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Locating

• • • • Introduction Ericsson 1 Ericsson 3 Urgency conditions
– Quality – Timing Advance

• Auxiliary functions
– Intra-cell handover – Hierarchical cell structures
© TNC Ltd 2002 Page 110 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.3

© Childerley Solutions 2002

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3 © Childerley Solutions 2002 111 .Locating • Locating Algorithm – Works out conditions for handover decisions for MS in active mode – Inputs to algorithm are • Signal strength measurements • Quality measurements – Output is list of candidate cells for handover • Cells are ranked and sorted in descending order of preference for handover © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 111 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.

This is done by subtracting a signal value from the signal strength estimate for the unwanted cell. A penalty is removed after the penalty duration has expired. © Childerley Solutions 2002 112 .3 What happened to Ericsson 2 ??? Algorithms aim to let TCH carriers control cell borders. bad quality urgency handover and excessive timing advance. BSRXMIN) • Application of signal strength penalties © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 112 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1. SS_ULn = min(P. making it look worse than it really is.Locating • Basic Cell Ranking – Two algorithms • Ericsson 1: signal strength & path loss • Ericsson 3: signal strength only – Common process stages • Correction of base station output power – different levels possible on BCCH/TCH carriers • Calculation of minimum signal strength – Thresholds MSRXMIN (DL) and BSRXMIN (UL) – SSmin = min (MSRXMIN. Corrected signal strength SS_DLn in neighbour cell n: for different output powers between BCCH (BSPWR) and other carriers BSTXPWR: SS_DLn = rxlevn + BSTXPWRn – BSPWRn Minimum signal strength conditions: SS_DLn >= MSRXMINn SS_ULn >= BSRXMINn Where SS_DL is estimated by calculating DL path loss and subtracting from maximum MS output power.MSTXPWRn) – (BSTXPWRn – SS_DLn) Penalties are added to make it more difficult to handover to unsuitable cells. Penalties are applied for handover failure.

n=neighbour cell SS_DLn >= MSRXSUFFn – TROFFSETn.s + TRHYSTn.Locating • Sufficient Level Condition • Threshold separating low signal strength cells from high signal strength cells DL min level UL min level B DL effective sufficient level UL effective sufficient level A high signal strength low signal strength © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 113 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1. © Childerley Solutions 2002 113 . Setup shown in diagram is valid only for BS pair A.s + TRHYSTn. Calculation of sufficient level: s=serving cell.C. Sufficient level for a serving cell may be different in relation to each different neighbour cell.s Solid lines in diagram represent final combined UL and DL condition. It would be different for BS pair A.s SS_ULn >= BSRXSUFFn – TROFFSETn.3 Cells satisfying minimum condition are processed for sufficient condition.B.

Otherwise.Locating • Ranking – signal strength (K) criterion – Signal strength relative to sufficient level • K-cells = Low signal strength cells. It is defined antisymmetrical for a pair of cells: KOFFSETa.s – BSRXSUFFn. then it is ranked with the other Kcells. If K-cell. The cell border is displaced AWAY from cell with positive value.a KOFFSET if positive decreases ranking value and if negative increases ranking value. it is ranked with the L-cells. and moved TOWARD the cell with a negative value. KHYST is used to decrease ranking values to underrate neighbour cells – to prevent ping pong handovers.s – K_Uln.b = -KOFFSETb. – K values are – K_DLn.s KHYSTn. the sufficient level is evaluated with respect to the best neighbour n1.s = SS_ULn. Defined for a pair of cells and is always symmetrical KHYSTa.a © Childerley Solutions 2002 114 .s • Effective K value is minimum of UL and DL K values modified by KHYST and KOFFSET – K ranking • K_RANKn= min(K_DLn.s • Cells are ranked with the highest K_RANK first © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 114 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.3 To rank the serving cell as K or L. K_ULn) – KOFFSETn.b = KHYSTb.s = SS_DLn.s – MSRXSUFFn.

s • Cells are ranked with the lowest L_RANK first © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 115 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.3 LHYST and LOFFSET have the same properties as the K counterparts. It facilitates transfer of calls from big cell (strong interference) to small cells (less interference).s + LHYSTn. Path Loss criterion is independent of BS and MS power ratings.s – L ranking values • L_RANKs = p_Ls • L_RANKn = p_Ln + LOFFSETn.Locating • Ranking – path loss (L) criterion – Path loss is assumed symmetrical • Applied to high signal strength cells – Path Loss values • p_Ln.s – SS_DLn. L-criterion should lower overall statistical interference in network © Childerley Solutions 2002 115 .s = BSTXPWRn.

3 © Childerley Solutions 2002 116 .Locating • Basic Ranking Candidate List Best cell Highest L-Rank (lowest path loss) L-cells list Lowest L-Rank Highest K-Rank (highest signal level) K-cells list Worst cell Lowest K-Rank © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 116 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.

HYSTEP specifies when signal strength is high or low for serving cell. © Childerley Solutions 2002 117 .Locating • Ericsson 3 – Considers only signal strength – Ranking values • RANKs = SS_DLs • RANKn = SS_DLn – OFFSETn. When high.s – HYSTn. a larger hysteresis value can be allowed than when it is low. LOHYST and HIHYST are symmetrical and OFFSET is anti-symmetrical. in order to reduce the number of handovers.s where • HYST = LOHYST if rxlevDLS < HYSTEP • HYST = HIHYST if rxlevDLS ≥ HYSTEP • HYSTEP indicates Low or High signal strength for serving cell © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 117 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1. defined for a pair of cells. HYSTEP is a cell parameter.3 The effects of OFFSET and HYST are similar to those described for Ericsson1.

Locating • Urgency Condition: Bad Quality – Handover is initiated when rxqual exceeds specified thresholds. © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 118 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1. and those cells with large differences are removed from the list. • BQOFFSET.a A BQ urgency HO prohibited If BQ urgency handover performed. Ericsson3 If RANKn – RANKs < -HYSTn.s remove n. © Childerley Solutions 2002 118 . but not to cell with worse quality.s – BQOFFSETn. defines how far from nominal border MS can be to qualify for the quality handover.s remove n. Signal strength of serving cell is compared with signal strength of candidates. applied to K-rank and L-rank values. If L_RANKn – L_RANKs > LHYSTn.s – BQOFFSETn.s remove n.s – BQOFFSETn. unsuitable neighbours are removed from candidate list.3 When BQ urgency exists. Nominal cell border B Hysteresis corridor BQ urgency region BQOFFSETb. a penalty value PSSBQ and penalty duration PTIMBQ are applied to prevent immediate handover back to the old cell. Ericsson1 If K_RANKn – K_RANKs < -KHYSTn. even if the level is good • rxqualUL > QLIMUL or • rxqualDL > QLIMDL – Handover is allowed to cell of lower ranking.

Locating • Urgency Condition: Timing Advance – Timing advance (TA) can be used as a soft cell limiter. to force small cells – TALIM is the defined cell limit. maximum (63 bits or 35 km). – TA urgency occurs if TAs ≥ TALIM – Urgent handover is performed to neighbour cells where TAn < TALIMs – If no suitable candidate found. call remains on serving cell © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 119 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.3 If TA urgency handover performed. a penalty value PSSTA and penalty duration PTIMTA is applied to prevent immediate handover back to the old cell. © Childerley Solutions 2002 119 .

“assignment to worse cell” can be made. Overlaid/Underlaid: for increasing traffic capacity. All calls close to border to cells with low load (below defined threshold) become load sharing candidates. Higher layers to pick up traffic when congestion or coverage problems occur. this cell is first in the locating candidate list.Locating • Auxiliary network functions – – – – – – Assignment to another cell Hierarchical cell structures Dynamic overlaid/underlaid subcells Intra-cell handover Extended range Cell load sharing © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 120 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1. and setup is “assignment to better cell”.3 Assignment to another cell: performed only a certain period after immediate assignment. Cell Load Sharing: enables traffic load sharing during peak traffic when traffic load exceeds a defined threshold. where a better cell other than the serving cell is found. Hierachical cells: Up to three layers. where congestion exists on serving or better cell. The ranking values for candidate neighbour cells are recalculated using reduced hysteresis values. © Childerley Solutions 2002 120 . Overlaid cell serves smaller area. smaller re-use distance possible. used for directing traffic from higher to lower layers. Extended Range: allows cells with radius up to 72 km.

Locating • Intra-cell handover – Try to find another frequency and/or timeslot in the same cell with better quality – Only if RxQual is bad AND RxLev is good • RxQual_UL/DL > QOFFSETUL/DL + FQSS(RXLEV_UL/DL +SSOFSETUL/DL) – RxLev_DL/UL = actual measured signal strengths.3 QOFFSETUL/DL: quality offset parameters uplink/downlink SSOFSETUL/DL: signal strength offset parameters uplink/downlink FQSS table RXLEV <=30 31 32-35 36-38 39-41 42-45 46-48 49-52 53-55 56-58 59-62 >=63 rxqual infinity 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 © Childerley Solutions 2002 121 . no pc compensation – FQSS = quality vs signal strength function – Does not work for: • BCCH downlink • Random frequency hopping © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 121 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.

Locating • Hierarchical cell structures – Up to three cell layers • Can be configured as an umbrella layer over a microcell layer • Dual band network can be configured as different layers – Aim to carry most traffic on the smaller/lower layer cells. – Handover to a higher layer if lower layer congested or coverage problems exist – Cells in different layers ranked separately © TNC Ltd 2002 Page 122 GSM Radio Network Optimisation v1.3 © Childerley Solutions 2002 122 .