to us…. it is just me as the head. I follow them up to see how they do we also have outreach programs for the faculty and staff. I emphasize career development for the children who are about to graduate. and the PESO…the peso is the one responsible for offering summer jobs. for the graduating students to help them decide what career they want to pursue. write their comments. to give to the lumbangan community. OTHER PROGRAMS: We also have career development week. so that we would be able to improve in our weak areas. the entire ICAS family. for IQ levels. fro 1 week… Follow up services…. Another program we used to have is this “peer counselors” we used to have before but I canceled it due to some overlapping with the campus ministry…most of the children find the campus ministry a lot more enjoyable.the indigent families of this community are what we prioritize.JEMUEL ARNAN R.and they give mga P3000 per student for the whole summer… I will be inviting DOLE also by tomorrow for the high school students. give feedback. as part of the program for teachers day…we collect clothes. . which is our adopted family…. for the students to find good ways to make use of their free time in college…. sheets where students will evaluate the programs they have. Evaluations.for example when a student is referred to my office for failing marks at the first semester. what to study in college. food. for career development…other schools they have only 1 day. instead of having that in our offices…given at classes. due to the singing. learning styles…but no psychological tests…the checking and interpreting are done by the center itself. paving the way for future careers and professions. and I have one assistant…I am the only one with a lisence for GC We have IQ and personality tests for the high school We also have the same tests for the grade one students 59 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL.TESTING MATTERIALS? We do have but all tests are for academic purposes. etc…so we just work with the campus ministry… Another program I have to work on is the updating and computerization of each students profiles… In terms of manpower we don’t have any help at all.

. we still find time to take part in seminars…just one week ago we had a seminar in ipil…I was sent there… WHERE DID YOU PATTERN THE GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROGRAMS THAT YOU HAVE? We just somehow adopt to the need of the children. for determining relationships of kids with their parents. and it has slowly evolved through the years DO YOU OFFER SERVICES TO CATER TO CRISIS? DO YOU REFER PROBLEMATIC CASES No we don’t…so far we haven’t had big problems that need to be dealt with by others…we were able to handle things well… FOR CHIDLREN.For the fourth year we give a test called Occupational interest survey. COULD I ASK FOR YOUR BACKGROUND IN GC? I took up my masterals in GC but am without dissertation….JEMUEL ARNAN R. we evaluated and accept feedback as to what areas need improving. and just add to the program. and so this is very taxing for us. HAVE PROBLEMS WITH? Mostly hyperactivity… 60 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. eh we are just 2 in the office. also done. given by my assistant who is handling values subjects I also have counseling and group counseling… Conference with parents. very tiring… HOW DO YOU KNOW YOUR PROGRAMS ARE EFFECTIVE: We just receive good feedback from the parents…we see the results… WHAT ARE YOUR MEANS OF UPDATING YOURSELF: With the busy schedules. to determine what course would best fit them…the results would guide their choice of college Self test is also given to the fourth years. USUALLY WHAT CASES DO YOU SEE. as the need arises HOW DO YOU INTEGRATE THE PROGRAMS WITH OTHER PROGRAMS OF THE SCHOOL we coordinate with the campus ministry…we also coordinate with the school disciplinarian in cases of needing to implement decisions of punishment to the children… IN TERMS OF TRAINING MAAM.just recently a group of GC in zamboanga were accredited to be certified GC for this city…so I am licensed SO IS MANPOWER (NUMBER) NOT A PROBLEM? As I said earlier.

where to improve on… SPECIFICALLY WHAT PROGRAMS DO YOU HAVE? When I came in there were no such activities…one of the plans I have this school year. DO YOU HAVE OTHER GC? None. we have observed that all GC office have the same problems. upgraded. to have parents seminar on career and parenting. and successful in the future. etc…presently I am the president of the 61 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. I am by myself…there are others who help. Teachers also have seminars on counseling. whatever the Lord led us to do. but normally the teachers are also GC. they separated and formed a new school…the former school was closed. but zion came from evangelical school. I was one of the pioneering parents… DOES THE GC OFFICE HAVE ITS OWN VISION AND MISSION It is integrated with the vision and mission of the school…the general vision. resource speakers to handle these who are knowledgeable…also we will have a project called “tracers” where we will trace our graduates. and other subjects…yes it is lacking…the school wants me to focus at the GC office WHERE DID YOU PATTERN THE GUIDANCE COUNSELING PROGRAM? When I started as the guidance counselor several years ago…umm yes 2003. also a seminar for students on drug addiction. are they doing ok. I mentioned kanina…the program was already existing…since the start of this school at 1996…we just added. squatters. from the ADZU. their guidance group also helps. that they would be globally competitive IF WE COULD TALK ABOUT MANPOWER. at 1996. IT IS HARD FOR YOU TO BE BY YOURSELF AND IS THE MANPOWER LACKING? I still teach values. . GC of WMSU…I am the only GC here at zion. this was opened. and the guidance org of the zamboanga chapter under leadership of mrs delantar. from bad environment. are they jobless.ZION FIRST OF ALL HOW LONG HAS THE PROGRAM BEEN IN EXISTENCE I think since established at 1996.JEMUEL ARNAN R. is to train up a child in the way he should go and when he grows old he will not depart from it…the mission is that we see to it the children go through their academics. etc which influence the development of the child…that is why it is important to have these seminars. students with problems come from broken families. YOU ARE THE HEAD. as well as the principal…but they would just come into the guidance office when cases cannot be resolved in the classroom FOR YOU.

so I will enroll with WMSU or ADZU DO YOU DO ANY ONE ON ONE COUNSELING? Yes. a master in Christian education and doctorate on chirstian education. and her attention is given to the other man and other children she has. the family the problems of the child that would help. those who come in are sent in by their teachers due to truancy. important to deal with the spiritual needs first…the root of all problems in behavior is the sinful nature of man. and lacks attention…. my office is just open to anybody anytime. my background really qualifies as to hold the GC office. we must address that area. since the father died. Another recommendation teachers must do home visitations of their problematic students. the child seems confused.mark Daniel Francisco…his father is in luzon. I don’t know how he is treated by the uncles 62 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. we only have very little data. to know how to deal with the children. the mom works abroad. the environment…the parents.one thing we do here is we check on the family background DO YOU HAVE ANY RECORDS? FAMILY BACKGROUND? ETC No. we could see the problems…we can see the behavior of the child and know how to deal with them…there is another child we have requested the loved ones. also to have spiritual retreat for childen. with another woman. we would like to know if our students have the right professions.we have to make them understand….we have to deal with this first. look into the family background of the children. grade school kids not so much. no mismatch of career…and then another program I suggested is that we will have spiritual retreats for the children and chapel our every Monday. the mother would drive him out. etc…some cases are of broken families. I am a pastor. he has half brothers from another woman.. although they still want me to take up masters in GC.JEMUEL ARNAN R. There is a wrong notion of guidance counselors. especially the HS level as the gradeschool is still quite manageable. by the name of….the child really.career guidance network in region 9. walk ins. abandoned children. and un approachable…im trying to change that notion and show the students they can come anytym freely… DOES EACH STUDENT HAVE A SCHEDULE FOR COUNSELING? They just come in…walk in… Most come in are High school. this information sheet would help to give us a background on the parents. we will have cell groups for students. From the time I started at 2003. they need spiritual growth as some do not have biblical background. to invite pastors to lead cell groups. when I was student the GC we had was so masungit. but I want to make a information sheet for each student…we do not have. the mother is here with another man…every time the child would come tot eh mother.. but other schools have…now I am coming up with this. but they would just come in. . very important to have the love of children…when I dealt with one child. the lola is the one taking care of the child. We will be having spiritual activities also with teachers.

ETC? When there are seminars in ateneo the school sends me to attend…last year I attended one seminar on guidance and counseling… HOW DO YOU INTEGRATE THE GC PRORAM WITH THE ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES? we coordinate with the disciplinarian office…when students have failing marks they are referred here…we coordinate with the teachers and parents… DO YOU REFER TO SPECIALISTS: No we don’t…all the cases we had by far we dealt with by ourselves… HOW DO YOU KNOW WHEN YOUR PROGRAMS ARE EFFECTIVE? We listen to feedback from parents.JEMUEL ARNAN R. that is what I would like to ask ADZU. truancy…. that even teacher cant control him. he would have aggression and anger inside. witht they psych tests…adzu and pilar have theses. demons.and lolos. teachers. by God’s grace. ugly faces…you could see something is wrong! You could see trhough his drawings that he has hatred and anger…how do we deal with this Lord? DO YOU NETWORK? We coordinate with the teachers. their parents thank us often saying their children really changed positively…by that we know we are doing a good job… 63 ADZU-SOM RESEARCHES/MPH2009/CRISTOBAL. they told me we could just come and they would provide for me…I want to integrate it into the information sheet. ANY MEANS OF UPDATING YOURSELF WITH CURRENT GUIDANCE COUNSELING TECHNIQUES. grade 2…we called the attention of the uncles and aunties. he poked a teacher with a pencil. we network to integrate the GC program with academics. from manila…you have to make an order…expensive. I told ADZU just give us please. ADZU. . etc. DO YOU HAVE ANY TESTS? No we don’t have. he gets angry agad. students…those we helped. we don’t have that amount of money USUALLY WHAT CASES YOU SEE Hyperactivity. and they are so young! How is he treated at home? He even brought x rated pictures and dvd! Grade 2! Imagine the environment he is growing up in…drawings in his notebook are sexual parts. Before you can get that you will spend maybe 80k with just one questionnaire.