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Magnetic Separators

Submitted to: Madam Suneela Sardar Submitted by:
Muhammad Suleman (10-CH-46)

Department of Chemical Engineering
NFC Institute of Engineering & Fertilizer Research, Faisalabad

MAGNETIC SEPARATION: The principles of magnetic separation have been applied commercially for nearly 100 years. Applications range from the removal of coarse tramp iron to more sophisticated separations. The application of magnetic-separation methods to weakly magnetic particles has been made possible by recent advances in separator design. iron. material is passed through the field of an electromagnet which causes the retention or retardation of the magnetic constituent. for example. These are frequently employed. Magnetic separators now have a great many industrial applications and range in size from small laboratory-scale devices to those capable of processing hundreds of tons hourly. Depending on the magnetic characteristics of the material.g. such as the elimination of weakly magnetic iron-stained particulates from papercoating clays. or diamagnetic (repelled by a magnetic field).. paramagnetic (magnetically attracted). Ferromagnetic substances (e. Principle of Magnetic Separation: Any particle introduced into a magnetic field will become magnetized to some extent and act as a magnetic dipole. it can be classified as ferromagnetic. The two main types of equipment are:  Eliminators: These are used for the removal of small quantities of magnetic material from the charge to a plant. Magnetic separators: In the magnetic separator. nickel. for the removal of stray pieces of scrap iron from the feed to crushing . It is important that the material should be supplied as a thin sheet in order that all the particles are subjected to a field of the same intensity and so that the free movement of individual particles is not impeded. and cobalt) may be permanently magnetized and have strong magnetic moments per unit volume.

allowing the non-magnetics to fall back into the slurry mainstream. the principle of operation of which is shown in Figure 1. The stationary magnet system has several radial poles which attract the magnetic material to the drum face.equipment.5 per cent. A slurry containing the magnetic component is fed between the rotating magnet drum cover and the casing.43. These may operate with dry or wet feeds and an example of the latter is the Mastermag wet drum separator. . The clean magnetic product is discharged clear of the slurry tailings.  Concentrators: These are used for the separation of magnetic ores from the accompanying mineral matter. at the same time gyrating the magnetic particles.44. An industrial machine is shown in operation in Figure 1. and the rotating cover carries the magnetic material from one pole to another. A common type of eliminator is a magnetic pulley incorporated in a belt conveyor so that the non-magnetic material is discharged in the normal manner and the magnetic material adheres to the belt and falls off from the underside. Operations can be coor counter-current and the recovery of magnetic material can be as high as 99.

95. The suspension of mineral is passed through a matrix of ferromagnetic wires which is magnetized by the application of an external magnetic field. High gradient magnetic separation: The removal of small quantities of finely dispersed ferromagnetic materials from fine minerals. the capture rate progressively diminishes and. . in one of which particles are being collected from a stream of suspension. leaving a clean non-magnetic product to emerge from the discharge end of the machine. or for use in the manufacture of high quality porcelain. The dead time during which the canisters are being exchanged may be as short as 10 s. The material is fed continuously in a thin layer beneath a rotating magnetic disc which picks up the magnetic material in the zone of high magnetic intensity. is inserted. As the deposit of separated particles builds up.Example of Concentrator: An example of a concentrator operating on a dry feed is a rotating disc separator. Commercial machines usually have two reciprocating canisters. usually of voidage of about 0. The nonmagnetic material is then passed to a second magnetic separation zone where secondary separation occurs in the same way. The captured particles are carried by the disc to the discharge chutes where they are released. at the appropriate stage. The magnetic field is generated in the gap between the poles of an electromagnet into which a loose matrix of fine stainless steel wire. The attractive force on a particle is proportional to its magnetic susceptibility and to the product of the field strength and its gradient. The attractive forces which bind the particles must be sufficiently strong to ensure that the particles are not removed by the hydrodynamic drag exerted by the flowing suspension. the particles are released by reducing the magnetic field strength to zero and flushing out with water. such as china clay. and in the other released into a waste stream. and the fine wire matrix is used to minimize the distance between adjacent magnetized surfaces. adsorption may first be carried out on to the surface of a material with the necessary magnetic properties. The removal of the weakly magnetic particles containing iron may considerably improve the “brightness” of the mineral. and thereby enhance its value as a coating or filler material for paper. may be effectively carried out in a high gradient magnetic field. In cases where the magnetic susceptibility of the contaminating component is too low.

• Applications include ferrous traps for slurries such as detergents (e. For the permanent type. wing-and-drawertype magnetic grates.6 m from the top and material introduced at a slow velocity. or pulp in paper mills. pulverized material where contamination or accidents may occur from tramp or fine iron. in chemical plants). there is a maximum width of 2. magnet width extends to 1. vibratory grates. The plate magnet should be close to the feed point to eliminate the influence of velocity. Lifting Magnetic Separators: . which are used in chutes..23 m. ink recycling (e.. Grates may be installed in all circuits of dry. Plate Magnetic Separators: These devices are used to remove tramp iron from materials being conveyed pneumatically or falling in gravity flow. Plate magnets. and rotagrates. The various available equipment designs include selfcleaning grates. in printing operations).g. with the magnet located in the bottom of the chute approximately 0. sugar and candy (e.Equipment: Separator designs differ for the various types of materials to be separated. Each of the designs is manufactured in a range of sizes. Grate magnets are used for the wet or dry removal of tramp coarse or fine iron. can be either permanent magnets or electromagnets. magnetic separation devices can be grouped as follows : Grate-Type Magnetic Separators: This type of device consists of a series of tubes (often of stainless steel) which are packed with ceramic magnets and installed in a trap perpendicular to the fluid-flow direction.85 m for electromagnets. permanent magnetic grates. at a 45° angle. Tramp iron is removed by being trapped against a magnetized plate. Capacity varies with the size of the tramp-iron particles to be removed and with the angle of the chute.. A chute angle of 45° is recommended. with single or multiple rows (banks) of magnetic tubes.g. in food plants). Complete lines of plate magnets and magnetic humps are offered by many manufacturers. This type of magnet must be cleaned periodically. Capacities are approximately 250 m3/h for each meter of width.g. In general.

.It is often preferred because it requires a less powerful magnet and can clean material from a higher-speed conveyor belt (over 1. Magnetic drum devices have stationary magnets. Continuous devices usually have a belt which moves over the lifting magnetic poles to carry the magnetized particles into a region of low or zero magnetic field. where they are released. Dry magnetic drums can be designed to perform as lifting magnets or pulleys. Sizes for devices of this type range up to 2. Suspended magnets are positioned from 5 to 10 cm above the highest point of the material on the conveyor and may be designed to be self-cleaning. Depending on the design of the poles. these units can be either highor low-intensity devices.These devices operate in either a continuous or a cyclic manner. and the drum separator can operate with either dry or wet feeds. drums and pulleys have become the most common types of magnetic separators. the same unit can produce selective separations with different products by using different pole gaps and field strengths.75 m/s). Although these units have relatively low capacities.6 m. Drum Magnetic Separators: Since Thomas Edison invented and developed the magnetic pulley for the concentration of nickel ore.8/1. Crossbelt magnetic separators are based on the same principle as lifting magnets. These devices can be built with either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. pulley drums rotate.

Potential Applications of Magnetic Separators: .