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**1007/s00170-004-2240-2
**

ORI GI NAL ARTI CLE

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2006) 27: 738–746

Fakher Chaari · Tahar Fakhfakh · Riadh Hbaieb · Jamel Louati · Mohamed Haddar

Inﬂuence of manufacturing errors on the dynamic behavior of planetary gears

Received: 27 January 2004 / Accepted: 21 April 2004 / Published online: 23 February 2005

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Abstract Planetary gears are widely used in the transmissions of

helicopters, automobiles, aircraft engines, etc. They have substan-

tial advantages such as compactness and a large torque-to-weight

ratio. In this work, a plane model of a planetary gear was inves-

tigated. The energetic Lagrange formulation was used to recover

the equations of motion of the system. A modal analysis was per-

formed, and the inﬂuence of gyroscopic effect in particular was

scrutinized. The dynamic response was computed by an iterative

spectral method. The excitation is induced by time-varying the

gearmesh stiffness. The cases of a healthy planetary gear and one

with the presence of eccentricity and proﬁle error were compared.

The inﬂuence on the transmission ratio was also studied.

Keywords Eccentricity · Gearmesh · Modal analysis ·

Planetary gears · Proﬁle error · Spectral analysis

1 Introduction

In aerospace and automotive applications, transmissions that in-

clude planetary gear sets are widely used. The main advantages

of this transmission is its compactness and its large torque-to-

weight ratio. As with every transmission, including gear pairs,

planetary gears develop a noise induced by the gearmesh of the

sun with the planets and of the planets with the ring. On the other

hand, planetary gears may exhibit undesirable dynamic behav-

ior resulting in added noise, acoustic emissions, and unaccept-

able performance characteristics. These emissions are greatest

when the transmission works in poor conditions (proﬁle errors

on teeth, run-out errors, teeth faults, etc.). In addition, the gy-

roscopic effect induced by the carrier rotational speed is an im-

portant parameter that alters the vibratory response. Therefore,

understanding the dynamic behavior of a planetary gear is use-

F. Chaari (u) · T. Fakhfakh · R. Hbaieb · J. Louati · M. Haddar

Mechanics Modeling and Production Research Unit,

Ecole Nationale d’Ing´ enieurs de Sfax,

BP. W. 3038, Sfax, Tunisia

E-mail: fakher.attt@gnet.tn

Tel.: +216-74-274088

Fax: +216-74-275595

ful in predicting its failure and its noise in the context of the

transmission system as a whole.

The literature on planetary gear dynamics emphasizes highly

idealized Lumped-parameter modeling wherein the gears are

rigid bodies interconnected by springs representing teeth in mesh

and support bearings. Cunliffe et al. [1], Kahraman [2], and Lin

and Parker [3] studied free vibration. Kahraman [2] used two-

and three-dimensional models to examine the dynamic response.

Saada and Velex [4] used an FEM model of the train to com-

pute the response. Much literature has attested to the fact that

a major goal in reducing gear noise is to reduce the transmission

error. This error is deﬁned as the nonconjugacy of the gear pair

resulting in a difference of the output gear’s position from where

it would be if the gear teeth were perfect. Its major causes are

manufacturing and assembly imperfections and the deﬂection of

gear teeth. Eccentricities and proﬁle imperfections usually occur

in the manufacturing process; Kharaman [2] introduces these er-

rors as displacements modeled on the line of action. It was shown

that the signal components of defects modulate the amplitude or

the frequency of the perfect system response.

In this work, numerical analysis of a single-stage planetary

gear without defects and with proﬁle and eccentricity errors is pre-

sented. First, we develop a plane model of the planetary gear with

three degrees of freedom per element. This model involves three

types of modes: rotational, translational, and planet modes. The

inﬂuence of the gyroscopic effect was analytically scrutinized,

whichshowedthe bifurcationof translational modes due tothis ef-

fect. Dynamic responses of the model are developed using a spec-

tral iterative method, which has the outstanding propriety of di-

rectly giving the frequency response. The cases of perfect and de-

fective teeth with proﬁle and eccentricity errors were computed.

Comparisons of the signal responses before and after intro-

ducing these defects are made in order to outline their features.

2 Model of the train

We are investigating a problem of plane vibration of a one-stage

planetary gear train with N planets, as presented in Fig. 1. The

739

Fig. 1. Model of the train

sun (s), ring (r), carrier (c), and planets ( p) are considered as

rigid bodies.

Bearings are modeled by linear springs. The gearmesh is

modeled by linear springs acting on the lines of action. Each com-

ponent has three degrees of freedom: two translations u

i

, v

j

and

one rotation w

j

, with w

j

= r

j

θ

j

( j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N); r

j

is the

base radius. Damping is not considered here; nevertheless, it can

be introduced in parallel with gearmesh and bearing stiffness.

Radial and tangential coordinates u

p

, v

p

describe planet de-

ﬂections; e

sp

(t) and e

rp

(t) represent the transmission error of the

sun-planet gearmesh and the planet-ring gearmesh, respectively.

Translations are measured with respect to the frame (O,

i ,

j,

k) ﬁxed to the carrier and rotating with a constant angular

speed Ω

c

in relation to a stationary reference frame. Circum-

ferential planet positions are speciﬁed by the ﬁxed angles ϕ

p

measured relatively to the rotating frame with ϕ

1

= 0.

The displacements δ

sp

and δ

sp

along the lines of action are

expressed by [5]:

δ

sp

= v

s

cos ϕ

sp

−u

s

sin ϕ

sp

−u

p

sin α

s

−v

p

cos α

s

+w

s

+w

p

+e

sp

(t) (1)

δ

rp

= v

r

cos ϕ

rp

−u

c

sin ϕ

rp

+u

p

sin α

r

−v

p

cos α

r

+w

r

−w

p

+e

rp

(t) (2)

with ϕ

sp

= ϕ

p

−α

s

and ϕ

rp

= ϕ

p

+α

r

; α

s

and α

r

respectively

denote the pressure angles of the sun and the ring gears.

Applying Lagrange formulation allow us to recover the equa-

tions of motions of the 3N +9 degrees of freedom of the system.

Assembling the equations in matrix form leads to the global

equation of motion of the system:

M ¨ x +Ω

c

G ˙ x +

_

K

b

+ K

e

(t) −Ω

2

c

K

Ω

_

x = T + F(t) (3)

where x represents the vector of the degrees of freedom. It is

expressed by:

x =

_

u

c

, v

c

, w

c

, u

r

, v

r

, w

r

, u

s

, v

s

, w

s

, u

1

, v

1

, w

1

, . . .,

u

N

, v

N

, w

N

_

T

(4)

M represents the mass matrix. It is expressed by:

M =

⎡

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

M

c

0 0 0 0 0

0 M

r

0 0 0 0

0 0 M

s

0 0 0

0 0 0 M

1

0 0

0 0 0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 0 · · · M

N

⎤

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

with M

j

=

⎡

⎣

m

j

0 0

0 m

j

0

0 0 I

j

/r

2

j

⎤

⎦

, j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N

I

j

is the inertial moment of the jth element with respect to its

rotational axis.

The matrix G, which is the gyroscopic matrix, can be ex-

pressed by:

G =

⎡

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

G

c

0 0 0 0 0

0 G

r

0 0 0 0

0 0 G

s

0 0 0

0 0 0 G

1

0 0

0 0 0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 0 · · · G

N

⎤

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

with G

j

=

⎡

⎣

0 −2m

j

0

2m

j

0 0

0 0 0

⎤

⎦

, j = c, r, s, 1, . . ., N

The bearing stiffness matrix K

b

is written as:

K

b

=

⎡

⎣

K

cb

0 0

0 K

rb

0

0 0 K

sb

⎤

⎦

, where K

jb

=

⎡

⎣

k

ju

0 0

0 k

jv

0

0 0 k

jw

⎤

⎦

and k

ju

, k

jv

, k

jw

represent the bearing stiffness along the three

degrees of freedom: j = c, r, s.

The centripetal stiffness K

Ω

matrix is expressed by:

K

Ω

=

⎡

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

K

Ωc

0 0 0 0 0

0 K

Ωr

0 0 0 0

0 0 K

Ωs

0 0 0

0 0 0 K

Ω1

0 0

0 0 0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 0 . . . K

ΩN

⎤

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

,

where K

Ωj

=

⎡

⎣

m

j

0 0

0 m

j

0

0 0 0

⎤

⎦

The gearmeshstiffness matrixis time-varying. Generally, a square

waveform is adopted to express this variation [6]; the maximum

740

value represents the gearmesh stiffness of two pairs in contact, the

minimum value represents single-pair gearmesh stiffness. It can

be divided into a mean matrix and a time varying matrix:

K

e

(t) = K + K(t) (5)

K

e

(t) is expressed by:

K

e

(t) =

⎡

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

K

p

c1

0 0 K

1

c2

· · · K

N

c2

0

K

p

r1

0 K

1

r2

· · · K

N

r2

0 0

K

p

s1

K

1

s2

· · · K

N

s2

K

1

c2

K

1

r2

K

1

s2

K

1

0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 0

.

.

. 0

K

N

c2

K

N

r2

K

N

s2

0 0 K

N

⎤

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

The components of this matrix are:

K

p

= K

p

c3

+ K

p

r3

+ K

p

s3

, K

p

c3

=

⎡

⎣

k

p

0 0

0 k

p

0

0 0 0

⎤

⎦

,

K

p

s3

= k

sp

(t)

⎡

⎣

sin

2

α

s

cos α

s

sin α

s

−sinα

s

cos α

s

sin α

s

cos

2

α

s

−cos α

s

−sin α

s

−cos α

s

1

⎤

⎦

,

K

p

r3

= k

rp

(t)

⎡

⎣

sin

2

α

r

−cos α

r

sin α

r

−sinα

r

−cos α

r

sin α

r

cos

2

α

r

cos α

r

−sin α

r

cos α

r

1

⎤

⎦

,

K

p

c1

= k

p

⎡

⎣

1 0 −sin ϕ

p

0 1 cos ϕ

p

−sin ϕ

p

cos ϕ

p

1

⎤

⎦

,

K

p

r1

= k

rp

(t)

⎡

⎣

sin

2

ϕ

rp

−cos ϕ

rp

cos α

r

sin ϕ

rp

−cos ϕ

rp

cos α

r

cos

2

ϕ

rp

cos ϕ

rp

sin ϕ

rp

cos ϕ

rp

1

⎤

⎦

,

K

p

s1

= k

sp

(t)

⎡

⎣

sin

2

ϕ

sp

−cos ϕ

sp

sin ϕ

sp

−sin ϕ

sp

−cos ϕ

sp

sin ϕ

sp

cos

2

ϕ

sp

cos ϕ

sp

−sin ϕ

sp

cos ϕ

sp

1

⎤

⎦

,

K

p

c2

= k

p

⎡

⎣

−cos ϕ

p

sin ϕ

p

0

−sin ϕ

p

−cos ϕ

p

0

0 −1 0

⎤

⎦

,

K

p

r2

= k

rp

(t)

⎡

⎣

−sin ϕ

rp

sin α

r

sin ϕ

rp

cos α

r

sin ϕ

rp

cos ϕ

rp

sin α

r

−cos ϕ

rp

cos α

r

−cos ϕ

rp

sin α

r

−cos α

r

−1

⎤

⎦

,

K

p

s2

= k

sp

(t)

⎡

⎣

sin ϕ

sp

sin α

s

sin ϕ

sp

cos α

s

−sinϕ

sp

−cos ϕ

sp

sin α

s

−cos ϕ

sp

cos α

s

−cos ϕ

sp

−sin α

s

−cos α

s

1

⎤

⎦

.

The external torques applied to the system are C

c

, C

r

, C

s

on the

carrier, the ring, and the sun (time constant), respectively. The

corresponding forces are:

T(t) = 0, 0, T

c

, 0, 0, T

r

, 0, 0, T

s

, 0, . . ., 0

T

where T

j

= C

j

/r

j

, j = c, r, s.

F(t) is the exciting force induced by the transmission error. It

can be written as:

F(t) = 0, F

c

, F

s

, F

1

, . . ., F

N

T

Its components are expressed by:

F

c

= k

rp

(t)e

rp

(t)

_

sin ϕ

rp

, −cos ϕ

rp

, −1

_

T

F

s

= k

sp

(t)e

sp

(t)

_

sin ϕ

sp

, −cos ϕ

sp

, −1

_

T

F

p

= k

rp

(t)e

rp

(t) −sinα

r

, sin α

r

, 1

T

+k

sp

(t)e

sp

(t) sin α

s

, cos α

s

, −1

T

, p = 1. . .N

3 Modal analysis

To compute the eigenvalues, only the mean value K of K

e

(t) is

considered. For low speeds of the carrier, the gyroscopic effect

can be neglected, whereas for high speeds, it must be taken into

account. The transmission error is considered here.

3.1 Gyroscopic effect neglected

The equation of the movement can be written as:

M ¨ x +

_

K

b

+ K

_

x = T (6)

The eigenvalue problem is:

ω

2

i

Mφ

i

=

_

K

b

+ K

_

φ

i

(7)

where φ

i

is the eigenvalue vector and ω

i

the corresponding

eigenfrequency.

The planetary gear train considered has a ﬁxed ring and four

satellites. The input element is the sun gear and the output elem-

ent is the carrier. In case 1 of Table 2, some eigenfrequencies of

this train having parameters speciﬁed in Table 1 are presented.

Remarkable modal properties are recovered for this transmis-

sion set [3]. They are summed up as follows:

• Six distinct natural frequencies. The corresponding eigenval-

ues show purely rotational movement of the carrier, the ring,

Table 1. Parameters of the planetary gear model

Sun Ring Carrier Planet

Teeth number 30 70 – 20

Module 1.7 1.7 1.7

Teeth width (mm) 25 25 25

Mass (kg) 0.46 0.588 3 0.177

I/r

2

(kg) 0.272 0.759 1.5 0.1

Base radius (m) 0.024 0.056 – 0.016

Helix angle 0

◦

0

◦

0

◦

Gearmesh stiffness (N/m) k

Sp

= k

rp

= 2.10

8

Bearing stiffness (N/m) k

p

= k

Su,v

= k

ru,v

= 10

8

Torsional stiffness (N/m) k

rw

= 10

9

; k

Sw

= k

Cw

= 0

Pressure angle α

S

= α

r

= 21.34

◦

741

Table 2. Eigenfrequencies for the two cases of neglected and non-neglected

gyroscopic effect (in Hz)

Mode type Case 1: Case 2: Case 3:

Ω

c

= 0 Ω

c

= 857 rpm Ω

c

= 1285 rpm

1986 1981

Translational 1998

2010 2015

Rotational 3166 3166 3167

3934 3933

Translational 3938

3942 3943

Planet 7998 7998 7998

Rotational 8889 8889 8889

Planet 10490 10490 10490

and the sun. The four satellites move identically and in phase.

These modes are called rotational modes.

• Six natural frequencies having a multiplicity m = 2. The car-

rier, the ring, and the sun have pure translational movement

in the corresponding modes. These modes are called transla-

tional modes.

• Three distinct natural frequencies. The carrier, the ring, and

the sun do not move; only motion of the planets occurs. The

corresponding vibratory modes are called planet modes.

Examples of modal deﬂections are shown in Fig. 2.

3.2 Sensitivity of eigenvalues to carrier angular speed

In this section, the gyroscopic matrix will be taken into account

in the studied system. The equation of motion is:

M ¨ x +Ω

c

G ˙ x +

_

K

b

+ K −Ω

2

c

K

Ω

_

x = T + F(t) (8)

Fig. 2. Modal deﬂections for the three types of modes

The corresponding eigenvalue problem is:

_

−ω

2

i

M+ jΩ

c

Gω

i

+

_

K

b

+ K −Ω

2

c

K

Ω

__

φ

i

= 0 (9)

In this problem, equations are coupled due to the antisymmet-

ric gyroscopic matrix G in addition to the symmetric stiffness

matrix. This effect is induced by the angular carrier speed and

results in an alteration observed in the dynamic behavior of the

system.

To show the inﬂuence of the gyroscopic effect on the eigen-

values, a study of eigensensitivity to carrier angular speed is

made in this section.

Problems of eigensensitivity have been studied extensively in

the literature [7, 8]. The main scope of this study is a follow-up

of the variation of eigenvalues with respect to model parame-

ters. In our case, an important parameter that alters the vibratory

response is the gyroscopic effect, which occurs as the carrier an-

gular speed Ω

c

increases.

The scripts ( )

**denote the ﬁrst derivative of the eigenvalues
**

with respect to Ω

c

. Let an eigenvalue ω

i

having a multiplicity

m and Γ = [γ

1

, . . ., γ

m

] be the corresponding eigenvectors with

norm Γ

T

MΓ = I

m×m

. The derivation of Eq. 9 with respect to Ω

c

yields:

_

K −ω

2

i

M + jΩ

c

Gω

i

_

φ

i

+

_

−2ω

i

ω

i

M + jω

i

G + jΩ

c

Gω

i

_

φ

i

= 0 (10)

if Ω

c

= 0 we get:

_

K −ω

2

i

M

_

φ

i

=

_

2ω

i

ω

i

M− jω

i

G

_

φ

i

= f (11)

f is a Hermitian eigenvalue [7] with φ

i

= Γa

i

. Multiplying the

left side of

_

2ω

i

ω

i

M− jω

i

G

_

φ

i

by Γ

T

gives:

Γ

T

i

_

2ω

i

ω

i

M − jω

i

G

_

Γ

i

a

i

= 0 (12)

2ω

i

Γ

T

i

MΓ

i

a

i

= jΓ

T

i

GΓ

i

a

i

(13)

The Hermitian eigenvalue problem is:

Da

i

= ω

i

a

i

with D =

1

2

jΓ

T

GΓ (14)

The eigenfrequency ω

i

at a given carrier speed Ω

c

is obtained

by the ﬁrst order Taylor expansion:

ω

i

−ω

i0

= (Ω

c

−Ω

c0

) ω

i

(15)

If Ω

c0

= 0 and ω

i0

is the corresponding eigenfrequency, we

have:

ω

i

= ω

i0

+Ω

c

ω

i

(16)

For the studied case of the planetary gear, the three types of

modes are recovered:

742

Fig. 3. Variation of eigenfrequencies with respect to carrier speed

• For rotational modes, the eigenfrequencies are distinct, and

we always have γ

T

i

Gγ

i

= 0. Then applying Eq. 14, we get

ω

i

= 0, which implies that rotational modes are not sensitive

to the variation of Ω

c

.

• For planet modes and for a group of eigenvectors γ

1

. . .γ

m

,

we always get γ

T

i

Gγ

i

= 0 and γ

T

i

Gγ

j

= 0, which implies

also that planet modes are not sensitive to the variation of Ω

c

.

• For translational modes, which are in pairs (having eigenvec-

tors γ

1

et γ

2

):

ω

i1

=

1

2

γ

T

1

Gγ

2

and ω

i2

=

1

2

γ

T

2

Gγ

1

= −ω

i1

Then ω

i1,2

= ±

1

2

γ

1

Gγ

2

. (17)

In cases 2 and 3 of Table 2, we present the evolution of eigen-

frequencies due to the gyroscopic effect for an angular speed of

the carrier Ω

c

= 1285 rpm and Ω

c

= 857 rpm.

We note that for high speeds of the carrier, the translational

eigenfrequencies bifurcate into two distinct ones, whereas planet

and rotational eigenfrequencies remain constant. The bifurcation

increases as Ω

c

increases.

Figure 3 represents this bifurcation for a set of carrier speeds

varying up to 4000 rpm and for the three types of modes. Modes

(2, 3), (4, 5), (6, 7), and (11, 12) are translational modes. Modes

(8, 10) are rotational modes. Mode (9) is a planet mode.

4 Dynamic response

4.1 Resolution method

Several diagrams of integration of the Eq. 3 are found in litera-

ture. The most well-known is the implicit algorithm of Newmark.

However the solution is always given in the time domain, and

the frequency response is obtained by the Fourier transform. This

method needs initial conditions and signiﬁcant calculation time.

The use of Fourier space is an interesting alternative for the

survey of dynamic behavior of the planetary gear. The method

developed by Perret-Liaudet [9], gives the response directly in

the frequency domain. A suitable transformation of the equation

of motion is made: the response is divided into a DC component

x

0

and a dynamic component x

d

:

x = x

0

+x

d

(18)

The static response is obtained from the equation:

¯

Kx

0

= T (19)

where

¯

K is the mean value of the stiffness matrix of the system

expressed by:

¯

K = K

b

+ K −Ω

2

c

K

Ω

(20)

where K is given by Eq. 5.

The contribution of the transmission error will be added later.

The excitation is due to the time-varying of gearmesh stiffness.

A proportional damping is considered [10]

C = 0.03M +0.03K (21)

Rewriting Eq. 8 by taking in account the transformation

yields:

M

_

¨ x

0

+ ¨ x

d

_

+(Ω

c

G +C) ( ˙ x

0

+ ˙ x

d

)

+

_

K

p

+ K + K(t) −Ω

2

c

K

Ω

_

(x

0

+x

d

) = T (22)

The dynamic component of the response x

d

can be represented

by the generalized coordinates q

d

, so we can write:

x = x

0

+φq

d

(23)

Rearranging Eq. 22 by eliminating of the static component and

taking in account Eq. 23 gives:

φ

T

Mφ ¨ q

d

+φ

T

(Ω

c

G +C) φ ˙ q

d

+φ

T

_

K

p

+ K

e

(t) −Ω

2

c

K

Ω

_

φq

d

= −φ

T

K(t)x

0

(24)

Writing Eq. 24 in the frequency domain yields:

¨ q

d

(ω) = H(ω)

_

¨t(ω) − jωΩ

c

3(N+3)

m=1;k=1

_

φ

T

Gφ

_

mk

¨q

dk

(ω)

−

3(N+3)

m=1;k=1

+∞

_

−∞

e

−jωt

_

φ

T

K(t)φ

_

mk

q

dk

(t)dt

_

(25)

where ¨ q

d

(ω) represents the Fourier transform of q

d

,

H(ω) =

_

−ω

2

φ

T

Mφ+φ

T

¯

Kφ+ jωφ

T

Cφ

_

−1

, (26)

and ¨t

j

(ω) represents the Fourier transform of φ

T

K(t)x

0

.

743

Eq. 25 can be written as:

¨ q

d

(ω) = H(ω)

_

¨t(ω) − jωΩ

c

φ

T

Gφ¨ q

d

(ω) −

¨

K(ω) ⊗ ¨ q

d

(ω)

_

(27)

where ⊗ denotes convolution.

¨

K(ω) is the Fourier transform of

φ

T

K(t)φ.

The resolution is driven iteratively by successive approxima-

tions beginning with an initial solution given by:

¨ q

d

(0)

(ω) = H(ω)¨t(ω) (28)

The operand ∆ is introduced:

∆(•) = −H(ω)

_

jωΩ

c

φ

T

Gφ(•) +

¨

K(ω) ⊗(•)

_

(29)

Applying this to Eq. 27, we get:

¨ q

d

(ω) = ¨ q

d

(0)

(ω) +∆( ¨ q

d

(ω)) (30)

By successive replacement of ¨ q

d

(ω) and a truncation to order

“h,” we have:

¨ q

d

(ω)

(h)

=

(+h)

k=0

∆

(k)

_

¨ q

d

(0)

(ω)

_

(31)

where:

_

∆

(0)

_

¨ q

d

(0)

(ω)

_

= ¨ q

d

(0)

(ω)

∆

(k+1)

(•) = −H(ω)

_

jωΩ

c

φ

T

Gφ∆

(k)

(•) +

¨

K(ω) ⊗∆

(k)

(•)

_

(32)

Fig. 4a,b. Frequency re-

sponse (a) and time re-

sponse (b) of the dynamic

component of the carrier

bearing displacement ( f

e

=

1000 Hz)

Fig. 5a,b. Frequency re-

sponse (a) and time re-

sponse (b) of the dynamic

component of the ﬁrst planet

bearing tangential displace-

ment ( f

e

= 1500 Hz)

The iterations are stopped and the frequency solution is obtained

by reaching an imposed small error between iterations.

4.2 Dynamic response of a healthy planetary gear

The ﬁxed carrier planetary gear is supposed to be healthy. There

are transmission errors in the system F(t) = 0. The simulations

are done with two gearmesh frequencies f

e

= 1000 Hz (Ω

c

=

857 rpm) and f

e

= 1500 Hz (Ω

c

= 1285 rpm). A constant torque

of 1000 Nm is applied to sun gear; N = 4. The response on the

different bearings will be discussed.

Figure 4 represents the dynamic component of the frequency

response and the time response registered on the carrier (output

element).

Figure 5 represents the dynamic component of the frequency

response and the time response registered on the bearing of the

ﬁrst planet.

It is found that the frequency response is dominated by the

gearmesh frequency and its harmonics. It is noticed that for

a healthy train, the carrier bearing is not loaded much. How-

ever, the planet bearing is loaded much more, especially in

the tangential direction. The input torque is transmitted through

the rotational degrees of freedom, which explains the light dis-

placement on the sun and carrier bearings (e.g., the carrier

bearing response given by the equation of motion isn’t di-

rectly affected by gearmesh variation but is lightly inﬂuenced by

the coupling terms due to other degree-of-freedom responses).

In general, perfect manufactured planetary gears have a low

vibratory level.

744

4.3 Effect of run-out error on dynamic response

The transmission is now assumed to have an eccentricity on the

sun gear. The eccentricity expresses the difference between the

theoretical and the real rotational axis (Fig. 6). This defect is

introduced by adding a transmission error modeled as displace-

ment on the line of action of the sun-planet gearmesh.

The introduction of this displacement in the equation of

motion yields to an exciting force, which represents an ampli-

tude modulation of the gearmesh stiffness by the eccentricity

error [11, 12].

Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the eccentricity on the sun gear

Fig. 7a,b. Frequency re-

sponse of the dynamic com-

ponent of the tangential dis-

placement of the bearing of

the second planet (a) and

the corresponding time sig-

nal (b) for e

s

=20 µm ( f

e

=

1500 Hz)

Fig. 8a,b. Frequency re-

sponse of the dynamic com-

ponent of the displacement

of the bearing of the carrier

(a) and the corresponding

time signal (b) for e

s

=

200 µm ( f

e

= 1500 Hz)

It is expressed by:

F(t) = e

sn

(t)K

e

(t) (33)

e

sn

(t) = e

s

sin

_

2π f

e

Z

s

t +ξ

sn

_

(34)

where e

s

is the eccentricity modulus, Z

s

is the tooth number of

the sun, and ξ

sn

is the phase difference between sun and planets

gearmesh. The defect frequency is:

f

d

=

f

e

Z

s

(35)

Figure 7 represents the response for an eccentricity e

s

=

20 µm of the dynamic component of the ﬁrst planet bearing’s

tangential displacement.

We note an amplitude modulation of the gearmesh signal by

the eccentricity signal, which results into two sidebands around

the gearmesh frequency and its harmonics in addition of the pri-

mary defect frequency f

d

.

For the critical value of 200 µm, the gearmesh signal will be

drowned in the defect signal and the transmission will work very

poorly as shown on Figs. 8 and 9. All of the bearings will be af-

fected due to the severity of the defect, especially those of the

planets due to the exciting force expressed by Eq. 33.

4.4 Effect of a proﬁle error on the dynamic response

Generally, proﬁle errors are induced by the manufacturing pro-

cess, And they result in imperfections of the geometry of the

745

Fig. 9a,b. Frequency re-

sponse of the dynamic com-

ponent of the radial dis-

placement of the bearing of

the second planet (a) and

the corresponding time sig-

nal (b) for e

s

= 200 µm

( f

e

= 1500 Hz)

tooth and deviations from the perfect involute shape [13–15].

The defect considered here is similar for all teeth. The defect

frequency is equal to that of gearmesh f

e

.

Figure 10 is a schematic diagram of a proﬁle error.

As for the eccentricity, the proﬁle defect introduced on the

sun gear is modeled by a displacement on the line of action of the

sun-planet gearmesh. An exciting force F(t) represents an ampli-

Fig. 10. Schematic diagram of a proﬁle error

Fig. 11a–c. Inﬂuence of a pro-

ﬁle error on the dynamic com-

ponent of the carrier bearing

displacement spectrum ( f

e

=

1000 Hz).

a Healthy gear. b Proﬁle error

of 20 µm. c Proﬁle error of

200 µm

tude modulation of the gearmesh stiffness signal by the proﬁle

error signal E

s

(t).

It is expressed by:

F(t) = E

sn

(t)K

e

(t) (36)

E

s

(t) =

∞

m=1

E

sm

sin (2πm f

e

t +ξ

sn

) (37)

E

sm

represents the proﬁle error modulus.

Figures 11 and 12 represent the difference between the per-

turbations of the responses for a healthy system and for a system

with proﬁle errors on the sun gear teeth. Simulations are done

with proﬁle errors of 20 µm and 200 µm. The gearmesh frequen-

cies are always f

e

= 1000 Hz or f

e

= 1500 Hz.

We notice the increase of the amplitude of the primary

gearmesh frequency due to the amplitude modulation effect. The

amplitudes of the harmonics change slightly.

746

Fig. 12a–c. Inﬂuence of a proﬁle

error on the dynamic compon-

ent of the second planet bearing

displacement spectrum ( f

e

=

1500 Hz).

a Healthy gear. b Proﬁle error of

20 µm. c Proﬁle error of 200 µm

5 Conclusions

In this paper, a plane model of a planetarygear trainwas developed

in order to investigate the inﬂuence of manufacturing errors on

the dynamic behavior of a planetary gear. The modal analysis of

the adoptedmodel showedparticular eigenfrequencies: rotational,

translational, and planet modes. Only translational modes are af-

fected by gyroscopic effects – the frequencies bifurcate into two

distinct frequencies –whereas rotational and planet didn’t change.

A spectral iterative method was used to obtain the dynamic

response. This method was efﬁcient in calculation times. The

excitation was induced by gearmesh stiffness. A low vibratory

level was observed for a healthy, perfectly designed and mounted

planetary gear. The presence of eccentricity or proﬁle errors

signiﬁcantly alters the dynamic behavior. A modulation of the

gearmesh signal by the defect signal is observed for an eccen-

tricity – this produced sidebands around gearmesh and around its

harmonics. An increase of the gearmesh frequency amplitude was

found for a proﬁle error. High values of these errors, which mean

poorly manufactured gears, will have dramatic consequences on

the transmission. These surveys allow us to get a ﬁrst idea of the

characterization of the dynamic behavior of planetary gears in

presence of such manufacturing errors. Future work will include

investigating the inﬂuence of assembling errors in the model.

References

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epicyclic gears. J Eng Ind 94:578–584

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2001

. r j is the base radius. ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 .. Bearings are modeled by linear springs. 1. which is the gyroscopic matrix. . r. u 1 . It is expressed by: x = u c . Applying Lagrange formulation allow us to recover the equations of motions of the 3N + 9 degrees of freedom of the system. ⎦ . ⎦ ⎣ 0 . the maximum (1) (3) . j = c. . s. αs and αr respectively denote the pressure angles of the sun and the ring gears. ws . a square waveform is adopted to express this variation [6]. vs . The centripetal stiffness K Ω matrix is expressed by: ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 0 K Ωc 0 ⎢ 0 K Ωr 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 K Ωs 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ KΩ = ⎢ 0 0 0 K Ω1 0 0 ⎥. i. 0 0 0 0 · · · GN ⎤ ⎡ 0 −2m j 0 0 0⎦ . . . and planets ( p) are considered as rigid bodies. vN . N with G j = ⎣2m j 0 0 0 The bearing stiffness matrix K b is written as: ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ 0 K cb 0 k ju 0 0 K b = ⎣ 0 K rb 0 ⎦ . Translations are measured with respect to the frame (O. N 0 0 I j /r j2 Fig. 1. w1 . can be expressed by: ⎡ ⎤ Gc 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 Gr 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 Gs 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ G = ⎢ 0 0 0 G1 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ . Generally. ⎥ . ⎦ .. u r . It is expressed by: ⎤ ⎡ Mc 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 Mr 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 Ms 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ M = ⎢ 0 0 0 M1 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ . 1. it can be introduced in parallel with gearmesh and bearing stiffness. Damping is not considered here. . vr . . . The matrix G. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ . Circumferential planet positions are speciﬁed by the ﬁxed angles ϕ p measured relatively to the rotating frame with ϕ1 = 0. v1 . Radial and tangential coordinates u p . u s . N ). 0 0 0 0 . . where K jb = ⎣ 0 k jv 0 ⎦ 0 0 K sb 0 0 k jw and k ju . 0 0 0 0 · · · MN ⎡ ⎤ 0 mj 0 with M j = ⎣ 0 m j 0 ⎦ . . vc . wr . k jw represent the bearing stiffness along the three degrees of freedom: j = c. The displacements δsp and δsp along the lines of action are expressed by [5]: δsp = vs cos ϕsp − u s sin ϕsp − u p sin αs − v p cos αs + ws + w p + esp (t) δr p = vr cos ϕr p − u c sin ϕr p + u p sin αr − v p cos αr + wr − w p + er p (t) (2) with ϕsp = ϕ p − αs and ϕr p = ϕ p + αr . u N .. nevertheless. Assembling the equations in matrix form leads to the global equation of motion of the system: 2 M x + Ωc G x + K b + K e (t) − Ωc K Ω x = T + F(t) ¨ ˙ I j is the inertial moment of the jth element with respect to its rotational axis. 1. k jv .. . K ΩN ⎤ ⎡ mj 0 0 where K Ω j = ⎣ 0 m j 0⎦ 0 0 0 The gearmesh stiffness matrix is time-varying.739 where x represents the vector of the degrees of freedom. r. wc . ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 . . . esp (t) and er p (t) represent the transmission error of the sun-planet gearmesh and the planet-ring gearmesh. . wN T (4) M represents the mass matrix. carrier (c). s... r. j = c.. s. k) ﬁxed to the carrier and rotating with a constant angular speed Ωc in relation to a stationary reference frame. s. . j.. respectively. v j and one rotation w j . Each component has three degrees of freedom: two translations u i . . with w j = r j θ j ( j = c. Model of the train sun (s). 0 0 0 . . ring (r). v p describe planet deﬂections. r. The gearmesh is modeled by linear springs acting on the lines of action..

024 0◦ Ring Carrier Planet The external torques applied to the system are Cc . . Cr . Tr . k Sw = kCw = 0 α S = αr = 21. ⎣ . 0.. r. − sin αs − cos αs 1 ⎤ ⎡ 2α − cos αr sin αr − sin αr sin r p K r3 = kr p (t) ⎣− cos αr sin αr cos2 αr cos αr ⎦ .5 0. Remarkable modal properties are recovered for this transmission set [3].272 0.. 0 0 0 ⎡ ⎤ − sin ϕsp cos ϕsp ⎦ .. whereas for high speeds.1 0. − cos ϕsp . . K c1 = k p ⎣ 0 − sin ϕ p cos ϕ p 1 ⎤ ⎡ 2ϕ − cos ϕr p cos αr sin ϕr p sin r p p K r1 = kr p (t) ⎣− cos ϕr p cos αr cos2 ϕr p cos ϕr p ⎦ . some eigenfrequencies of this train having parameters speciﬁed in Table 1 are presented.v = kru. respectively.7 25 0. Ts . . 0 −1 0 ⎡ − sin ϕr p sin αr sin ϕr p cos αr p K r2 = kr p (t) ⎣ cos ϕr p sin αr − cos ϕr p cos αr sin αr − cos αr ⎡ sin ϕsp cos αs sin ϕsp sin αs p K s2 = ksp (t) ⎣− cos ϕsp sin αs − cos ϕsp cos αs − sin αs − cos αs p K s1 ⎤ kp 0 0 p K c3 = ⎣ 0 k p 0⎦ .46 0. 1 Table 1. 0. . .177 0. . FN T (5) Its components are expressed by: ··· ··· ··· 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ . 0. cos αs . it must be taken into account. ⎤ sin ϕr p − cos ϕr p ⎦ . only the mean value K of K e (t) is considered. − sin αr cos αr 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 − sin ϕ p p 1 cos ϕ p ⎦ . 3. Tc . the gyroscopic effect can be neglected. 0. . p = 1.7 1. . j = c. . 0 where Tj = C j /r j .108 k p = k Su. . In case 1 of Table 2. . 1 where φi is the eigenvalue vector and ωi the corresponding eigenfrequency.740 value represents the gearmesh stiffness of two pairs in contact. and the sun (time constant).759 1.588 3 0. . The planetary gear train considered has a ﬁxed ring and four satellites. . Cs on the carrier. Parameters of the planetary gear model Sun Teeth number Module Teeth width (mm) Mass (kg) I/r 2 (kg) Base radius (m) Helix angle Gearmesh stiffness (N/m) Bearing stiffness (N/m) Torsional stiffness (N/m) Pressure angle 30 1.1 Gyroscopic effect neglected The equation of the movement can be written as: M x + Kb + K x = T ¨ The eigenvalue problem is: ω2 Mφi = K b + K φi i (7) (6) The components of this matrix are: ⎡ K p = K c3 + K r3 + K s3 . It can be written as: F(t) = 0. −1 . The transmission error is considered here. − cos ϕr p .7 25 25 0. the ring. s.N . N K c2 p K c1 F(t) is the exciting force induced by the transmission error.056 – 0. sin αr . sin ϕr p cos ϕr p 1 − cos ϕsp sin ϕsp sin2 ϕsp ⎣− cos ϕsp sin ϕsp = ksp (t) cos2 ϕsp − sin ϕsp cos ϕsp ⎤ ⎡ − cos ϕ p sin ϕ p 0 p K c2 = k p ⎣ − sin ϕ p − cos ϕ p 0⎦ . 0 ⎦ 0 KN N⎤ K c2 N K r2 ⎥ ⎥ N⎥ K s2 ⎥ ⎥ Fc = kr p (t)er p (t) sin ϕr p . the minimum value represents single-pair gearmesh stiffness. The input element is the sun gear and the output element is the carrier. −1 Fp = kr p (t)er p (t) − sin αr . The corresponding forces are: T(t) = 0. 1 T T T T 0 p K r1 0 1 K r2 . For low speeds of the carrier. 0. ⎡ p K s3 p p p ⎤ cos αs sin αs − sin αs sin2 αs 2α = ksp (t) ⎣cos αs sin αs cos s − cos αs ⎦ . . the ring. Fc . −1 ⎤ − sin ϕsp − cos ϕsp ⎦ .016 0◦ 0◦ k S p = kr p = 2. They are summed up as follows: • Six distinct natural frequencies. N K r2 1 0 K c2 1 0 K r2 p 1 K s1 K s2 1 K s2 K 1 + ksp (t)esp (t) sin αs . F1 . Fs . The corresponding eigenvalues show purely rotational movement of the carrier. −1 Fs = ksp (t)esp (t) sin ϕsp . T 70 – 20 1. It can be divided into a mean matrix and a time varying matrix: K e (t) = K + K(t) K e (t) is expressed by: ⎡ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 K e (t) = ⎢ 1 ⎢ K c2 ⎢ ⎢ . 0.v = 108 krw = 109 . N K s2 0 0 3 Modal analysis To compute the eigenvalues.34◦ .

. and the sun have pure translational movement in the corresponding modes. 3. The equation of motion is: 2 M x + Ωc G x + K b + K − Ωc K Ω x = T + F(t) ¨ ˙ In this problem. These modes are called rotational modes. The derivation of Eq. Eigenfrequencies for the two cases of neglected and non-neglected gyroscopic effect (in Hz) Mode type Case 1: Ωc = 0 1998 3166 3938 7998 8889 10490 Case 2: Ωc = 857 rpm 1986 2010 3166 3934 3942 7998 8889 10490 Case 3: Ωc = 1285 rpm 1981 2015 3167 3933 3943 7998 8889 10490 The corresponding eigenvalue problem is: 2 −ω2 M + jΩc Gωi + K b + K − Ωc K Ω i φi = 0 (9) Translational Rotational Translational Planet Rotational Planet and the sun.. The carrier. The scripts ( ) denote the ﬁrst derivative of the eigenvalues with respect to Ωc .2 Sensitivity of eigenvalues to carrier angular speed In this section. Multiplying the left side of 2ωi ωi M − jωi G φi by Γ T gives: ΓiT 2ωi ωi M − jωi G Γi ai = 0 2ωi ΓiT MΓi ai = jΓiT GΓi ai (12) (13) The Hermitian eigenvalue problem is: Dai = ωi ai with D = 1 T jΓ GΓ 2 (14) The eigenfrequency ωi at a given carrier speed Ωc is obtained by the ﬁrst order Taylor expansion: ωi − ωi0 = (Ωc − Ωc0 ) ωi (15) If Ωc0 = 0 and ωi0 is the corresponding eigenfrequency. and the sun do not move. which occurs as the carrier angular speed Ωc increases. • Three distinct natural frequencies. To show the inﬂuence of the gyroscopic effect on the eigenvalues. . The four satellites move identically and in phase. Examples of modal deﬂections are shown in Fig. This effect is induced by the angular carrier speed and results in an alteration observed in the dynamic behavior of the system. the ring. 2. Modal deﬂections for the three types of modes For the studied case of the planetary gear.741 Table 2. the gyroscopic matrix will be taken into account in the studied system. γm ] be the corresponding eigenvectors with norm Γ T MΓ = Im×m . The corresponding vibratory modes are called planet modes. The main scope of this study is a follow-up of the variation of eigenvalues with respect to model parameters. 9 with respect to Ωc yields: K − ω2 M + jΩc Gωi φi i + −2ωi ωi M + jωi G + jΩc Gωi φi = 0 if Ωc = 0 we get: K − ω2 M φi = 2ωi ωi M − jωi G φi = f i (11) (10) (8) f is a Hermitian eigenvalue [7] with φi = Γai . The carrier. the three types of modes are recovered: . 2. the ring. only motion of the planets occurs. 8]. a study of eigensensitivity to carrier angular speed is made in this section. we have: ωi = ωi0 + Ωc ωi (16) Fig. equations are coupled due to the antisymmetric gyroscopic matrix G in addition to the symmetric stiffness matrix. These modes are called translational modes. Problems of eigensensitivity have been studied extensively in the literature [7. . • Six natural frequencies having a multiplicity m = 2. an important parameter that alters the vibratory response is the gyroscopic effect. In our case. Let an eigenvalue ωi having a multiplicity m and Γ = [γ1 .

(26) and t j (ω) represents the Fourier transform of φ T K(t)x0 . (6. the eigenfrequencies are distinct. 24 in the frequency domain yields: 3(N+3) qd (ω) = H(ω) t(ω) − jωΩc φ T Gφ 4 Dynamic response 4. and (11. 3. which implies also that planet modes are not sensitive to the variation of Ωc . The excitation is due to the time-varying of gearmesh stiffness.03M + 0. 8 by taking in account the transformation yields: M x0 + xd + (Ωc G + C) (x0 + xd ) ˙ ¨ ˙ ¨ 2 + K p + K + K(t) − Ωc K Ω (x0 + xd ) = T (22) 1 Then ωi1. and the frequency response is obtained by the Fourier transform. we present the evolution of eigenfrequencies due to the gyroscopic effect for an angular speed of the carrier Ωc = 1285 rpm and Ωc = 857 rpm. we always get γiT Gγi = 0 and γiT Gγ j = 0. 23 gives: φ T Mφqd + φ T (Ωc G + C) φqd ¨ ˙ 2 + φ T K p + K e (t) − Ωc K Ω φqd = −φ T K(t)x0 (24) Writing Eq.γm . the translational eigenfrequencies bifurcate into two distinct ones. • For translational modes. 3). Then applying Eq. The bifurcation increases as Ωc increases. . 5). . The contribution of the transmission error will be added later. we get ωi = 0. H(ω) = −ω2 φ T Mφ + φ T K φ + jωφ T Cφ −1 . 5. 3 are found in literature. The method − m=1. so we can write: x = x0 + φqd (23) In cases 2 and 3 of Table 2.742 developed by Perret-Liaudet [9]. Variation of eigenfrequencies with respect to carrier speed 2 K = K b + K − Ωc K Ω (20) • For rotational modes. 14. Figure 3 represents this bifurcation for a set of carrier speeds varying up to 4000 rpm and for the three types of modes.03K (21) Rewriting Eq. A proportional damping is considered [10] C = 0. 7). Modes (2. which are in pairs (having eigenvectors γ1 et γ2 ): 1 T ωi1 = γ1 Gγ2 2 1 T and ωi2 = γ2 Gγ1 = −ωi1 2 (17) where K is given by Eq. However the solution is always given in the time domain. This method needs initial conditions and signiﬁcant calculation time. 12) are translational modes. gives the response directly in the frequency domain.k=1−∞ mk qdk (t)dt (25) where qd (ω) represents the Fourier transform of qd .k=1 3(N+3) +∞ − jωt mk qdk (ω) e φ T K(t)φ m=1. A suitable transformation of the equation of motion is made: the response is divided into a DC component x0 and a dynamic component xd : x = x0 + xd The static response is obtained from the equation: K x0 = T (19) (18) where K is the mean value of the stiffness matrix of the system expressed by: Fig. 22 by eliminating of the static component and taking in account Eq. (4. which implies that rotational modes are not sensitive to the variation of Ωc . The most well-known is the implicit algorithm of Newmark. Rearranging Eq.2 = ± γ1 Gγ2 .1 Resolution method Several diagrams of integration of the Eq. We note that for high speeds of the carrier. The use of Fourier space is an interesting alternative for the survey of dynamic behavior of the planetary gear. Mode (9) is a planet mode. • For planet modes and for a group of eigenvectors γ1 . Modes (8. 2 The dynamic component of the response xd can be represented by the generalized coordinates qd . and we always have γiT Gγi = 0. . 10) are rotational modes. whereas planet and rotational eigenfrequencies remain constant.

perfect manufactured planetary gears have a low vibratory level. In general. However. A constant torque of 1000 Nm is applied to sun gear. The input torque is transmitted through the rotational degrees of freedom. Figure 5 represents the dynamic component of the frequency response and the time response registered on the bearing of the ﬁrst planet.g.2 Dynamic response of a healthy planetary gear The ﬁxed carrier planetary gear is supposed to be healthy. the carrier bearing response given by the equation of motion isn’t directly affected by gearmesh variation but is lightly inﬂuenced by the coupling terms due to other degree-of-freedom responses). 25 can be written as: qd (ω) = H(ω) t(ω) − jωΩcφ T Gφqd (ω) − K (ω) ⊗ qd (ω) (27) where ⊗ denotes convolution.. 5a. which explains the light displacement on the sun and carrier bearings (e. especially in the tangential direction. The resolution is driven iteratively by successive approximations beginning with an initial solution given by: qd (0) (ω) = H(ω)t(ω) The operand ∆ is introduced: ∆(•) = −H(ω) jωΩcφ T Gφ(•) + K (ω) ⊗ (•) Applying this to Eq. Frequency response (a) and time response (b) of the dynamic component of the carrier bearing displacement ( f e = 1000 Hz) Fig.b. we get: qd (ω) = qd (0) (ω) + ∆ (qd (ω)) (30) (29) (28) The iterations are stopped and the frequency solution is obtained by reaching an imposed small error between iterations. It is found that the frequency response is dominated by the gearmesh frequency and its harmonics. There are transmission errors in the system F(t) = 0. Figure 4 represents the dynamic component of the frequency response and the time response registered on the carrier (output element). the planet bearing is loaded much more.” we have: qd (ω)(h) = where: ∆(0) qd (0) (ω) = qd (0) (ω) ∆(k+1) (•) = −H(ω) jωΩcφ T Gφ∆(k) (•) + K (ω) ⊗ ∆(k) (•) (32) (+h) k=0 ∆(k) qd (0) (ω) (31) Fig.b.743 Eq. By successive replacement of qd (ω) and a truncation to order “h. 27. N = 4. 4a. K (ω) is the Fourier transform of φ T K(t)φ. 4. It is noticed that for a healthy train. The simulations are done with two gearmesh frequencies f e = 1000 Hz (Ωc = 857 rpm) and fe = 1500 Hz (Ωc = 1285 rpm). Frequency response (a) and time response (b) of the dynamic component of the ﬁrst planet bearing tangential displacement ( f e = 1500 Hz) . the carrier bearing is not loaded much. The response on the different bearings will be discussed.

And they result in imperfections of the geometry of the Fig. 6). 12]. All of the bearings will be affected due to the severity of the defect. For the critical value of 200 µm.b. Schematic diagram of the eccentricity on the sun gear Fig. The eccentricity expresses the difference between the theoretical and the real rotational axis (Fig. 7a. We note an amplitude modulation of the gearmesh signal by the eccentricity signal.4 Effect of a proﬁle error on the dynamic response Generally. 6. 4. the gearmesh signal will be drowned in the defect signal and the transmission will work very poorly as shown on Figs. 8 and 9. It is expressed by: F(t) = esn (t)K e (t) 2π fe esn (t) = es sin t + ξsn Zs (33) (34) where es is the eccentricity modulus.b. The defect frequency is: fd = fe Zs (35) Figure 7 represents the response for an eccentricity es = 20 µm of the dynamic component of the ﬁrst planet bearing’s tangential displacement. especially those of the planets due to the exciting force expressed by Eq. Z s is the tooth number of the sun. proﬁle errors are induced by the manufacturing process. which represents an amplitude modulation of the gearmesh stiffness by the eccentricity error [11. 8a. which results into two sidebands around the gearmesh frequency and its harmonics in addition of the primary defect frequency fd . 33. Frequency response of the dynamic component of the tangential displacement of the bearing of the second planet (a) and the corresponding time signal (b) for es = 20 µm ( f e = 1500 Hz) Fig.3 Effect of run-out error on dynamic response The transmission is now assumed to have an eccentricity on the sun gear. This defect is introduced by adding a transmission error modeled as displacement on the line of action of the sun-planet gearmesh. The introduction of this displacement in the equation of motion yields to an exciting force. and ξsn is the phase difference between sun and planets gearmesh.744 4. Frequency response of the dynamic component of the displacement of the bearing of the carrier (a) and the corresponding time signal (b) for es = 200 µm ( f e = 1500 Hz) .

Schematic diagram of a proﬁle error E sm represents the proﬁle error modulus. a Healthy gear. The defect considered here is similar for all teeth. Fig. An exciting force F(t) represents an ampli- tude modulation of the gearmesh stiffness signal by the proﬁle error signal E s (t). b Proﬁle error of 20 µm. c Proﬁle error of 200 µm . 11a–c. The defect frequency is equal to that of gearmesh f e . 10. Simulations are done with proﬁle errors of 20 µm and 200 µm. As for the eccentricity. Inﬂuence of a proﬁle error on the dynamic component of the carrier bearing displacement spectrum ( f e = 1000 Hz). The gearmesh frequencies are always f e = 1000 Hz or f e = 1500 Hz. the proﬁle defect introduced on the sun gear is modeled by a displacement on the line of action of the sun-planet gearmesh. We notice the increase of the amplitude of the primary gearmesh frequency due to the amplitude modulation effect. Frequency response of the dynamic component of the radial displacement of the bearing of the second planet (a) and the corresponding time signal (b) for es = 200 µm ( f e = 1500 Hz) tooth and deviations from the perfect involute shape [13–15].b. 9a.745 Fig. Figure 10 is a schematic diagram of a proﬁle error. Figures 11 and 12 represent the difference between the perturbations of the responses for a healthy system and for a system with proﬁle errors on the sun gear teeth. It is expressed by: F(t) = E sn (t)K e (t) ∞ (36) (37) E s (t) = m=1 E sm sin (2πm f e t + ξsn ) Fig. The amplitudes of the harmonics change slightly.

J Mech Transm Automat Des 104:1–7 15. Nice. Kahraman A (2002) Inﬂuence of tooth proﬁle modiﬁcation on helical gear durability. and planet modes.746 Fig. J Vib Acoust 118:390–397 8. Kahraman A (1994) Load sharing characteristics of planetary transmissions. b Proﬁle error of 20 µm. c Proﬁle error of 200 µm 5 Conclusions In this paper. J Vib Acoust 121:316–321 4. Chaari F. Cambridge. Friswell MI (1996) The derivatives of repeated eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. Bodas A. Kahraman A (2001) Inﬂuence of carrier and gear manufacturing errors on the static planet load sharing behavior of planetary gear sets. Lin J. The excitation was induced by gearmesh stiffness. J Sound Vib 228(1): 109–128 9. November 15–17 2001 . Wajag P. In: 16ième Congès Français de e e m´ canique. a Healthy gear. Terauchi Y. Perret-Liaudet J (1996) An original method for computing the response of a parametrically excited forced system. Fakhfakh T. A modulation of the gearmesh signal by the defect signal is observed for an eccentricity – this produced sidebands around gearmesh and around its harmonics. Welbourn DB (1974) Dynamic tooth loads in epicyclic gears. 12a–c. High values of these errors. References 1. Kasuba R. Fukuoka. The presence of eccentricity or proﬁle errors signiﬁcantly alters the dynamic behavior. Terauchi Y. Parker RJ (1999) Sensitivity of planetary gear natural frequencies and vibration modes to model parameters. MA. Mech Mach Theory 29:1151–1165 3. which mean poorly manufactured gears. 1–5 September 2003 e 7. ASME Paper 84-DET-229 11. A spectral iterative method was used to obtain the dynamic response. Smith JD. Dohi K (1979) On the relation between the runout errors and the motion of the center of sun gear in a Stoeckicht planetary gear. An increase of the gearmesh frequency amplitude was found for a proﬁle error. Botman M (1984) Load sharing in a planetary gear stage in the presence of gear errors and misalignment. Bull JSME 23(176):315–323 13. ASME J Mech Des 117:241–247 6. a plane model of a planetary gear train was developed in order to investigate the inﬂuence of manufacturing errors on the dynamic behavior of a planetary gear. Parker RG (1999) Analytical characterization of the unique properties of planetary gear free vibration. Hidaka T. perfectly designed and mounted planetary gear. Velex P. will have dramatic consequences on the transmission. Cunliffe F. Only translational modes are affected by gyroscopic effects – the frequencies bifurcate into two distinct frequencies – whereas rotational and planet didn’t change. A low vibratory level was observed for a healthy. Flamand L (1996) Dynamic response of planetary trains to mesh parametric excitations. These surveys allow us to get a ﬁrst idea of the characterization of the dynamic behavior of planetary gears in presence of such manufacturing errors. Bull JSME 22(167):748–754 12. Fujii M (1980) Analysis of dynamic tooth load on planetary gear. Haddar M (2003) Etude num´ rique et exp´ rimene e tale du comportement dynamique d’une transmission par engrenages en pr´ sence de d´ fauts de dentures. August R (1984) Gear mesh stiffness and load sharing in planetary gearing. Future work will include investigating the inﬂuence of assembling errors in the model. In: ASME 4th Power Transmission Conference. This method was efﬁcient in calculation times. Velex P (1995) An extended model for the analysis of the dynamics of planetary trains. In: Proceedings of the JSME International Conference on Motion and Power Transmissions. The modal analysis of the adopted model showed particular eigenfrequencies: rotational. translational. J Eng Ind 94:578–584 2. Japan. ASME J Mech Des 124:501–510 14. Ma P. J Sound Vib 196: 165–177 10. Hidaka T. Lin J. ASME J Mech Des 118:7–14 5. Saada A. Inﬂuence of a proﬁle error on the dynamic component of the second planet bearing displacement spectrum ( f e = 1500 Hz).

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