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ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON AND THE ENGLISH

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ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON

. New York WILLIAM MORROW & COMPANY .. .'*!> . I ! I r ' < : . t ' . ' ' I .' etc. 1 t ill i n SIDNEY DARK Author of 'Five Deans.. ^ * . r I 1 I ' to ' AND-'- ^fM^E CHURCH BY . etc. ARCHBISHGtf DAVIDSO '.% t * u .

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and. life of But the compromise principle. in the ecclesiastical statesmanship with which he has been intimately connected. en pantoufles. To . With him there has never been petty personal ambition. whom crowds acclaim. The Infinite Littleness scenes. behind the and has met men. again as it essential. in steadfastness of purpose and in achievement. must have been tempted to write a book with the title. thanks to his profession. than any of his contemporaries who have been prominent in the government of the English Church or the English State. His long life has been a life of service. Every experienced journalist who. has been admitted. perhaps. a man. during the past twenty-five years. in purity of character. he has been concerned to retain those qualities of the Church of England which have appeared to him to be play the part which. or truckling to the mean in high places. as it seems to me. readiness to of the Great.INTRODUCTION ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON great is. a national Church should play. if it is to seems to him. Archbishop Davidson suggests no such temptation. greater.

In That is audacity.vi INTRODUCTION it understand Dr. secular affairs. But the Apostles were far more audacious. Mussolini and Mustapha Kemal Pasha. That is not likely to be forgotten in an age that has produced Lenin. and such incidental criticism as occurs in the following study of his great career different is in a sense dictated by a vastly of conception of the character the Church from that which the Archbishop himself holds. it is audacity that spells victory. first that he regards the establishment as of importance for the nation itself. In . and so were many of the saints. Davidson's statesmanship. One thing he has always lacked. even more than for the Church and that he is convinced that establishment cannot conis tinue unless the Church finding a place within widely comprehensive. Davidson. I have suggested the qualities of greatness which are apparent in Dr. It is quite impossible for a writer who does not share the Archbishop's ideals to write of his policy without frequent criticism. fold for its the three types of Churchmanship that have dwelt together in more or less amity since the Reformation settlement. necessary to understand that he is is convinced that the Church of England must remain compre- hensive and established.

and his failures are to be attributed to the fact that ' he has rarely found other men with the sweet reasonableness which he himself possesses. have made no attempt at a comprehensive biography. . it is a very great figure that has passed from the centre of the ecclesiastical stage sincere. L. for reading my proofs and for very helpful criticisms. and I have had no access to any private or unpublished papers. a strong in steadfast. perhaps limited sympathy. Ollard. That is the man whom I I have endeavoured to describe in the following pages. intense believer in the power of negotiation. ' But man. but never failing in his eagerness to serve the nation and the Church.INTRODUCTION the Archbishop there is vii a good deal of Fabius and He has always been an nothing of Danton. I have to express my gratitude to my friend. SIDNEY DARK. Canon S. certainly incapable of always understanding the significance of novel movements and unusual demands.

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. THE EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR THE FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER BISHOP OF WINCHESTER .. 110 FRANK WESTON. .245 IX . .CONTENTS CHAP. . . DR. . l88 X. I. . THE BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY . I II. 2Q 53 8l III. .. . VIII. . . . . 165 IX. PAGE THE APPRENTICESHIP .237 INDEX . VI. INTO THE CORRIDOR OF LIFE'S EVEN- TIDE ' . . IV. AND .134 152 . HENSLEY HENSON VII. V. . THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE AND AFTER THE SERVANT OF THE STATE THE LAST FIVE YEARS ' . . KIKUYU .

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Paul's for six been Dean of Westminster for fourteen years and Church had been Dean of years . Davidson's college. Davidson was just twenty-nine. just gone up from Marlborough to Keble the Archbishop of Canterbury was a schoolboy and the Archbishop of York was not born. drove through the gates of Lambeth Palace to take up Thomas Randall Davidson. When he went for the first time to Lambeth. Gore had recently been elected a Fellow of . Kent. life the of the Church was overshadowed by the . a clergyman. young Scottish had been a curate at Dartford. Trinity. Mr. who for three years his position as chaplain-secretary to the Scottish Archbishop. Mr. When Mr. and the present Bishop of London had . years and Newman for another twelve years Dr.CHAPTER I THE APPRENTICESHIP IN April 1877. Stanley had St. Oxford. Davidson began his official career. Liddon was at the height of his fame as a preacher Pusey was to live for another five .

led by Lord Shaftesbury and Lord who were the Sir William Joynson-Hicks and the Sir Thomas Inskip of fifty years ago. whose Presby- terian heart had been outraged by the growing influence of the Tractarian movement. But.2 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON When of Public Worship Regulation Act. commonly believed that the Public Worship Regulation Act was the result of the Protestant It is agitation Cairns. as a matter of fact. and he was eager that the Church should be cleansed of this ' foul thing/ The Queen and Archbishop Tait were described as of ' solely responsible for the Act. with 'its mischievous did not go far trumperies/ as of secondary importance. which Littledale accurately the most unstatesmanlike statute modern times/ The Queen. She wrote to Tait in ' January 1874 : It is clear that the state of the Church. life and practice of the Church England had been revolutionised by the Lincoln Judgment. and her persistence ensured its passage into law. who regarded Ritualism. the Public Worship Regulation Act. the he re- turned to Lambeth in 1903 as Lord Archbishop. devised specifically ' to put down Ritualism/ enough for Lord Shaftesbury. urged the bishops to draw up the Bill. It was the Confessional that disturbed him. the liberties taken and the defiance .

in her thanksgiving for was fervent the defeat of to that party that has done so much undermine the Church. His Cabinet was divided. and the Queen course. Father Tooth was released after first fourteen days. It was preconstituted sided over The Court by Lord Penzance. the Rev. the Queen compliance.THE APPRENTICESHIP shown by the clergy Ritualistic party. anticipating Mr. is so 3 High Church and great that something must of the its be done to check and prevent Disraeli continuation. Of When ' the Act was passed in August. Arthur Tooth. Rosslyn But Tait warned him Mitchell the danger of affronting the Pro- testant feeling of the country. Disraeli commanded obeyed. but among Mr. a party for which the Queen cannot deny that she has the greatest abhorrence/ by the Public Worship Regulation Act soon got to work. Hatcham. at Lambeth. qualification ecclesiastical Four months before Mr. was sent to Horsemonger Gaol for defying Lord Penzance's findings. Davidson's retary duties as Archbishop's sec- was to carry on a long correspondence . whose long for deciding experi- ence as a divorce judge appears to have been his peculiar suits. Davidson arrived of St.' was of indifferent. James's. and to poison the minds of the young and of the higher classes.

one of them. ecclesiastical or to assent to the proposi" is equivalent to shall not. Green." ' tion that ever cause " " shall me wrote Green to Davidson. will were uncomfortably earnest and No existing authority. was then a dying man. the Rev. and. civil. S. and perhaps because his heart had softened or Tait perhaps because. three other clergymen went to gaol. ence. Green ' ' out of gaol. the In the year of Davidson's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council declared the use of wafer bread for Holy Communion illegal. he did all that he could do through Davidson to get ' poor Mr. appointment. said the Guardian.' Other cases followed. with the recalcitrant that it who dared to suppose was first in the duty to obey the Ornaments Rubric Prayer Book of Edward VI rather than his an Act of Parliament which had never received the approval of Convocation. of Miles Platting. in the three years that followed. he realised the futility of persecution. The correspondlike the was ' play of a palace cat with a church mouse.4 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON priest. the And it through constant pressure of was only the Lord . staying there for a year and seven months. with his Scottish common sense. but both Green and his persecutors honest. F. Vestments and the eastward position were condemned.

Peter's. Green's release. be a satisfaction to you to know what a pleasure your letter has brought to the Archbishop in these his last days. Alban's.' wrote Davidson. in 1882. The long and of persecution Mr. to was brought what seemed. its end by Mackonochie's exchange of livings with Mr. Before Tait died.' The story of Archbishop Davidson's life has been the story of the attempt of the authorities of the Church of England first to destroy and. it was plain that the Public Worship Regulation Act was a ridiculous failure and that Lord Penzance. Holborn. to control the Catholic revival. and the scandal of ' the continued imprisonment of a clergyman of the Church of ' criminal offence bitter England not charged with any came to an end. That was the main business with which he was concerned as Tait's chaplain. was powerless against men of faith and conviction. Suckling. of St. but was not. when that was found impossible. Tait was an unqualified . London Docks. shortly before Tait's death. I feel sure. of St. with all his knowledge of divorce. Mackonochie. ' ' It will. as it would seem. proceeded throughout Davidson's It years of office as Archbishop's chaplain. on earth.THE APPRENTICESHIP 5 Chancellor that the Bishop of Manchester at last applied for Mr.

Anglo-Catholicism has grown immensely stronger and more of the revision of and the one object the Prayer Book was to check influential. has played part in the lives of most successful men. But the Archbishop's official life has ended with the preoccupation with which it began. and certainly good fortune was conspicuous . ' cipline' has still still to be secured. as Tait failed. He detested Catholic practices as thoroughly as detested them. crib it.6 Erastian. The problems still comprehensive Church have to be solved. and Archbishop has spent the amazing vigour and courage of an undaunted old age. He has brought to the task a knowledge. Good fortune. But he has failed. as well as character its and ability. To this end. and his much younger must have been convinced that persecucan be of no avail. Much more has happened during the past twentyfive years. essentials ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON He was born a Presbyterian and in remained a Presbyterian. Queen Victoria But even Tait was compelled to realise that the Catholic destroyed by direct secretary tion movement could not be attack. the a sympathy and an experience of which Tait knew Disnothing. Obedience has incidental to a to be obtained. the death of Tait and Much happened between Randall Davidson's succession to the Primacy.

naturally became intimate.THE APPRENTICESHIP 7 in the early years of the Archbishop's great career. until the time of Dr. Randall Davidson visitor at Lambeth and their country : Addington. sons of two old friends. They college. were ordained together at St. the Archbishop's son. Craufurd Tait. and. was at the same and the two Scottish young men. Harrow. the Archbishops of Canterbury ' had home. and their After friendship was unbroken for fifty years. Edinburgh. Oxford. resolved to give up the Archbishop invited three years at me to take his place. the great Bishop of Durham. the chaplain. BD The good fortune that . Davidson has ever had. where. during which he showed splendid courage and energy during a smallpox epidemic. by was naturally a constant the Bishop of Dover in 1874. Kennington.' ^ The Dartford that preceded the appointment. where at that time Westcott. Tait and the Archbishop's father were schoolfellows at the High School. Temple. Mark's. as the Archbishop himself has said It was not a great surprise to me that when Craufurd. was a master in his schooldays George Russell described the future Archbishop as a Randall Davidpink-faced youth with blue eyes ' ' son went up to Trinity College. father's who had been acting for a year as his confidential post. were the only parochial experience that pr.

He read for Honours in Law and History. Randall Davidson's health was bad. and the result was that he was compelled to spend two winters abroad during his time at Oxford. In 1878 the second Pan-Anglican Conference met at Lambeth. The problem of discipline and the prolonged controversy with the Anglo-Catholics have been the troublesome preoccupations of Dr. and the knitting together of the Anglican communion throughout the world. given a third class on the strength of the papers that he had presented. The first had been called by Archbishop Longley in declared that he thought had met during the Colenso controversy. It ' the Romeward tendency than the tendency at more dangerous fears for our clergy towards free thought/ of There were far greater the Rome and Romanising 1878 . and Tait had then 1867.8 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON to had brought him Lambeth certainly continued when. has been its greatest achievement. He had been wounded by a gun-shot in his last year at Harrow. a year afterwards. however. And here again he received an early apprenticeship for successful work. He was. but he broke down during the examination. he married the Archbishop's second daughter. with the vast extension of its episcopacy and its activities. Davidson's primacy.

Prayer. of course taught in the its Book Common but revival stirred the Protestants of last cen- The English bishops condemned the Tractarian teaching in 1873. and. Sacramental Confession. He says : 'The Church consciences gives of England offers the relief of Confession before tell Communion to those it. I suppose. turns upon the is exact language which employed : . preached of Tractarians since the beginning of is by the the movement. Everything.' The is Tractarian position with regard to Confession explained in a letter of Liddon's. the subject of Confession was too much in the public mind to be ignored. a clergyman expresses a wish that people would use Confession.THE APPRENTICESHIP Conference. whose She them that they need no authority to her clergy as a necessity before for insisting on Confession If Communion. indeed. though there 9 to was an attempt prevent doctrinal discussion. and the hundred tury to fury. that he says that they must but the line use it. bishops at the ' Lambeth Conference five years afterwards agreed that an Anglican priest was not authorised to enjoin or even to encourage the practice of habitual Confession to a priest. it does not necessarily follow.

St. Augustine have been the acknowledged heads. agreed that priest may of habitual Confession. of 1878. with wide. . Since his day. Sir Lewis Dibdin. if felt to be of and the compulsory enforcement plain enough. Randall At the Lambeth Conference Davidson made his first acquaintance with the distinction of Tait's Church overseas.io ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON between the needed. The latter is the system . is now accepted even by the In his recent judgment in the Capel Mary case. it. He and has power to grant what the hundred justified fifty bishops condemned just years ago. the successors of St. it is a sine qua as I have said. It was the first primacy that he was the Archbishop of Canterbury who could see beyond the two English provinces. It is. the successor of encourage the practice Lord Penzance an Anglican absolution. a question of the terms employed.' Liddon's opinion Erastians. of the Roman Church but a clergyman saying that may say that he thinks Confession a good thing before Communion without non.' He began the work that his son-in-law has carried on. is offer of Confession. He ' made Lambeth a centre and rallying-point Jor the whole of Anglicanism. in the Court of Arches.

self-assured man. Davidson heard dis- cussions at the Conference concerning the relations between the Church of England and Rome and with the Old Catholics. published after Tait's death. his son-in-law has himself declared that it was in accord with the Archbishop's own judgment. and his mother died in December during her daughter's^ Mrs. though it has been suggested that its con- demnation of the existing harsh system. but he never recovered from the loss of his wife and son. He came to depend more and more on his son-in-law.THE APPRENTICESHIP if 11 ill-defined. Mr. He was its chairman. and mood of the last five years of the Archbishop's life must to some extent have Tait been the result of Davidson's influence. . religious moral authority. 1878 was a year of sorrow for the Craufurd Tait died in May. The Archbishop was sixty-seven. The ex-Dartford curate looked out on ! the world This year Tait family. He was a stubborn. He listened to the settle- ment of the constitutions of the West Indian dioceses. who had the softer and wiser all his confidence. would have been different if he had lived. honeymoon. and. responsible for was the appointment of the Royal Commission to enquire into the constitution of the Ecclesiastical Courts. Davidson's. of a world-wide communion.

Gladstone. when Benson commented ' : speech was Randall Davidson's illustrations was " among happy theo- The shillelagh-loving logical critic of the hitting freely Church papers.' was to Mr. though he was little known outside Lambeth. He poor Mr. gave his last feeling with regard to his successor. Green out of was the power behind the throne. His only recorded public appearance was at the Church Congress at Derby just before Tait's The best death. respect to the Archbishop both as a mark of and because the young man is most It highly esteemed. Davidson was concerned with the Burial tions Bill. ' he would not allow to be communicated to Mr. Davidson the position of Sub-Almoner. ' piously ejaculating. Mr. with all sorts of overseas complicaritual troubles. who dashes in on both sides and all round him. ' grant that " ' I may be this time About as Queen Victoria four intimate the last of my ' and confidential friends' offered Mr. ' and the never-ceasing ' with the kindly efforts to get prison.12 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON In the years from 1878 to the Archbishop's death in 1882. lest it might in any way embarrass . fighting God on the right side/ Dean Wellesley of Windsor described him. but one which Davidson that the Archbishop He had a very anxious confidences.

' to Sir Henry Addington Park. making . thank God. is to express his great regret that owing to his illness he unable to have the honour of himself writing to her Majesty to express his deep and respectful fair sympathy. the Dean of Windsor. to express to you the very great sorrow with which he has morning received the intelligence of the this death of his own old friend. 'igth September." ' The Queen made daily enquiries during Tait's last illness. 1 MY DEAR SIR. and this event of Davidson's first letter to the . 1882. He wrote ' The Rev. I am directed by my father- in-law. was the occasion sovereign. ' The Archbishop is. " 13 God. the Archbishop of Canterbury. and it was his death that brought Davidson to the notice of the royal lady with to be so intimately associated. and her Majesty's privileged and trusted servant.THE APPRENTICESHIP him. and with him it must rest. whom he was Wellesley died three months before the Archbishop. ' The Archbishop wishes me." he " said. has placed in his hands the responsibility. through you. Randall Davidson Ponsonby.

even if complete recovery is to be granted. and he wrote her the " following : A memorial of twenty-six years of devoted service. I have the honour to remain.14 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON progress towards recovery. and some time must elapse before we are relieved from anxiety. my dear T. Queen and her family. and to have received his blessing He was quite conscious. bless the " God kind to me. Had down last a touching letter from before J. yours very truly and dutifully. sir. 1882. How I should have liked to see that holy deathbed." The writing is almost illegible except in the signature. With earnest love and affectionate blessing on the Queen and her family. but there are many drawbacks and minor complications. Ely. RANDALL DAVIDSON/ When her diary ' Tait himself died. God The Queen has ever been so bless them all. ist December. Ely said he looked so handsome. but hardly expected to live till ! morning. who had words seen the dear Archbishop [Tait]. My last thoughts are for her and her children. and not as if he were so near his end. He said." How touching ! . the Queen wrote in : WINDSOR CASTLE. J.

to preaching the well. had taught of the men to realise better the practical power Church the force. certainly not in this country. arduous task more than will admirably. whatever of else it did. Archbishop breathed his last at 7 this morning. who. All creeds and denominations respected and liked him. in national In the words of of his epitaph. his son-in-law said of. an incomparable God and good. for the confirmation of Both he and Dean Wellesley were at Osborne in August their my to grandsons. He spoke extremely well in the House of Lords. to 1882 that (Advent Sunday). or performed his difficult. the last act ! Telegraphed daughters. performed poor by Mr. very Blunt. for England as a force. has been more respected and beloved. . any Archbishop. excellent Heard my grief the dear.THE APPRENTICESHIP ' 15 3rd December. '79. if His loss is immense.Tait: ' His primacy. he did. alluded 5 touchingly Archbishop. calmly and dispassionately. Years afterwards. Few. His wife died on the ist of December. also an Advent Sunday. Service at 12. He broadened its basis life. drawn by the master hand Dr. last fourteen years. for the He be universally regretted.

' The death of of a patron is the servitors. To make the Church of England more and more The Church of the People. Gladstone who was entirely responsible for an appointment that suggested the abandon- ment of the policy of the Archbishop's predecessors. or almost to the centre. Davidson's influence. He had had seven years of preparation. While Tait lived. When Benson of Canterbury. He had been behind the scenes. acquiring working of the complicated Anglican system. end of the careers many faithful But Tait's death added immensely and immediately to Dr. With Tait lying dead. of the stage.16 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and inscribed in Vaughan. learning the characters of the in men who mattered knowledge of the Church and State. it. hind the transept be- me : Wise to know the time and resolute to redeem He had one aim . to be first a king-maker and soon himself a king. as has been said. it succeeded Tait as Archbishop was generally believed that it was Mr. Randall Davidson was just Tait's chaplain. was a Presbyterian who never understood the significance of the Oxford . he stepped from the background to the centre. Tait.

belief In matters of doctrinal he was certainly not a Catholic. Dean Church was of St. ritual Mr. He was almost morbidly anti-Romanist. but a lunatic asylum must have seemed ' him the proper all his friends. C. -I place for poor Mr.' . he was recognised as a definite High Churchman. appealed to him from litur' : In addition. Benson adds joy. quote his son ecclesiastical an ecclesiastic Everything stately buildings. and it was due to Randall Davidson.that a High Church prelate succeeded Church father-in-law. In advanced he took a fearful Benson was not a Tractarian. . to the unbeneficed clergyman far more than to the Prime Minister. his own Low selection. historical traditions. dignified ceremonial. .' giologist. Green ' 17 ' He may have to tried to get poor out of prison. all no parBut when he went from ritual that has Truro to Canterbury. ' Benson was born.THE APPRENTICESHIP movement.' altogether from public Harold Browne. He belonged to that not inconsiderable party in the Church of England that loves ticular significance. Green ' and Tait was an Erastian. solemn music childhood. A. he was a learned and. Gladstone's first but Church was unwilling to leave the Deanery Paul's for anything 'except retirement office. Mr.

Bishop himself on I7th December. was the prelate Tait would have chosen. my dear father-in-law has hoped of and prayed that the Bishop might be his successor. I Winchester Though old. in these last solemn weeks. for the present at least. The two men to whom he has looked forward with the greatest hope have been the Bishop of Winchester and the Bishop of Truro. about his successor. and has enjoyed it and repaid richly. The latter has been much with the Archbishop of his full confidence late. Randall Davidson wrote a letter to Lady Ely Queen : ' The Archbishop has naturally had many conversations with me. The Archbishop wrote to me to beg me not to decline the offer.i8 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON whom Browne wrote ' : the Bishop of Winchester. if made/ for submission to the On 4th December. comparatively strong. he is made a private memlast orandum subject of the Archbishop's words on the spoken to me Thursday week. . 1882 The Arch- bishop in his last interview with his earnest me very shortly before his death expressed and repeated to me hope that I should succeed him. Archbishop of Canterbury. In the probable event of his being thought too young to become.

not as comparing the Bishop of Winchester's real powers and merits with those of the far younger and more vigorous Bishop of Truro. and he The Queen wrote in her diary that she had seldom been more struck than I have been by his personality/ and she concluded: . and may accept the f You will. thanking him for the beautiful account of the last days and hours of the beloved Archbishop/ Davidson was at Windsor. as I have said. They were spoken. agree with me that these words are almost too important for justified in me to be if keeping them to myself.THE APPRENTICESHIP They were as follows it : 19 truly "I should be thankful to think of Winchester certain that the Bishop would succeed me at Lambeth.' On letter ' the next day the Queen wrote her to Mr. first Davidson. of course. ' On gib. He was seen. but you I think it better they should go no further shall. entirely acquiesce. He could do more than any other man to preserve the Church in peace for against sin." may be appointed. December. I its real work pray God he call. conquered. I think. but on the strong supposition that the bound from Truro to Canterbury would be by some considered too sudden a one.

Davidson said. Davidson to me. Mr. the Queen said must speak openly. Bishop of Truro.' On the nth the Queen saw Gladstone.' They and the Bishops of Winchester and Truro were both considered. As a High Churchman he naturally favoured Benson. The Archbishop had seen him also the several times during his illness. firmness and at the same time gentleness. discussed Tait's successor. for a man who may I be of great use which am truly thankful. was a man of singular power. The Bishop of Truro. Davidson suggested The former was rather old. written in : The Queen January 1874. and therefore wishes to say that she thinks this especially necessary on the part of Mr.' it made clear The Queen.20 ' ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON went over various is We topics. but would command the respect and ac: * quiescence of all the bishops. but any nomination of Gladstone's would be suspect. Gladstone. has herself that it was Mr. and I feel that Mr. indeed. In a letter to ' him on ' the alarming ' Romanising tendencies of the clergy. but the danger of which she feels sure he cannot is who fail to recognise. and had had a great deal of conversation with him and entered most fully into his views and plans. Davidson and not . supposed to have rather a bias towards High Church views himself.

and Mr. no doubt. But Dr. and Gladstone discovered that no Archbishop of that age had been appointed for two hundred and twenty years. Browne did not consider himself too old. saying he had. Browne was certainly too old. Gladstone responded. He was over seventy. ing her interview with Gladstone. '.THE APPRENTICESHIP Gladstone 21 who convinced her that Benson and In recordf : not Browne should go to Canterbury. ' I should have had to it consider seriously whether I could decline or not/ Gladstone wrote a kindly letter to Dr. ' If the offer had been made/ he wrote. Davidson was sent by the Queen the situation. Browne. she says I then said what a very high opinion Mr. thoroughly acquainted with everything of concerning the Church and the clergy. to which Mr. a career before him/ an Archbishop's chaplain may nominate an Archbishop he may well be expected to go far. and his wife admitted that . Davidson had Bishop Benson. When Dr. to explain He ' reported that the Bishop of Winchester was really stronger at the moment than he had been for some time past/ All that he suffered from were occasional severe colds/ But ' he was seventy-two. and observed that I thought the former an admirable and charming person.

had given special and minute con- communicated to sideration to the physical qualifications or dis- Bishop of Winchester for the work of the primacy. Davidson made it clear that he disagreed with Mrs.' Mr. His wisdom and unobtrusive learning have . before expressing the private opinion which has been your Majesty and to Mr. Browne is unable to form a clear opinion as bishop's physical capabilities for the post. and he added ' : Nor would it be right for me to lead your Majesty to suppose that the late Archbishop.' Mr. although on the whole she would look hopefully to his being able to do it. to the Browne was apparently unconvinced. fully Davidson continued. I tried to explain to Mrs. work was understated.22 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and vigour were likely to his strength ' grow yearly could. the the circumstances. Browne.' He went on qualifications of the : ( The Bishop of Winchester is probably the only bishop whose presidency (were his health known to be equal to it) would fall in with the general wish of gentle the entire episcopate. Gladstone. ' But Mrs. 'as actual character of the as I work done during the late Archbishop.' is course of the year in by the And. the less. Browne. it unlikely that strenuousness of the Mrs.

The Bishop of Truro would. to the bishops. with two dissentients only among the bishops. stand next in episcopal favour. and his reputation in certain fields so unrivalled. the late Archbishop was on his appointment to the primacy. He is only I a few years younger than. would undoubtedly stand the Bishop of Durham. CD primacy and this it. in the view of the episcopate. in a marked degree. ' Next to him. Lambeth meeting or in Convocation. that. in which he has met with anything but cordiality and admiration from the assembled bishops. His position is so unique a one. I have again and again had opportunity of observing the respect with which his views have been received on subjects where the difference of opinion has been marked. as I believe. and either at a cannot recall a single instance.THE APPRENTICESHIP long 23 all commended him. The Archbishop often spoke to me of his sudden access to episcopal favour and reputation. or probably four. I believe he would be received with emphatic favour as their ' chief. even to those who would naturally be most afraid of his supposed High Church views. would take . bishops who all would to the feel hurt and angry at his appointment . But undoubtedly there are three.

left momentous I Your Majesty's most in gracious letter me. DAVIDSON/ Mr. even then his the best taken. however. your servant. humble reliance on the guidance Almighty God. Davidson had only had a few weeks' experience of Queen Victoria. obedient humble RANDALL T. ' close friend/ was man for Canterbury.24 his ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON remarkable geniality and grace and goodness to overcome. I cannot find words to express the natural diffidence I feel thus called upon to give. to answer frankly the important question your Majesty did me the honour of putting to me. Disraeli himself could not have more astutely contrived to influence the royal lady. on being however humbly. His advice was wrote to and three days later Gladstone . an opinion on matters involving such issues. Majesty's Madam. Madam. Mr. ' I have felt it to the best of my duty. Davidson very properly considered that Bishop Benson. my ability. no alternative. and have of tried. to answer your Majesty's questions by as plain and simple a statement as possible of what most I believe to be the truth. but his letter is a miracle of deftness. I have the honour to remain. to endeavour.

Davidson the . that I I ventured to tell the bishop had reason to think your Majesty would be glad that he should accept the post. under him. felt it my duty to assure him of my readiness to do so. at least for a time. R. the post of Archbishop's chaplain and private secretary. while greatly encouraging him for his work. under the circumstances. is as no doubt he kindly anxious that I should continue to hold. should he accept the primacy. Davidson come : to Truro. offering 25 him the preferment. and I have. a marked feature T. to Before Benson asked Mr. if it would. RANDALL The Queen was Archbishop-elect : delighted. . doubtless lead to his immediately fying his acceptance of the high feeling is signi- office. and perhaps I may be permitted respectfully to say should seem good to your Majesty to telegraph to him to Truro to the same effect. it that.THE APPRENTICESHIP Benson deciding. and he once more reported to Windsor 1 The bishop. will. DAVIDSON. .' in his . ' She wrote to the The Queen has heard with is (for great satisfaction that Mr. His of personal devotion to your Majesty character. and to endeavour to aid him in every possible way.

C. they became united by the most intimate and devoted friendship. Davidson in the warmest terms/ Benson was in the of fifty-three. and of individual and national rather than ecclesiastical Churchmanship. under the auspices of his father-in-law. what son calls He had not before sat He had little knowledge central affairs/ And ' : Mr. of organisation. movements.26 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON him his valuable present at any rate) to give assistance in the same position which he held with his beloved father-in-law. Davidson was of the greatest possible service to him. of the world. he had been influenced. had a letter The Queen has just from the Dean of Westminster. and had the whole the Primate is of the intricate business of which the centre at his fingers' ends/ at The Archbishop-maker remained Lambeth as . he was intimately acquainted with the personnel of the Church. Benson says Though their natures were very dissimilar. in the direction of sagacious statesmanship. of ecclesiastical His knowledge of public men. House his of Lords. A. was of inestimable . value to my father moreover. ' Mr. The present Bishop of Winchester had been brought up in a very different school of Church feeling . of Church legislation. in which he speaks of the bishop and Mr.

that have asked him to [enquire] he would accept. I think. As soon as get answer will communicate. when is the operation it is completed. that. he was offered. so suited to my requireif ments. is my little point to dust and ashes. I have had your answer. and you can inform Mr. and write to Mr. Davidson. down upon me. and accepted. however. that Mr.THE APPRENTICESHIP the 27 new Archbishop's In chaplain for only a few months. Says youthfulness not the slightest objection. PONSONBY. had not been estopped by the heavy artillery she was pleased to bring into the field. which reduced I suspect. as ' said." There no doubt. wrote to Sir Henry Ponsonby ' : MY DEAR SIR H. the Deanery of ' Windsor. the latter is His opinion of so excellent. ' I will certainly I should have submitted my scruple on the I score of age to her Majesty. Since Hamilton telegraphed to you on my behalf this morning. on the death of Dean Connor. May 1883. some of " the critics will be. who apparently had no great en- thusiasm for the royal nominee. Gladstone. Davidson . The Queen wrote in her diary : : Have just received Archbishop's answer name Carpenter and Davidson to him.' Gladstone.

" So finished the years of apprenticeship. with little scholastic distinction." She said. She desired him not to leave me let until the summer ' " : Let the canons work.' . As I I get older I can- not understand the world. In five years the Scottish curate from Dartford. cannot comprehend they were all When I look at the frivolities and littlenesses." Davidson's simple and comforting frankness will be a great strength to her. had become the conIt fidant of the sovereign. the adviser of prelates. his deanery. its littlenesses. sincerely yours. it little seems to me mad. . too. Davidson to see the Queen and said to-day. but not of Peter. as " if a of The wickedness is people's spite against one another so great. the maker of the princes of the Church. W. the canons work. E. GLADSTONE/ And Benson The Queen wrote in his diary " ' : Went with . . Believe me.28 will ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON be generally an excellent dean. said at the time ' : was Davidson has gone to Windsor as a nuncio.

but that fact alone does not entirely explain why Randall Davidson's great influence was exercised to secure the throne of St. Randall Davidson inherited the Tait tradition.CHAPTER II THE EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR ARCHBISHOP TAIT thought of himself as primarily the servant of the sovereign and the State. Through his personal relationship with Tait he became the intimate and trusted adviser of the Queen. The two men were on terms while Benson was still of close friendship Bishop of Truro and Randall Davidson was the Archbishop's chaplain. to Nevertheless. 29 Augustine for his . thought of himself as primarily the chief minister of the Church. Ben- son. and. it was largely due to him that Benson came from Truro Canterbury and an Erastian tradition was upset. he claimed for himself. right of his office. with a chivalrous devotion to his sovereign. as has been shown. at the time of the one great event in his primacy. to by be the supreme judge in life matters that affected the of the Church.

As a from the beginning to the end of career. life. Dr. though. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON The softened mood of Archbishop Tait. in consequence. remained established. Unless none of which would have any greater influence Unless it than any of the Dissenting sects. On the other hand. the unchecked growth of Ritualism fifty appeared. were comprehensive. without any principles. of course. years ago as it appears to some people . It was once wickedly said of Dr. decided that the prosecutions should cease. it could not play its proper part in the national followed life. during the last four years of his largely due to the fact that his was obviously chaplain and was a Church with son-in-law had realised that persecution failure.30 friend. it must have seemed to the chaplain that the well-being of the demanded that the next Archbishop should be a definite High Churchman. therefore. dis- ruption was threatened the by the prosecutions that Public Worship Regulation Act. the Church would break into half a dozen fragments. Far-sighted wisdom. Randall Davidson that he was a very good man matter of his fact. Davidson has had one evident to ensure that the and of single purpose shall Church England continue it comprehensive and established. When Tait died. no papist nonsense about him. and.

Just after the Lambeth Conference. who understands her feelings not only in ecclesiastical but also in without pride/ The sovereign had no patience with pride in her social . Benson was summoned to Balmoral. Broad Church clergyman who at the same time is pleasant socially and is popular with all members and classes of her household . and the Dean of Windsor was among .EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR to-day safe 31 to make disestablishment inevitable. the Dean of Windsor was the principal ecclesiastical member of her household a clerical adviser and major-domo. Benson went to Canterbury. the Queen wrote that the deanery required 'a tolerant. Mr. To Queen Victoria. So Dr. kind man servants. and a High Church Archbishop might reasonably be expected to contrive the cessation of mischievous persecution and to act as a check on the eccentric vagaries of the Romanising party in the Church. soon ' ' afterwards. It is to The affectionate terms on which he remained with his royal mistress is shown in an entry in Benson's diary in 1888. matters a good. Davidson all the necessary qualifications. be presumed that the Queen found in Mr. liberal-minded. Davidson went to the deanery at Windsor. and. When Connor was appointed dean in 1882.

was very anxious that the Archbishop should not speak against the measure even though he felt Queen. It it is not merely that he feels strongly about personally/ Randall Davidson wrote to Sir Henry Ponsonby. In the spring of 1883. Her view was conveyed through Mr. Benson." ' tries him I said. The The Archbishop wrote Queen looked exceedingly well and was very and her little gracious quick naivetes and her nods were very bright. and was published in his last year at the deanery. The " He works too was not well Dean of I Windsor think this " much Archbishop Tait's Life she said smiling. and he regretted that he was unable ' to keep silence. who compelled to vote against it. David- son wrote in collaboration with Canon Benham was begun soon after he went to Windsor. " Exactly.32 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON ' : the other guests. and regularly voted for it. and the of apparently shared her son's opinion. the Deceased Wife's Sister Bill was introduced into the House of Lords. " and your Conference. But Benson was far more a Churchman than a courtier. Madam?" The Life of his father-in-law which Mr. Davidson to Dr. the Queen's private . The Prince Wales was a steady supporter of the measure.

' clergy. I right. after the Deceased Wife's Sister Act had become law. ought to take place elsewhere than in church. I wish is it to be clearly understood that my advice advice only. to the best of my belief. and not a formal direction or inI junction. Davidson's own view of the question is set out in a long and learned letter to the clergy and laity of the diocese of Canterbury.' he wrote. and. and that he ought not to refuse to give expression to what is.EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR ' 33 looked secretary.' of the foremost and most loyal of the Dr. the believe. but he feels too that he is on as the natural mouthpiece of very many others. sister Marriage with a deceased wife's legal as a civil contract.' But he was that he careful that it should be understood ' was only expressing a pious opinion. . published in 1907. Davidson agreed that they were that they. the practically unanimous view of the clergy as well as of so many laity. in words of extreme caution. was now But it was still prohibited by the Canons of the Church as being contrary to God's law. will act wisely and rightly in saying that such marriages. ' Dr. when they take place. have not. Many of the clergy felt bound to refuse to celebrate such a marriage in church. I suppose.

friends of have given it. carefully weighing the If. he decides that he ought to perform the marriage. then clearly such a union cannot be a sacramental marriage. and its of the establishment makes consistency impossible. be hard with these misguided people. If marriage with a deceased wife's sister is. contrary to God's law. because of the decision to which he has come. refused to do more than deprecate the mockery.' of The strength is of the Church Rome is that it always logical and consistent. after whole circumstances. as the Canons assert. while ' recognising the canonical prohibition. in . If to the the new law it is unpopular. Davidson. there is and I the more reason for my enabling a parish priest to quote my words for his own protection. The weakness Church of England is that its comprehensiveness prevents it from being logical. By clergy in my own diocese I have been definitely applied to for advice.34 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON legal right. or to allow it to take place in the church whereof he is the responsible minister. I shall in no way regard him as disloyal or disrespectful. any have not any wish. to exercise authority in the matter.' he Do not said. and its celebration by a priest in church is a blasphemous mockery. The law has I certainly and given a discretion to the incumbent. But Dr.

EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR effect. you can help registrar corner.' 'Do not marry them if but advise them to go to the or to the Methodist chapel round the ' To the question. It civil that sacramental marriage and marriage are equally valid. horizon. from men and receive women who to are entitled to these privileges. Dr. Are these to be withheld ? otherwise I have no hesitation in saying that. and therefore to be he denied the Sacraments of the Church ? the further question. Can marriage with a deceased ' wife's sister be a sacramental marriage ? Dr.' But another question will speedily ' arise . it. indeed. in the exercise of to regard those their ministerial responsibility. it has already shown itself above the How ought the clergy.' To ' Are persons so married to be regarded as being in sin. ' answered with a very emphatic 'No. 35 to the clergy. they ought not in my judgment be withheld on the mere ground of such a marriage.' The whole assumes position is hopelessly Erastian. Davidson was . Davidson by implication answered 'No. who have legally contracted these marriages since ? the passing of the Act Many who so marry will claim the ordinary privileges and ministrations of the Church.

The entente began during Archbishop particularly interested Benson's reign. in view of it more the recent events. whose sufferings have been intensified since the Great War. Dr.36 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Archbishop when he wrote this opinion. It is interesting. and it is not unfair to add that King Edward was on the While his first throne. his continued intimacy with Benson kept him in close touch with general ecclesiastical affairs. and the letters that passed between him and the Archbishop prove that his indirect influence was very considerable. concern. to to know that in 1891 was owing for Dean Davidson of that the Society Promotion Christian Knowledge made a contribution of 500 to the mission which the . as Dean of Windsor. see the promise of between the Anglican Church and the Eastern Orthodox and the other smaller Churches of the East. Davidson's own primacy has been marked which optimists inter-communion and reunion. He was in the woeful condition of the Assyrian Christians. the remnant of the great Nestorian Church that at one time stretched right across Asia to China.. in by an ever-increasing cordiality. may have been to minister to the Queen and the royal household. a servant of the State as well as the head of the English Church.

and the official report.' Truth to tell. and perhaps the Queen. which 37 out to aid this heroic and The year 1888 was the year of the third Lambeth was attended by one hundred During it and forty-five bishops.' making many interesting In 1889 the Protestants were again on the warpath.EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR Archbishop sent ancient Church. with unconscious sarcasm. while the bishops from the ends of the earth probably enjoyed themselves immensely at do not appear to have been of any very great importance. a Bill Lord Grimthorpe threatened to introduce into the House of Lords strengthening the Writing penal clause against recalcitrant clergy. The Bishop ' of Gloucester said that in all his experience of editing he had never known such a feat as Davidhaving the account of the Conference all son's in ready and printed and published in five days. its sittings the Dean of Windsor was in constant consultation with the Archbishop. was he who drew up Benson records. Lambeth. to Randall Davidson as ' My dearest Dean/ Benson said that he had told Lord Grimthorpe . Conference. their discussions summarised she wrote: its only practical will result when ac- 'The Archbishop of have had the opportunity quaintances.

it will be remembered. January and the men to be in chosen must not be taken with reference to satisfying one or the other party in the Church. I entirely agree with you in the im- mense importance rics/ of the to selection for bishop- the ' Queen wrote Benson 1890. in close and almost daily association with the sovereign. but for We want people who keep firm Church cannot be mainbroad views. who. or with reference to their real worth. and curiously unlike the violent . was a master there. else the tained. Harrow when Davidson was a boy was appointed Bishop of Durham.38 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON that Gladstone would not let such a Bill pass the Commons. any political party. We want large. had not a little to do with persuading her that Westcott was the ideal ' man to succeed' Lightfoot. and that the Protestant champion replied that Gladstone's power was waning and that ' the Commons would pass it with a rush if a Protestant feeling was awakening/ This communication has a particular interest in view of the Protestant fervour of the House of Commons during the past two years. Here at again it is fair to assume that the Dean of Windsor. or the and conciliatory. In 1890. difficulties will become insurmountable/ Admir- able sentiments. Westcott. It is a great anxiety.

and the judgment delivered in the library at Lambeth Palace one of November 1891 remains the most important events in the modern in history of the English Church.' and that helpful friendship was obvious throughout the Lincoln case. his influence. In 1888. was far greater than was generally known. and the part that he has played in shaping the destinies of the Church. For twenty-five years Dr. sometimes direct and sometimes indirect. acknowledged his indebtedness to the In 1880 he paid tribute to his constant helpful friendship. was in close and constant consultation with the Archbishop from the beginning to the end of the famous cause. for many years before his primacy. The outstanding event of the primacy of Archbishop Benson was the trial of Bishop King of Lincoln. perhaps more than any other man.EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR Protestantism of the Queen's letters to Tait. Davidson has been recognised as the dominant personality in the English Church. ' ' 39 The" monarch had evidently come under the dean's softening influence. the Church Association presented a petition to the Archbishop in which it was alleged . but. career of In considering the Archbishop Davidson. himself Archbishop Benson ' dean. the interest of the Lincoln Judgment lies in the fact that he.

had been guilty of illegal ritual acts. the Bishop of Lincoln might be cited before a secular court the jurisdiction of which neither he nor any other Catholic would recognise. it denied that they had any canonical force. and when his judgment was delivered. But he realised that. With a vigour and force of language in strange contrast to the mildness of its tone to-day.40 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and the Association begged put his suffragan on trial. after much ' consultation. if he declined to sit as his judge. ecclesiastical that Dr. and the Catholic party persistently denied that such power existed. the denounced the Archbishop for abrogating to himself the power of an English Pope. therefore. . especially with the Dean of Windsor/ was content to declare that he had failed to satisfy himself that he had jurisdiction without some instruction being produced from a competent court. in default.' The prosecutors then appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. King. The Archbishop himself was doubtful. while Church it Times welcomed the findings. The bishop would almost certainly be condemned aggravated. Bishop of Lincoln. the Archbishop to It was doubtful whether the Archbishop had any to sit as power supreme judge in a court constituted by himself. and trouble would be vastly ' The Archbishop.

Mixing water with the sacramental wine during the service. Dr. ' during the first Communion . and. in 41 jurisdic- a letter to the dean. in which he says. But that is such a different thing/ begun ! The Archbishop's continued dependence on the dean is shown in a letter written in October. Davidson's importance he noted that conclusive/ Davidson thinks the memorandum On 4th January. King was cited to ' appear before his Metropolitan. the Archbishop said that he felt unable hear the cause. King was charged : . Benson wrote to When a horse bolts downhill. and hope you will be able to come in I shall much want know what you many things/ summarise the seven offences with which Dr. on why it was necessary to ' and further evidence of Dr. 1. especially by Would it had never getting in front of him. any longer to refuse to He drew up a memorandum proceed. eastward position Service.EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR which declared that the Archbishop had tion. it is Davidson : safer to guide than to stop him. Standing in the part of the ' 2. 1889. and subsequently consecrating the mixed cup. good time. think of I ' I am thankful you are coming to to-morrow.

by Sir Horace Davey. the Cross with upraised hand were said to have taken facing the congregation. or of giving light. The illegal practices place in Lincoln Cathedral and in the parish church After certain pretrial of St. 5. a counsel as celebrated for his brusque manners as for his eminence . Danckwerts. prosecutors were represented The Protestant I believe. an ecclesiastical lawyer . in such on the west manner that the congregation could not see the manual acts performed. 4. and afterwards drinking such water and wine before the congregation. when not needed for the purpose table. The use of lighted candles on the Communion on the retable behind. liminary skirmishes. 1890. the began in Lambeth Palace on 4th February. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Standing during the prayer of Consecration side of the table. Causing the hymn Agnus Dei to be sung after the Consecration prayer. the last counsel to quote Latin in his addresses to the jury of . Peter-at-Gowts. Lincoln. Pouring water and wine into the paten and chalice after the service. Tristram.42 3. during the Communion Service. Dr. afterwards a most learned judge. and Mr. and. 7. During the Absolution sign of making the and Benediction. 6.

EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR
knowledge,

43

who was

also a perfervid Protestant.

Bishop
Mr.

King was represented by Sir Walter Phillimore, now Lord Phillimore, and the then
Jeune,

and there

is

a certain

irony

in

the fact that one of the counsel for a Catholic

bishop should have afterwards become a divorce
judge.

Archbishop Benson's comments on the learned Sir Horace counsel were exceedingly acute.
'

Davey/ he wrote

in

his

'

diary,

came

in

not

knowing the difference between the second Books of Edward VI or much
brief.

first

and

else of his

But he took up quickly what he ought to say and said it incisively.' And at a later date he Phillimore is learned and quick and wrote
'
:

delights to
docent.'

believe himself omnidoct

and omni-

Members

of the council of the English

Church Union have reason to know that in his
honoured old age Lord Phillimore himself omnidoct and omnidocent.
still

believes

The Archbishop was assisted by Temple, Bishop of London Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford Thorold,
;
;

Bishop

of
;

Rochester

;

Wordsworth, Bishop of
of Hereford.

Salisbury

and Atlay, Bishop

The

proceedings lasted until 25th February.

The Arch-

bishop reserved his judgment, which was not
delivered until 2ist

November.

44

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
On the first charge the Archbishop found against
Mixing water with the wine during the
Service was, in the English Church,

Dr. King.

Communion
one
'

of the

away.'

accustomed ceremonies which be put The Archbishop found in the bishop's
all

favour as regards
last,

the other charges except the
'

declaring that the signing of the Cross at

the Absolution and Benediction was
tion

an innovafinal

which must be discontinued.'
his judgment, the

In the

words of

Archbishop sternly
of

condemned the proceedings societies which had been busy
prosecutions.

the Protestant

initiating Ritualist
'

He

declared that

it is

not decent

for religious persons to hire witnesses to intrude

on the worship

of others for purposes of espial.'

He

expressed the view that such cases as those
'

which he had been obliged to hear diverted the real contest with evil and Church from the
building

up

of

good.'

And he added

'
:

The

Church therefore has a right to ask that her congregations may not be divided either by
needless pursuance or

by exaggerated

suspicion

of practices not in themselves illegal.'

The Archbishop was pleading

for the

middle
of

way which

the

authorities

of

the

Church

England have always favoured, and for which Dr. Davidson has striven throughout his life.

EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR
of the English Church, great virtue

45

Comprehensiveness was to Dean Stanley the one

and

in reading

Archbishop Benson's judgment
almost at any price.
delivered, the

it is

impossible not

to realise his eagerness to retain comprehensiveness

Soon

after the

judgment was

Windsor

'
:

If

Archbishop wrote to the Dean of comprehensiveness is not to be the

policy henceforth, but uniformity,

and

if

this uni-

formity only means sameness in external particulars,

there

must be a change

of ministry', I think.'

The prosecution appealed
Council,

against

the Arch-

bishop to the Judicial Committee of the Privy

and on 2nd August, 1892, the Judicial Committee dismissed the appeal, upholding the
Archbishop in every particular, though as regards the altar lights they found that the bishop could

have no responsibility in the matter, because it was the incumbent of the church and not he who

had lighted the candles. A typical rinding is said and I admit I can find no authority
!

It
for

the statement

that, before

Benson had consented

to hear the case,

he had received from the Lord
But, whether this

Chancellor an assurance that in any circumstances
his
is

judgment would be upheld.
so

or not, the finding of the Judicial

Comand

mittee was of immense importance, because the judges reversed their

own former

decisions

46

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
not necessarily bound by

accepted the principle that the Judicial Committee
is

its

previous

judgments. The Lincoln Judgment

is

the most important

event in the history of the Church of England from
the beginning of the Oxford

movement

until the
It

introduction of the revised Prayer Book.

was

regarded at the time, both by Anglo-Catholics

and Evangelicals, as a High Church victory. The Evangelicals found some comfort in the fact that
the Archbishop

had decided that there was no
established

un-Protestant meaning in
practice.

Catholic

The general opinion
'

of the Tractarians

was expressed in a passage in The Life and Letters The delivery of the Archof Dean Church bishop's judgment took place in November, and its
:

character and contents brought the dean the last
flash of happiness before the end.
It

seemed to

come

to

him with a touch

of reassurance

and

confirmation in that steady trust in the English

Church which would not

let itself

be overthrown

by the

disasters of 1845.'

After the judgment,

the Church Times

still

emphatically declared that

the court had no

canonical authority, and that the Archbishop
expressing nothing
opinions.

was

more than
less, it

his

own

individual

None the

expressed the opinion

EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR
that
his
decision,
'

47
Judicial

confirmed

by the

Committee, had closed the epoch of ritual prosecuThat was to a large extent true, and tions.'
the impression of the judgment at the time
certainly
still

is

the view of informed ecclesiastical

opinion.

It

remains one of the key events in
life,

Archbishop Davidson's

and

it is

necessary for

my
it.

purpose to emphasise his own connection with
Benson, and Benson alone, was responsible

for the
said, a

form of the judgment.
been.
It

He

was, as

I

have
the

learned liturgiologist, which his successor

has

never

was

suggested

at

time that Stubbs had partly written the judg-

ment, but, in his Life of his father, Mr. A. C.

Benson says that, while the Archbishop had The Dean of advisers, he had no collaborators.
Windsor was foremost among the advisers. Mr. Benson writes Bishop Lightfoot and Dr. West'
:

cott

were in accord with him on the main issues
in this matter, as in so
counsellor.'

;

Dean Davidson was
his intimate friend

many,

and

When the Lincoln Judgment had been delivered,
Archbishop Benson and his wife went to stay at
the Windsor Deanery,
visit

and

at the conclusion of the
'
:

the Archbishop wrote to the dean

I

can

scarcely realise

us

all this

what you and Edie have been to week. You and your house and your

but I have neither the historical learning upon these subjects.48 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON surroundings form one perfect picture of soothingness and help. He said to his Diocesan Conference ' : Three months have elapsed since the Court of final Appeal delivered " Read v. . into their proper and proportionate place among Church questions and that our very . in short. to tell the truth. nor. out again of which you start as the living hearts that give meaning to all the rest. and are all the rest too." I must not pass over in silence a matter in which so wide an interest was shown by all sorts and conditions of men within the Church of England.' Dr. after he had become Bishop of Rochester. the vivid enthusiasm on one side or other about their precise details. the Bishop of judgment in the case of Lincoln. Rather is my thankfulness for the result arrived at due in part to the hope that these minutiae of ritual will now be regarded for public as even less suited than before part of and unlearned correspondence on the Churchmen in general that they will fall. reverence for the solemn subject they encircle . which would justify or encourage me in going seriatim through the several points which were at issue. Davidson's own view of the Lincoln Judg- ment was expressed in November 1892.

when they do arise. The permissions of the Lincoln Judgment have is been exploited to the full. with a sigh of thankfulness. this curious page of our Church's history. been entirely disregarded. ' none of these things. calls for it. other and (may I say it in all reverence ! ) larger things upon which the Lord Jesus Christ is calling us to concentrate our energies and to spend our span of life. not. misunderstand me. Dr. If this be indeed the result. Davidson cared.' Like Gallic.EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR will 49 be felt to justify us in discussing them less often and less hotly than of old. I am very sure that hundreds of the most devout of English communicants will close. I You I will am sure. Within reasonable limits. Minutiae of ritual are small importance. let us hope and believe they far have now been duly set at rest so as litigation goes for ever and let us turn to . For the present. and in loyally entrusting their due regulation. he would have every man be religious in his own way. and for of ' still cares. set at rest by due authority. am not underrating the vital importance of having such controversies. The prohibitions have characteristic That . at whatever expenditure of time and thought. to when occasion those in whose hands the authority really ' lies.

and making the sign Cross at the Absolution and Benediction the common practice of It clergymen is. Gordon was converted to disrupted. the mixed chalice is On the now in of the is moderate churches. Davidson was Dean of Windsor. a technicality that may It is its significance. of great interest that the findings after constant consultation It is a matter were arrived at with Tait's son-in-law. or for causing the Agnus Dei to be the rule sung at the Service of Holy Communion. They included the Contagious Diseases Act. been prosecuted for taking the eastward position. suggested that this last practice was forbidden to a bishop and not have to a priest. were crammed with public events of outstanding importance. the Liberal Party was and many important Acts to the of Parlia- ment were submitted Queen for her consent. The Judgment has.50 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Church of England during the Since 1892 no clergyman has of the history of the past fifty years. for performing the Ablutions. during which Dr. The years 1883 to 1891. impossible to believe that Tait would have subscribed to his successor's findings. considerably stimulated Catholic practice. for lighting candles on the altar. other hand. the . by the way. indeed. killed at Khartoum. whom bishops delight to honour. Gladstone was Home Rule.

' the expedition till it was too She was emphatic in her opposition to Irish Home Rule. He was dean's aid still little known to the great world. Law Amendment Act. alone to blame/ she wrote. but within the Church grew more considerable year by year. who was never very easy to move from a purpose which she had determined. He re- mained behind the his influence scenes. Dean Davidson It is was constantly with the sovereign. They were unhappy of The death ' ' Gordon filled is The Government by refusing to send late. the counsellors was invoked. but he must it is always have permissible known to the Queen's mind. and that he often succeeded where others had failed. and her mistrust of Gladstone was so great that she personally intervened in political intrigue to prevent him again becoming Prime Minister. Outside the Church his importance was recognised . that when had attempted in vain to influence the royal lady. not to be supposed that he was directly consulted on secular affairs. and believe that he must on many other occasions have suggested a measure of caution. and an Act years for the Queen.EIGHT YEARS AT WINDSOR Married 51 Woman's Property Act. indeed. her with horror and anger. There are records. the Criminal enlarging the parliamentary franchise.

Davidson's health in these Windsor days was in still troublesome. . Dr. life These were the small things in the busy of the dean who was the close counsellor of both Queen and Archbishop.52 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON his election as a Trustee of the British by Museum and a Governor of Eton College. and when. he dreaded undertaking more strenuous work. due course. and little life he had inclination to leave the pleasant. He tired easily. of the interesting Deanery of Windsor. preferment was offered to him.

how thank you wonderingly no less fullness of attention to critical my even at so a moment. There is no doubt. the then Prime Minister.CHAPTER III THE FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER IN September 1890. " may far be full of Do not fear that " for could change your Great ones you Poor if more than you have the least chance doing you would lose a tittle of influence 53 of in . and nothing to feel. I am praying earnestly that the power. and there can be none. than to your own you take my syllables as peaceably as if you had nothing to dwell on. that for your own spirit it is a tremendous call change. wrote to him : The Archbishop ' DEAREST DEAN. and ' I only fear lest you should think I take it too quietly. Lord Salisbury. offered the Dean of Windsor the vacant bishopric of Rochester. But what a momentous moment it is . I I must not go to bed with- out telling you for giving affair.

They won't a wonderful suffer you that yet it is mark He should after all call you from those for a time slippery associations to the poor of His People. Dr. 'But He does. and suffer the continuance of the Dean's connection with the Court was soon assured. EDW CANTUAR : ' : The appointment was denounced Lord Halifax. and the time will be rich in the end. When he became a bishop he was appointed Clerk of the Closet to the Queen. so I say boldly. To The Archbishop wrote to him ' : counsel you to work less and send you such work is hypocritical. pointed out that the dean had cared only for ease and a career he little in would have stopped ' in his deanery. ' Your ever ' affectionate. sympathy. Work less for . Both he and his friends were seriously and properly perturbed by his health.54 the to ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Kingdom drop them of God. but 'nineties whom in the Dr. Davidson decided to exchange Windsor for the Kennington Road. with Davidson was if as a job. Now. Not without regret and not without hesitation. ' They won't referred to you to drop them obviously the Queen and the Royal Family.

you are not well and full discreet in sitting up and in Do be and do not mind so much oft the duty of answering the long especially and incessant one who letters of selfish friends reproaches -himself and does not diocese.' I 55 Three weeks afterwards Benson wrote: that ' hear with sorrow from dear Lucy of the future. ' which was lent him by the Queen. exercise. house. in 1891. Vaughan. Dr. to hear of real Most thankful and distinct improvement/ wrote ' . the famous Master of the Temple who had become Dean of Llandaff. Butler. amend. the Master of Trinity. preached the sermon. All will go well never fear out. and after the service the new bishop was presented with a chalice by a number of clergymen with whom he had read for Holy Orders with Dr. and all. Archbishop Benson in May.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER everybody but me. All will work All will be blessed/ Davidson was consecrated ninety-ninth Lord Bishop of Rochester in Westminster Abbey Dr. and ' it was not until the following October. after the long summer quiet of a sick-room/ that he was enthroned in Rochester Cathedral. his illness During he stayed for a while at Osborne Cottage. ED . The new bishop's health broke down. May He carry it on steadily and swiftly in His beautiful mercy.

and it is eminently It is refreshing. and in it was not unnatural and doubtless that.' The bishop might well be appalled by the difficulties of a diocese which only a strong could possibly successfully administer. Healing second. and driving between whiles. gardening you want. which was constituted in the second year of Dr. with its congeries of mean streets. the name of the doctor combined with the facts of the hedgerow which works changes.56 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON if But you take too anxious thought spirituals. troubled by health. peace first. It stretched from the outskirts of Maidstone westward to Kingston. man The ancient diocese of Rochester included the whole of the present diocese of Southwark. even in He : will riot be able. You had really better be off soon to a garden with a doctor's lamp next door. it In the days before motor-cars was a matter of immense his difficulty for the diocesan to visit all the parishes. realising his handicap having little experience as a parish priest. Davidson's primacy. at its centre.' A ' fortnight afterI trust wards. I am gardening that creeping about a garden like an old gardener. the Archbishop wrote daily repairing yourself a you are It is is. with the vast straggling district of South London. . little and feel it. for the morrow.

quite certain that the bishop live. a Danbury. to I stand the permanent of the diocesan. and I thank that is God for the decision now home happily made there. may be. and have thus. ' He : said in an address to his Diocesan Conference The nature of my illness I has not called for banishment from home. He was. I am increasingly certain that in our strangely constructed diocese the bishop's home should be at its busiest centre. however. a Selsdon to which those who " wrangling mart are jaded with the noise of " may dusky lane and be invited from time to and. as memory of many to whom I speak . have considered well the weighty and tempting arguments in favour of a country home a Bromley. for Bishop Thorold described in his primary charge. and whose activities I was debarred from sharing.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER 57 Dr. but among the poorest of them. been in hourly touch with those on whose capable and willing shoulders the work devolved. it time for rest. for fresh air. although a prisoner. must not only among his people. in the very heart of South London. That was the obligation of a chief pastor of a National Church. Davidson should have considered resigning his post almost immediately after his consecration. and as is such quiet conference sub tegmine fresh in the cedri.

' time and money whenever need In the then deaneries of Lambeth. some of them living as far : away as Hampstead. The bishop continued Nonconformist ministers. The task assigned to the parish priest of quiet the National Church sort. may rightly where they will. is of a different and wider his when he too considers humbly how work may best be done. free from what ' may be called reside sider territorial responsibility. accessible to clergy and laity at the smallest possible cost of requires. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON But growing experience confirms me still in the opinion that weightier are the arguments which show the bishop's proper place to be at the central hub of our great wheel. Southwark and Newington there was a population of 424. how their special They are bound to conwork can best be done. district there In the were also thirty-two Nonconformist chapels. and the home of his family.58 to-day. but only thirteen of the ministers were resident. and. he will thank God that his home. with fifty-one parishes and one hundred and thirtyseven resident Church of England priests.234. and the Sunday sermon will probably gain in power and usefulness if it can be prepared in a home during a comparatively undistracted week. is of necessity in the midst of those to whose .

as the Nonconformist preacher is not burdened with the priest's his privileges. ' The very last thing surely that most of us are at present fit to do. ' is to plunge head- long into the maelstrom of social and economic strife. of Southwark. great a claim and an excellent ideal. as has always been his habit. Stewart Headlam and other Christian Socialists. was eminently would have been hard for him not to be. The It courtier prelate sympathetic. was by a great meeting at Saviour's. speaking in the heart of the dismal slums But. or to the .' he said. souls. he cannot claim The enthronement followed in Rochester Cathedral St. and which the Church had been forced to recognise by Dr.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER manifold needs in weal and woe he minister/ is set 59 apart to The Nonconformist priest. where Dr. Mr. Davidson referred to the social problems which were so widely discussed in the early 'nineties. But the Archbishop has never been ready to admit that. with a cure of The parish must be in It is the fullest sense the shepherd of his flock. Canon Scott Holland. he was very cautious. either and to expect to emerge with advantage to the eager and angry disputants. Gore. Southwark. responsibilities. entrusted is a preacher.

these are the real Church questions.60 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON we have at heart. of ' to consider carefully what Christ thinks the present state of things. foremost alike in urgency and magnitude. of the overcrowded and ill-fashioned dwellings of the poor these. learn and inwardly digest these facts of to-day least. what are the ideals. to trace their origin. what we can Never discern point by point of His mind." the wrongs and rights of capital fearful and labour. as definite ' : The social prob- we vaguely call it the problem of the unequal and inadequate distribution of what we call " this world's goods. the education question. with the utmost obedience to Him and now did it trust in Him. so imperatively as devolve on the Church to read. to understand. larger cause But at least we are bound to try to understand the main principles which are at work. . the problems of intemperance. mark. whereof we are the Divinely accredited ambassadors/ After the general election of 1892. to fore- cast their issue in the light of the Gospel of peace. at the very what are the thoughts. the bishop grew bolder and more lem. ' It is the duty of Christians/ he went on. which have got such a grip upon the minds of . if we Christians are worthy of the name. of impurity. and to use and apply.

is the history of England so faithfully daily discharged as now. save at the stated hours of public service. and a sense of which deepening among English Churchmen. closed. the foremost grant us grace to use Among evils of disestablishment withdrawal of I believe. and an opportunity for quiet is given.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER those 61 whom the Church ought to have enlightened and influenced long ago. It will be remembered that Mr. Davidson emphasised the responsibility involved in establishment. in of South London stand. in would be the apparent a responsibility which was never. they have stood thus closed for years ? The passers-by have learned to . and that. a National Church. for the Is it most busy thoroughfares. The churches part. has some minutes at is week when the tension relaxed. a monopoly of special it. Davidson pleaded for the open church even in our busiest least in the streets. we hold a unique God opportunity. Almost every life.' his Very early in episcopate.' And once more Dr. ' : Lloyd George was vociferous in 1892. in the air and that disestablishment was officers of ' As ministers and Bishop said. (I an exag- geration to say trust it is) that they stand.' the position. ' : Dr. for the most part. did the tired men and women but know how and where to use it.

Not in a day. we shall be told. They feel no want. do men unlearn the bad habits or the neglect of centuries. cold times. Perhaps at first. or in a year. from its very strangeness. An open door not some postern that can be found at last by an adventurous and persevering devoteebut a door upon the highway with an obvious welcome. and few or none.62 take it ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON as a matter of course. would enter. albeit years might pass before the welcome is understood and used. But we dare not feel that we have absolutely done our best until the young generation grow up accustomed to take the open door as much for granted as their parents and grandparents have taken the locks and bars. The difficulties are obvious are and real not the less real because they It is ours to prosaic. Very likely. all when many churches stood shut day long. it would be no help to them at all. But why ? Simply lives to ' because they have learned all their do without that help. and perhaps in years to come we shall marvel how we so got on at all in those strange. They would be even surprised to see an open door. and with Welsh . Open the doors even all day long. overcome them in the name of the Lord.' In 1892 a Liberal Government was returned to power with a small majority.

were both ranged Finally.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER disestablishment as one of the planks in 63 its plat- form. gravely in error. was able to obtain a definite pledge that a Disestablishment Bill should be forced through the Commons. Lloyd George. urging that the proposal to hamper the Church's activities and to deprive it some of its rights and privileges should cause of all . with his Welsh backing. : establishing the Church As the E. he was very and Welsh disestablishment as getting in the way of Home Rule was quite simply a nuisance/ 1 But Gladstone soon gave way to Lord Rosebery. a peer and owner of racehorses. of course. In Wales he perceived both is probable also and grace abounding. with his brethren. the Bishop of Rochester. resisted by the whole of the Church. Gladstone deemed it spiritually dead. T. the latter were of course . The power Bill was. but they did not offend his taste his taste his theological bias against the old. ' Raymond has said In Ireland the Church was very low. Though he had disestablished the Church for dislate of Ireland. Welsh demand. and Mr. a Laodicean. Gladstone had no stomach of Wales. and perhaps worse/ and Mr. Gladstone was life It less sympathetic to the Welsh Dissenters than to the Irish Roman and Catholics . that Mr.

died his Metropolitan Haddon Spurgeon. of sharing the general expression of respect and regard for one and so manfully in his Master's cause. and to stand together in defence of the rights of the spirituality. ' I fear/ he added. Spurgeon's brother if it ' : I am anxious to have some opportunity. as his critics consider. holding the position I do.64 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON good Churchmen to forget mere political allegiance. Tabernacle was in Newington. quite close to the bishop's house the bishop wrote to Mr. while being anxious to express sympathy and emphasise agree- ment. During this year. who has worked so long may be. I recall Professor George Saintsbury's definition of broad- the result of flattening high- When the great Baptist preacher. the bishop found occasion to demonstrate the broad-mindedness sometimes. carried to excess which has characterised mindedness as mindedness out/ Charles ' his whole career. ' that it would not be possible me. the bishop did not forget the limitation imposed on him by the fact that he was a prince of the Catholic Church. to be at the public memorial service in the Metropolitan Tabernacle/ I believe I am right for in adding that the Archbishop has never preached . 1892. and thus of bearing witness to the substantial unity in Christ which underlies our differences/ But.

would be a great advantage to men who did not take advantage of religious . the Bishop of Rochester made a very characteristic speech on a resolution proposed by the Bishop of Ely deprecating the new custom of volunteer regiments going into camp at Easter. arrangements are made for early Masses for those in the reviews. welcome a 'healthful form of national life. they would abate the it difficulty now and. on corresponding and during the movements of troops in France and Italy. indeed. with the result that the religious significance of the most sacred days disregarded. that. 65 from a Nonconformist pulpit in England or a At the meeting of the Upper House of Convoca- tion in February. moreover. and every religious ministration for who are engaged effort made to provide men who are for the If their clergy time removed from their homes.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER Presbyterian pulpit in Scotland. In other lands. for instance. would do felt. great efforts are made by the clergy of the National Church occasions. lest in the Christian calendar was Dr. Davidson was most anxious the bishops should not seem to recognise that these Easter reviews had a great national value. Their lordships should.' and the clergy should regard it as a duty to make provision for religious ' services for the ' volunteers.' said the bishop.

The push-bicycle was at the height of its popularity and the bishop saw no reason why the bicycle should not be used on a Sunday. He said that the petition came from a body which had among its supporters a very large number of hard-working parish clergy who had a special right to be heard in that House. The same enlightened and eminently Catholic view of the proper way to use Sunday was shown by the bishop when he presented a libraries. though they might do so on other occasions before if them/ The Bishop of Rochester was no Sabbatarian. in this same speech. as was for them to provide for the needs of the volunteers at Easter. conBicycles/ he said.' stituted precisely the It was for the clergy to provide appropriate serit vices for bicyclists. petition to Convocation in favour of the opening of public museums and art galleries on the first day of the week. For some years he had taken an active interest in this question in a different capacity from that of a member of Convocation.66 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON the opportunity were put ministrations at home. thirty years ago. ' ' form of amusement used by men who were busy all the week and who had their only chance of fresh air and recreation on Sunday. He had been for the last eight years a trustee of the British Museum. .

they found that the objections popularly made fell to the open- ing of those doors on Sundays three groups. Memorials and counter-memorials on either side had been published again and and yet the voices of those who were mainly concerned had He was perfectly never been properly heard. and disadvantages attending such Sunday opening.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER 67 where the question had repeatedly come forward. ready to be convinced. ' the working classes do ' not really want ' it . an immense increase of Sunday labour and it is only the thin end of a wedge. as these petitioners desired. of course. So. But he must in honesty say that. be a mere waste of time to enlarge to their lordships facie upon the obvious prima upon Sundays to sacred art. and thirdly. so far as he could at present It judge. perhaps. would. ' invariably into Firstly. it would involve f . we should soon have in England what is popularly . were the objections. The gain was obvious. upon that the dangers sufficient evidence. the arguments were the other way. outweighed the advantages. or to the history. Looking back to the discussions which had taken place both in Parliament and outside. again. secondly. to the glories of ments of antiquity. to the monuwonders of natural good of giving men access libraries.

and. small shopin business keepers. though the results and signifiit cance of those divisions were loudly challenged. clerks. more^than any other in the community. would be found that tunity of many would rejoice in the opporsuch a mode of spending a part of their At all sorely-needed Sunday rest. at certain working men's clubs and elsewhere. the problem was not solved by saying that the Trade Union Congress had voted against Sunday . if practically silent. seemed that what was known as the working man vote had at present decidedly been cast against the opening of our galleries.68 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON as a Continental Sunday.' ' known Whom did they At the Trade mean by the working classes ? Union Congress. events. young women even the smaller professional ever been men? Had their voice It heard upon this subject? was indisputable that this class. But was there not a fundamental mistake in regarding the classes thus represented as the people whom the grades question principally concerned ? What of the classes educationally a grade or several above that to which reference was usually made? What of shop attendants. was unorganised. He it believed they could speak together. there had been divisions taken on that question. inarticulate and therefore that.

assistants a great host of and attendants would be at work there on Sunday. clear line at all. Sunday and galleries would perambulate the to see that no mischief was done. the galleries of Museum the Natural History Museum were open upon Sunday. People seemed to suppose that say. besides those who. were always guarding our public buildings alike. But the amount was commonly the British very much or exaggerated. Not a bit of it. 69 labour. and collections. last point was probably the most important of our national insti- Would such opening tutions be simply the thin edge of a wedge which would be driven home of our English until the priceless blessing Sunday had disappeared ? After turning the matter over for years. and it was both and right to emphasise that of increase disadvantage. was no Some and municipal institutions were open. and some were not. But a perfectly clear line could be . if. As to the increase of Sunday there would and must be some increase fair of labour. What was needed At present there of our national was a clear line of demarcation. from every i point of view. of course.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER opening. week-days The of all. A few extra policemen. he could not bring himself to think that such a fear was justified. as they were on other days.

The subject left was an un- and he had great tracts social. owing to the Parsons' Freehold. there should be applied to the provision of existing laws. which was described in the Church Times as fundamentally tainted with Erastianism/ since it handed over the offending cleric to a lay tribunal. as was to be his wont. both religious and touched. One was likely to be misunderstood and if misrepresented by good men. even had not one admitted that there were two sides to such a question. could not be removed from their livings. Davidson has never consented rushed.70 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON like to see it drawn. Davidson. and of it. attention was drawn in the newspapers to the scandal of clergymen guilty of serious misconduct who. earnestly trusted he said a He word which could lead anyone to think less sacredly of the Divine gift of the day of rest and worship. gallery or drawn. In November 1892 the bishop was . of the question. and pressure was brought to bear on the bishops to introduce a Clergy Discipline Act. intensely difficult one. But Dr. consulted Dr. with Wherever any or exhibition institution or museum was open it for money profit. Benson. the solemn duty of guarding In this same crowded year. ' Before taking any action. and he would absolute rigidity.

Hatcham.' ' But he I added of and one can almost hear the Dr. The bishop replied with He had noticed that the first ' name on parish. to celebrate The bishop took leave that the opinions of his petitioners were not those of a majority of the parishioners. the Committee was at present that of a gentleman of who was churchwarden another to be and therefore can scarcely claim entitled to a voice in such questions as the hours of St. I shall require to know in what way and by whom the issue was placed before the . Divine service or the hymn-books in use in Catherine's which he presumably would not at present under any circumstances Church. He did not forget that they ' had canvassed the parish. Holy Communion to suppose and to order him in the evening. attend/ It is curious in these days to read that the bishop was asked to order the vicar to dis- continue the use of the Hymns Ancient and Modern.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER petitioned 71 by certain aggrieved and ultra-Proteshis tant parishioners of St. and obtained a large number of signatures to a protest against corrupt teaching and practice. Davidson later thirty years speaking Before can rightly estimate the value of the signatures thus obtained. Catherine's. to admonish the vicar and order him to cease alleged papist practices. admirable humour.

Nor is this an academic question only.72 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and how far the precise points in parishioners. to ascribe to the influence of the Oxford Revival. the other hand. and which length. a direct doctrinal significance and observances which are simply the outward expressions of the . by itself. day. or even in the architecture of a modern town hall. draw a true distinction enables us to between observances which have. The thought. in Presbyterian Scotland or in English Nonconformity. if we can express it aright. say. Pusey. dispute were really understood by them/ Could anything be astuter ? The bishop's own attitude to Ritualism and the meanings of the extreme Protestants was explained at great length in a speech delivered in 1894. whose ritual interest in the aesthetic side of modern Church was exceedingly small. he would be sufficiently of such a refuted by the life man On as Dr. ' is important enough to quote at some He said : Dean Stanley meant to convey that Tractarianism was merely modern aesthetic taste with If an ecclesiastical hue. would be to contradict the evidence which is furnished every our generation has seen. and are meant to have. the extraordinary change which either in beauty of fabrics or in the mode of Divine service.

and there . intoned these. from the days. and other acts like these. To most of us. banners. which have mainly given rise to difficulty. 1 We have by degrees learned better. anyone will take the trouble to examine the complaints which have been made by the average If parishioner to his bishop. except the general desire for a reverent service.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER same spirit of 73 is reverence and pure taste which life hundred other ways. and in his denunciations he mixed them indiscriminately with other usages which. the distinction is obvious. The been right or wrong. chanted psalms. have been. surpliced choirs. of Bishop Blomfield to our own. he will find that the acts. pro- cessional litanies hymns. were meant by their promoters to have a distinct doctrinal significance. were the of disturbance. acts with no doctrinal significance whatever. but at least they were not dependent upon acts may have specific doctrines. Cassocks. called and even riot. 4 main causes years ago. The average citizen disliked them he them popish. wise or unwise. in the proportion of at least three to one. say. perhaps. thirty . but it has certainly been ignored to a remarkable telling in modern in a degree in the controversies which have been known ' as Ritualistic. a desire which scarcely anyone would disclaim. unlike these.

conformity and Scottish Presbyterianism. how difficult is the task . and the points at issue. already clear with regard to certain usages. I is is the being by the usages to which he takes excep- think he would be surprised to find. but upon that I need not dwell. a certain jar must be given to the feelings of the older and more conservative worshippers appropriately to by any movement which is express what is desired and felt But I by younger men. I suppose. will give a precisely parallel example. but in which the outward form of service would have been denounced as English Nonif popish by the parents of the contented worshippers who occupy their seats to-day. in the case of a large number if of usages. It is.74 are ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON now hundreds of churches in which the doctrine is taught as Protestant as ever. What I desire to press is this that the distinction. may of properly be carried further still. or most of . still would ask anyone who continues to be conscientiously pained by what he regards as the undesirable Ritualism of his parish church to sit down quietly and endeavour to state in detail to himself what erroneous doctrine which he believes inculcated tion. inevitable that. we observe their modern usages. in the right sense of that tortured word. in a generation taste whose canons have changed so rapidly.

of course. It adds to the It tickles the aesthetic attraction of the church. Bishop of Winchester. but he had never been tion to Winchester. offered the Bishop of Rochester transla- The suggestion must have been in every way welcome. died in July 1895. he had effort contrived to visit over three hundred parishes. Davidson had worked hard in Rochester. significance. . So long as ritual has no doctrinal then it is permissible. Dr. mental then it is suspect. can be reduced to questions rather of than of doctrine.' to exalt his personal opinions and to the dignity of fundamental This is. His cure of indeed. well. but this had worn him out. the general attitude of the latitudinarian. In the last months of his episcopacy. taste 75 . But immediately ' ritual the outward and visible expression of fundabelief. who had been Davidson's predecessor at Rochester. The task was. again Prime Minister. Do what you like as long as what you do has no mean- ing/ has been the repeated advice of at least three generations of the bishops of the English Church. he will probably be disinclined inclinations principles. and Lord Salisbury.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER them. Anthony Thorold. sense is of the people. too great for his strength.

and traditionally stands in the Archiepiscopal succession. He in telegraphed to the Archbishop. in Farnham Castle. The immense number evening Confirmations. Dr. also Dr. his diary : who wrote ' He saw his doctor on the way to here. the Bishop cedence after Kennington Road. counselled him accept the though he thought work Rochester too severe. a fact which would strengthen many when connections with the Court. and the ceaseless worry . Davidson was on his way to to Scotland Winchester was offered him. but the Bishop of Winchester lived in state and comfort concerning acceptance. and when Winchester was offered to him there could have been no hesitation Winchester in 1895 was a far larger diocese than it is to-day. and the Bishop of of Rochester in straitened quarters in the Moreover. Davidson there must in the fact that have been attraction he is the Prelate of the Order his of the Garter. and his souls consisted of diocese was growing at the rate of thirty-five thousand a year.76 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON two million people. it who when at of strongly offered. Winchester has pre- the two Archbishops while and the to Bishop of London.

for to all human sight it is most right. are the points which Barlow fears for him. have. The traditions and circumstances which invest the for its holder a proportional access see of Winchester with a peculiar importance. nothing to consult about. ' jth August. been present both to my own mind and to the mind . Kennington. But there Nothing to consider further than by the single prayer to be kept back if it were wrong. having reached to Scotland. it right to accept that great position. and involve of high responsibility. 1895. of course. ' MY DEAR ARCHDEACON. you will Before you receive this letter probably have heard of I my am nomination to the see of Winchester.. and to others through you.E. telegraphed Durham on his way is and came straight back to Addington to consult me. why it is that I have. felt enquiry and consultation as were possible. ' Rochester.' The following letter was addressed by the : bishop to the Rochester archdeacons ' Bishop's House.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER 77 about raising money for his poor diocese. S. after such thought. and anxious to explain to you.

but. if that . which cannot be lightly set aside. great and small. for Every month that passes deepens the interest and the hopefulness of the work to which our hands have been set in this unique diocese. if I myself. as I think. be largely debarred. ways. for some time to come. Among the gifts required for the due discharge of our town work sort. the in the bishop for evening of work In no this region London increases steadily. lead me at present to exchange any post on earth the work-field to which I was consecrated little more than four years ago. is physical strength of a peculiar To name one demand upon poorest point only out of several. and.78 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON of the few friends whom know I have felt at liberty to consult . But my recent illness has proved In other that from such evening duty I must. advice I it has become clear to those by whose necessarily guided that the condi- am tions of episcopal work in South London. I can say un- hesitatingly that no such considerations would. of working men and women be appropriately held. of themselves. most rightly. at no other hours can gatherings. too. other way can our multiplying Confirmations life take their proper place in the of each parish . But there are practical considerations of another sort.

for the cause . but different in character. I God. My Rochester years have been circumstances perhaps the happiest they have been. both diocesan and general. I have the deliberate assurance of my medical adviser. please my life. that in I am led with somewhat confidence different to believe the conditions of work which belong to such a diocese as Winchester I to may reasonably hope strength is be able so far as physical concerned to discharge to the full the duties. the busiest shall. In these my right course has seemed no longer doubtful. before whom return the facts have been carefully laid. which required of a Bishop of Winchester. ' On the other hand. equally absorbing and is important. have other opportunities of considering with you the lessons we have together tried to learn. the diocese. 79 are such as involve a real risk of a return of the incapacitating illness which has already caused so much inconvenience to. when of strength allowed. that the anxiety with which he would regard to full my work in the diocese of Rochester does not apply to the work. belonging to the bishop of that great see.FOUR YEARS AT ROCHESTER work be adequately performed. and the work we have together tried to do.

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ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
of our Divine

Lord.

I

know
when

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have

the help of your prayers

I enter
lie

upon
before

the enlarged responsibilities which

me

in

one of the foremost,
offices

most

onerous

and most anxious
England.
1

in

the Church of

1

am, most truly yours, RANDALL T. ROFFEN.'
'

CHAPTER IV

BISHOP OF WINCHESTER
RANDALL DAVIDSON had come
chronic invalid, and,
'
:

to be regarded as a

appointment to Winchester was announced, the Church Times
his

when

commented
anxiety,

Many Churchmen

will regard

with

not to say misgiving, an experiment

which exposes Winchester to the risk of another No man would have believed invalid bishop,'
in

1895

that

the bishop

would be hale and

hearty in 1928, after years of heavy responsibility

and

insistent

anxiety.

The

election

of

Dr. Davidson to Winchester was confirmed in

September, and he was enthroned in his cathedral

on

I5th

October

with

due

pomp and

ceremony, though the Church Times sadly recorded
that
'of banners, incense

and vestments there

was not a trace/
Archbishop Benson died in 1896, and the intimacy between the primate and his suffragan continued to the end. Letters were addressed first
to
'

my

dearest

Dean/ then
81

to

'

Dearest Roffen/
their tone

and then to 'Dearest Winton/ but

82

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
In one of the Archbishop's
'

remained the same.
last letters, Dr.

Davidson was thanked for
for
replies

most

serviceable

suggestions

on

knotty

points/ yet another instance of his influence during
the Benson primacy.

The Archbishop

discussed

with Dr. Davidson the propriety of sending a bishop to Russia to represent the English Church
at the coronation of the Czar Nicholas II.

As

I

have already suggested, Dr. Davidson inherited from Benson his zeal for an entente with the Greek

Orthodox Church, and

in his letter

Benson points

out that friendship would certainly be stimulated

by the presence

of

an English

ecclesiastic at the

Russian coronation.

He

feared that the Liberals

might be critical if the Church appeared to smile on a despot, and that the Protestants might
shiveringly believe
'

that the road to

Rome

lies

through

an idolatrous

Greek Church/ Benson

regarded both criticisms as merely stupid.
last

The
as

paragraph of his
'

letter

is

interesting

indicating the episcopal

mind

at the end of last
'

century.

The bishop/ he wrote,

ought to go in

the smartest clothes the law allows.

No

possible

person could object to a cope, and the late Lord
Selborne maintained that mitres might, and prob-

ably ought
functions.

to,

be worn by English bishops at their
I

This

think would be right/

It is

a

BISHOP OF WINCHESTER
small

83
difficult

point

of

ecclesiastical

history

definitely to settle,

but

it

appears that Dr. King
English bishop since

of

Lincoln was the

first

the eighteenth
it is

wear a mitre, and certainly interesting to know that he had
century to

Lord Selborne's approval. Nowadays, certainly half, and perhaps more than half of the
English episcopate regularly wear mitres, some
of

the more

Protestant

of

them with

great

zeal.

Dr. Davidson, himself,

has never worn a

mitre.

Farnham
park,
its

Castle,

with

its

three hundred acres of

herds of deer,

its

beauty and

its

long

history,

was a

fitting palace for

a prince of the

Church, though within quite recent times Dr.

Davidson's successor has willingly abandoned
costly luxury,

its
it

and

for a sick

and

tired

man

must have been a pleasant
bishop's

dwelling-place.

The

new

diocese included the Isle of Wight,

where Queen Victoria spent so much of her later His intimacy with the sovereign increased life.
rather than decreased in her extreme old age.

At
was

all

times of special
the Bishop
of

trouble

or

anxiety

it

to

Winchester that

the

royal lady turned.

When,
of

for example, Prince

Henry

of Battenberg,

the husband of Princess

Beatrice and

the father

the present Queen

84

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
her favourite

of Spain, died in 1896, the

for
'

prelate,

Queen at once sent and Benson wrote:
you.'

It

was natural the Queen should want
first

Dr. Davidson's

year at Winchester

was

marked by an incident that he must have often
recalled

with

regret.

For ten years Robert
Agatha's, the Winchester

Dolling, one of the glories of the English Church,

had laboured
College

at

St.

mission

in

the

slums of

Portsmouth.

'He

lived in obscurity,' said Fr. Stanton, 'caring

nothing for

money

or position,

never resting,

labouring in the slums in complete unworldliness

and intense sympathy.'

And

a Nonconformist
'
:

The name paper wrote of him after his death " " Father was not assumed by him, but was the
spontaneous tribute of the poor, that recognised
in

him the paternal qualities weak and sympathy for the
this priest, almost

of protection for the

poor.'

And

in 1895

unique in his generation, was

forced

by

his bishop to leave
'

Portsmouth because,
line of official
is called,

as Truth said,

he refused to toe the

orthodoxy.'

Father Dolling was what
'

in ecclesiastical jargon,

a Prayer Book Catholic/
for the

though he said Masses
his people

dead and taught
a teaching as

to

make

confessions,

necessary in the Portsmouth slums as in Mayfair
itself.

He weighs stone. were continually like invading his neighbourhood and denouncing his 'Romanising. in the almost venomous zeal of the 'nineties.' ' And a voice from the fifteen gallery shouted. ' Thorold was a definite ' had breakfast with Dolling and and his curates/ wrote the Bishop in his diary. who succeeded Bishop Harold Browne. and the in like. Davidson was appointed Browne suggested Stations of the Cross. The Protestant societies. . Dolling was inevitably a source of anxiety to his bishop. incensing at the Magnificat. Agatha district. Bishop Harold to Dolling that ' Dolling's Six years before Dr. certainly excited bitter animosity an eminently Protestant town like Portsmouth/ But the bishop agreed that he had received no complaints from the St. and you might find it difficult/ Father body was as large as his soul. Dolling in our neighbourhood/ said a speaker from London at one of these meetings.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER 85 Like most parish priests intent on their jobs. acolytes in crimson cassocks. we would take him by the back of the neck and kick ' him out of the parish. some of them just Evangelical. With Bishop Thorold.' 'If we had a clergyman Mr. the miscellaneous residents. to Winchester. though I Dolling was on terms of affection and mutual understanding.

promote and help it in every am most anxious not to make . and Bishop Randall Davidson reigned in his place.86 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON The bishop refused ' out of prison/ to throw the good priest to the lions.' Bishop Thorold died. and Dolling for due course applied to the bishop the licence which was necessary in order that in a parish might be created. In my is opinion/ he ' said. Before issuing the licence. and that the altar is avowedly to be used for Masses for the Dead/ and the bishop declared ' that he was unable to send a licence sanctioning such an arrangement as ' virtually this. and I anxious am I to legitimate way. the church. the substantial good he his self-denying enabled to activities effect by and Christian any far outweighs by its usefulness distress that be caused to those who are gravely alarmed by doctrines and practices. which they consider to be quite inconsistent with the standards of the may Reformed Church.' He from added ' characteristically : You are aware I my how former letters how cordially appreciate 'and value your vigorous work at Landport. Money had been raised for the building of a new and larger church. the bishop instructed the rural visit it dean to The rural dean reported that was proposed to place a third altar in the side aisle.

quite possible that he did not state his case to the bishop very well. while Dolling admits that Dr. The surrender ' two points Dolling in I find it impossible to make. and no without one can read Davidson's letter agreeing with him that he was really forbidden to say Masses for the Dead and ' to have Celebrations of these without communicants. and. standing on the GD .BISHOP OF WINCHESTER a fuss about the full trifles. thousand of his people petitioned him to stay with them. An error has largely arisen that I left because I could not have a third altar in Dolling my church. 87 and I desire to recognise to the due elasticity and variety desirable in the services of the Church. which concluded with a long communication from the bishop definitely refusing permission to erect the third altar. But this is incorrect/ It is was ill and overworked. But Dolling believed Dr.' wrote his autobiography.' comparative There were various interviews and many letters. Davidson was a man of five ' But most delightful manners/ the letters show that letter he was unsympathetic. You will never me inclined trifles. to be needlessly rigid about but a bishop's responsibility is so grave that when large questions arise he must of necessity act with the utmost care. especially in such neighbourhoods find as yours.

He has survived : ' with a singular simplicity. Rather it to be sought at the Athenaeum. fearful of the Harcourts of this world. from palace to palace. to labour for another few years at St.' must often have regretted that he did not take that course. who lead you aside into corners and in impressive whispers inform you what will not do and what the intelligent British public will not stand.ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON of the law. leaving sorrowful hearts behind him. There dwell the sirens who are apt to beguile to be and bewitch him. Dr. They have ceased mermaids with harps.' In the spring of 1896 the Conservative Govern- ment introduced an Education Bill which the . I should say would have been much wiser for a bishop just entering his diocese to let St. and to die in 1902. Davidson decision of his predecessor. Saviour's. and have adopted the disguise of elderly and excellent gentlemen of reputation. Dolling left Portsmouth. Poplar. Agatha's be ruled for a year or two by the Surely Dr. Davidson was destined to move from strength to strength. ' If I were to express ' my it private opinion/ wrote Dolling. Canon Scott Holland supplied the happiest comment on the point of danger its perils is Dolling case is Bishop Davidson's not the Court.

Davidson. what I not always the case in the closest intimacies of lives. on like terms of is intimacy with any earthly friend. Bishop Benson was to me a and then I was allowed to enter upon in a relation of intimacy with secretary him as his confidential and chaplain. October. our And. It is. . each day.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER 'Radicals vehemently opposed 89 and the Church. Dr. Already in 1882. when Arch- bishop Tait died. and of his and special characteristics and powers. each year. he honoured me by continuing the close of his life to I three months ago. another form. and life never certainly in the same my again can I expect for number of years to be. approved. deepened me the sense of his personal character peculiar . close friend. the agenda of which was largely the work of the Bishop of Winchester. . Davidson said : ' Never in my life before have I been. The Archbishop again consulted Dr. . ' you think and hear. on which into for was brought contact with the Archbishop. There are life some dark Benson was places/ In the last weeks of his concerned with the Lambeth Conference of 1897. an intimacy which. Tell me any more on the whole. Speaking in The Archbishop died in the Upper House of the Canterbury Convocation in January 1897.

dealing day by day with precisely same topics. The conversations at Malines knowledge and approval of Dr. perhaps. High Churchman . Davidson. by far the most important event of the closing years of Benson's primacy was the passionate effort for which Lord Halifax and the late for effecting reunion Abbe Portal were responsible of between the Church These Eng- land and the Church of Rome. one may say. practically at precisely the same results. have made been repeated at Malines. and 1896. indeed. it should be repeated. but by roads and channels which were by no means the a same/ Never. that time he approved Benson. at and most certainly Benson's action. and arriving. as Archbishop Davidson had. thanks to the same two single-hearted enthusiasts. in the years between 1894 efforts. a unique experience. had an ecclesiastic more thorough training for the time when to him too should fall the highest of ecclesiastical offices.go ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON have had think. From the broadest point of view. to the opportunity of observing in succession two men the so different as Archbishop Tait and Arch- bishop Benson. and he was certainly took place with the privy to all that happened thirty years before.

infinitely is simply inappreciably and far off/ anxious for friendship with the East. was fiercely antiRoman. His son says that from boyhood he had ' a deep antagonism both to the errors of doctrine of and the arrogant claims ' Rome/ and in later life he sometimes exclaimed with a hushed vehem- ence that he could almost believe that Anti-Christ/ his Rome was There is biography that this more than a suggestion in gentle man was not a little jealous of the great place that Cardinal Manning England held in the public eye. The dream ' union/ he wrote to Bishop Davidson. although most of his arguments appeared to suggest the contrary opinion. Vincent de Paul. wrote monk of the Congre- gation of St.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER 91 though he may have been. a professor. criticism and dislike. He was He made many amiable references to Nonconformists. but no belief that he would ever see of it achieved. The Abbe . a pious ' wish for the reunion of Christendom. and a theological under a pseudonym a pamphlet in which he concluded that English Orders were invalid. But for Rome he had nothing but. In 1894 the Abbe Portal. and he permitted himself to go so far as to declare that ' Church of people ought not to have any kind of alliance with Roman Catholics/ He had. of course.

where he had interviews Rampolla. the Abbe Portal came to England and was taken by Lord Halifax to see the Arch- bishop at Addington. validity of English Orders. and the Pope is reported to have How gladly I would say my Nunc replied ' : Dimittis if I could make the smallest beginnings of I such a reunion. most famous of modern French theologians. summer of 1894. and with Pope Leo XIII. old/ Full of the You know am eighty-five years sympathy shown him Abbe hurried back to England. and. The Abbe suggested that a sympathetic letter should be addressed by the Sovereign Pontiff to the Archbishops of Canter- bury and York.92 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and declared for the Duchesne. on his return to France. stating that the Roman Church had never condemned Anglican ordinations. then the Secretary of State. the But Cardinal in Vaughan promptly declared shire that nothing in a speech in Lanca- but absolute and unqualified submission could effect reconciliation/ and the . ' Rome. and that re-ordination of Anglican priests In the was merely suggested by prudence. Cardinal and Pope were both keenly interested Cardinal in the Abbe's account of what he had seen and heard in England. the Abbe was summoned with to Rome. reviewed the pamphlet.

. Lord Halifax was in Rome interviewing Abbe Duchesne. S. if Let the Pope silence his talks to the men that sit on the : ' he wishes Hezekiah to listen to a secret messenger of peace. ' in Florence. were considerably The hopes of the Reunionists damped by lished the Apostolic letter. who wall. pub- by the Pope. but the English Archbishop remembered the English Cardinal Rabshakeh. Cardinal Rampolla. reporting the results of his interviews to the Archbishop. in which no mention whatever was made of the English Church or of the English bishops. indeed. This letter was followed by the appointment of a Commission to investigate Anglican Orders.J. the Pope.S.and pleading. from the Vatican. in a long and most Whatever . Fr. and Canon Lacey went to Rome of this to supply information. It is But the Archbishop was an academic affair.E. letter after letter arguing . visit result Roman has been told by Canon Lacey interesting volume. Puller. who was staying bored. no definite approach. on the invitation of a member The of the Commission.' In 1895. Ad Anglos. and.' he commented.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER and Lord Halifax that there was no Lord Halifax wrote 93 Archbishop was able to point out to the Abbe definite offer. the Baron Von Hiigel. Cardinal Gasquet and Cardinal Vaughan. Cardinal Gasparri.

intention and all that belongs to them. form. continuity. . and in September 1896 the Bull Apostolica in Cura was issued. The Archbishop ' at once replied to the ' Pope with an unequivocable statement. matter. which Anglican Orders were declared entirely null and void.94 influence ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Duchesne and Portal may have had in Rome was much more than counter-balanced by the influence of the English Roman Catholic hierarchy. a gnarled old man who. be reached. which had been founded a year before in France by a group of friendly French scholars. fit at the time of life when most people are only for the chimney-corner. in origin. The issue of this Bull was immediately followed by the suppression of the Revue Anglo-Romaine. gentle Benson was succeeded by Temple. Our Holy Orders/ he wrote. But for Lord Halifax and Abbe Portal there remained many more The 1 years of zealous effort and prayer that a great good might haply. of the are identical with those whole Catholic Church. on which point at the Reformation we deliberately resumed our ancient concurrence with the whole Catholic world ' besides/ far as And that was the end of the matter so Archbishop Benson was concerned. They are. identical accordingly with those of the Church of Rome except in the one modern point of subjection to the Pope.

He had been greatly influenced his senior. Temple was one of the assessors in the Lincoln trial. suggested that. He cared nothing for externals. London.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER was still 95 bench/ regarded as the strongest prelate on the Temple was seventy-five. but the addresses of As Bishop that he afterwards delivered to his clergy show that. It has been when he was Bishop of London. while accepting the Archbishop's findings. he owed his appointment to his predecessor's suggestion. and there is no sort of evidence that Temple was consulted from day to day as Davidson was consulted. by Tait. and ecclesiastically he stood directly in the Tait succession. and Dr. but Temple was far more thoroughly a sacramentalist. Temple was the chief adviser of the Archbishop. but his essential . and that the ritual practices that significance. who was eight years his junior. but no such intimacy existed between the two men as between Benson not the case. he had no great love for them. He insisted that the Judgment was merely permissive. who was only ten years when he was an undergraduate at followed Balliol. Davidson. That was certainly Benson often expressed admiration for Temple's great qualities. indeed. He Tait as head-master of Rugby. and. had been sanctioned had no doctrinal Benson was a High Churchman.

at the consecration of Truro Cathedral. many devoted Church and is detrimental to the spread of true religion/ Temple's primacy was short. a sense. Augustine small impression on the history of the Church. when Bishop of Exeter. to He might. slowly. R. and the agitation that followed led to strongly-worded resolutions being passed in both Houses of the Canterbury Convocation. he fought his way it back to a modified Tractarianism. and his occupancy of the throne of St. His appointment at his advanced age was an obvious blunder. and held the end. the Lower House requesting the bishops to suppress the custom of the exchange of pulpits.96 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON the sacramentalism was expressed in famous sermon that he preached. In his Balliol days Temple was a disciple of the Oxford movement. perhaps. and as he grew older. Dr. be most accurately described as a Liberal High Churchman. Ward went to Rome. Haweis to preach in the pulpit of the City Temple. And he held very rigid views concerning the nature of the Church and the responsibilities of its ministers. G. his five years at left In Canterbury mark a break . and He reacted to Moderate Liberalism when Newman and W. H. which is a ' great scandal in the eyes of people. Temple refused to give his sanction to the Rev.

Randall Davidson's great personal influence in the councils of the Church. with the Bishop of Winchester as one of the two secretaries. in which the resolutions ' : of the Conference were summarised Difficulties having arisen in some quarters with regard to the administration of Holy Communion such difficulties to the sick.' ' Before the meeting of the Conference. we recommend that be dealt with by the bishop of each diocese in accordance with the left to should be direction contained in the preface to the Book of Common Church. the agenda of which Davidson and Benson had compiled. Concerning the Services of the The Encyclical Letter was a colourless series of document.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER The two 97 in Dr. Davidson was from the ritualistic Benson. prelates were in effect much farther from each other than Dr.' Prayer. and. there particular interest in the following extract from the Encyclical Letter. in view of the present heated controversy concerning Reservation is of the Blessed Sacrament. Temple had corrected and signed the reply to the Papal Bull which was being drawn up by a committee . not unfairly described as a truisms and platitudes. met in the first Temple's primacy. The Lambeth Conference. One of months hundred. and ninety-seven bishops attended the Conference.

but he had quarrelled with Lord Rosebery the leadership of and had resigned the Liberal Party in the House of he turned to the Church. reaffirmation of Anglican Orders and a repudiation of the doctrine of Transubstantiation. as Mr. and for the moment he was unemployed.98 of bishops ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON when Benson a died. In 1898. was looking He had spent a round for a fresh occupation.' far It is only add that he was more in earnest than Disraeli. and had joined with Disraeli in ' ridiculing fair to the Mass in masquerade. to ' whom. A. the validity in of substance.' The National Church were of Church was to him a branch of the Civil Service. and the bishops and priests of the servants of the State. is that of an old Whig and that of a thoroughly consistent Protestant. life long in political controversy. So. Sir William Harcourt. Gardiner has well said. for at heart he wa's a Jew of Harcourt was a complete the Circumcision. one form of Christianity was probably as amusing as another. and which was. most renowned of modern swashbuckling politicians.' Erastian. G. Commons. ' ' My creed in Church and State/ he said. The introduction a . faute de mieux. Harcourt had taken a leading part twenty-five years before in the debates on the Public Worship Regulation Act.

no living bishop had ever exercised the veto which the law gave him. Paul's. Harcourt denounced the Confessional ally authorised in the specific- Book ' : of Common is Prayer of Reservation of the Sacrament. he wrote long letters to The Times. He made speeches. one of the case of the reredos in St. as they were attacked in the House of Commons a few months ago. last charge. zeal of the Protestant societies The bishops were indignant at this and. in a speech in the House of them being Lords. It is the outward and visible sign of the opus operatum of of the sacrificing priest-^the most potent engine of . 99 which was supposed to favour the Anglo-Catholic party. and which opens the chasm which irrevocably divides the Protestant Church England from the Church of Rome. he attacked the bishops for not carrying out the law. This no question mere ceremony or ritual it goes to the root of the whole sacramental doctrine on which the English Reformation hinges. and the ceremonial use of incense.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER Benefices Bill. He said . with three insignificant exceptions. was the pretext on which Harcourt fastened as a very godsend. Randall Davidson declared that. Dr. and he was particularly indig- nant that the episcopal veto had been exercised and the persecuting handicapped.

Dr.ioo ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON as of priestcraft distinguished from the faithful is communion Church. Bishop of London. of 1927 and 1928. and to realise that the Catholic tradition was part of the heritage of the Church of England. while in his years as bishop he had learned to regard uniformity as a doubtful good. tearing propaganda had no immediate largely effect.' the congregation. rejected by the House of Commons on the tions bidding ground that they prejudiced what the majority in that House regards as the Protestant character . Gardiner spondence with Dr. He had seen for himself the futility of persecution. but he had not forgotten the utter failure of the Public Worship Regulation Act. but it was unquestionably charges of due to Harcourt's that the Ecclesiastical Discipline Commission of this 1904 was appointed. calls ' Harcourt carried on what Mr. Harcourt's raging. Davidson to an extent agreed with Harcourt 's point of view. One outcome Commission was the issue of Letters of Business to the Convoca- them prepare a revised Prayer Book. The Prayer Book Measures. an enormous corre- Randall Davidson and Creighton. which the corner-stone of the Protestantism of the English With the ' letters to the Press. therefore.

not to Catholic intrigue. In 1899. not at present enjoined nor permitted by the law of the Church of England. could on some great occasion order a great ceremonial in which the use of incense should form part. were ultimately due. but to an earlier outburst of Protestant effervescence.' Processional lights were condemned on ' precisely the same line of reasoning. indeed. considerable justification for Prebendary Mackay's assertion that Sir William Harcourt is the real author of the revised Prayer Book a remarkable post-mortem achievement. Archbishop Maclagan stated ' : to York subscribed. and as part of that worship.' The Archbishop apparently conceded that the use of incense was not forbidden by the .BISHOP OF WINCHESTER of the loi Church of England. A long which It judgment was drawn up by Temple.' ' But the Archbishops were careful to add that the liturgical use of incense is not by law permanently excluded from the Church's ritual. the bishops petitioned the two Archbishops formally to pronounce whether or not the ceremonial use of incense and processional lights was lawful within the Church of of England. The Crown. There is. with the consent of the Archbishop of Canterbury. We are obliged to come to the conclusion is that the use of incense in the public worship.

If it is to be used. Davidson. Every clergyman has promised to use the form in that book prescribed and none other. A procession with incense would be an addition to that form. sort of dual could be authorised by Home Secretary and the Archbishop who were of apparently together a Pope the unfortunate English fuller detail in Church. The number of churches in which incense and portable lights were in use in 1899 nas . and it should be noted ' that while Benson addressed the bishop as dearest Winton/ Temple addressed him as ' ' My My an of dear Bishop of Winchester. and that consent of the of Canterbury. incense cannot be used in our public worship at all. and the result of what known Lambeth Hearing cannot be regarded as anything more than the expression of pious opinion. A deputation representing to protest against is fourteen thousand lay communicants waited on Lambeth ' the finding. it must be so used as not in any way to be a part of public worship the Archbishop at as the ' ' .' said : The Archbishop is A procession with incense clearly additional ceremony not ordered in the Book Common Prayer. According to our present law.102 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON it Canon Law. The Archbishop went into a letter to Dr. and clearly neither enjoined nor permitted as a part of public worship.

as far as are lost . ' He said : The awful question to be driven home is that. England is concerned. And if I were asked. in the whole of England. that the Sacraments were again popularised by the old Catholic method. or any bishop. HD .BISHOP OF WINCHESTER 103 certainly greatly increased during the past twenty years. the Sacraments and I challenge any clergyman. and then in a hundred other churches. message of the Archbishops is directed It was not until at Holborn and down in the London Docks. Could you point out a parish where more people are brought to the Sacraments than in any other place ? It is ten to one it would be one of the very parishes that this present against. or any layman. The Archbishops assumed that the worship of the Church was regulated by Act of Parliament and they chose to interpret a statute when the business in hand was to expound the sacred law/ Anglo-Catholic opinion of the ' Lambeth Hearing was expressed by Father Dolling in a speech at a meeting of the English Church Union at St. men had been brave enough to face the rebukes of their bishops. to say that he can in any sense be satisfied with the methods by which the Sacraments are received ' in England to-day. James's Hall.

Davidson explained his own position candidly and in detail. The bishop went on to ask how the Church of England differed from the pre-Reformation Church. whose ignored for fifteen years. the liturgy simplified and in English. at is whatever cost and at whatever hazard. so the application of His Gospel and His Sacraments cannot be bound by the methods of three hundred or three hundred and fifty years ago.' the restriction of private Confessions to narrow limits and particular occasions/ and ' a return to the primitive . Dr. as recommended by the Commission.' But Harcourt ' rejoiced at the condemnation of of fantastic is imitations object the inculcation Roman ritual whose of Roman doctrine/ In an address to his Diocesan Conference. It has. report had been the way. that which belongs to every branch of the Church namely. power to bring home the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the present times and the present needs . because.104 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON I Therefore what you and should demand. He regretted that the Ecclesiastical Courts had not been reformed. as He Himself is for all time and over all persons. and he found five points of difference the repudiation of the ' papal jurisdiction. by remained ignored to this day. the ' open Bible.

Early on the morning of the 22nd of January. in life at last came to its Queen Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 Osborne. to The Bishop of of Winchester had crossed Cowes to officiate at a memorial service for Prince Henry Battenberg in Whippingham Church.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER view of Holy Communion. and as bishop. some significance he made no reference to prayers Towards the end of his speech the ' bishop showed a mild sympathy with the antithe Catholics by deploring the swing back to materialistic doctrines of the fifteenth century. of Winchester. as dean. for the first time. and little The Bishop who. On the i8th of January the Court Circular published an announcement that.' as he called them in a taste letter to Lord Halifax. Dr.' For ' ritual accretions. and was able to attend to the business of the State until the middle of January.' Confession is 105 to still The it reference interesting. and there in the fact that for the dead. and would be more interesting to know the authority for the is bishop's statement. Davidson had no patience. he was . warned the nation that the death of the sovereign was imminent. had been the sovereign's close confidant for twenty years. was with her when her long end. as unbeneficed clergyman. the day of the Queen's death.

chester scrolls Again it King Edward in was the Bishop of Winof who stood beside him. holding the large on which the addresses and injunctions to be said by the Archbishop were printed in very large type. Canterbury With the Archbishop the service in of St. the Bishop of Win- chester again prayed with the family it by the coffin was first carried to the warship for the last to journey. the bishop and the Dean of Windsor were the clergy in the procession when the coffin was carried from the chapelle ardente to the royal mausoleum. Archbishop Temple was eighty-one.106 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON sent for to Osborne House. by right of his rank. and. Portsmouth. then to London. was the bishop who went to the Primate's help when he stumbled in making and it his obeisance to the sovereign. and he and the Lord Chamberlain were the only persons. who were present when the Queen peacefully and painlessly breathed her last. . and was he who afterwards conducted a short service for the bereaved family. he conducted George's Chapel. On before the day of the funeral. outside her family. and in obvious failing strength. when he faced the heavy ordeal of the coronation August 1902. It was the Bishop of Winchester who it said the last prayers by the royal bedside. and then to Windsor.

the King expressed his entire disagreement. But Dr. and that royal chaplains should not be compelled to vacate their positions ' if they accepted preferment. to King Edward ceased personally consider ecclesiastical appointments. which I do not. and Dr. a fact not without Mandell Creighton died interest and significance. and the King influence replied that he wished the old arrangement to go on. Davidson should be translated from Winchester to London. When he suggested that retired Colonial bishops should be given canonries. was appointment of the present Bishop of London. Davidson.' after his accession. ' He wrote to Lord Salisbury : I only wish that the Bishop of Winchester [Dr. Davidson's was by no means the same. The King desired that Dr. which left till were the end of his reign absolutely in the hands of the Prime Minister. as directly responsible for the Bishop of Winchester. death. Randall Davidson] would accept the Bishopric . however. if he should continue the confidential recommendations which Queen. a week before the Queen.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER Immediately after the Queen's Randall Davidson asked the King he had made to the late 107 Dr. represented the sovereign at the bishop's funeral. bluntly commenting : The bishop evidently advocates Soon the system of pluralists. The King.

the three prelates after- wards being blessed by the dying Primate. Should the latter reasons. and. be offered to the Bishop of Rochester. and hope your be made. I am inclined to believe that the Bishop of Stepney. Still.' of On 4th December. but he has repeatedly told me that he could not undertake it on account of his health might be offered to him as you suggest.io8 of ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON London. so loyal. would be a than the Bishop of Newcastle. and was taken home to Lambeth. better selection Winnington Ingram. The Bishop of Winchester and the Bishop of London were in the Archbishop's room when he received Holy Communion for the last time from the Archbishop of York. It was said of Temple after his death that it was a tragedy that one so good. failing him.' ' . and other it decline. in spite of any objections that may will nevertheless pass it into law and us see how it will act when it begins to work. Temple was in his place in the tion Bill Lords to support the Educaintroduced by the Conservative Governfeeble. He was worn and He The concluded Bill is I his speech with the assertion. ' House ment. to die nineteen days afterwards. Dr. an honest and statesmanlike measure. let lordships.' Then he sank back into his seat. should have done so little. 1902. so strong.

' said ' I Temple. But I want to make 'em. properly feeling as.' He was an old man. With the proceeds of the sale.BISHOP OF WINCHESTER 109 One thing Temple did during his primacy which was to affect the life of Dr. ' : he made the characteristic reply No. I don't. see. of the day has passed when as Archbishops Canterbury should appear country gentlemen. Davidson had stopped so often both with Tait and Benson. Temple had the Old Palace at Canterbury rearranged and enlarged for an archiepiscopal residence.' . which Archbishop Manners-Sutton had bought as a summer residence. Benson ' had felt that the Archbishop ought to spend a his. all his successors would wish to live in Canterbury. he wanted a more bracing country house than the palace in Canterbury When he was asked if he thought that Close. and he was unaffected by the argument that. certain part of the year in the city of think. Davidson. and where Dr. as the Archbishop had to spend the greater part of the year at Lambeth. He sold Addington Park. indeed.

Ours has indeed been a long and intimate friendship. the then Mr. I feel sure also that you have special gifts remarkable which their you not only to carry on work. Maclagan. but to add to it some features will enable which ' will greatly promote the interests of the Church. Davidson learned from the Prime Minister. ' has been a very and providential preparation for your succeeding them in the Archbishopric. and I trust that this change in our no .CHAPTER V THE BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY TWELVE days after the death of Temple. but he took the proper and the usual course of consulting Dr. that he had submitted his ric. Dr. the Archbishop of York. Arthur Balfour. name King for the vacant ArchbishopDr. Davidson could hardly have been surto the prised. who wrote to him : Your long and intimate acquaintance with Lambeth and its Archbishops. and all the duties belonging to their office.

BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY relations in may only draw us into even closer fellowship. perhaps the highest among episcopal statesmen. a Bill on the latter question. In the matter of temperance. ' His views on the chief matters of controversy in the English Church are well known. His recent speeches on the Education Act need not be cited to prove his great zeal in that cause. He was a member of the Select Committees on Infant Life Protection and the Early Closing of Shops.' Archbishop of York was the opinion of the country. Since he took his seat in the House he has gained a high place. and is now promoting. Lords is beyond question and it is almost certain that a referendum to the present bishops would result in their choosing Dr. He has taken a consistently moderate position between the Scotch severity of Tait and the more sensuous . The Times. in it will be remembered that 1900 he introduced three measures into the Upper House. with Lord Avebury. in a leading article on his appointment. the partial results of which are now coming into operation. Davidson without a first dissentient voice. said of the : The opinion ' His fitness to lead the bishops in the House of . especially in regard to social movements.

Dolling. without loss of time." In regard to ecclesiastical litigation. the difference between "superstitious materialistic teaching" and practices coming properly under the head of "deliberate reasonable self-discipline. Augustine. as he stated in his charge of 1899. he had the courage.112 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Churchmanship of Benson. whose social activities ' were almost heroic. Agatha's. even though the result was bound to be the withdrawal from his diocese of Mr. and for providing an appeal from the But his actions provincial court to the Crown. In the well known case of St. He understands. he has publicly favoured the plan of the Ecclesiastical Courts Commission and provincial tribunals. which awaits him at Lambeth he his physical strength. of Winchester he has been frequently consulted about these ritual difficulties by his brethren on the bench. and his moderating influence is As Bishop not likely to be less now that he is advanced For the work will require all to the Chair of St. for strengthening the diocesan can speak as definitely as his expressions of opinion. Landport. will and it is to be hoped that he the attack of make a speedy recovery from influenza from which he has been suffering for some days past/ . to insist on his admonition being obeyed.

Davidson's treatment of Fr. Dolling indicates a curious and perverted view of the mission of the Church. what little ritual there was. but Lord Rosebery was in the congregation. Dr. There were comparatively few bishops present. Dr. is much this the same as a Liberal Evan- view was also expressed by The Times.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY ' 113 ' The sensuous Churchmanship of Benson is certainly a strange phrase. Davidson was enthroned in Canterbury Cathedral on I2th February. as the ' Church Times sarcastically commented. observing.' showing no it sense of nervousness or flurry and seeing to his that attendant chaplains and train-bearers were always in their proper places. Davidson may have in and courageous in that case.' that leader-writer said Yesterday. He was. been prompt but he can hardly be God to a harassed But The Times certainly expressed the average Erastian Englishman's opinion. which. and the praise for Dr.' The Church Times described the new Primate as ' a broad Low Churchman. it was said.' which I presume gelical. said to have acted as a father priest. ' particularly impassive and collected. in the leading article published on and the morning after the enthronement. amid all is most impressive . commended The him ' to the nation as : ' a layman's parson.

Dr. is that the Archbishop a layman's parson. . there is a danger of sharp cleavage between clergy and this side of the Archbishop's character bilities will laity. and that he understands how to commend his calling to those who are not of his cloth. or to suppose that in this they bring home reunion any is nearer. ' At a time when. Davidson was enthroned in the cathedra of St.' Referring to the Archbishop's speech at the banquet of welcome. What Nonconformists know that. Augustine. Davidson did not omit to acknowledge the : ' messages which have come to him from the heads of the Church of Scotcordial and affectionate land and of the various English Nonconformist Unions. He is too shrewd to build too much on these those messages. what everyone who has watched his career realises quite well. . without question.all the varied . and amid such sunto be English in the shine as we can hardly boast month of February. in . On the previous evening he had been welcomed by the municipality of Canterbury. . and had expressed his natural sense of the extreme heartiness of his reception in a speech which shows.114 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and of all that is in English architecture most stately in English ceremonial. The Times said Dr. and possi- not be without its effect.

and their sentiment on Canterbury as surely as the sentiment of the Roman on St.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY Church. when they converges assured of their rights. Davidson's achievement as Archbishop 1 : has had opportunities that could only come to one who has gone carefully through the correspondence of Archbishop Tait. he has lived in amity with those represent other creeds and other customs. of independence are self -administration. which of came in first with its message congratulation and was prevented only by . they can give rein to their sentiment.' obviously does not go into the fight merely with the object of counting the slain among his And the leader went on with a curiously accurate forecast of one side of Dr. of estimating the growth of the Anglican union and of the He Churches which co-operate with it. Peter's. battle of working the Education 115 spheres in which he has laboured for the English who The Act has stilT to be faced. but the carnage made will be less woeful when the forces on one side are to be led by a man who foes. The English Churches outside England have their ideas of what and is due to them in the way But. The Archbishop did well to refer to the enterprise of the American Epis- copal Church.

does not lie either with ' those who look back to the sixteenth century. The truth. the study of " Greater Britain " is a stern and substantial reality to the man who has to sit in Lambeth Palace. Davidson was the immediate heir of a complex ' Archbishop Tait/ he said. strive to make out that everything in the Church of England depends upon that/ or with those deficiency of historical 'who with equal knowledge try to make in out that what happened in the sixteenth century was a lamentable blunder tradition. of advice that must be given. But the Archbishop knows that the English people will still expect him to have his thoughts fixed on the centre of the Empire as well as on its circumference. And this sentiment is not a mere idea. and that Lambeth one/ is Home Office and Colonial Office in The Archbishop was at pains to make his position as a middle Churchman perfectly clear. bishop. ' Church life/ Dr. with strange ignorance of history.n6 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON misadventure from sending a bishop across to represent it yesterday.* brought the strength of a profound thinker and . and. of problems that require solving. It It means work for the new Arch- means that every mail will contain its consignment of questions that need answering. he said.

among strange surround- and with faces that were for a time unknown. still a man whose memory is so fresh with us see his stalwart that figure as we almost expect to we turn around the corners of these Cathedral walls in that he taught us more than any man he taught people what righteousness meant life. Then we find his place filled by a man who. ings. name of Christ. have found a difficulty of which I had . who cared to know anything about it what that National which Then. chester I when I was called to the see of found myself face to face with this as it seemed to me. when Win- see of Rochester. at all. a grave one that difficulty the work one was entering on was on comparatively strange ground. and seven years ago. of teaching the people of England what National Christianity ought to mean.' in religious He was returning at I to a familiar sphere. I find myself to-day in exactly the opposite conI dition. taught every man. however trifling.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY clear-headed in the 117 man of affairs to bear upon the duty. with that brilliant versatility. that striking devotion. two epochs in my was called to the twelve years ago. before. life ' Twice. as something came down from the ages long lastly. which found expression in every act. Christianity ought to mean.

perhaps that I have known and learned from and loved on earth. Behind the crowded lie not dreamt in facing some of the responsibilities which of congregation in the choir to-day.ii8 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON upon me now from the very familiarity the tasks of the post. adds an additional enough as and a larger All I ask is difficulty to difficulties already great one enters on new responsibilities field of work/ the Archbishop concluded ' : And that I may have when I the prayers and assistance of laid to sleep the all. there arise before me the faces of the men the nearest. with the very room in which It so we are met to-day. my I first act as chaplain to Archbishop speaking the sober truth when I say that the recollection of those other days. I happens that it was in this very room that performed Tait . so that am words may be said that he at least tried to serve his generation. the greatest. according to the will of God/ . the wisest. the and am thoughts. nay. whose memories are for me intertwined with these Cathedral walls . which I then had about the and the office to which I am now it called. behind your figures as I speak to you now. fact of standing to-day in a position which seemed to me then to have about a character so unapproachable in some respects in its greatness.

with regard to Michael's. but with that I propose to deal in a subsequent chapter. Within a Catholics fort- and Protestants began to trouble him. prosecutions. and certain other churches. where his straightforward statements ID and his dislike of . and act sternly. gences of the laity as to the extravagances of and he pointedly asked them how were being prepared for Holy many of their sons Orders. The Archbishop once more but ' deprecated St. too. popish practices.' Then he went on with considerable humour ills to suggest to the deputation that the of the negli- Church were due quite as much to the the clergy.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY ! 119 From the beginning. Part of 1904 was spent by the Archbishop in a visit to the United States and Canada. A of deputation of a hundred Protestant Members Parliament waited on the Archbishop at Lambeth. and demanding the prosecution of disobedient priests. he declared that out. in the usual manner. So his primacy began Dr. Davidson was concerned with the insistent educational controversy.' the sands had run and he made the emphatic statement. lamenting. Shoreditch. night. often ' : quoted against him in these later days I desire and intend that we shall now act. of his enthronement.

would be an the most. was the chairman represented the Church was of by the Archbishop.' The Commission Sir Michael consisted of fourteen members. of the his His visit emphasises the oneness two Churches and the two peoples/ On return he made a rather striking speech Disestablishment evil thing for the defending the Establishment.120 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON any sort of fuss made him immensely popular. the Bishop Gibson. Dr. with an earnest desire to be as one of us. The impression that he produced was summarised He is a man of by a Western bishop. and as the direct outcome mission ' of the Harcourt anti-Catholic agitation. Bishop of . and procedure and to make such recommendations as may be deemed requisite for dealing with the aforesaid matters. . Hicks Beach. Church. but it would be the English people who would suffer In the spring of this year. who said ' : absolute simplicity. the Balfour Government appointed a Royal Com- to enquire into the alleged prevalence of breaches or neglect of the law relating to the conduct of Divine Service in the Church of England and to the ornaments and fittings of Churches. afterwards Oxford. afterwards Lord St. Aldwyn. and to consider the existing powers applicable to such irregularities.

and disapproved of any insistence on the rule of fasting reception. incense and sacring bells. and Sir Lewis Dibdin. vestments.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY Gloucester. that redoubtable Edward the Clarke. still the most of emphatic of Erastians. 121 and Dr. until he the English Church. Commission made an anti-Catholic report more than probable. He began with a detailed and masterly account of the development of ritual in the English Church since the Reformation. afterwards Bishop of Ripon. is authority for statement that. Newman the altar. The Archbishop himself gave evidence. The Commission held 118 sittings and examined 164 witnesses. Drury. Pusey. a large number of them the familiar Protestant informers with fearsome tales to of candles tell on the altar. One or two members had some tepid but the personnel of the Catholic sympathies. and among the other members were the Protestant.' said the . He reminded the left the Comthe mission that the Tractarian leaders were antiRitualists. always consecrated at the north end of Ritualistic Pusey himself constantly condemned Keble never wore extravagances. deprecated the practice of non-com- municating attendance. Two ' facts seem to me to come out clearly. Sir President of the Divorce Court.

and even sometimes strongly deprecated. It of the sur- and the him that the rubric left was suggested to a clergyman free to wear ' Eucharistic vestments unless forbidden to do so by the words I bishop. ordinarily full But it is quite extrato and candid. there appears : a second fact : that the Tractarian leaders though those of them who survived into the days of the ritual controversy were. the sort of advance which has given rise to so much controversy/ The Archbishop then proceeded to a long 1840. sympa- thetic with the general line taken by their fol- lowers discouraged rather than stimulated. Church should be the use surplice only. could not have been. of course. as amended by Convocation. It summary It is. of ecclesiastical history from of course.122 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON ' . and Dr. Davidson replied : The may be patient of that interpretation. on the other hand. not an impartial statement. Archbishop first. or even indefinite. but is do not think that the intention/ that. the Archbishop said that it was intended that the rule for the plice. He re-.. plan or expectation of ritual develop- ment formed part of the original Tractarian movement but. minded the Commission in the Purchas . Referring the Ornaments Rubric. that no definite.

He denied that this was though. the Lincoln Judgment. the mixed chalice and the use of wafer bread were all illegal. they had acted rightly and bravely from their point of view. eastward position. with the which he had been so much ' concerned. ' when the Church Association decided to prosecute Bishop King. entirely reversed by the Lincoln Coming to the Public early administration of Worship Act. in fact. his Grace apparently forgot remind the Commission. had been almost Judgment. 123 that the Dean of Arches had declared the Eucharistic vestments.' of course.' He took some pains to prove that the jurisdiction of High Church objection the Judicial Committee to the of the Privy Council had grown with the years. and he agreed with the trumpery suggestion of the Chairman of the Commission that ' they [the High Churchmen] began.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY case. the Archbishop admitted that the Act had failed because it was constantly supposed that there was something in the Act which necessitated or even invited imprisonment penalty. he admitted that the imprisonments of the 'eighties had made the Act a discredited Referring to futility. as the ultimate so. a decision to which. to dislike the . the Archbishop made the curious remark that.

. his Grace went on to describe to the Committee on what principles he had acted in the governing of the three dioceses with which he had been entrusted. Lowder as an own ends. ' Lowder. They dreaded prosecutions. had been. whose popularity in East London at that time was so enormous. steadily against prosecutions except as a very last resource. because experience had shown that they defeated their Take the case of Mr.124 Court of. example. the Archbishop said. salient passage ' The following is its most In a similar way we have a right. Mr. for the sake of those who come after us as well as for ourselves. during the whole period of the ritual revival.' The bishops. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Appeal when its decisions began to be unsatisfactory to them. but it is certainly not quite obvious that the result would have been to prevent subsequent troubles it might conceivably even have been to accentuate . Had been prosecuted. it is at least open to question as historical matter of fairness what the result might have been . He quoted : at length from a Visitation Charge written in 1894. and it is not obvious it is a legitimate matter for difference of opinion. them/ Having concluded his historical survey.

The adoption of what known as the " eastward position. such as those which were once supposed to give a partisan character to the Churches which adopted them. ' . it may probably come to pass that the take place with regard to same process may the other usages I have alluded to. consequence. fall naturally into this category. were long discontinued in the Church of England would lead me away from my object this afternoon. without any offence by every school. If modes of vesture and music. I am neither advocating nor depreI cannot bring myself to regard them as in themselves possessing grave importance. To discuss the causes why these usages... " the singing of the anthem Lamb of God. but are used I first referred to. and with regard also to such customs as that of marking the progress of the Church's year by a change in the colour of ornaments and hangings." the administration of the mixed chalice. or may . cating such usages." and the use of the two lights at the time of Holy Communion. now do so no longer. although indirectly they are of inasmuch as they may.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY to 125 the deprecate with all possible emphasis fashion of giving a partisan meaning to usages which did not at first have any such is significance. and others with them.

association. to do the Most of these. belonging almost exclusively to the Eucharistic service. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON according to personal temperament and promote or retard the devotion of the worshippers. like. the solemn duty of unswerving loyalty to the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England. of such feeling as shall strife and ill- more than counter-balance what their usefulness. In 1905 he forbade their use. officiating by and gesture. about which would be humiliating or I even impossible to lay down precise rules. the arrangements for cleansing the sacred vessels springs from what was originally intended to convey a specific doctrinal extreme elaboration of meaning . reasonably or unreasonably. was meant to be 1 To some few controverted usages. and may possibly be provocative. it however. Catholic and Reformed.' In 1927 the Archbishop was ready to sanction prayers for the dead. are matters of degree. and it would not be act difficult to find examples of other ways in which the clergy are able. For example. with all the authority which belongs to the office I hold.126 not. content myself to-day with urging upon you. In answer to the question on the subject. he said ' : My own line with regard to the question . there is a doctrinal meaning attached.

and which he apparently intended . I have directed that the words of that it prayer should be so modified as to make correspond with the concluding part of the ' Prayer for the Church Militant.' And we servants Thy Holy Name for all Thy departed this life in Thy faith and fear also bless . we beseech Thee. beseeching Thee to give us grace so to follow their good examples. but does not.' I have been assailed for suggesting that this prayer obviously implies purgatorial progress. with the Archbishop's sanction. A considerable 'developis ment in ideas and sympathy obvious when it is remembered that ' in the Deposited Book there appeared. Davidson was prepared to sanction twenty. the manifold blessings of Thy that the good work which didst begin in them may be perfected unto the day of Jesus Christ.three years ago.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY 127 has been that where there was a distinctive prayer for the dead as such apart from a prayer for the whole Church corresponding with what we have in the Prayer Book. it if it has no meaning. the prayer : Multiply. rest in Jesus.' That was that Dr. The Archbishop informed the Commission of the rules that he had laid down in the diocese of Winchester. that with them we takers of may be parall Thy Heavenly Kingdom. Thou to those who love.

as. in the office of Holy munion. (4) In order that there may be no Com- question of using. even if the additional prayers be intended solely for the (5) private devotions of the officiant. (2) No reservation (3) of the consecrated elements brating the Holy in is permissible. to omit the reci- tation of the Commandments. is In cele- Communion it not permissible. any other form than that prescribed. ordinary circumstances. If arrangements are desired. no books or cards containing other prayers or forms ought to be upon the Holy Table.128 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON They : to enforce in Canterbury. or to administer the consecrated elements otherwise than with individual recitation of the full prescribed words. are a valuable summary of his Churchmanship No celebration of Holy Communion ought (i) to take place without at least the minimum num' ber of communicants prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer. (6) The acts " ought not to be intentionally hidden from . If it be desired to use wine mingled with water. the mixing ought to be effected elsewhere than at the Holy " manual Table. for example. when on a great festival the number of communicants is likely to be very large. my special sanction ought to be asked beforehand for what is proposed. and not as a ceremony.

Davidson said ' in concluding his evidence. nor ought the children to take any part not ordinarily taken by non-communicants who may be present. and to show that allege. (7) 129 The habitual attendance of children at celebrations of the Holy Communion is undesirable.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY the view of an ordinary communicant. The direction of the Book of Common Prayer ought to be followed with regard to the days for which special services are appointed. as is a mistake to sometimes alleged. (n) The Athanasian Creed ought to be said or sung upon the days appointed. No phrase ought to be used in public notices or services which carried the idea of prayer or intercession for the departed further than it is carried in the Book of Common (12) Prayer. In any official notice of the Holy Communion no other designation of the Holy Sacrament ought to be used than one of the terms to be found in the Book of (10) Common Prayer. the order of service ought not to be modified in any way.' ' What I have tried to do/ Dr. is to give a specimen in or example of the sort of action is way which episcopal it is being taken. that the . is (8) The ceremonial use (9) of incense not permissible. If children are occasionally permitted to be present with a view to their better understanding of the service.

the gravity of the problems with which deal. be worn at the Holy Communion. as bishops. the composition and the powers of the Houses of Laymen. under episcopal sanction. had been attached to the Convocations.130 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON difficult kind of troublesome and and anxious questions which form a part. responsibilities are being dealt or that we forget. though happily only a small part.' we have to The Archbishop returned to the witness seat at a subsequent sitting of the Commission. as to whether the bishops should have more or whether it less power in ritual matters. and he made the guarded I think they could be dealt with by way reply ' : of suggestions as to the proper authority for regulating them. or as to was in a large sense expedient that a distinctive dress should. to give some account of the history. The moment such resolution or recommendation came to be based upon anything which could be interpreted as divine faith or doctrine. but I should contend that it need not . it would be out of place. of the bishops' administrative action and the bishops' with lightly. which. antici- pating the creation of the National Assembly. He was asked whether questions of ritual could be dealt with by the Houses of Laymen or by the Representative Church Council.

invocation or confession to. I imagine.' Corpus Christi processions and Benediction have been very rare in the English Church. should be promptly made to cease by the exercise of the authority belonging to the bishops and if necessary ' by proceedings in the Ecclesiastical Courts. Corpus Christi of processions. the Blessed Virgin Mary or the saints. Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament under conditions which led to adoration. It recommended that the interpolation of prayers Canon the of and ceremonies belonging to the the Mass. and it The Commission published a unanimous report in June 1906. and the veneration of images and roods. Celebration Holy the Communion with no communicants except celebrant.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY necessarily 131 be that at it expressly say that might even did not intend to do so/ all. practically unknown. Benediction. hymns. and the veneration images and roods. prayers and devotions involving of. The Commission further recommended that . the observance of the festivals of the Assumption and of the Sacred Heart. the Mass of the Presanctified. the use of the words Behold ' Lamb of God accompanied by ' the exhibition of a consecrated wafer. but the other services and ceremonies that were condemned have continued of despite the Royal Commission.

132 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON bishops should have power to refuse to institute an incumbent who would not promise to obey the law as to the conduct of Divine Service ' and as to the ornaments and fittings of churches/ and also to obey such orders as the bishop might give from time to time. the vesture) ministers of the Church. at the times of their ministrations. with a view to its enactment by Parliament their . and that the Public Worship Regulation Act should be repealed. the most important recom- mendation ' Commission was the following Letters of Business should be issued to the of the : Convocations with instructions the preparation of a (a) to consider new rubric regulating the of the ornaments (that is to say. and (6) to frame. fittings may tend to secure the greater which a reasonable recognition of the . with a view to enactment by Parliament. that the episcopal veto from with regard to suits under the Church Discipline Act should be abolished. that recalcitrant incumbents should be ejected their livings. They recommended that Ecclesiastical Courts should be constituted lines of the report of the on the Commission of 1883. such modifications in the existing law relating to the conduct of Divine Service and to the ornaments and of churches as elasticity. In view of subsequent history.

it Davidson's primacy. to The secure attempt to carry business of his on has been the insistent reign. . The recommendation was made of in the third year Dr.BEGINNING OF THE PRIMACY of its present needs 133 comprehensiveness of the Church of England and seems to demand. The failure agreement between the Church and Parliament has been the tragedy of its last and its twentyfifth year.' This was the formal beginning of Prayer Book revision.

But I Zanzibar. HENSLEY HENSON THE their years before the war had. His magnificent devotion to the Church had as its complement his absorption in service 134 . when the Archbishop and the Consultative Committee of the Lambeth Conference were busy deciding an ecclesiastical cause that had for a year been the occasion of controversy and sarcastic comment. probable that I have met many saints in the course of for saints my life. seemed to the outside world of pathetically small account. for the Archbishop. many duties them the funeral of and preoccupations. have always been found in the most unexpected places and are often only known to have certainly known one man whose right to the high title of saint no man dare deny. But I pass on to the ominous days that immediately preceded the war. He was Frank Weston. and which. among one King and the crowning of another. at the end It is of July 1914. Lord Bishop of the elect. KIKUYU AND DR.CHAPTER VI FRANK WESTON. without recognising them.

I their hardships think there was no European who did more to range himself on the side of the black . and the Archbishop must have often lamented the definite faith and the uncompromising accept- ance of the Catholic character of the English Church that caused Lambeth to be troubled by Zanzibar. of Frank Weston was one without race prejudice. black men of the and white were the children I think. In 1913. difficult manage and perhaps sometimes hard to endure. then called the British Protectorate of East Africa. ruthless in his self-sacrifice. Father.' ' same great wrote a native deacon after his death. But to saints kittle cattle. KIKUYU. a situation had arisen in Kenya Colony.people. Protestant missions overlapped. and for whom he worked and died. black people better than he did. The native converts could KD . and who was so desirous that they should advance/ Brilliant in his gifts and qualities.WESTON. very similar to that which has caused the present agitation for union in Southern India. there was no European who knew and their longings. Weston was both a have often been saint and a great Churchman. ' Englishmen absolutely For him. their characters and customs. HENSON to the people 135 among whom he had those rare elected to live.

A conference of the Protestant missionaries met at Kikuyu. district preacher. Baptists. with the Bishop of of Mombasa as president and the Bishop and the delegates were I Uganda as secretary. and minister were all to be trained in and they one way. with all other Protestants as their brothers. . not understand sectarian authorities felt that it and the to was essential to present a united front to Rome on the one hand 'and Moslem proselytism on the other. Wesleyans. and the bishops regarded themselves as just Protestants. and they arranged that a native ministry should be ordered by the laying on of hands. of The said native ministry was to consist four orders junior preacher. whether they were Church of England. eager to found a native Protestant Church. In the two dioceses of Mombasa and Uganda the Church of England was represented by the Church Missionary Society. quote Canon Maynard Smith ' : They agreed on the paramount authority Scripture. or Presbyterians. they pledged themselves to administer the and the Lord's Supper.' .136 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON differences. senior preacher. of Holy they professed a " " general belief in the facts which are summarised in the Sacraments of Baptism Apostles and Nicene Creeds.

We appear before You and not less than twelve of Your Grace's comprovincial Bishops sitting with Your Grace as Judges of this cause. and to permit us there and then to meet the aforesaid Lord Bishop of Mombasa and Lord Bishop of Uganda. conformably with Catholic precedent. who regarded himself as a bishop of the Church Catholic. open Assembly to allow us to make and sustain our charges and accusations against them. HENSON of 137 On the last evening of the Conference.WESTON. We may Or. and Zanzibar were both interviews between Weston and the Archbishop . the Bishop Holy Communion Presbyterian Chapel. in England. and three months celebrated Mombasa in the after- wards Weston. wrote to the Archbishop Canterbury charging the Bishops of Mombasa and Uganda with propagating heresy and comof ' mitting schism/ ' The document went on : hereby most humbly implore Your Grace to obtain from them for publication in East Africa and Zanzibar a complete and categorical And we do recantation of the errors which they have taught in word and ' action : do hereby request Your Grace to appoint us a day and place in which. KIKUYU. failing that.' and in In the winter of 1913-14 the Bishops of Uganda and naturally The were both received at Lambeth Palace.

diplomatic. Raven ' Hill depicting ' native Africans singing a Christians rage ' hymn. a precedent for the procedure would have to be created. and I should be ready to take the necessary If the trial steps.' says ' Canon Maynard Smith. proposals. thought he was a narrow-minded bigot. lishing a cartoon Punch pubtwo by Mr. and the other shrewd. The Archbishop decided that he would not sit as judge to consider Weston's charges. In the interval. They reported 1 : We are not here called upon of to consider individual cases. to which We are confronted two bishops by definite our Communion . Why do de ? Those who only read Frank's letters to the Press. though he added : ' were one which ought to take place. never forgetting that the Church was comprehensive and established.138 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON tensely dramatic. thinking of the Church as Holy.' The Committee found. on the whole. in favour of the Bishop of Zanzibar. impulsive. Weston wrote and pamphlets.' The Archbishop referred the whole matter to the Central Consultative Committee set up by the Lambeth letters Conference. and vastly annoyed the great Protestant British public. cautious. while those who only knew him upon platforms saw a very gallant gentleman. Catholic and Apostolic. the one must have been man eager.

I believe/ he wrote. for 139 arrangements of a general character between different religious bodies.' But he gave it as his emphatic opinion that in certain circumstances the uncon- firmed might be admitted to Holy Communion. bishop wrote In contradistinction to the system in vogue in many Roman of the Catholic countries. But the rule is one of the which must be open. In seems to be implied that members of our Church would be encouraged or even expected these it to communicate in non-episcopal churches. HENSON have been parties. as the very wording . the Prayer specifically lays Book it Church of England that in all down. We are bound to say that we cannot regard any such arrangements as consistent with the principles of the Church of England. appended to the Con- firmation ordinary shall follow cases admission to Holy Communion and not precede Confirmation.WESTON. the Archbishop agreed with the ' Committee. ' that we shall and the wisest and strongest mission- aries believe that we shall act rightly. in the final rubric Service.' On the whole. KIKUYU. He ' says nothing of the unbaptised. act rightly. in abstaining at present from such services as the closing service at Kikuyu. ' whom some The Arch- broad ' Churchmen would : also admit.

140 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and the character of the exceptions rubric shows. his observance of them is part of his professional duty. so far as their execution depends on the action of the clergyman. may rightly be subject No careful student of rule. or ought to bind. legally enforceable. as has been usefully pointed out. to exceptions. from the nature of the case. They bind. "is the last of a series of rules laid down for the guidance of First." . which dates back to a Provincial Archbishop Peckham in the thirteenth century. they are not to be communicants. and range to episcopal discretion. until they have been confirmed. had at that time no bearing upon others than the Church's children. are to be brought to the bishop to be confirmed finally. The rubric in question. and. has been consistently or rigidly Constitution of observed during the last six hundred years. our Church's history will maintain that the or direction. and. etc. baptism are to be instructed in the is not to be deferred . then the children . the conscience of the parent. original purpose Its seems to have been to stay. then they . Those rules must be taken together. Church-people with regard to their children. the then prevalent neglect of Confirmation. by what was virtually a sentence of excommunication upon the it disobedient. faith.

and in the preoccupations of Kikuyu was forgotten at Lambeth all elsewhere in England. In 1918. HENSON ' 141 In view of what passed in the Savoy Conference of 1661. desires himself of the opportunity of communito Africa bewildered cating at one of our altars/ Weston went back the war by the as diplomatic findings. the Bishop of Zanzibar. who were not But. when circumstances seem to call for of a it. To Frank Weston. to the vacant bishopric of Hereford. with the Orthodox. then the Dean of Durham. was by the nomination of Dr. the question of the admission of such persons to Communion day facts arose very much less frequently than it does to-day. Hensley Henson. vastly disturbed Henson was the arch-heretic. both Protestant and Catholic. He was accused . as a baptised person. Looking carefully at present- and conditions. I have no hesitation in saying that in my opinion a diocesan bishop acts rightly in sanctioning. the admission to Holy Communion the minis- devout Christian man to whom trations of his accessible. own Church are for the time in- to avail and who. Dr. KIKUYU. it is difficult to say that the discussions in the Conference were then regarded as having no bearing upon the admission of those ordinarily Conformists. even at that date.WESTON.

Gore. in which he said : Gore ' I have. always maintained a large measure of that. allies such a definite Protestant of Canterbury. and the Archbishop thereupon replied in a long letter. the Arch- bishop wrote to him a letter in which he said that.142 of ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON having denied in his public writings the doctrines of the Virgin Birth and of the Resurrection of our Lord. Before consenting to consecrate Dr. must belong to the ecclesiastical and especially to the Archbishop of filling of the province. in the last resort. and the Dean and Chapter of Hereford were and the Archbishop was urged not to consecrate. the nominee of the Crown. and a weighty protest was sent to the Archbishop by Dr. responsibility authorities. at that time Bishop of Oxford. Several Wace. the late Dean diocesan bishops publicly declared that they would take no part in the consecration. hotly protested to Dr. against there being any doubt about his position. but they had as as Dr. Henson. he had come to the conclusion that could repeat the Creeds the bishop ex animo. as you know. in regard to the a vacant . designate Dr. urged not to elect. The protest mainly came from the Anglo-Catholics. after having carefully read the writings that had been criticised. of course. Henson.

I have personal knowledge of of the care taken by some at least the prebendaries. or false to the Christian faith as taught by the Church on of England. HENSON see 143 by the consecration by the thereto of a priest duly It is nominated Crown. of the nineteen members of the Chapter who took part in the proceedings. therefore appropriate that you should write to so strongly. the nomination of the Crown. Hensley ' Henson has now. my judgment. if he be prepared.WESTON. to abide in the consequences of declaring to himself I foro conscientice unable pre- proceed. by resignation or otherwise. Dr. I do not say that the fact of his formal election finally disposes of all question as to his consecration : I mention . me as you feel have written on a matter about which you No constitutional rule or usage can force the Archbishop to the solemn act of consecration. KIKUYU. to satisfy themselves as to his teaching. and I am informed that. been duly elected by the Chapter of Hereford. who voted for him. all but four voted in his favour. should be if deliberately I pared to take that course called found myself upon a at any time to consecrate to the in episcopate clearly man who. is unworthy of that office.

144
it

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
because
it

procedure.
to exercise
of

I

an important step in the have now, by the help of God,
is

my own

responsibility to the best

my power.
'

You

call

upon me

to refuse consecration

to Dr. Henson.

You

rest

on

his published writings.

your protest simply These extend over

many
of

which he has held positions considerable importance in the Church of
years, during

England, and has therefore been liable to formal
proceedings in case of heresy or false teaching.

To the
manner
tested.
'

best of

my

belief,

no such accusation

has ever been formulated against him in such
as to enable
it

to be authoritatively

During the last few weeks I have read with care most of Dr. Henson's published books,
and, since receiving your protest, I have re-read

with close attention

all

the passages to which

your protest refers. Taking them, as in fairness they must be taken, with their full context, I
find opinions expressed with

which

I definitely

disagree

:

I find in

some pages a want

of balance

and a crudity

of abrupt statement

which

may

give satisfaction, or even help, to certain minds or temperaments, but
ful,

must inevitably be painto
others.

and possibly even dangerous,

WESTON, KIKUYU, HENSON
I find

145

what seem
to

to

me

to be almost irreconcil-

able inconsistencies.
to

I find

much

that seems

me

need explanation, qualification or

re-statement.

But the

result of

my

considera-

tion of the whole matter
slight or hurried
is

and

it

has not been

that neither in Dr. Henson's

books, nor in the careful communications which

have taken place between him and myself on the subject, have I found anything which, when
it is fairly

weighed in its true setting, I can regard as inconsistent with the belief which he firmly

asserts in the facts

and doctrines

of the faith
of

as set forth in the Creeds.
lections of isolated extracts

Some
from

he

col-

his writings,

as sent to

me by

correspondents, are even

more

than usually unfair.
'

I

am

bold to say that no fair-minded

man

can read consecutively a series of Dr. Henson's sermons without feeling that we ha:ve in him a
brilliant
faith,

and powerful teacher

of the Christian

who regards

the Incarnation of the Son of

God

as the central fact of

human

history,

who

accepts without qualification the Divinity of our

Blessed Lord, and
realities to

who

brings these supreme

bear with persuasive force upon the

daily problems

and

perplexities of

human

life.

That he

also has a singular

power

of effectively

146

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON

presenting the Gospel message to the hearts of a

congregation of quite ordinary and untheological

people

is

a fact of which

I

have personal know-

ledge and experience.'

This letter

is

a very important pronouncement.
'

Dr. Davidson admits that no power on earth can
force

the

Archbishop

to

the

solemn act

of

consecration,'

and

since

a bishop receives his
is
is

ghostly authority, not

when he

nominated or
consecrated,
it

when he
is

is

elected,

but when he

obvious that the ultimate responsibility for the

institution of every diocesan rests, not with the

Crown, but with the high dignitaries of the Church. No episcopal appointment in recent years has been
so criticised as the selection of Dr. Barnes, Bishop
of

Mr.

by MacDonald during the brief life of Ramsay the Labour Government, and this nomination has
Birmingham.
been constantly used as an argument against the present manner in which the bishops of the English Church are appointed. But the Archbishop, six
years before, had boldly confessed that he, and

Dr. Barnes was nominated

not the Prime Minister, must be condemned for

any

heretical appointment.

He had

deliberately

protested that he would be prepared to face the

consequences, and to refuse to consecrate any

WESTON, KIKUYU, HENSON
man
who, in his judgment, was
tian faith as taught

147

'false to the Chris-

by the Church

of England.'

He made

it

clear in his letter to Dr.

Gore that he

did not consider that Dr. Henson was false to the
Christian faith as taught

by the Church of England,
'

and

it is

to be inferred that he also found that

Dr. Barnes, a far more

advanced

'

teacher,

was

also not false to the faith of the Church.
It is interesting to

compare the

letter to Dr.

Gore with the
1927.
'

letter written to Dr.

Barnes in

There

is

the

same freedom
'

of criticism.

A crudity of statement
much
is

is

a delightful description
'

of

Modernist writing.

Irreconcilable in-

consistency'

the constant characteristic of

men

who

qualify the Christian Creeds while they accept
;

the Christian ministry

but the Archbishop again
to

made it
of

clear that

it

was his deliberate intention
of
brilliant

prevent heresy-hunting, and to retain in the fold
the Church

men

gifts,

however
be.

eccentric or extreme their teaching
letter

may

The

to

Dr.

Gore came from the pen of the
'

consistent apostle of comprehensiveness.

Dr. Davidson has certainly not remained

the

Broad Low Churchman
he has no taste and

'
.

little

For ritual and ceremony He was bred patience.
His Presbyterian

a definite Liberal in matters of theology and

he has remained a Liberal.

148

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
him
fully to

upbringing has caused

understand

the Nonconformist position, and, in a sense, to

sympathise with
of England.

it,

but he has never wavered

in his loyalty to the essential claims of the

Church

He

has had, in his later years, a

very real sense of the Church as such, differing vitally from that of the Liberals of his youth,

even though he has greater understanding of Mark my words/ said an aged sacramentalism.
'

Church dignitary when the Archbishop went to Canterbury, 'Davidson will be a twentieth
century Tait.'
far less

A

Tait he

may have
tolerant.

been, but

narrow and far more

Referring to the influence of such ecclesiastics
as Hooker,
'

Andrewes and

Overall, he has said
us,

:

Those men secured for

not the

title

to an

Apostolic ministry, for that
belief in

we

inherited, but the

such a ministry and the careful preserva-

tion of

it,

and the consciousness
it

of the gifts

which

the possession of

bestows.

Secured, appreciated

and accepted thus, the Creeds, the Sacraments, and the Church are ours with a fullness and a
certainty which
it is

impossible to overstate.'
to

The Archbishop has been keenly anxious
holds the primitive faith and
primitive Church.
is

emphasise the fact that the Church of England
in accord with the

In a sermon preached on the

as Protestants. in the long run. in to.' of three hundred or four hundred years Davidson. but for which men should be sincerely grateful to God. He regards the Reformation He is no in as an event not to be deplored. The history pf the Christian religion certainly does not begin for it Archbishop would appear to begin for many in the sixteenth century. were was. fundamentalist and no obscurantist. And we hold and magnify. with toil. and try to strengthen and fulfil. Our worship. patient and with skill almost incredible. the very purpose which they had when. The Creed which we have : ' repeated to-day was their Creed. its theirs. theirs also. our Sacraments. Our actual Liturgy main features. KIKUYU. Yes. HENSON 149 eight-hundredth anniversary of the building of Ely Cathedral he said In the largest and deepest sense those men of old and we are at one. they reared on the Isle of Ely one of the noblest houses of God in the world. the strifes wholesome and strivings ago.WESTON. but. of comprehensiveness His theory would secure inclusion . and he probably does not count Thomas Cromwell among the greater prophets. in the large main lines we and they are at one/ is His attitude of mind to the Reformation summarised in his reference to ' the rough. the deplorable.

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and of not too enthusiastic Catholics. us in tampering with that deposit or belittling its unique authority. To those who claim an absolutely unfettered and irresponsible freedom of . rightly understood. We must take care that it does not set up a standard of its own as applied to ourselves. although he has only gibed with gentle satire at the teaching of Dr. but there is a limit to the toleration which he is willing to sanction. and has had no Major. for means a respect freedom of opinion in others. a passage in one of his sermons which suggests that he sets a limit to the endurable negations of the Modernists.150 . much less any mere goodwill justify natured and almost careless kindliness. in 1907 ' : He said at the Church Congress Tolerance. has always pleaded and worked for toleration. there is public condemnation for Dr. and no respect for other of Christ has people's opinions. Barnes. and. clear in his relations He That has been made quite with Anglo-Catholics. the Church of England of Modernists as well as of Evangelicals. and establish what has been called "an orthodoxy of latitudinarianism which may not be spoken against/' The Church been put in trust with a sacred deposit of essential truth which God has in Jesus Christ revealed to man.

" With Dr. so far as the 151 speculation the Church of Christ will often seem Church itself is accepted Creed denies or limits that irresponsible claim. HENSON intolerant. as well as Dr. concerned. Barnes and Dr. Dr. because. must have to have suffered from trap de zele. KIKUYU. a French " thinker has well said. Of those who. seemed . often. the holding of its as Churchmen. They confuse the ' right of the individual to be free with the duty of the institution to be something.WESTON. Major. Darwell Stone. make such a claim. Weston and Dr. Davidson's love for the middle way.

Hensley Henson. The Archbishop of Canterbury presided. which was attended ' by two hundred and bishops of fifty-two Archbishops and Holy Catholic Church in full communion with the Church of England/ They included the English diocesans and their suffrathe gans and four retired bishops. a full representation of the Churches of India. with missionary bishops from the outer marches. seven Scottish bishops. with Dr. Gore did not attend. was a strangely interesting assemblage. though Dr. ten Irish bishops. Australia and the United States. Guy Warman. Frank Weston sat in the fourth row opposite the It Archbishop. and where he presides he dominates. whose alleged heretical views Frank Weston had by his side. Canada.CHAPTER VII THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE AND AFTER THE Archbishop's principal preoccupation in the years that immediately followed the war was the Lambeth Conference of 1920. 152 . then the Bishop of Truro and a pronounced Evangelical. six Welsh bishops. and near by was Dr. South Africa.

the Doxology bequeathed to the Church by an Anglican bishop. they joined in the Doxology. The Conference discussed many subjects. led by one of their number. For weal or woe. to discover and to follow the Will of . in effect. On 30th July the Reunion Committee presented its report. wrote the authors of Lambeth and Reunion.THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE so 153 vehemently attacked. voices were heard from every part of the world/ and at last the committee's suggestions were ' carried by an over- whelming majority. Then. the absorption by the Anglican Communion of the Protestant sects. . The bishops had tried honestly. reunion meant what would be. if they could help it. and perhaps to the Archbishop himself. . without prejudice. The Archbishop opened the proceedings ' with solemn words of warning and admonition. To a considerable number of the bishops present. which would compromise the Church of England and make reunion with Rome more difficult. the Conference of the contribution to the life 1920 had made of the Church by which mainly in after years it will be judged. but reunion was its principal interest. In the subsequent debate. But the Anglo-Catholics. instinctively the bishops stood in silent thanksgiving until. were determined that nothing should be done. . led by Frank Weston.

though not himself a member of the Sub-Committee on Reunion. and are inspired by the whole and hope of a visible unity of the Church. By and own act. so far as this world is concerned. having its own recognised .' And for its direction and its force the Archbishop. holdofficers. a rushing God. We in believe that it is God's purpose to manifest this fellowship. this fellowship was made His in through Jesus Christ. Lord Jesus the and have been baptised into Trinity. ing one faith. visible and united society.154 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON The wind had been blowing. We believe that the Holy Spirit has called us in a very solemn and special manner to associate ourselves in penitence all and prayer with vision those who deplore the divisions of Christian people. mighty wind. as sharing with us name of the Holy membership in the universal Church of Christ which is His Body. was certainly largely responsible. 'We God's believe that God wills fellowship. and its life is in Spirit. an outward. The most important of the proposals clauses of the reunion contained ' in the 'Appeal : To All Christian Peoples ' were as follows We acknowledge all those who believe in our Christ.

standing for rich elements of truth. and inspiring members to the world-wide service of the Kingdom ' of God. This united fellowship not visible in the world to-day. liberty and life which might otherwise have been obscured or neglected. and been the cause of Nonconformist hesita- tion and the reason why the Appeal has had so . to whom faith ours bound by many ties of common and tradition. may be led by the Spirit into the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God. closely linked torical With them we racial. each one keeping to itself gifts that rightly belong to its the whole fellowship. there are other episcopal communions is in East and West. are all But in fact we organised in different groups. there are the great non-episcopal com- munions.THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE all its 155 using God-given means of grace. ancient ' On the one hand. We cherish the earnest hope that all these communions. and tending to live own life apart from the rest/ It was realised that reunion on the lines sug- gested must entail re-ordination in this has many cases. and our own. and spiritual. On the other hand. are his- by many affinities. This is what we mean by the is Catholic Church.

156 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON But. offer it was assumed that this was a direct it approach to the Church of Rome. their flocks warns bishops not to allow to accept Holy Communion from men It it not episcopally ordained. the terms of reunion having been otherwise satisfactorily adjusted. was so regarded by the Roman representatives at the Malines Conversations. indeed. in the historical sense. and. and condemns schemes . He wrote ' in the Church Times : It safeguards the claims of the Anglican ministry to be. we are persuaded that. ' if the authorities of other communions should so desire. Frank Weston was perfectly clear that there had been no compromise of essential Catholic principle in the Lambeth Appeal. truly Catholic. plication insisted by im: on re-ordination of others. bishops and clergy of our communion would willingly accept from these authorities a form of commission or recognition which would commend our ministry to their congregations as having its place in the one family life/ As it was perfectly well known that the Pro- testant Dissenters do not question the right of the Anglican priest to regard himself as an authorised minister of the Word. while the bishops limited an effect. they were willing to submit to re-ordination themselves We who send forth this Appeal would say that.

From ated the beginning this assumption was repudi- by the Nonconformist leaders. re-ordination. influencing and almost dominating the assemblage by the force of his character. but. had his eyes turned towards Rome .THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE of ' 157 intercommunion and interchange of pulpits. while the Archbishop of Constantinople. with admission that a ministry has hitherto been unauthorised. while there might be a guarded and qualified recognition that episcopacy. will never be accepted. yet. in so far as the thoughts he was more intent on Geneva . may be the ideal form of Church governits ment. may have had Appeal was primarily addressed to English Nonconformists and Continental Protestants. Fully as they perceive God's grace in such ministries.' Of whom was the Archbishop thinking when he submitted the reunion resolutions to the bishops at Lambeth? Frank Weston. the bishops will not accept non-episcopal ministry as within the universal ministry. it was made abortive by the insistence that an episcopal ministry was Divinely instituted. and in the long negotiations that have taken place during the past eight years it has become more and more obvious that. However gentle their language in the Appeal. . defined and hampered. they are true to the trust of episcopacy committed to them.

of the Archbishop's preoccupations The second National of the post-war years was the launching of the Assembly. And no man can predict what the decisions will be. and vigorous and efforts are to be made so to modify the episcopal claim as to bring reunion in England in the mission field into the realm of practical politics. Frere. Lord Parmoor. but nothing was done until after the end of the war. mittee were Balfour Among Mr. and only half considered.158 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON is Another Lambeth Conference to meet in 1930. The committee reported in the summer of 1916. the Archbishop appointed a committee of twenty-six members. Sir Lewis Dibdin and Dr. the Church could secure a large measure of selfgovernment. Frank Weston is dead. to enquire into the relations between the State and the Church and to suggest how. Davidson will no longer be Arch- bishop of Canterbury when that Conference meets. In 1914. the members Balfour of the com- Arthur now Lord Lord Hugh Cecil. while maintaining the State connection. . the conduct through the Assembly of a large number of important proposals. the long-drawn- out debate on the Prayer Book revision proposals. and. of which Lord Selborne was the President. Dr. many of them very partially discussed finally.

of course. but that Parliament was no longer identical with the laity of the Church. much concerned with was far too the troubles of busy to be the Church and the reforms that she needed. ' A new vein had been tapped/ he said. because he contended the Bill would exclude the greater part of the people of England from effective influence in the affairs of the National Church. In moving the second reading on the 3rd of June.THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE 159 In the spring of 1919 the Enabling Act. in alluding to the was needed reforms. which brought the National Assembly into existence and which was based on the report of Lord Selborne's committee. significant that. The second reading was opposed by Lord Haldane. establishment/ Lord . vein. and that he said nothing of Prayer Book revision. and some new machinery was necessary by which the Church could legislate for itself with. It the approval of Parliament and the Crown. to the Archbishop referred specifically Eccle- siastical Courts and ecclesiastical discipline. was introduced into the House of Lords.' ' often an auriferous The time It of Parliament was now fully occupied. the Archbishop pointed out that in the sixteenth century the Church and the nation were coterminous. and he predicted that warrant of the it would be In ' the deaththis.

and that the Arch- bishop has acquiesced in the loss of prestige to the ancient governing body of the Church. Outside Parliament others. Hensley Henson a queer combination. which the Archbishop has approved. . Country vicars suffering from the results of the Tithe Act. which every Erastian. have very definite opinions on the subject. It is effective supervision of the not possible here to discuss how far the Assembly has proved of benefit to the Church. in view of the happenings of the last three years on the Erastian ground that the creation of the National Assembly would modify Parliament's Church. from Dean Stanley downwards. but without the smallest canonical authority has succeeded in acquiring powers that belong of right to the Convocations. among Dr. House of Lords by a majority of 130 to and in the Commons by it a majority of 304 to 16. Knox and Dr. was opposed by. which the Assembly passed and Parliament affirmed. It is sometimes suggested that the Assembly a body created by Parlia- ment. Nor is it possible to catalogue the enactments of the Assembly. The Enabling Act was House of carried in the 33.160 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON reliable Haldane may well prove to have been a prophet.

pledged as for nearly to maintain the said Book two still centuries stands.' years later. of The President and Council 1879 the that English Church 'to Union in affirmed touch the .Victorian Latitudinarians to water down the doctrine of the Prayer attracted Book resisted so that Dissenters might be back to the Church.THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE has decried. Dr. again. when certain changes in the Book of Common Prayer were suggested in the Edinburgh Review. relevant to 161 But that. always Tractarians. is a question ir- my purpose. The National Assembly with the Revised has been chiefly concerned Prayer Book. It cannot be too emphatically insisted that Prayer Book revision was from the beginning opposed by the Anglo-Catholic party. and this was naturally by Anglo-Catholics.' has stood and by God's goodness It was the ambition of the mid. and to the political world the one supremely important consequence of the Enabling Act was the Prayer Book Revision Measure. for any alteration in the liturgy of our Church. an organ of Erastian Whiggery. In 1889. that Catholic doctrine in the ' made by the was implied itself Book it of Common Prayer. the English Church Union. nor shall we wish. repeating the claim. Pusey declared ' : We Two have never wished.

there is If. Resolutions of condemnation were passed at its annual meetings in therefore.162 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON all is Prayer Book at it most dangerous is suicidal. justification is and it can hardly be said that there for no justification the charge that the Deposited Book approves and. It is impossible to ignore this change of heart in considering a great and. and influential in 1908 it condemned the proposed revision as dangerous and mischievous. He was certainly its most member. 1909. to prevent In 1906 he was apparently eager later what twenty-one years he was ready to sanction. in some respects. to bring before Parliament The recommendation Ecclesiastical in the Report of the Commission that the Prayer Book should be revised was made with the idea that revision revival. always been condemned by Protestant Churchmen. then it would seem that between 1906 and 1927 the Archbishop had experienced an almost complete legalises Catholic practices which have change of mind. 1910 and 1911. a consistent .' . The English Church Union was again alive to the danger. on the whole. would hamper and curb the Catholic The Archbishop subscribed to the Com- mission's recommendation. and the policy that it recommended was assuredly his.

be the difficulty discovering why Archbishop. and hold of it destroyed. in as it seems to me. when he was Tait's had discovered that the Public Worship Regulation Act. In the speech that he made in the House of Lords on I5th December. 163 little and there can. the sands had certainly farther run out in 1927. just as the Archbishop. and that diplomacy. in 1903 that ' But. 1927. and presumably to prohibit Reservation. if and the necessity for discipline. was much more But chaplain. if with considerable reluctance. and that merely served to excite persecution Catholic enthusiasm and to aid the Catholic revival. so in these later years he had discovered that the to be is Catholic movement had grown too strong him that the course movement. acquiesced a really revolutionary policy. convinced an wisdom in hand. among still other practices. in which he adept. was a hopeless failure. he acknowledged that it was with difficulty that he had persuaded himself to consent to the provision for continuous Reservation. he did not initiate. obvious. in.THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE career. if he were justified in saying the sands had run out/ and that stern measures were necessary to disciplipe the Anglo-Catholic clergy. was to direct the so that its progress should not be too rapid nor its . it ever existed.

164 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON development too radical. 'Thus far/ far and no In 1906.' Book should ' be.' . the Arch- bishop certainly would not have agreed to Thus In 1927 he would probably have admitted if ' that he and his friends would be very lucky they were able to secure no farther. I have said before that the motto that should have been printed on the title-page of the Deposited farther.

intimately is His view of the Church national. in constantly striving . of our official citizenship and what it means. His first citizenship has been for him a great deal more than precedence. only/ the ' Archbishop said in a sermon in 1907 it life. and. and by us alone among ordained men. has frequently insisted that the English Church is part of the Church Catholic. has a definitely assigned place in the national The oath of allegiance to the King taken by us. He less. but. He has never failed to realise the obligation for service that accompanies high position. is a recurrent reminder of our responsibilities to realm as well as Church. shirked responsibility. citizenship are. indeed. he is also the first subject He has never of the Kingdom of Great Britain.CHAPTER VIII THE SERVANT OF THE STATE ' OUR ministry is not ecclesiastical . Church- manship and related. in practice much more than primus inter pares. none the it he has generally thought of 165 as the greatest of national possessions.' The Archbishop is not only the official head of the English Church.

166 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON for the well-being of the Church. its influence for righteousness and the ever-changing circumstances of contemporary With this conviction. Its fidelity to its eternal mission will be estimated justice in by life. he has quite consciously been striving for what has seemed to well-being of the nation. He has carefully and properly kept outside party faithful laity of politics. Rochester brought him hard up against the tragedies of mean streets. but he has insisted with increasing emphasis that the ministers and the Church are false to their obligation trust and to their unless they are ready to make sacrifice and to face contumely in the endeavour to make the world cleaner and happier. and the organised demand for far-reaching and revolu- tionary changes. When he was installed Dean of Windsor he would possibly have described himself as the servant of God and of the Queen. the Archbishop has grown less and less inclined to be content merely to denounce evil. He has lived through years that have seen the growing revolt against the meanness. The Archbishop began his life as a courtier. justified him the The Church must be by its service. and he has come to regard the . It stands at the judgment-seat of the present day.

while evil conditions continue. that it is the duty of the nation. in the face of admitted is There evils. As we gain a truer concep- tion of the claims of the Christian Church. but to make us resolve namely. will not bestir itself. save when it forgets its watchwords. and greed and which timidity will of swift. which gives them all their force. such schemes for. to promote that Kingdom which was to rise to the Christian conception not founded on force. He has deplored the dangerous suggesinsist tions of extremists. but on truth and righteousness. and which is never powerless. he said ' nothing really so cowardly or contemptible as the attitude which. so we MD gain a true . : Preaching to the Oddfellows in 1907. as being itself an ordinance of God. lest it . in the widest sense of that word. remem- draw all the strength and influence that they possess from the existence of those admitted evils (impurity rest) intemperance and the not endeavour to cure. but he has been courageous enough their to that. seem to favour be it wild and impossible schemes bered. violent remedies are certain to have advocates. The advocates unsparing revolution are among us. but their true mission is not to frighten us into inaction.SERVANT OF THE STATE revolt 167 of and the demand with a large measure sympathy.

he urged on the members ' of the National Assembly that should be their steady and continuously prayerful endeavour to foster and deepen the true spirit in which Christian people should handle these industrial questions/ He not ' carefully avoided taking sides. consequently. more influenced by quick impulse and more given to dramatic action.168 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON of every great brotherhood conception of the functions of the Christian State. might have gained a certain popularity A by declaring that the Church great surrender in order to would willingly make a . enthusiasm and even indignation have always been radically modified by caution. crisis of At the beginning it of the industrial 1926. mining royalties shown to be in the whole community/ even though nationalisation would almost inevitably mean a interests of the loss of income to the Church. man. and its and society within bounds/ last The created there is sentence is indicative of the Arch- bishop's mind. no part of the life of the State with which the Church is unconcerned. But with the Archbishop. but he went on to say that the Ecclesiastical Commissioners resist the nationalisation of if it is would upon reasonable terms. The Christian State can only be by the Christian Church and.

in his view. nor did he agree that the trade union leaders were the mere witless dupes of ' a handful of revolutionary agents. the Archbishop gained a greater courage and spoke far more definitely.' asked the simply to form a ring. a move. ? Here again he with no privilege without responsi- and that social responsibility rests groups of men as well as with individuals. and stand round hoping that the combatants will come to terms. two years ago developed. that. none too . while the general strike had been a impossible adventure/ deliberate political it ' wild and was not. had endeav- oured to arrive at terms of peace. helplessly Are we. led by Dr. or have we all. had been hotly denounced in the newspapers. with obvious apprehension of the consequences of a great loss of income. as citizens of a is 'country in which coal a key industry. Temple. But the Archbishop thought of incumbents and curates as well as miners.SERVANT OF THE STATE 169 relieve a troubled industry of a grievous burden. and told. but the coal strike continued. The ten bishops who. He said in October. at the meetcrisis of As the ing of the Canterbury Diocesan Conference.' strike The general had come ' ' to its end. an inevit' able share of responsibility insists that there is bility. and spoke. Archbishop. so to speak.

to cannot get more than a pint out of a pint pot. ' The good and about earnest man. and still more for clergy. if has to be anxiously careful not to or encouraging others to think. is . always easy and always perilous to lose sight of the fact that almost every problem of the kind It is probably eyery single problem which arouses deep and keen controversy has two factors. and possibilities of the industry concerned. as such. as such. of sight of ignoring. Those who are keenly alert to moral and spiritual things are always in danger of letting the ethical factor push the other out put it bluntly. slip into thinking. who is wholly dis- inexpert abilities the economic difficulties. : The Arch- bishop gave them a qualified support ' have always felt it to be an extremely delicate and difficult task for devout Christian I men. the difficulties which occasion the conflict would vanish away. was as kind Nothing full more exasperating to a man who has technical knowledge of an industrial problem. such a simple and yet profound economic principle as underlies the statement that you . to own business. to apply what seem to them clear Christian principles to a contemporary industrial or economic problem.170 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON mind their politely. that everybody and good as we are. one strictly economic and the other ethical.

with a untechnical general industrial albeit life and knowledge of conditions. the poorer had the past. the intelligent and earnest men. to solve it. Carry your mind back eighty years to the cotton looms and the coal-pits and the chimney workers. or did did other influences altogether How come into play ? We should be. there would be no difficulties left for him to solve. though perhaps silently. and to the then position of the women and children change come about ? Was it by persistent reliance on mere obedience to what were deemed to be economic laws. does real Such a suggestion in any form harm. during the nineteenth century. indeed. flues of the England the of that day. ' tends to exalt the heart at the expense of the The story of the growth of industry its and of the changes in conditions.SERVANT OF THE STATE and is 171 working hard. and screens from others' sight the It hard facts of the problem under discussion. warns us off the ground of those ready judgments. personally to men who are on terms of friendship both with . or were voices of we silenced in we an its to silence in the present. than to have people who have no such knowledge suggesting that. who have someI refer thing to say in the matter. if only he were converted. head.

strike. at the most lives. particular or may have made I transmitted suggestions which were unworkable or unwise. me to be saying that necessarily agreed with that they said. to the men who made though I In the far graver matter of the general I myself. but to set forward peace among men. in must be attitude ' fairly shared. the country owes a debt of gratitude that courageous endeavour. On the cjergy. But should not like this occasion to pass without expressing my belief that. without hesitaat least of those tion. I You not suppose all. took part in . while such action must always be both difficult and ' delicate. solemn moment in their the obligation laid that they are to strive strive will not pray only. Among men who to thus have a right to speak and be heard should myself. if it be inevitable. it had in Parliament condemned in the strongest terms I could find. and who are ready to stand forward in times of industrial crisis with a forcible reminder that hardship. place some who recently tried to play their part in facilitating the resumpis tion of negotiations.172 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON employers and employed. have gone further into technical desirable They may perhaps details than was or or necessary. and that neither party his the dispute should adopt a bluntly irreconcilable and merely harden I own shell.

one of them belonging to what we to political and the other. Often in the Archbishop's life there has been an obvious conflict between the realist and the idealist. The idealist insists that good men must fight against evil. Hyde. . Jekyll and Mr. and that they must be careful not to It heads against stone walls. and civic and industrial life and that .SERVANT OF THE STATE an endeavour. and this conflict is expressed in the speech I from which have quoted. one of them Christ's and the other man's call religion. I hasten to is Dr. the two have their quite separate spheres and are wholly independent of one another that notion. open obviously to easy to bring it peaceably to an end. regard the idealist as the beautiful but impossible bang their would be unfair to exponent of a official way of life and the In realist as the actual Archbishop Davidson. or rather that mischievous falsehood. and his Mr. Hyde voices : not in the least Stevensonian.' 173 criticism. quite independently. which used . all men even in Archbishops there is Dr. But hear the two are in the social ! In one of his sermons the Archbishop has said life ' The notion that two there of a great country sets of laws and principles. The realist reminds the good men that facts are facts. Jekyll add that the Archbishop's most attractive.

I suppose. only one standard. it is. must. suppose. have a tion somewhat different applica- from that which would be right as between individual man and man. what we call the action of a nation means in itself the action of a sovereign or statesman on behalf of other people. is now. for. This is. I hope.174 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON many good in once to be held by people. for ever banished from the creed of men and and His women who messages. true teaching . as such. the law of self-sacrifice. when nations are concerned. the selfsame rules which apply to the intercourse and mutual relations of two Christian men. sermon ' : There are few more difficult range of Christian politics than the question how far the rules which indisputably govern the relations of two Christian men are applicable in like manner peoples. rules always But can these be followed? I The Archbishop has quote from another questions in the not always been sure. whose . after all. to the relations of Christian States and Startling I and unwelcome as it sounds to say so. even the law of forgiveness. only one set of rules. certain that we cannot we should apply to the intercourse and mutual relations of nations. I think. The law of humility and meekness.' believe Jesus Christ There is only one law. nay.

' On is the contrary. we believe/ he said. on the contrary. His sermons in the war years were dignified. that war always due to some aberration from the will of Almighty Love by one or both parties to that war/ None the less. ' the true lover of peace is the only man who grasps aright the insistent I and high meaning of peace/ have taken these passages from different . so far as she and her were concerned.SERVANT OF THE STATE interests he. as a Christian. should also be followed by the nation would have insists shall Church compelled the Archbishop to be numbered with the Pacifists when war was declared in August 1914. would be monstrous to judge utterances during the hectic any man by fairly of the his years of illusion. his actions were patriotic. the war was a It righteous war. He was.' 175 must protect and care ' Unequivocally to have declared that of humility the law and meekness/ which the Christian be followed by the individual. vehement in his assertions that the intervention of Great Britain in the war was Allies inevitable. for. But this may be said not un- Archbishop. He emphatically repudiated the awful theory that war has been devised by God medicine for the ' as ' a dreadful human ' race. and that. but there was no evidence of real vision.

176 sermons. the simplest issues of right and wrong/ That was said in 1915. In his New Year's message for 1916. this is a very dan- belief. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON There is always a danger of misrepre- sentation in such quotations taken from their context. throughout the war. as through a glass The conflict. He is wrote : The persistence of so much that brave and buoyant in face of the unending sacrifice is itself a standing witness of the power and love of God/ Without gerous definite qualification. rest of the ' But with the largest principles of conduct. . a suggestion which has as its possible corollary the implication that evil tioned because of ' may be Divinely inten- its good result. he said. but they certainly suggest a confusion of thought. world the Archbishop saw. the Arch- bishop suggested that good might come out of evil. trial searching though the fact that the most and the most awful suffering canproves they have been created not destroy either the courage or the humour of the sons of men only a little lower than the angels. involved the darkly. In 1928 the we know something of the complexities horrid and mean complexities which were really involved. the attempt to defend the indefensible. the clash between realist and idealist.

general and not unnatural. war with proposals of peace/ But men were growing weary and hopeless God to seemed have deserted His world. with its accumulation of death and financial loss. These appeals were doubtless occasioned by Lord Lansripe for peace downe's plea that stalemate had occurred on the battlefield and that the time was negotiations. the Archbishop referred to the appeals that had been made to him to use all his influence in the cause of peace.SERVANT OF THE STATE Six months afterwards. The sense of failure was The war went on. and no man could predict its end. criticisms that the moved by Church had the often-repeated. And the English episcopate. in 177 a speech to the Canterbury Diocesan Conference. Sanity appeared to be driven from European society. In every nation the priests just religious nationalists. politicians wrangled. But the Archbishop was convinced that to talk of peace with an enemy still obdurate was he ' flimsy sentimentality/ and he declared that ' could find as yet no basis on which to encourage or justify approaching those with the nation was at whom . and the Church was impotent to help. Generals failed. and the bishops were . failed in the years of launched in 1916 what was rather grandiloquently called the National Mission of travail. Repentance and Hope.

It repentance and colourless little was too little of and indefinite.178 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON loudly proclaiming that their brothers were dying in the cause of God. from the speeches. the present Bishop of Bloemfontein. of the ' . denouncing the Christian teaching that concerned itself with the identity of Moses* uncle. Men were cynically impatient. mild and ineffective. the war was worth while. and. The world was received of hungry It for bold and inspiring spiritual leadership. Archbishop Davidson was. off its respectability and convention- Prebendary Mackay followed. We have given our very best and bravest. he had little faith that would succeed in revolutionising the It England of the war years. it it cannot be pretended that from Canterbury. and the one great ecclesiastic. The National Mission little Repent- ance and inspired Hope induced hope. few months ago the present Archbishop A of Canterbury declared that. wrote a series of vehement Revolt/ articles which he called ' The Standard of Anglicanism must slough ality. who was then serving as a naval chaplain. who could speak with international authority. was well-intentioned. and same opinion. Walter Carey. and achieved judging any permanent Archbishop's it value . remained hesitant and silent. and before maybe still is. for all its suffering.

. at a great juncture in the history of mankind/ It is easy to be wise after the event. know it has been worth while. The birth. large doings. Few men now. Nations was in the throes of its to it his blessing. spirit. caused.SERVANT OF THE STATE God we believe it is 179 ' worth while/ These gallant lives. these brave and willing deaths. worth while we have lived through large days. and lest one great wrong in our restless and anxiety to be doing or saying some- thing that will count into a baser spirit/ we allow anger to degenerate The war came League of and the Archbishop gave an end at long last. can think of it as anything but a colossally wicked blunder.' it is We all . should be inspired by the crusader's ' may we There must be no hatred. are not in vain. England and the Empire can thank ' God as well as take courage. The Archbishop constantly urged that the men. We have to be sternly lest in setting right on our guard even fretful drift into another. engaged in what to him was a great and righteous crusade. not by a double dose of original sin in any nation or in any one individual. but not. though there be righteous anger. with any knowledge of the ruin that the war has brought. but by world-wide crass stupidity and shortsightedness.

Blue Coat Schools were founded by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. despite. there knowledge of good and evil. to the people. In the early years of the eighteenth century. I speak here to-day/ he said on Day of Thanksgiving in St. in his function as servant of the Church and of the State.' ' Out of the horrid crucible of war. with a ' faith that would move mountains. the Church was supplying a amount of book-learning. believing in our Master's promise. the Church has been the persistent friend of education.i8o as it ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON would seem. of our standards of conduct as peoples or as and women/ truer emerge a more keen appraising must men But that is exactly what has not emerged.' the Arch' bishop predicted. long before the State realised its responsibility for the education of its poorer certain citizens. as one who. and. The National . because of our experience that in His good time the ending of war between Christian peoples is a thing attainable. There remains to consider the Archbishop's connection with education. The Universities were created by the piety of Churchmen. Since the beginning of the renewal of learning. is bold to maintain despite all our qualms . nay. Paul's Cathedral. the '.

and in 1831 there were 13. made the very striking assertion that is a religion without formularies ' a new religion/ a statement which Mr.' he says ' . emphasised the difference between Church schools and State schools. in his criticism of the Forster Act. mainly attached either . Hilaire Belloc has repeated in different words. incapable of influencing character or conduct. not to replace ' the Church schools. Religion resides in itself in dogma/ a creed. In 1870.000 Church elementary schools in England and Wales. the Forster Education Act was introduced system and to into Parliament. loyalty must express Disraeli's statement has been proved by experience.SERVANT OF THE STATE Society 181 was created in 1809.' It should be added that Gladstone believed that this clause would not prevent the teaching Disraeli ' of the Apostles' Creed. for by that clause it was enacted that ' in schools supported by the rates no religious catechism or religious formulary of any particular denomination shall be taught. strange its for the formless and colourless religion of the is English elementary schools thing. but to complete the voluntary fill up gaps/ But that Act. in the notorious Cowper-Temple clause. from very indefiniteness. satisfactory to a new and no one and. but. The voluntary schools.

of which Lord Cross was the chairman. and an amended Education Bill was introduced into . in certain conditions. fully advertised and the agitation was ploited. bitterly This Act was fiercely contested and resented by the Nonconformists. resistance.i8a ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Roman Catholic Churches. by the Act part of the system of national education. there was a loud demand for the modification and amendment of to Government was returned the Act of 1902. began a campaign of passive after its passage. a year before Dr. cuckoo clock was sold by public auction. who. It was therefore recommended in 1897 by a Com- mission. Birrell was the Education Minister. denounced Clifford's as denominational Dr. and ex- with the consequence that. Mr. were to the English or obviously handicapped as against the rate-aided though there was no question that they were an invaluable schools created of 1870. be given to the voluntary schools. when a Liberal power at the general election of 1905. and this was the main enactment into Parliament of the Education Act introduced in his by the Balfour Government Davidson began 1902. primacy. part of which the endowment of what they teaching. refusing to were to be used in pay rates. that rate aid should.

religious warfare will ensue which especially just most undesirable. the Prime Minister. to be drastically amended in the House and the two Houses were in sharp conflict. The Archbishop wrote : I have no wish to be unreasonable or unaccomin any negotiations.' The King agreed with the Archbishop's criticisms. and. will produce violent dissensions between the Church of and Roman Catholics on one conformists on the other. provided we can avoid any grave sacrifice of principle and any But he insisted that intolerable public wrong/ modating teachers should not be prevented from giving if ND . ' ' The Bill/ he wrote. ' is most unfair and dangerous. and the Archbishop and Sir Henry CampbellBannerman. The Bill passed the House of Commons. the Archbishop being subsequently invited to attend Cabinet fidential consultation at conferences on the ' Bill. instead of smoothing matters.SERVANT OF THE STATE the 183 Commons on Qth April. 1906. now/ of Lords. its The Archenactments bishop at once protested against in a letter to King Edward. political side England and the Nona kind of is In fact. The King endeavoured to engineer some sort of compromise. though he declared that he was eager to do everything to arrive at an amicable. met in conWindsor. reasonable and permanent solution.

and this was first step in the struggle which came to its conclusion with the Parliament Bill and the drastic curtailment of the powers of the second Chamber. L. His suffragans were less conciliatory than the Primate. it was In 1917. notably Mr. the Liberal Government made two attempts to settle the education controversy. H. who had become conciliatory. Some of his colleagues have raised insurmountable points. as always. is endeavouring to overcome these difficulties. the Education Minister. Neither of the Bills that they introduced was acceptable to the Church or to the House of Lords.184 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON distinctive religious they were willing to do so teaching. A. Mr. but Archbishop was. Fisher. problem remained as years. and at their adjourned meeting this morning the Archbishop. In 1908.' The endeavour failed. Runciman. reported to the King's secreThe Archbishop writes me that he is now tary ' : able to report that the bishops on the whole are in favour of a settlement of the education con- troversy now. and the education for another nine . and this the Liberal Government would not accept. Education Minister . The Lords refused to pass the Bill. the Compromise was found impossible. I understand.

who were eager at all costs to preserve the Church schools in their independence. But a opposition arose in the shape of a diehard new party in the Church. led by Prebendary Thicknesse. Consultative Committee of the National But the scheme was wrecked. which objected to any religious qualification for teachers in any rate-aided school. unlike the Archbishop. Hanover Square. sort of concession. even indecent. and who. favour of The Archbishop was warmly in the settlement. and again the Archbishop was hopeful. who felt unable to make any Later. introduced an Education and conducted a series of negotia- tions with representatives of the Church and the Nonconformist bodies to arrive at 'an agreed scheme on the question of religious education.SERVANT OF THE STATE in 185 the Coalition Bill Government. first by the National Union of Teachers. and the war had and made internal strife of any sort unpopular. were willing to ignore the duty of ensuring a more or less . ' Conciliation was in the air. the Vicar of St. The Irish Convention had come to its successful end. was approved by the Church Assembly. which was also approved by the Society. and secondly by the Roman Catholic authorities. or semi-independ~ ence. George's. a scheme very Fisher's much on the lines of Mr.

The Church Fewer schools. were in Council schools and only thirty-eight per cent. and there has been infinite loss to the Church from the failure to recognise. in Church schools. in Church schools and with the new arrangement. indeed. sixty-two per cent. Ten years ago it might have been possible to have found the way to fulfil this duty through the abrogation of the Cowper- Temple clause. the position of the is Church schools far weaker than it was when Dr.186 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON who attend the provided adequate religious teaching for the tens of thousands of Church children schools. that the Church owes a duty to all its children and not merely to the lessening members who attend Church schools. as the Archbishop has always recognised. of the per cent. who has been . and fewer teachers are coming from Church training colleges. which removes . A distinguished educationalist. children at eleven to a higher grade school. in a very few years the Church will have none but infants and juniors under its care. children of this country were in Council schools and fifty-five In 1923. are slowly going under. Davidson was installed Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. At the end of his primacy. forty-five per cent. In 1903.

who had contrived to identify their . standpoint with Anglo-Catholicism tion is Church educa- a thing that the Archbishop has always at heart. and when he tried again he was torpedoed by Prebendary Thicknesse and his friends. caused him to miss the real chance that he had in 1918. rather than to direct and courageous leadership. writes ' : Speaking as a generally of the Archbishop's educationalist. and his failure has been due chiefly to his temperament/ fails The born negotiator sometimes born fighter would succeed. I work Church should say that he has been immensely keen.SERVANT OF THE STATE last 187 intimately concerned with Church schools for the five-and-twenty years. that he has a wide knowledge and a grasp of the facts. but that his natural leaning towards diplomacy and confidential conversations in back rooms. had immensely to it He has given himself unsparingly. when the .

in critical many ways most and important years. where I had a long personal talk with the Archbishop. ISS There was . but the half-dozen or so private talks I have had with him were. of the the men in any sort Within a very few hours of appointment to the position of some responsibility which I now hold. not only of all the phases of the all life of the Church. I was invited to Canterbury. but also of the quality of of responsible position. more acutely can make no claim to any intimate personal acquaintance with the Archbishop. where the onlooker sees and hears more clearly and is able to appreciate I the development of the drama. I am bold to of his suggest. Davidson's primacy. illuminative of his character and determination to arrive at a personal judgment. Circumstances have enabled me to come down from the gallery to the stalls. I announcement my was im- mensely impressed by his strength.CHAPTER IX THE LAST FIVE YEARS IT has happened to me to have a close and intimate last five years of its knowledge of the events of the Dr.

THE LAST FIVE YEARS weary man. and Dr. Headlam he would have the National Church as comprehensive as the nation. I 189 nothing about him that suggested an old or a He was with incisive. afternoon at Canterbury in the late autumn of and the Archbishop was obviously anxious to make me understand that his was the direct responsibility for the fact that Anglican divines had sat in conference with distinguished repre- sentatives of the Roman Church. that he I the . greatest man whom have ever talked born to leadership. and think now. Malines and the Prayer Book have overshadowed the conclusion of the Archbishop's primacy. His sense of dignity and propriety has prevented him from prejudicing his sacred office by those . and that it was a responsibility which his brother bishops only indirectly shared. talked a good deal of Malines during this We 1923. as his proper heritage. The Malines Conversations were the proper result of the call for reunion addressed to the whole of Christendom by the Lambeth Conference of 1920. To the Archbishop. with its all wearying anxieties. the differences that separate Christians into wrangling sects have always seemed absurd. in the last century. accepting leadership. definite I and acute! is thought then. and with Stanley in this.

The Archbishop has been for many years immensely interested in the welfare of the Eastern Churches. in for the office that he has of the any other way than the President for his office. bar to would have proved an insuperable reunion.ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON philanderings with Nonconformists which have become popular among some from Nonconformity by of the lesser of his brethren. It must have puzzled him that these conditions have appeared to the majority of Nonconformists as a betrayal of those principles which induced their predecessors to secede from the National Church. He has probably never thought of himself as selected by Divine Providence held. But the Archbishop has been difficulty that by the apparently insuperable . in all respects. but he has never felt himself cut off essential principles. the (Ecumenical Patriarch sent a delegation to Lambeth faced in 1920. Wesleyan Methodist Connection has been selected by Divine Providence And being. and anxious for an entente between Anglicans and the Orthodox. At his invitation. a realist and an opportunist. and that Nonconformist ministers must submit to reordination. he can hardly have supposed that the condition laid down at Lambeth that Nonconformist bodies must accept episcopal government.

it is the very essence of the . and was repeated with admirable candour by Archbishop Germanos at the Church Congress at Cheltenham. of Davidson has ever considered the reunionCanterbury and practical politics. and. Rome But its it as within the range of would have been clearly monstrous that in plea for reunion the Lambeth all Conference should have ignored the greatest of Christian Churches . made that Subsequently the Archbishop was compelled to extend his benevolent approval to the Malines Conversations. indeed. Mercier. and. the Abbe Portal and Lord To the Archbishop. Rome ' appears obdurate and unyielding/ and.THE LAST FIVE YEARS conditions which would stantinople possible 191 make reunion with Con- must make reunion with Geneva impossible. while good manners and a sense of proportion compelled the inclusion of the great Church of the tion. I do not believe for one moment that Dr. West in the Lambeth invita- though the Archbishop may never have regarded reunion with Rome as anything more than a pious dream. That was made perfectly clear by the Orthodox delegation at Lausanne. which were initiated by Cardinal Halifax. the presence of Dr. Frank Weston would alone have impossible.

There was some discussion at Malines as to whether some day the Archbishop of Canter- bury would again receive the pallium from the Pope. I such there be.' An admirable sentiment. and it was . But Dr.XQ2 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON that he is man disinclined finally to rule out any possibility. Davidson with a papal pallium is an unthinkable fantasy. can at least promise that I shall not willingly be either blind or insensitive to their slightest throb. he has said I am not prepared to say that there are no signs of such movement as may come to produce new and perhaps unIf expected tentacles of approach. but he must indeed have been an enthusiast. Referring to : the ' general attitude of the Vatican. It was perfectly obvious that Rome could not make important concessions without abdicating its historic claims. compromising him to nothing. with a faith which would have moved mountains. I cannot conceive anything that could happen in this world more calculated to further righteous- ness and the welfare of the human its race than the return of the English Church to tion relations with the pre-Reforma- Church of the West. who believed that the Malines Conversations could possibly eventualise in anything more than a quickening of mutual sympathy and an increase of mutual knowledge.

Portal unquestionably believed that Malines would achieve much more than it has Cardinal I Mercier may have shared their faith. and not unfairly. Gore and Dr. that the con- versations should not stop partial success. any definite statement. facing the certainty of hostile criticism and even denunciation. Frere. Kidd on the other. in the circumstances of the English Church. assuring its break- ing into fragments. Of course he He was anxious. It was suggested.THE LAST FIVE YEARS equally obvious that Canterbury could not 193 make the required submission without. or Dr. and not of . Lord Halifax and the Abbe achieved. and that they would merely serve to emphasise the impossibility of the reunion that Lord Halifax and a large section of the AngloCatholic party desired. that the Anglican delegation at Malines was representative of a section of the Church of England. but should go when they were a on until their failure was unmistakable. because he knew full well that they must fail. The Archbishop and it seems to me perfectly certainly had not . Dr. was complained by Cardinal Mercier that the Archbishop was careful It to avoid was. had any such illusion. but doubt whether either Monseigneur Battifol on the one side. fair to assume that he permitted the conversations. as I believe.

to give the Roman Catholics an entirely false idea of the character of the English Church and by violent Protestants Pope. is It would be difficult to find a former occasion when oppor- tunity has been given for quiet interchange of opinion or restatement of facts on the part of a joint group of expert theologians. as soon as I had made the statement was twisted or public the fact that these informal conversations had been held. Roman Catholic and Anglican. stating in . exaggerated into an announcement that secret negotiations were in progress. and the Archbishop was criticised men for per- mitting this sectional representation as it calculated. and even clamour. I has arisen about these conversations suppose.194 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON by more or less moderate the Church as a whole. critics for countenancing any sort of friendly meeting with the servants of the The Archbishop replied at length to his in the Upper House of the Canterbury : Convocation in February 1924. As regards secrecy an allegation upon I which much has been made to turn first took the available opportunity for publicity. was. for the reunion of the Church of England with the Church of Rome. Accordingly. He said The controversy. to the rarity of such incidents. under the Arch- bishop of Canterbury's leadership. ' which due.

a copy of which he has kindly sent to me. those (and they are very many) who.THE LAST FIVE YEARS the simplest 195 way what had happened. based on ill-informed rumour. have expressed complete satisfaction with what I have tried to I do. in a Pastoral Letter published a few days ago. The second group (if of criticisms the word is not too mild) comes . Presbyterians. have abundant at letters to that effect from Anglicans home and overseas. You may have seen that Cardinal Mercier. which might become current. either in public speeches or in letters to myself. formists. criticisms ' member But comments and from outside have been abundant. This was on purpose to avoid the growth of misunderstandings. has done the same. The comments may be There are first divided into three groups. and I need hardly say that his narrative corresponds closely with my own. I should be quite satisfied to leave the matter there. I told the story with absolute simplicity and straightforwardness. for is I have no reason to fear that there the least misunderstanding on the part of any of either House. So far as Convocation is concerned. tional from and from leading Scotch leading English Noncon- and from public men whose denominaposition I do not know. and what I have abstained from doing.

" The best answer to these controversialists for it is impossible to deal is silence. so to speak. is. and who believe me to have harmed by my action or inaction the Church of England which they love. however informally.' which looks to them The Archbishop went on to explain that the almost fortuitously.' But such action on his part ' would have belied the appeal which the Lambeth Conference had made " to all Christian in the widest possible terms " people for the furtherance of a wider unity of the Church of Christ on earth." or "sold " " the pass/ or bowed down to idolatry.' he added. These denounce me as having "betrayed the Church. whose makes them fearful like loyalty to Protestant principles of anything an approach towards friendship with the Church of Rome. or headed ' ' ' a secret conspiracy against the truth of God.' conversations had begun ' 'It is doubtless the fact.' And he went on. have stamped out the very suggestion of such a conversation taking place. . a third group. but on imaginations. with arguments based. however. consisting There of more or less thoughtful men and women.196 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON men and women expressing a fear or an from indignation based apparently upon some complete misrepresentation of the facts. not on ' facts. 'that if I had desired to do so I might.

Feeling the importance of this. the Archbishop's connection with the conversations was : more direct. without giving direction or insisting I any formal ticular upon any parits agenda paper. Catholic Church. I said that in my view it would be well that Bishop Gore and Dr. as two of our divines who had given closest attention to this subject.' From ' the beginning both ' Rome and of Canterbury had official cognisance the conversations. urged the necessity of . was the question of papal authority as a doctrine of the Roman. at least one of the great The point at issue. when. sin against God. After the second meeting at Malines. asked the five men who were accordingly going to Malines for the third group of conversations to meet me at Lambeth.THE LAST FIVE YEARS with obviously intentioned emphasis the quenching of smoking flax : 197 'To me by the stamping have out of an endeavour to discuss thus privately our differences would I say it unhesitatingly seemed to be a . Kidd. He 1 said in his speech in Convocation After the second conference had taken place. should be added to the I group. or and far-reaching matters which I was anxious should be adequately handled. a wish was expressed on both sides that the number of those taking part in the conversations little should be a extended.

unless we secure such a preliminary surrender. group of took place. They were private conversations about our respective The history and doctrines. Let me repeat for the reiteration of it seems to be necessary negotiations whatever. critics of our action urge that before any such to insist that the conversation can be rightly allowed to take place we ought the Church of Rome must Your I confess the error of its doctrines and repudiate declaration about Anglican Orders. and nothing more. that there have been no We are not at present within sight of anything of the kind.ig8 being ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON made quite clear what is our well-established set forth and coherent Anglican position as great divines. lordships will. by our This corresponds exactly to what to do in our we have throughout endeavoured conversations with our Free Church friends in England. I am sure. and there the matter or. ' The third conversations stands. conference rather. agree with me when say that to describe the conversations as being useless or harmful. shows a fundamental mis- conception of what sations is meant by the sort of conver- which can be held in order to elucidate our . I found everyone to be in complete accord with me on the matter. Mercier emphasises this as strongly as Cardinal I do.

no suggestion of the possibility of any modification of the Anglican position. found themselves in almost complete agreement concerning desired Eucharistic doctrine. The Malines Conversations came was an open to It secret that the Anglican and Roman divines had. The action of the Archbishop had been diplomatic. or even conversion. ostentatiously to bar any door. He had refused He had. carefully refrained vaguest promise that any door might be opened. perhaps to their surprise. no hint at any sort of compromise. at the from even the an end.' There had been no departure from strict propriety. But the Archbishop that no report of OD the proceedings should be . I should certainly feel it to be essential that those who would then be going out as in some sense delegates or representatives of the Church of England should be men who represent the different points of view which have a legitimate place in the Church of England. Where should we be in matters of controversy. same time. which on either side is hoped for has been already secured ? Were we in this matter to reach at some future time a stage " " in which the word would be negotiations appropriate.THE LAST FIVE YEARS respective positions* all 199 if. conversations were to be pronounced useless or hurtful unless the conclusion.

none the less. the must know something at least of what had happened. when was known that an Anglican and the head of delegation.200 published. a retired diocesan bishop. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Cardinal Merrier and the Abbe Portal both died. of a long. the postponement of the publication of the Malines report was extremely impolitic. would be materially hardened. Hensley Henson's scornful phrase. It was openly stated that the Archbishop had desired that this record should not be made public until after the fate of the Prayer Book Measure had been decided. but obviously not complete. that included a diocesan bishop. ' accepted what to the Protestant underworld/ to use Dr. record. By the publication of a summary of the proceedings he compelled the Archbishop to remove his ban. a dean an Oxford College. I think it was but. was sheer papist doctrine. It was clear that. sooner or later. in the spring of this year. it He apparently believed that. and to permit the issue. the Protestant opposition to the Prayer Book Measure in the House of Commons . and that the Archbishop would be sharply criticised for holding back what outside world . approaching his ninetieth year and reasonably regarding Malines as a considerable triumph in his long-sustained campaign for reunion. and Lord Halifax. grew impatient.

with all the exception of Lord Halifax. But. the delegates at Malines were definitely moderates and this anti-Protestantism was made known at a moment when its repercussions caused the greatest possible mischief. like He from the policy of the Lambeth endeavoured to prevent anything dramatic agreement by the selection of Dr.THE LAST FIVE YEARS to his critics 201 would seem evidence of dangerous the more necessary for Parliament developments within the Church. last years the Archbishop has been the victim of circum- and this is notably true of Malines. he could not forbid the conversations without a definite departure Conference. developments which made it to refuse its sanction to Catholic practices. definitely anti-Roman. He may have wanted them to fail. all . He was convinced from the point of view of Lord Halifax. the Archbishop has. England it should be remembered that. Over and over again during these stances which he could not control. As he has explained. I think he did. though they may have of they succeeded in emphasising the anti-Protestantism of a section of the Church failed. Gore. While he has obviously regarded the road to Rome as impassable. who of all Anglo-Catholics is perhaps the most that. the conversations must fail.

there is small resemblance between of the two Churches. Superficially. been intensely interested in the development of the friendship between the Anglican Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church which had century. its beginnings in the seventeenth The High Church movement has always it looked to the East for the sympathy which has never received in the West. The English Non- Jurors were in correspondence with the Eastern and the Tractarians were keenly interested in the Eastern Church. between the two communions have been discussed at Lambeth Conferences. and there is a world of difference between the Eastern and Western Mysteries. and in 1920 repre- sentatives of the (Ecumenical Patriarch conferred with Anglican divines. The relations Patriarchs. with the formal by Rome of the validity of Anglican Orders. dispositions The Church towards constant denial the Eternal But in the friction with Rome. and the presence of the Patriarchs of Jerusalem and Alexandria at the Nicene celebrations in Westminster Abbey was an event of outstanding importance in ecclesiastical history. England is essentially and emphatically Western. the formal recognition . In more recent years the relations have become even more cordial.202 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON through his primacy.

been any authorisation for inter-communion. and the well-advertised modernism of Dr. priests and deacons possess the same validity as those of Roman. have increased the hesitation of Orthodox theologians and have postponed anything actual union between the two communions. should be compelled to consider every point of view. and must Churches the ' have reasonably been regarded by the Archbishop as a triumph.THE LAST FIVE YEARS in Constantinople that ' 203 by the Holy Synod of the (Ecumenical Patriarchate the ordinations of the Anglican Episcopal communion of bishops. but he apparently has never realised that such modification of principle and concession of rigid doctrine. But. with his genius for diplomacy and his love for confidential and almost casual negotiations. as would make the union of the Church of England with the . the loud declarations that the is essentially Church of England Protestant. isolated there has not yet. and the troubles over Prayer Book revision. while the validity of Anglican Orders was admitted by Constantinople and afterwards by Jerusalem. Old Catholic and Armenian was of vast significance. It is like perhaps -inevitable that a man of the Archbishop's temperament. Inge. Barnes and Dr. except in a few instances.

The Prayer Book general (Permissive Use) Measure National approval from the Assembly in July 1923. and the complications that have resulted from the Prayer Book Measure's rejection by Parliament complications not yet to be accurately esti- mated received the primacy has come to its end. a must make union with the Orthodox East impossible. while the reunion negotiations incident has been interesting and important.204 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON it Protestant bodies that have seceded from possibility. Protracted debates took place in the Houses of Clergy and Laity throughout the next eighteen months. and inter-communion it. two things and to achieve the two it But. with the East to do the is a possibility. 1927. but it is impossible things. Emphasise the Protestantism of the Church. is the protracted controversy concerning Prayer Book amid revision that has been the preoccupation of the closing years of the late primacy. series of sittings of the The of the long House of Bishops was held . and it was not until October 1925 that the bishops met to consider the recommendations of the clergy and laity and to prepare the draft of what was to be first known as the Deposited Book. and Wesleyans and Congregationalists may perhaps return to Catholicism of Emphasise the the Church.

in a speech was opened by the Archbishop concluded as follows : which 'The task very easy. In your name.THE LAST FIVE YEARS in public in the 205 It Church House. with perfect fairness. Each school of thought has us. therefore. I that they would am sure that I express the minds of all who are in this House when I say that we are looking quietly and confidently to those whose prayers support us in a trustful resolve to act will thus with straightforwardness and faith in doing what will. The . made all its contribution to the material before Scarcely anyone will be completely satisfied by are it is we say or not we alone who that lie abstain from saying realise this. expressed itself abundantly. . what we say will be Neither the mere retention of what is of criticising old nor the mere introduction of what is new can escape such criticism. the controversial spirit which has already. Surely nothing that could help us has been left unsaid/ The Archbishop was perfectly candid. for the time at least. nay. Westminster. be right for our day and generation. we believe. I appeal to those outside to lay aside. but and those who now praying have themselves reminded us open to a charge of insincerity were they to pray to God and yet not be prepared I think to leave the issue in His hands.

while. that something had been put into the Book to please everybody. and of securing general consent. The intention of the Book was. we have perforce had to keep in our purview the .' wrote the Archbishop. ' In providing a ' new Prayer Book. in effect. The dead was to have his prayers for the the modernist was no longer compelled to read the Athanathe extreme Protestant could comsian Creed to be . little. on the other hand. pose extemporary prayer. Comprehensiveness must be maintained.206 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Book was not intended of revision of the Prayer either to bring the practice the Church of England into closer conformity with general Catholic practice or. sistent indeed. ' Each school of thought has made contribution/ This meant. at the same it is constantly repeated that everyone has a right to demand something. with the idea of placating possible opposition Catholic . and experience had convinced him that the maintenance of comprehensiveness was most likely to be secured checks. give a time. by a combination of concessions and When much is demanded it is wise to but only a little. to em- phasise the differences that separate the Church of England from the Church of its Rome. the intention behind the con- ecclesiastical policy of the Archbishop.

Inge praised with not very faint damns. Dr. and. dictated and certainly not to be denied by any observer when they with inside knowledge of the various parties in the Church. impatient of ' compromise. shall not. the staunch Protestant. 1927. though they count for their influence very little the Church. were finally presented with formal dignity to the Convocations on Monday. Even those . was The predominant in the House of Commons. The extreme Protestants were in violent in their opposition. aroused no enthusiasm from any section of Church opinion. But and with in a religious society. are almost policy certain to defeat the end which they are intended to achieve. and Dr.THE LAST FIVE YEARS 207 vigorous Anglo-Catholic. Barnes modernists were against voted against it. Major was against it it. the Book. It is a historic fact of considerable significance.' partial concessions. that the bishops' proposals. including men of strong definite opinions. Anglo-Catholic opinion was divided. yth February. quite unable to affirm that ' shall ' is synonymous by and not based on any principle. was naturally approved by Scottish common On the face of it. it seems likely to work. Dr.' Such a policy sense. and the anxious enquirers whose liberalism is equally foreign to both these sections.

208

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
who supported
the bishops did

Anglo-Catholics
so reluctantly

and with

hesitation.

The

centre

Churchmen

those safe and moderate

men whom
certainly
is

authority always holds in high affection

voted steadily with the bishops.
habit, and, indeed, their metier.

That

their

But even
was

in these

trusted ranks of Tuscany there
tion to cheer.

little inclina-

In speech after speech the Archbishop was emphatic that there were no doctrinal innovations
or alterations in the bishops' proposals.

In his

speech on 27th February, 1927, he said
'

:

I

wish

to

say

emphatically

that

in

my
sug-

deliberate

judgment nothing that

we have

gested makes any change
of

in the doctrinal position

Church of England. The balance of emphasis may here and there be somewhat
the
altered,

but that mere fact

will disquiet

no one

who remembers what
have
been
leaders,

different aspects of the truth

emphasised

by recognised Church

even during the last four hundred years. The distinctive basis remains sure, and is enriched

by the development
of fresh knowledge,

of thought, the acquisition

and the upgrowth

of

new

theories for the exposition of a truth manifold

yet one and indestructible.
'If
I

thought that what

we

are suggesting

THE LAST FIVE YEARS
to-day would
of England,
I

209

mean

or involve

setting of the distinctive

any marked reposition of the Church

should not be standing here to

advocate your acceptance of what
you.

we

lay before

Churchmanship is the Churchmanship which has found it possible yes, and desirable

My

Hooker and Jewel and Andrewes and Cosin and Waterland and Simeon and Keble,
to include

and

I

am

persuaded that we are not departing
left.

therefrom to the right hand or to the

And

I

remind you yet again that our proposals are permissive only, and that those who find in the
old Prayer

Book

all

that they desire can rest
still.'

content in those pastures

The Archbishop's accuracy cannot be questioned.
The modified permission to
Sacrament
reserve the Blessed

imply the legitimacy within the Church of England of the doctrine of the Real

may

Presence, but that doctrine has always been held
in the

Church of England, and in the Bennett Judgment the Judicial Committee of the Privy
Council found that
it

might legally be taught.
for the

The Deposited Book contained prayers
condemned or forbidden.
discussed alterations in
these
alterations

dead, but prayers for the dead have never been

As regards the muchthe Canon of the Mass,
brought
the

unquestionably

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
Canon more
less in

into accord with the Greek liturgies

and

accord with the
in the

Canon

Book

of

Roman Canon than the Common Prayer, and it
among
Anglo-

cannot be doubted that they were due to the
influence of the only expert liturgiologist

the

bishops,

who

is,

incidentally,

an

The Archbishop reasonably declared that the Roman doctrine is, in simple fact, more
Catholic.
definitely excluded

than before.

But,

if

there were no doctrinal changes, there
in the

was unquestionably
emphasis.

new Book a change
far

of

In

many

respects,

Mass, the

new Book was

and apart from the more acceptable to

Anglo-Catholic opinion than the old.
is

And

this

very interesting because, as

I

have shown,
Catholic

revision

was

intended

to

suppress

practices

by

Sir

and Catholic teaching. It was demanded William Harcourt and the extreme Pro-

testants, but,

when the

revision

was completed

and the bishops' proposals were promulgated, it was the extreme Protestants who were loudest
in denunciation

and opposition.

What, then, did the Archbishop hope -that the Book would achieve ? In his address at the opening of the joint session of the two Convocations

on 20th March, 1928, he said Here lies the Book, with all its faults, the product
: '

THE LAST FIVE YEARS
of

an
emanated,

these

many

years of consideration and reits initial

consideration since in

form

it

nearly eight years ago, from the Houses of Con-

vocation
tion

whom

I

am now

addressing.

Its evolu-

and enrichment have, during these

years,
it

been a continuous process.

Do you

wish

to

be made available for
to the limbo of

do you relegate it endeavours which never come to
use, or

be open to priest and people to offer their prayers and praises in a form which we have striven striven with our
maturity
?

Do you

wish that

it

shall

whole hearts

to

make

suitable to the conditions,

the facts, the aspirations, of our

own century?

Or do you not ? Let this Book come into use where it is wanted and as it is wanted, and you will be helping to weld into a worthier manner of
worship, one in character and purpose, but varied
in accordance with our varied needs

and temperaof
It will
;

ments, the approach of

all sorts

and conditions
adore.
for order

our people to the Lord

Whom we
make

make make

for unity
for peace/

;

it

will

it will

The Archbishop was
century/

concerned

with

'the

conditions, the facts, the aspirations of our

own
facts

What were

these

conditions,

and aspirations so far as the Church of England was concerned? Steadily and persistently the

212

ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON
They had been persecuted; they had
; ;

Anglo-Catholic party had grown in numbers and
influence.

been maligned they had been misrepresented they remained to a large extent boycotted when high
preferment was vacant.

be ignored.

If

But they could no longer the Protestant had his way, and
and

the Catholics were driven out of the Church, the

Church would

suffer in enthusiasm, in piety,

in devotion to social service, a grievous loss

which

certainly

no Archbishop could anticipate with equanimity. The ambition of Lambeth was to
control
;

to

hamper.

would add, to The Deposited Book may have been
direct
;

possibly,

I

intended to satisfy

'

the aspirations of our

own
was

century/ whatever they

may

be,

but

it

intended far more to check the aspirationscertain of their critics
aspirations
It

would say the mediaeval
'

of the Catholic party.

Assembly and the Convocations must accept the Book as it came from the bishops, or reject it, and no amendments

was ruled

in 1927 that the

and no detailed debate were permitted. Assent came from both bodies. In his speech before the
voting in the Convocations, the Archbishop spoke eloquently and with deep feeling of the protracted

work
'

of the bishops in the library at

Lambeth

:

I

am

certain that

it is

true to say that never

I believe that all of work and the thought and the closer and the prayers of these eventful weeks have brought us with good augury for our fraternal fellow service in days which lie ahead. the most potent and all. while life sat will for many of us lasts. distinctive responsibility by men who courage and wisdom which in the Church's order belongs to the office which we hold/ Throughout the summer and autumn of 1927 the Archbishop was busy replying to the raging Protestant propaganda and defending the proposals for which he had made himself responsible. from on high. I would add that the chapel hard by the room wherein we furnish. moving recollections of I am not so pre- sumptuous as to claim Divine approval for every decision to which we came. but I am bold to say that the decisions were reached day by day. and who do not shrink from the sought. strength. .THE LAST FIVE YEARS 213 before in the history ol the Church of England has there been a corresponding perseverance in laborious work on the part of virtually the whole diocesan episcopate. closer together. resolved to present for the acceptance of the Church their detailed conclusions upon what we may call every yard of our Prayer us would admit that the fellowship Book ' field. and In reverence.

He sternly reproved the heavily subsidised Protestant agitation. the solemn duty of taking action for which they were answerable both to God and to the Church. The bishops had its accepted. He repeated that there had been no doctrinal changes. scornfully referring to the people ' who were the loyal proud to show how many thousands they were spending/ obedience He of boldly demanded the faithful.' In October 1927. and in these circumstances they had the right to expect that their decisions should be accepted. Dr. It was the Labour Prime Minister's one important ecclesiastical . at a juncture like the present.' They had given to their task immense labour and constant prayer. Mr.214 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON repeatedly emphasised the * He enrichment * im- plied in the new proposals. six weeks before the Prayer Book Measure was submitted to Parliament. ' When we are called upon to act. with full consciousness of ' gravity. we deliber- and confidently expect the loyalty due from members of the Church wherein a constitutional ately episcopate bears the trust of leadership and rule. the Archbishop was compelled for the first time to express a personal opinion concerning the modernist teaching of the Bishop of Birming- ham. Barnes was nominated to the see by Ramsay MacDonald.

made a public protest the bishop's teaching during morning naturally service in St. Paul's. but is the system of appointment and not the Minister that was to blame. Barnes. Barnes an anti-Catholic campaign. his arrival in From initiated after Birmingham. Dr. Mr. Mr. an elderly clergyman of the most gentle against disposition. and from Lambeth that the proposed clergyman did not possess the qualities necessary for a bishop. Dr. In sermon of the sermon he denounced the doctrine Real Presence as magical and superstitious. in one case there in another a suggestion I under- was a direct refusal. MacDonald selected. No appointment in recent it years has been so tragically unfortunate. MacDonald is 215 not a member of the Church of England. John. MacDonald not unnaturally chose Canon Barnes of Westminster. indeed. nor does he claim to have any extensive knowledge of its peculiar needs. was not the first divine whom Mr.THE LAST FIVE YEARS appointment. Opposition came to a head when Canon Bullock Webster. who. he knew. PD The Archbishop . but when. as stand. and was more concerned with the Gospel according to Darwin than with the Gospel according to St. was esteemed for his learning outside the Church and who had strong sympathies with social reform.

at least. He re- minded Dr. I personally have been familiar for more than I fifty years. Barnes that vehement reprobation of his utterances had come." As far as themselves as with interest I can judge. is one with which satirise. but from ' cultured men with scientific and philosophical as well as theological knowledge/ The ' letter went on : I believe that you overrate the adherence I scarcely of thoughtful people to Creation theories of to one fifty hundred years ago. Believe me.2i6 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON incident. in outline and so far as I understand it. Barnes himself compelled him to a reluctant expression of personal opinion of by the publication an open letter. to which the Archbishop replied with delightful humour and astuteness.' condemned 'the unseemly But Dr. I can say that your position on the biological question. this teaching. it is not on what you have said with regard to that branch of science or theology that the attention of the thoughtful men has been . however is admirable. not from the unlettered pious. and do not think that those who hear you on the subject and advantage would recognise " wistful agnostics. and think among those who listen to you there are a great number who hold the opinions which you that For myself. to most of us not novel.

You may. however reluctantly. I am more than ready to go into the matter with yourself at any you so desire. one of the first steps is to secure the scrupulous use of the most careful language . to some reply. should what steps can be taken are giving of our best to to help those of us fit who the Church to be in the future the spiritual guide of an educated nation. of course. It is 217 I too familiar. have approached me day by day. The words which give rise to the sort of in- dignation I refer to are words which you use in dealing with the Sacrament of It is Holy Communion. But your open letter forces me. dismiss. I purposely refrain from trying in such a letter as this to discuss the profound and life-giving doctrines involved. am you certain.THE LAST FIVE YEARS centred. in my judgment. " Formally and publicly you invite me to consider time. lay as well as ' clerical. needing time and care. my dear bishop. the fear that anyone in England either to ' desires to lead or drive Rome or Tennessee." That is a large and difficult matter. on what you have said respecting Sacramental doctrine that intelligent and large-minded Church- men. but. but I can say at once that. I have an intense dislike to the use of the daily Press for the discussion of such subjects.

unctuous platitudes" are not enough.218 possible ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON in dealing with doctrinal affect matters of devotional deep solemnity. body to whom we desire to be fathers We " promise on our consecration day erroneous and strange doctrine to be ready with all faithful diligence to banish all and drive away contrary to God's Word. as you have truly said. is as "a bishop in of Now the Church of England " to " uphold its and to Sacramental traditional doctrine. duty. and have been denounced for doing." and while. which the thoughts and prayers of Christian people." Do not suppose is clear. The duty But when I turn to the Birmingham sermon which I find aroused criticism that the statement make to me fails to describe fairly you what you there . your open letter to myself you assure me that what you have been lately doing. yet in all the range of our duties there is none which ' calls more clearly for the exercise of tender and fatherly carefulness in word and act. who have our words upon all weigh the effect of sections of the great in God. me to be unmindful of our is duty to stem whatever trend there that way. obligatory That is upon every Christian teacher. peculiarly incumbent to upon us bishops. "smooth." " " " the doctrine affirm as we all affirm that of Transubstantiation is untrue.

in our own day. Edward King or Charles Gore. or almost in contempt. and not least to those gives real offence to the great who are able to give scholarly as well as reverent consideration to the Sacramental doctrines which our Church upholds. ' of do not believe that you had any intention wounding the souls of honest and faithful I English Churchmen.THE LAST FIVE YEARS said. or. Bishop Lightfoot or who have caught the of Charles Wesley. devotional spirit of the I hymns if prefer to think that you re-read your such criticism Birmingham sermon in the light of . but you ignore or belittle the position and teaching of those within our Church who stand in the tradition bishops as Andrewes or of such English Ken or Wilson. your words seem to of me to be capable being so interpreted as to include in reprobation. my own Bishop ' great masters. 219 In your natural and legitimate desire to of denounce a few in the Church England who hold or teach the doctrine of Transubstantiation. the position of the great mass of Churchmen who would associate them- selves with the teaching of such leaders as. more. say. body of devout Churchmen and Churchwomen. or Westcott. Nay. you were led to speak of the Sacrament of Holy Communion as I think in a way which quite reasonably.

220 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON drawn from me you is as your letter has will feel that what I have said ' not unfair. He in qualified his censure fatally qualified it assuming. they leave if me wondering whether. 1927." And. Davidson opened the debate. He spoke with the forcefulness that he has shown in speech after speech in the Church Assembly and the Convocations. without the smallest reason. as I teaching. read your words about the grace of our Saviour's Presence through the whole act of worship. I reprint here the impression of his speech that I wrote diately after ' imme- it was delivered : The Archbishop was not little of at his best. Barnes had not meant what he said. and Dr. that Dr. Although at the beginning his voice was strong and resonant. But the reproval was Davidsonesque. however. you were to consider what are their implications. contains some such positive positive " say in your letter that your teaching and unreported. he was hoarse . you would not find further cause to modify the width and scope of your negative and destructive statements.' Never was a diocesan bishop more sternly reproved. is You Your Birmingham sermon. The Prayer Book Measure was introduced into the House of Lords on i6th December.

teaching of the Bible and of the Reformed Church that we are renegades. and it would have been too long. I confess. and. a word that has come to early part of his speech make me squirm. The was. acknowledging Parliament to interfere with the decisions of the Church Assembly. " He continually enrichment " that the Prayer Book had brought Enrichment is. to the services of the Church. his Grace yearned the secular authorities would ecclesiastical when have given consent to referred to the decisions without argument or debate. as for the days it appeared to me. 221 He spoke. as Archbishop. are false to our ordination vows that we are flouting the . much 'a hour and infinitely His speech lasted an quarter. all sorts of dreadful things. clear in ' its : statement. and are contravening the . effective if more While it had been comthe right of pressed. by the Book. Speaking very deliberately he said " You have had abundant literature from those who oppose us in this matter. said that they. there was a certain implied resentment that the power to interfere should be used. indeed. It is urged on you that I. . however. are doing. It is and I.THE LAST FIVE YEARS and almost inaudible before the end. and those who are associated with me in bringing forward this Measure.

But nothing of the kind. and my life has not been lived I I am an old man. I should not be standing here. ! have been a bishop nearly thirty-seven years.000 in the last circula- few days being added to other funds for the .three years ago and which I have striven to If I maintain ever since.222 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON . whole principle of the Reformation and that I am subtly trying to bring back into error English homes the obscurantism and Reformation set England ling to learn ficant . to which I declared allegiance fifty. . and I assure your lordships to-day that I am absolutely unconscious of any departure from the principles of the Reformed Church of England. So be it ' " The attack has been largely against myself. in private or silently . I When I read that flood of rubbed my eyes and looked afresh at the Measure to find where are the points to which these vituperative epithets can properly be applied. thought our proposal was I believe calculated to controvert or to impair those principles. literature. important and of the I treat it with great respect funds which are flowing into the coffers of those people in order that such a mass of literature may be circulated. and an Archbishop for nearly twenty-five years. from which the free. I heard a story of 10. tion of that kind of literature. It is really startsigni- interesting.

and are not distorted altogether from the true proportion. : Holy Communion. and his repudiation of any attempt on the part of the ecclesiastical authorities to challenge or to first minimise the royal supremacy aroused the sedate cheer of the sitting.THE LAST FIVE YEARS In all 223 seriousness I ask myself whether those arguments are not preposterously overstrained. the Archspeaking with emphasis and solemnity. He had no difficulty in ridiculing the absurd charges that have been made concerning the prayers for the King. but his Grace did not refer to the many changes made by the bishops after the final meetings of the clergy and laity. they had never been condemned Church ' of England. said . and their necessity to the by the had been emphasised by the war. He declared that it was inexact to talk of the Bishops' Book and before the the Bishops' Measure. and whether the writers of that literature are not using deliberately inflammatory language ' of a quite inapplicable kind. House were the work of The proposals the clergy and the laity represented in the Church Assembly. As for the prayers for the dead. Coming bishop." His Grace proceeded to recapitulate the often- told history of the last twenty-one years. again.

most ready to meet any challenge with regard to the doctrinal significance of anything in the new Book in contrast with the old Book. I but must not be supposed that I am shirking the issue. I deep doctrines are being do not think they are being am. participation in Holy Communion on the part of tens of thousands of parishioners to-day. asked When and the frequency of. dealt with. quite possibly lead to superstition of a grave why any change was wanted. I reply that it is constantly forgotten how great is the change now in regard to the usage of. because of the fact that abuse of what right in regard to the is Service of Holy Communion it is the very thing that may kind. is I am not saying whether it right or wrong to multiply the celebrations of of partici- Holy Communion and the frequency pating in Holy Communion. though I affected. Very great care is is needed in all discussions on this matter. cannot go into the doctrine of the Presence of our Lord on the floor of the House. I am ready to meet it at the right time it and in the right place.224 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON is '"It extremely because difficult to discuss here adequately. however. but it is the fact that many thousands of parishes and many thousands of parishioners are of now in the habit having celebrations perhaps every day in .

There was a certain emphasis in his reminder that a bishop's licence would be necessary before a priest could reserve at all. certainly certainly of 225 many days in the week. Going on to consider the rubric that ' permits the Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament for the Communion of the Sick. he " I was was con- vinced otherwise by the evidence. and communicating many days in the week. favour. so far as he was concerned. however necessary or it however inevitable may become. He has given a half-unwilling assent to Reservation for the Sick. but that. The Archbishop made his own position perfectly clear. himself had wished that no such permission would have been found necessary." This was perhaps the most effective passage in the speech. Communion of the He will apparently resolutely refuse any extension.THE LAST FIVE YEARS the week." But he went on to make it perfectly clear that. the restrictions of the rubric would be insisted on to the letter. the Archbishop said that he would make a statement He that he had never before made in public. after considering all that can be urged in its compelled to take another view. He thought that the cases that it was intended to meet had been considerably exaggerated. .

important as many of them are. but extremely difficult to hear : ' " As my last word. in the Church. Therefore. . and would conduce to the Church's firm progress towards doing better the work to which we long to give ourselves whole-heartedly together both at home and overseas. would make for Loyalty. Priests were willing definitely had increased to obey. only they wanted to know what they had to obey.226 ' ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Returning to a consideration of the Book as it a whole. led by Bishop Gore. I beg your lordships to put aside technicalities. and he instanced the representatives of the thirteen hundred AngloCatholics who. and to realise the vast issue which may turn upon the vote you give. there is a larger issue at of stake than any of these. in my opinion. The Church England. far from decreasing. And so he proceeded to a peroration. had come to him with assurances of obedience. felicitous in expression. I would take the still larger this ground of saying that the giving to us of Book would mean the liberation of the Church from the great mass of those petty strifes which have troubled us up and down the country in the past. his Grace urged that peace. We have talked about rubrics and special prayers and differences of view all important questions but. he said.

to use for the bettering of English life every is ounce of strength which by God's benediction We want that strength it shall so consecrated and united that be irresistible for all that life. ' may reach some measure England has.THE LAST FIVE YEARS for 227 spokesman to-night. we For years we have been weakened and distracted by strife and desire in our country's argument on sacred things. may turn down our request I you I am do not believe that you will do so. if common You. there has been of late absolute certainty I say this with these a growing resolve to attain a firmer unity. From the depths of our hearts we want to use it aright. which within our borders have been keeping men apart. when service for their aid they say their prayers and think about sacred things. We I which am want ours. to use a rough phrase. Thank God. sure you will abstain from an act which . The hour has come when hopes and endeavours of realisation. and the central cohorts of men and women who really care the of " The Church men and women who. use the Church's have united in asking for the enrichment of our common worship with a view to obtaining fresh strength for our work. pulled itself together. has a trust immeasurably great and sacred. my lords. like.

but the Archbishop sat down to a subdued rumble of " Hear. he had permitted Reservation in his own diocese. women as they are. hour has come. inspired and uplifted united prayer. which I have never known before. But he had wished that no general permission would have been found necessary. hears. us our earnest ' by From my heart I ask you to give wish by passing the resolution. on either side. God helping us. Earnest men and resolve. the meaning of our eager and reiterated wish." of The House Lords does not cheer. An good. few cases. when up and down the land we await your decision as to whether or not we are to be thus armed for united advancement. We shall use it. would be confusing and disheartening of a section Disregard the clamour. He admitted that he had been convinced by the evidence and against .228 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON to us all. alike in central assemblies and in every diocese in the land. my lords. and in unusual circumstances. the inevitable clamour." ' The Archbishop's own position in the ReservaIn a tion controversy was made quite clear. they fail to see the great significance of our united purpose and Regard rather. to His glory and the people's For twenty-five years it has been mine to bear the central burden of responsibility.

to The Primate apparently steadfast still had But he was in his loyalty comprehensiveness. special and that of it applies only in the parish. ' He wrote The so drawn as to make clear that it is simply the extension. in exceptional cases of a particular kind.THE LAST FIVE YEARS his will. 'We must room in honest fairness/ he wrote. of of very much more frequent Communion than used to be But Reservation was reception Holy enjoined/ to be permitted solely for the Communion rubric is of the Sick. 229 : In his pamphlet. which has now become widespread. and then only : in special circumstances. circumstances a particular Evidence seems to show the existence of such exceptional cases for which exceptional provision must be made/ ' Evidence seems to his show/ doubts. 'make for those who maintain and quietly and the genuineness of deliberately they do maintain the need for some form of Reservation for the . the Archbishop repeated that Reservation had been made necessary by ' the steadily growing desire for very frequent of reception the Holy Communion.' But he added ' : I see dangers as well as advantages in the usage. of the usage which the preceding rubric sanctions. The Prayer Book Our Hope and Meaning.

quite alone. stubborn. He sat. but a strong. temporarily defeated. not in the least a figure of p'athos. and was interminably dull. to be joined by the Archbishop of York. almost motionless. Lord Carson making an unexpected appearance among the Protestant stalwarts. outside indeed. and the Bill passed the Lords. to be thrown out next day in the House of Commons. Hour after hour he sat.230 Sick. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON the legitimacy of their desire. the work of years seemed to have been destroyed in an outburst of ignorant Protestant fanaticism within the House. I beginning to the end of the feet of Commons him throughout the whole can say without hesitation that there is absolutely no truth in the stories of tears and emotions when the figures of the division were I and announced. The Archbishop was within a few sitting. he walked out of the gallery alone. but never so much as on that December evening. with a stern. and. after the division. it. I have often been moved when to admiration by the Archbishop. stern old man. but even then determined to fight on. rather weary detachment.' and the possibility of reasonably satisfying The debate in the House of Lords went on for two days. while a little crowd . sat over the clock from the debate.

Catholics for the first time. in a sense. The loyalty and the unity which the Archbishop had demanded had been secured for him by the curious majority of Scottish Presbyterians.and the for greater sacrifice. Welsh Calvinists and black Protestants from Ulster who. had thrown out the Prayer Book Measure.THE LAST FIVE YEARS rain 231 of forty or fifty people stood in the street in the and sang the doxology out of tune. the extreme left With the exception of wing. The Archbishop had the greatest opportunity of his career. The House of Commons division gave. to accept the restrictions of the Book were now ready and were eager in their assurance that they would loyally support the bishops. Most of those Anglo- who had hitherto professed their inability Measure . the whole Church was it indignant at the affront offered to by Parliament. they firmly and strongly resisted the State's attack on the rights if of the spirituality. assumed the The State had. with the help of a Parsee and a Christian Scientist. without necessarily or even . If he had acted promptly and courageously he could at Christmas 1927 have secured the spiritual independence possessed by the Scottish Kirk. right to dictate doctrine. the greatest triumph to the Archbishop since the beginning of his primacy.

in the course of years. this desire led him into a hopelessly illogical When. opposed. If. and which had been. for which the Arch- bishop himself was mainly responsible. He apparently believed that it was possible to secure Parliamentary approval for the Book by making and position. the whole situation must have been vastly different.232 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON probably running any risk of disestablishment. after many meetings. generous administration of the Reservation rubric. as is commonly known. the bishops produced their revised proposals contained in the Schedule to the Prayer Book Measure. but also by several of the most authoritative of the middle bishops. 1928. have made Reservation almost . little while at the same time far too had been conceded to propitiate the Protestant majority It had been realised that a in Parliament. were calculated to estrange the Anglo- Catholics and to lose a large part of the. He was the victim of his unconquerable yearning for compromise. not only by the few Anglo-Catholic diocesans. certain unessential alterations. might. The Archbishop missed his chance. support that the action of the House of Commons attracted. he and the bishops had acted then as they have acted within the past few weeks. indeed. as it appeared in the 1927 Book. it was found that the changes.

therefore. and QD* . The conditions. On it the other hand. and it was. could have been accepted as necessary for seemliness and reverence. had been changed in As was inevitable. accepted what was offered but the majority of Anglo-Catholics openly declared that the bishops had sold the pass. and that the latter merely served to make clearer what had always been in the bishops' really minds. necessary for him to affirm that there was no great difference between the two enactments. as sent back by the bishops. important particulars. But the new rubric was worded in such a way as to ensure that Reservation should be the exception. and the appeal from the diocesan to the province would have made such arbitrary action as that of Dr. insisted on by the bishops. and the situation was further aggravated when the Bishop of Winchester wrote to The Times to say that this was the intention of the episcopate. politely The Convocation. suggestion found acceptance. neither wont. it was hopeless its to expect that Parliament would reverse unless decision could be persuaded that the Measure. as to is its it. Convocation had approved the 1927 rubric.THE LAST FIVE YEARS as 233 it is common of in the Church of England as in the Church Rome. The Archbishop was in a dilemma. Barnes in Birmingham troublesome. if not impossible.

amazing that he should have supposed that the Measure would have succeeded at the second It is attempt. It could not have been a matter of any great difficulty to have arrived at the mind of the House of Commons. to the of the Archbishop had any doubts. He who advised that ' all incumbents in the conscientiously can. Over and over again the Archbishop has shown great political sagacity. He has an experience of Parliament only rivalled by that of Lord Balfour. he took the extreme Erastian course of seeking directly to influence Commons by means votes. for continuous Reservation. diocese. was an extraordinary political blunder. of the parish their magazine and even the pulpit.234 that ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON they had been sacrificed to Sir William Joynson-Hicks. Tremendous issues were at stake. To have however sent back the Book with any provision. If of repeated will opposition to run risks. do utmost to explain matters to their people . The House of Commons. on its regarded the alterations as of no moment. larger and rejected the Measure by an even majority than before. State A and the it reversal of the settlement between Church was a possible consequence Parliamentary Church. restricted. should. side. was foolhardy for in April And he had House of doubts.

An Archbishop. he said. he was in a particularly gay and happy mood when he made a long speech. Whatever may have been his preoccupations.THE LAST FIVE YEARS fairly 235 and justly is between now and the time when the Measure likely again to is come before of Parlia- ment. his close whom six or friends. He recalled the fact that he had been on intimate terms with ten Prime Ministers. he had been bora had been alleviated by constant kindness. charming in its humour and its a luncheon given to felicity of phrase. was far less lucky than able to a Cabinet Minister. shown to be decisively in favour of the Book. the Archbishop celebrated his eightieth birthday. of seven had been too. who sometimes was . in the strength of the link which joins the religious and civic life of a city. and ought to be informed.' While the fate of the Measure was still in doubt. whatever fear he may have had. the for the division Member Parliament I think. and he was happy memories on the occasion when he received the honorary freedom of the city of Canterbury. he said. He had hundreds of bishops among his friends. of the fact. at him by full of the Institute of Journalists. He believed intensely. Where opinion is. entitled to be informed. and the burden of responsibility to which numbered.

with the heavy burden of responsibility upon his shoulders. The shortage anxiety. From the time of his appointment he was always in office. life of clergy was a source of constant He was was a told sometimes that in civil there similar shortage of fulfil men who could be counted on to to the satisfaction of everybody the duties that were laid on them. Both in State and Church it was difficult to find really first-class men to hold prominent offices. This was an effective tu quoque. mistakes that he had to made and to determine not make them again.236 go out of sibility ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and enjoy a period of less responand more freedom in which to think of the office. There was no such breathingspace for an Archbishop. The Archbishop has frequently insisted that the children of this world suffer from quite as many and quite as glaring defects as the children of light. .

is a man of The Archbishop abounding courage and stubborn He has never hesitated to accept He has never felt any urgent need responsibility. He has inspired no fresh and daring crusades. before he attempts to initiate any bold or novel policy. The Archbishop has always faced the facts. and has prevented its our time. But he of his in- no adventurer. Church's prestige. at least for He has maintained disruption. for the support of his subordinates. maybe. But he has given it no new enthusiasm. the Archbishop's active career has come the to its end. He has determination. 237 have generally ignored the . com- promises. and the cautious man evitably hesitates. never feared to trust his is own judgment. The most obvious qualities is caution.CHAPTER X ' INTO THE CORRIDOR OF LIFE'S EVENTIDE' IN his eightieth year. negotiates. turers And the great spiritual advenfacts. and. His service to the Church has been of incalculable value. and in the twenty-fifth year of his primacy.

which It Parliament has been almost pathetically pleaded that there is no intention to flout the of will Parliament. Davidson thought of Archbishops and bishops when he went to Lambeth as Tait's chaplain. As a young he was bred in Tait's super-Erastianism. issued on Friday. in somewhat halting phrases. and same realism may be priest traced the broadening and widening of sympathy in his own character. 2gth September. The Church Fifty official was a department of a Christian State. That must have been very much how Mr. pledged to obedience to the State. years have passed. but.238 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON of the Archbishop's it The realism life outlook on has been. in effect. and only of a little greater account than the Secretary of the Treasury or the permanent head of the Foreign Office. Tait believed that the ministers of the Church of England were servants of the State. in which. they declared their intention to ignore the resolutions of the House of Commons and to permit practices sanctioned by the Prayer deliberately Book Measure refused to accept. of immense service to this to the Church. as has seemed. the youth- ful Erastian has become an elderly rebel an . sharing the status of. and almost the last sible action for which the Archbishop has been respon- was the declaration of the bishops.

has marked the Catholic revival must be irritating and meaningless to him. and the With the years he became interested in social reform.'LIFE'S extremely rebel polite EVENTIDE' regretful rebel. and has learned that ritual has its significance and for a certain type of mind its very great . as Scott Holland pointed out. apparently with patience and even pleasure. pendence of mind. even when they are priests. He repeated with great Royal Commission that neither Pusey nor Newman was a Ritualist in the modern sense. From Queen priest. have to endure. the death of Tait until the death of Victoria. The Archbishop has never had any stomach for The elaboration of the services which ritual. 239 but a and none the less. Davidson was that rare courtier who contrived to preserve his indeof outlook. But again he has faced the satisfaction before the facts. the harassing .experiences that all courtiers. Dr. and far more concerned with the needs of the poor than with the troubles of the rich. with courage enough to support those of his suffragans justice for the miners who demanded the great strike of and an equitable peace in 1926. Dr. But. accepting. Davidson was a courtier trusted by his royal mistress. his sanity captaincy of his soul.

He has been much less decided a Catholic duty. He is convinced that disestablishment would nation. have its limit. he knows that comprehensiveness must. ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and he has been ready to approve what years before he condemned. The Anglo-Catholic can hardly claim that Dr. .240 value. and that the State would The Church cannot remain it established unless is to a very large extent comprehensive. The Archbishop has always believed that a very definite limit must be imposed on the troublesome people who teach that regular confession is who construct High Mass out of the Prayer Book Office of Holy Communion. concerning the thinkers development of the Modernist ' who ' re-state the Catholic Creeds. Like all other sane men. He must have bitterly regretted their eccentricities. and they have remained constant. But he has come to realise that the Church cannot afford to lose either the learning or the parochial enthusiasm of the Anglo-Catholic clergy. Davidson has developed in his direction. if it mean de-Christianising the lose immensely no longer paid even formal homage to the Catholic religion in accepting the principle of an established Church. His principles are very definite. and who impregnate their churches with the smell of incense.

will. or unable physically or mentally to tackle a particular task. There no real inconsistency in his career merely the astuteness of a gifted leader of men who knows exactly cajole. be a completely outworn man.'LIFE'S but the eccentricities EVENTIDE' must be endured 241 in order that the enthusiasm is may be exploited. ' the Canterbury Cathedral in the summer of 1930. be anxious but most interesting and faithful work. if I mistake demand the robust statesmanship of men who to profound faith and capacity add forces . to He has not resigned on account of ' disappointIt is the ment at recent events in Parliament/ super-importance of the Lambeth Conference of 1930 that has convinced him that he must give When the bishops of way to a younger man. he said at the Mansion House. for same men must be God busy years of what will. failing the Archbishop to resign his high He did not profess. I think. .' he has said. those will. in no ordinary degree. 'they must meet under the leadership of men the preparation that Conference at the helm. That work not. is When over. It is when he cannot no conviction of drive and where he must power that caused office. if Lambeth Conference meet in who have themselves wrought for that great gathering.

A. in the truest sense. with the ference at their core. consecutive. man disheartened by disappointment. Davidson's personal character. large number working at Thomas's . to the gracious lady whom he married fifty years ago. Lambeth Con- you must look to younger leadership than mine if the work is to be coherent.D. was not lightly reached that for the coming years of quite exceptional work. progressive in the Church's life. His intimate personal friendships have as often been with the undistinguished as with the highly placed. and.'s. or to the debt he owes. infinitely trying to myself.242 of brain ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON and fibre for daily and nightly use after a fashion not forthcoming from a man who has I do not fourscore years and more behind him. stand here as a the conclusion. in the ordinary But I am convinced and sense. for example. of V. During the war.' It would not become me to make more than the barest reference to the charm of Dr. or as a man whose health has. frequently publicly acknowledged by him in these later days. to the felicity of his personal life. and none of his friends has anything but the deepest gratitude for an understanding that is always acute and for a sympathy that has no qualification. broken down. a St.

243 Lambeth as and were Kindliness treated as the Archbishop's guests. It is one of the small misfortunes of his life that he has rarely had an intimate personal contact with the Anglo-Catholic clergy. Athelstan Riley. lived at EVENTIDE' Palace. the one conspicuous exception being Dr. them that no two people highly with their days filled to and overflowing with duties and responsibilities. and he has a genius for understanding exactly to whom to go for advice and information on the many subjects and problems with which he has been concerned. Here goodness has called to goodness. He has been extraordinarily well served by his chaplains. suffer fools gladly were ever more ready to not merely patiently. another and. with whom he has been for many years of on terms friendship.'LIFE'S Hospital. The Archbishop's intimate included friendships have men of all professions and many opinions. Gore. has been the note of his life. it is the outstanding characteristic of his wife. but gladly. is one of the of prominent Anglo-Catholic his friends. It has been said of placed. laity. despite their wide differences of opinion. the closest and most affectionate . Mr. he has for Lord Halifax the sincerest admiration. .

unperturbed. and we are told that old men dream dreams. Archbishop ' passes into ' the corridor of life's I am an old man. undaunted. My dreams for the world I shall soon be leaving are rich in hope.' . inspired with the faith for the future.244 ARCHBISHOP DAVIDSON Lord Davidson eventide/ So.

210 245 . J 56 Clarke. 89. 70. 207. Belloc. Bishop. 100.INDEX British Museum. 107 158-9. Church Association. Bill. A. 10. Benson. Augustine.. 81. Dean. 17. 97. Dr. Agnus Dei. 150-1. 146-7. 100. B BALFOUR. 7. 93-5. 23-6. 47. 121 53-6. 65-6. 4. Sunday open- ADDINGTON PARK. 233 Court of Arches. 132. 31 Convocation. 15 Book of Common Prayer. Bishop. Mr. 128. Rev. 46. 17. 181 Benefices Bill. 243 Appeal to all Christian Peoples. 70 Colenso controversy. 97-8. 158 without Bishop. 103. 43.' Butler. 233 Battifol. 193 cants. . 196 Assyrian Christians. 10 Creighton. See DISRAELI Mr.. Monseigneur. 115-16 Church Times.. 81-2. 139.. Hilaire.. J. 102. 131 Beaconsfield. 142. 178 Carpenter. Archbishop. Sir H. 125 8. Bishop. 104-5 Connor. 50. 9. 109 67-9 Browne. Bishop. Sir E. 89-91. 29. Church Missionary Society. 127. 36-4 1 43-7. 187. 220. 207. 212. 8 Confession. 182 Blomfield. 214-16. 2 Campbell-Bannerman. 234 Barnes. MR. 160. 194-5. 161-2. 158. 99 Benham. Lord Hugh. 207-8. Lord. Canon. 112-13 Clergy Discipline Act. 26. Lord. (LORD BALFOUR). 16-21. Dean. 99. 183 Carey. 129 Atlay. 70. Bishop. Mr. 91 Birrell. C. 102. 136 Church overseas. 55 154-7. 113. 212. 10. 122. Burial 46. Celebration communi- 203. 99. I. 230 Cecil. 2. 231-3. 40. 129. 17-22 ing. 12. 99. 27. A. 87. 123 Church. 130. 39. no. 36-7 Athanasian Creed. 240. Bishop. LORD. 31-2. 4. 43 CAIRNS. 32 Benson. Mr. 27 Carson. 9. 73 Blunt. Anglo-Catholics. 46 Church Discipline Act. 210. 12 ' 161.

210-12. Bishop Winnington. 183 Ely. Bishop. n. i. 207 Ingram. 98. 46. H. 204. 100-1. Dr. 38. 61. 16-17. St. Sir W.246 INDEX D G GARDINER. 169.. 71 mission. 142. 2IO position. 206. 159 Halifax. 203. 104. 239 Gibson. 90. 59 Henson. 200-1. 106-7. 36. 43. 36. Sir T. 82 Green. 181 Dolling. 14: Houses I4J> I52> l60j 200 of Laymen. 63 ... 6. Cardinal. 4. curacy Gasparri. A. 42 Dartford. 189. S. 5.. 200. MR. Catherine's. 152. 12. 63. MR. i. Dr. 100 Haweis.. H. 121. 181 Gore. Dean. L. 202 Eastward Harcourt. 120 Gladstone. 24. 193 Inskip. 147. F. Cardinal. 20-2. R. 115. 92-4. 224-6 Dibdin. 93 Davey. 3. 8. Sir Lewis. 88. 191. 189 Headlam. 242-3 Deceased wife's sister.. A. 18 Enabling Act. 98-101. Bishop Hensley. Mr. 158. Headlam.. 28. marriage with. Abbe.. 2 Ireland. 65 Eastern Churches. LORD. 240 Inge. Lord. 103. DANKWERTS. 100 at. 10. 243 Greek Orthodox Church. 46 Exchange of pulpits. 112- 193. 130 32. 129. 4. 99. 98. 7 G. 96 Edinburgh Review. the. 158 Disestablishment. 93 General strike. 50-1. 193. Bishop. FISHER. 59. 24. 182 Edward VII. 161 Education Acts. 219. 184-5 Frere. Father. Rev. 201. 17 Grimthorpe. 96 I INCENSE. 84-8. 32-5 Deposited Book. 159-61 English Church Union. Dr. 103. 197. 50. 172. 37 Guardian. 54. Mrs. Lady. 92-4 H HALDANE. i Church of. 121 Duchesne. VOLUNTEER CAMPS AT. 27.. Stewart. 190. Lord. 1 6 1-2 Evangelicals. 240 Disraeli.. 120. 101-2. Sir H. 42-3 Davidson. 88. 123 Ecclesiastical Discipline Com- Hatcham. 4 13 Drury. Rev. 63. 105. Gasquet. MR. 243 EASTER.. 14. 12.

90. 97. 199-201 Mercier.. I. 158. 5 Maclagan. 195. 209 n K KEBLE. Cardinal. 36 ' Lambeth Hearing. Archbishop. 190. 123.. 123 2. 161. Mr. 40. Lord. Lord. 152-3.. Lowder. Archbishop. 95. i 102-3 Newman. 214 146. 191. the. 121. 200 Mitchell. 101.. 97 Parmobr.. 110- JOYNSON-HICKS. 207 Malines Conversations. Mr. 3 Kikuyu Conference. 136-7 King. 98. Life of Archbishop Tail. 98 Lloyd George. 195. 134. the. 201-2. 123. Dr. 61-2 n 122 Orders. 198 184 Liddon. 182. Rosslyn. 4. . Longley. 128 Modernists. 197. MR. 94. 150-1. I 130. 219 Lincoln Judgment. 1 68. Bishop. the. 158. Cardinal. Archbishop. P en church. 191-2. 63 Ornaments Rubric. Canon. 39. Mr. 123. 189. THE. SIR W. a 89. 234 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. 83. 239 Nonconformists. 150. 240 N NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. 121 Kidd. 92-3 Liberal Party. 4. Bishop. I. 37. 39-41. Lang. RAMSAY. 140 . 114. 198. 82. 177 League of Nations. Lansdowne. 189. 155-7. 193. Anglican. 148. Bishop. 241 and Hope. 197 Major. MACDONALD. 156. 10 O OLD CATHOLICS.INDEX J 247 Mackay. 47. Father. Dr. 177-8 Nestona/church. 219 Knox. 8 M PAPAL BULL. Archbishop. 2. CANON. JJ OT O ' 204 National Mission of Repentance 160-1. 182. 193. 160 Mixed chalice. 45-7. 96. 32 Lightfoot. 91-4. 50. 178 Mackonochie. o 138. 179 Leo XIII. 124 6l. LACEY. Prebendary. 43-4. 46-50. 158 Peckham. 9. 58-9.

30. 239 Society for the Promotion of DEPOSITED Prayers for the dead. 163 Puller. 90-4. 23. 180 Spurgeon. Mr. W. 7 121-2. 122 Pusey. 153-5. 72. 64 VAUGHAN. Scott Holland. 76-8 Rosebery. 95. Runciman. Tait. 126. 7. 120-4. 118. Abbe. 121.. 90. 200 Riley. Professor. 106. Lord. 94-7. 82 Transubstantiation. 2 Social problems. Bishop. Russian Coronation. 3. 161 2. 63. 56. 46. 189 loo. 169 (William). 120 Saintsbury. CARDINAL. 92-3 Vaughan. Lord. Lord. Archbishop i. 85 Stone. 123. 191. n 238-9 128. 5. 43. 101-2 Public Worship Regulation Act. Lord. 193. 113 Royal Commissions. 99. 7. Mr. Mr. 228-9. 209. Lord. Aldwyn. in. 167. Dr. 55 . 99. 132. Sir H. 85-6 Times. the. 43. 3. Arthur. 158-9 Shaftesbury. 66 R RAMPOLLA. 75. Raymond. 3 Tractarians. 239 Selborne. INDEX 10 Salisbury. 157. Lord. 161. 233 Tooth. 160. 185. 163.248 Penzance. 98 Tristram. E. 53. 60. 84 Stations of the Cross. 59. 200 See BOOK and Prayer Book. 115-16. 84 SABBATARIANISM. Father. 45. 148. Mr. 9. 43. 32 Portal. 223 Processional lights. u. 104. Bishop. 36. 89. Dean. 232-3 Temple. Mr. 108-9 Temple. ARCHBISHOP. 239 Stubbs. 59. 16. Father. 63 5. Dean. Father. 47 Suckling. i. 27.. loi. Christian Knowledge.. Darwell. 184 Russell. 42 Truth. George. 222 Reservation. T. CARDINAL.. 112. 127. 93 Stanton. 39. 13. 2. 5 Sunday cycling. Craufurd. Reformation. 5. Reunion. 64 Stanley. 57. Canon. 75. 105. 121. 107 Phillimore. 30. 97. Lord. 29. 187 Thorold. 149. Rev. 131. 130-2 Thicknesse. 93. 10-20. in. 43 Ponsonby. 243 Rochester diocese. 94. 2-8. i. Dr. 88. 16. 66-70 St.. 99. 72. Dr. Athelstan. Archbishop (Frederick). the. Prebendary. 151 Purchas Case. 92-3 TAIT. 225.

242 219 Weston. 123. 7. 121. Church of. 141. 38. 2. Baron. Canon Bullock. 12-13. Dean. W. Ward. Queen. Bishop. the Great. 123 Wales. 63 War. (Zanzibar). Bishop 137-8. W WAGE. 4. Warman. 76. 175-80. 3. 4. 6. 31-2. 24-9. 142 Wafer bread. 15 54-5. 191 Winchester diocese. 51. Bishop. 215 Wellesley. 125 37. 105-7.INDEX Vestments. Bishop. 249 G. 152 Webster. 43 . 79 Wordsworth. 93 Welsh disestablishment. 96 Victoria. 63 West Indian dioceses. 156-8. 47.. Mr. 83-4. DEAN. 12-14. 239 Von Hiigel. 18-22. 134-5. II Westcott.

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UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO .