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SESSION 2009-10

A Minor Project Report Submitted to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya Bhopal (M.P.)
In partial fulfilment of awarding the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Electronics & Communication Guided by: Prof. Saurabh Gaur Electronics & Communication MIT, Ujjain (M.P.) Submitted by: Abhishek jain Ankit singh somvanshi Chitrarth gautam Kamal singh rajawat

Department of electronics & communication



SESSION 2009-10

This is certify that the Minor Project work of “ABHISHEK JAIN ,ANKIT SINGH SOMVANSHI ,CHITRARTH GAUTAM ,KAMAL SINGH RAJAWAT” entitled “LIGHT FENCE” towards partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication Engineering .

Internal Examiner --------------------------Date:

External Examiner -------------------------Date:

HOD. Manish Berve. Saurabh Gaur. dedication and application are necessary but not sufficient to achieve a goal. Electronics and Communication Department for providing me eyes of knowledge. Abhishek jain (0704EC071004) Ankit singh somvanshi (0704EC071009) Chitrarth gautam (0704EC071018) Kamal singh rajawat (0704EC071037) MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . I like to express my sincere gratitude towards my report guide Prof. I am thankful to Prof. Electronics and Communication for their guidance and support. They must be awarded by guidance assistance and cooperation.LIGHT FENCE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Concentration.


The circuit uses the light sensing property of the PIN Photodiode. It can be used to protect things from theft. When somebody approaches the unit. input current to pin3 can be set to a reference level. The inputs contain MOSFET transistors to provide very high input impedance and very low input current as low as 10pA.LIGHT FENCE INTRODUCTION The shadow alarm circuit can sense a moving shadow in a confined area. IC CA3130 is a 15 MHz BiMOS Operational amplifier with MOSFET inputs and bipolar output. The p-n junction of the photo diode gives light current when it is forward biased. Its non inverting input is connected to a potential divider R1 and VR. The inverting input of IC1 is connected to a photo diode. By adjusting VR. MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . IC1 is designed as a voltage comparator. The circuit uses the light sensing property of the Photo diode. it will give a loud alarm to abort the attempt of theft. So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms. It has high speed of performance and suitable for low input current applications This opto-sensitive circuit sounds an alarm whenever a shadow falls on it.

Voltage co–efficient of resistance. 1.RELEVENT THEORY OF USED COMPONENT Resister A Resistor is a heat-dissipating element and in the electronic circuits it is mostly used for either controlling the current in the circuit or developing a voltage drop across it. Temperature co– efficient of resistance. Ambient temperature rating 5. There are various types of resistors. high frequency characteristics.e. Material used for fabrication 2. which could be utilized for many applications. Resistance element 3. Fixed . 1. which can be classified according to a number of factors depending upon: 1. Cost fig 3. power rating.11 Resistor Basically the resistor can be split in to the following four parts from the construction view point. Wattage and physical size 3. Terminals 4. Intended application 4. Base 2. tolerance & voltage rating of resistors. Protective means following characteristics are inherent in all resistors and may be controlled by design considerations and choice of material i. Resistors may be classified as.

electrolyte etc. ceramic. Aluminum. K= dielectric constant A=Area per plate in square cm.LIGHT FENCE 2.12 Capacitor Capacitor C=0. The dielectric material used for capacitors may be grouped in various classes like Mica.08854KA/D Where C= capacitance in pf. Variable resistor Capacitors The fundamental relation for the capacitance between two flat plates separated by a dielectric material is given by:- fig 3. frequency and MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . air. D=Distance between two plates in cm Design of capacitor depends on the proper dielectric material with particular type of application. Glass. Semi Variable 3. The value of capacitance never remains constant. It changes with temperature. paper.

. which emits light when forward biased. Charge carrier recombination takes place when electrons from the N-side cross the junction and recombine with the holes on the P side.aging. The capacitance value marked on the capacitor strictly applies only at specified temperature and at low frequencies. During recombination. some of the energy is given up in the form of heat and light. Electrons are in the higher conduction band on the N side whereas holes are in the lower valence band on the P side. LED (Light Emitting Diodes) As its name implies it is a diode.

allowing current to pass through it. the resistance of the LDR falls. Consequently the LED does not light. The animation opposite shows that when the torch is turned on. sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms. but when they are illuminated with light resistance drops dramatically. in this way it can make the circuit more or less sensitive.LIGHT FENCE LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR) LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. However. The LED lights. When the light level is low the resistance of the LDR is high. This prevents current from flowing to the base of the transistors. The preset resistor can be turned up or down to increase or decrease resistance. MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . when light shines onto the LDR its resistance falls and current flows into the base of the first transistor and then the second transistor. Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high.

[1] An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically millions of times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals Typically the op-amp's very large gain is controlled by negative feedback. and scientific devices. being used in a vast array of consumer. Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume. Without negative feedback. High input impedance at the input terminals (ideally infinite) and low output impedance at the output terminal(s) (ideally zero) are important typical characteristics. Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today. a single-ended output.OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (741 IC) An operational amplifier. or the transfer function required (in analog computers). however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over . which largely determines the magnitude of its output ("closed-loop") voltage gain in amplifier applications. an op-amp essentially acts as a comparator. and perhaps with positive feedback for regeneration. is a DC-coupled highgain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and. industrial. usually. which is often called an op-amp.

Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp. but with two outputs). (see photo) or as integrated circuit cells. but which works fine with common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp). the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier. and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from one or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network). the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op-amps). Op-amps sometimes come in the form of macroscopic components. MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . patterns that can be reprinted several times on one chip as part of a more complex device.LIGHT FENCE $100 US in small quantities. The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier.

voltage output voltage is Vsat or Vcc because voltage at non inverting terminal is higher than inverting The comparator is also known as Voltage Level Detector because derived value of ref. In the fig fixed reference voltage applied to its inverting terminal & in the same manner time varying signal voltage Vin is applied to the non inverting terminal. The resistor R connected in series with Vin is used to limit the current through diode D1 & D2 and another resistor in series with inverting terminal & Vref to reduce offset problem. . voltage the input voltage level can be detected. The diode D1 & D2 protects the Opamp from doemame due to excessive value of input voltage. When voltage Vin is less than the ref vtg output voltage in –Vsat or –Vee because voltage at inverting terminal is higher than non inverting terminal in the same that when voltage Vin is higher than the ref.Used as Voltage Comparator In the shadow alarm OpAmp is used as a voltage comparator.

[3] Depending on the manufacturer. the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors. and the 558 (a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). thanks to its ease of use.[1] It has been claimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5 kΩ resistors used in typical early implementations. The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine". [2] but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year. As of 2003.[4] Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip). 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dualin-line package (DIP-8). MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY .LIGHT FENCE IC 555 TIMER The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. and TR falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). The IC was designed by Hans R. low price and good stability. [3] The part is still in wide use.

[5] The 7555 requires slightly different wiring using fewer external components and less power. frequency divider. logic clocks.No. The connection of the pins is as follows: S. Uses include LED and lamp flashers. the output stays at +VCC 4 RESET A timing interval can be interrupted by applying a reset pulse to low (0 V) 5 CTRL Control voltage allows access to the internal voltage divider (2/3 VCC) . bouncefree switches. pulse generation. the 555 functions as a "one-shot". pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc  Astable . missing pulse detection. Uses include bouncefree latched switches. etc. capacitance measurement. touch switches. such as the 7555 and TLC555. if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used.Ultra-low power versions of the 555 are also available. security alarms. etc. Applications include timers. pulse position modulation. tone generation. low level (0 V) 2 TRIG A short pulse high-to-low on the trigger starts the timer 3 OUT During a timing running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator.  Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop. Name Purpose 1 GND Ground. The 555 has three operating modes:  Monostable mode: in this mode.

which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3 of the supply voltage. MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . The pulse begins when the 555 timer receives a trigger signal. R is in ohms and C is in farads. is given by where t is in seconds. which consists of a capacitor (C) and a resistor (R). the 555 timer acts as a “one-shot” pulse generator. the voltage on C and the pulse width in monostable mode In the monostable mode. VCC The positive supply voltage which must be between 3 and 15 V Monostable mode The relationships of the trigger signal. The pulse ends when the charge on the C equals 2/3 of the supply voltage. See RC circuit for an explanation of this effect. The width of the pulse is determined by the time constant of an RC network.LIGHT FENCE 6 THR The threshold at which the interval ends (it ends if the voltage at THR is at least 2/3 VCC) 7 DIS Connected to a capacitor whose discharge time will influence the timing interval 8 V+. The pulse width can be lengthened or shortened to the need of the specific application by adjusting the values of R and C. [6] The pulse width of time t.

Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7) and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7).555 TIMER Astable mode In astable mode. and discharged only through R2. Hence the capacitor is charged through R1 and R2. therefore discharging the capacitor. the '555 timer ' puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specified frequency. since pin 7 has low impedance to ground during output low intervals of the cycle. . and the trigger (pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node.

medical.5 to 15 V Supply current (VCC = +5 V) 3 to 6 mA Supply current (VCC = +15 V) 10 to 15 mA Output current (maximum) 200 mA Power dissipation 600 mW Operating temperature 0 to 70 °C MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . Supply voltage (VCC) 4. Other 555 timers can have better specifications depending on the grade (military.LIGHT FENCE Specifications These specifications apply to the NE555. etc).

Assemble the circuit on a common PCB and house in a plastic case. allowing T1 to conduct. Keep LDR1 inside a black tube to increase its sensitivity. If VR1 is correctly adjusted. The beep generated from the circuit will be loud enough to detect the entry of a person in the room or the protected area being guarded. The circuit uses a voltage comparator and a monostable timer to give the warning alarm on detecting a moving person. Resistors R1 and R2 provide halfsupply voltage of 4. the circuit can detect a moving person from a distance of about three metres. As a person crosses the protected area. which inhibits IC2 from oscillation and LED1 from lighting. The emitter voltage of T1 will be high in this condition. IC2 is wired as a monostable timer. and may be simply placed within the line-of-sight of almost any light source including ambient day light or fluorescent electric light. his shadow will be sensed by LDR1 due to change in the light intensity level and the voltage at the non-inverting input of IC1 will drop momentarily. The output of IC1 suddenly becomes low. LDR1 and preset VR1 form another potential divider to provide a variable voltage input to the non-inverting input (pin 3). R6 and C2 provide a preset time delay. This triggers the monostable (IC2) and the alarm sounds. It requires virtually no set up.5 volts to its inverting input (pin 2). the output of IC1 will be high. This is due to the high potential at the base of T1. The circuit described here is so sensitive that it will detect a moving person at a distance of few metres in daylight or under electric lighting without cumbersome alignment of light beam. Adjust preset VR1 until LED1 turns off at the particular light level. If VR1 is properly adjusted for the required light level. Sensitivity of the circuit depends on the proper adjustment of VR1. IC μA741 (IC1) is used as a voltage comparator with two potential dividers in its inverting and noninverting inputs. which drives pnp transistor T1 out of conduction. Keep LDR1 facing the entrance of the room or the area to be protected.PRINCIPLE OF WORKING The basic problem with most of standard light sensors is that they require precise alignment of light beam to mute the circuit during standby mode. .


Put the carbon paper on the PCB and trace from the reverse side of the layout. . The layout can be traced on the board by screen printing. Step IX Apply Flux on legs of the component & solder them. Step I Firstly arrange all of the component of the project & testing them for a Proper working. Check the continuity of tracks with the help of multimeter. Step VII After taking off the solution rinse the PCB plate with clean water and dry it. This board is made up of layers that interconnect component via a pathway. Step VI Etching: Etching is the process in which excess layer of copper is removed to leave the individual tracks as they are. Step VIII Drill the end points of the component on the lay out with the help of drill machine. Step III Draw the layout of circuit on inch graph paper with proper dimension . if the circuit working properly then start to make PCB. The PCB plate is immersed in solution of FeCl3 + some drops of HCL or H2So4. which holds electronics component. Cut the remaining legs of the components. Clean the legs of the component with the help of sand paper tip it with the help of soldering iron. Shake it well till the copper is totally removed excepting the printed layout path. Outline the impression of layout on PCB and apply permanent marker.Ensure that if layout correct then draw it on trace paper. Place the component as per circuit on PCB in the proper way.DESIGN & MAKING PCB A PCB is a rigid flat board. Let us know how to prepare a PCB. Step II Perform pre – testing of circuit on bread board. Now the PCB is ready to connect the external power supply and the external output or input devices. Step IV Step V Cut the CCB (Copper Clad Board) of the same size of layout. Then removed the print layer with the help of thinner and a piece of cloth.

5. The shadow alarm circuit can sense a moving shadow in a confined area. When somebody approaches the unit. MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . LDR does not require an aligned light beam to illuminate the photo-sensor 6. The shadow alarm circuit can sense one or more moving shadow in a confined area. It can be used to protect things from theft. LIMITATIONS 1. CONCLUSION The shadow alarm work as a watchman in our houses to protect our valuable things. it will give a loud alarm to abort the attempt of theft. A dim lighting in the room is necessary to detect the moving shadow. It can be used to protect things from theft. 4. 3. They generally have a better. Photodiodes are often used for accurate measurement of light intensity in science and industry. 4. more linear response than photoconductor. 3. If alarm is not properly audible then device can not be used as a security purpose. It has low cost comparing other security systems. Shadow alarm is an electronic device so we have to prevent it by moisture. 2. 2. This opto-sensitive circuit sounds an alarm whenever anyone crosses the fence.LIGHT FENCE APPLICATIONS 1. It is necessary that shadow falls properly on LDR. So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms.

com 2. 6. Sawhny. Information about Opamp from Gayakwad.wikipedia.ic-on-line.electroschematics.S. www. http://www. . www. Idea about shadow alarm from www. And other electronic 7. Information about Photodiode from 3.K.Sedha & A.electronics4u.pdf 4.REFERENCE 1.

DATASHEET OF PHOTO-TRANSISTOR L14F1 The L14F1 are silicon photodarlingtons mounted in a narrow angle. TO-18 package. Tolerance of ± . It is portable and can be used at any place that is to be monitored. SPECTRAL RESPONCE MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . Some of their Features include• Hermetically sealed package • Narrow reception angle It is the most sensitive photo-sensor to detect shadows. Dimensions for all drawings are in inches (mm).LIGHT FENCE APPENDIX 1.010 (. Dimensions 1.25) on all non-nominal dimensions unless otherwise specified. 2.


A low value potentiometer may be connected between the offset null inputs to null out the offset voltage as shown in Figure 2. MAHAKAL INSTITTUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . The A741I is characterized for operation from –40C to 85C.The A741M is characterized for operation over the full military temperature range of –55C to 125C. The high common-mode input voltage range and the absence of latch-up make the amplifier ideal for voltage-follower applications. The A741C is characterized for operation from 0C to 70C. DATASHEET OF 741 Opamp The A741 is a general-purpose operational amplifier featuring offset-voltage null capability. The device is short-circuit protected and the internal frequency compensation ensures stability without external components.LIGHT FENCE 2.



DATASHEET OF 555 TIMER The 555 monolithic timing circuit is a highly stable controller capable of producing accurate time delays. For a stable operation as an oscillator. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms. In the time delay mode of operation. the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor. the free running frequency and the duty cycle are both accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor.3. and the output structure can source or sink up to 200mA. or oscillation. .