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Chapter 16: Domestic Policy

I. The Policy-Making Process A. Agenda Building Agenda building is achieve through mass public awareness of a certain issue; from a crisis, technological change, mass media campaigns, strong political personalities, and effective lobbying groups. B. Policy Formulation Various policy proposals are discussed among government officials and the public. C. Policy Adoption Choosing a specific policy from the proposals that have been discussed. D. Policy Implementation Government action must be implemented by bureaucrats, the courts, police, and individual citizens. E. Policy Evaluation Groups inside and outside the government conduct studies to determine what actually happens after a policy has been in place for a period of time.

II. Health Care Spending for healthcare is estimated to account for 15% of the total U.S. economy. A. The Rising Cost of Health Care (people are living longer) a. Advanced Technology= more and more expensive b. The Government’s Role in Financing Health Care Currently, gov’t spending on health care constitutes 45% of total health-care spending. Private insurance= 35% of payments for healthcare. Other 20% paid directly through individuals or philanthropy. Third parties Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance companies Primary parties caregivers and patients

the program is funded by taxes on wages or salaries.900 per person and $5.S. Socialized medicine: National health insurance systems F. b. and the insurance is the basic health coverage. C. a. Annual contributions of $2. Only 35% of working-class Hispanics are insured E. Medicaid A joint state-federal program that provides medical care to the poor (including indignant elderly persons in nursing homes). residents older than age 65. Medicaid and the States.B. regardless of income. the entity is the government. The Uninsured More than 45 million Americans (15%) do not have health insurance. Single-Payer Plan: A plan under which one entity had a monopoly on issuing a particular type of insurance. The costs are met by a tax on wages and salaries. Why has Medicaid spending exploded recently? The income ceiling has increased to more than $40. The Fed Gov’t pays 60% of medicaid’s cost. which must be combined with a high-deductible health-insurance policy. The program is funded out of general government revenues. In most cases.800 per family. D. Typically. Medicare created by LBJ in 1965 and is specifically designed for the elderly. the portion paid by the states has increased so rapidly that the states are becoming financially strapped. Even with the federal gov’t partial reimbursement. 2006 partial payment of prescription drugs A federal health-insurance program that covers U. One Alternative: National Health Insurance National Health Insurance: A plan to provide universal health insurance under which the government provides basic health-care coverage to all citizens. Another Alternative: A Health Savings Account Most taxpayers can setup a tax-free HSA.000/yr in most states. .

B.) Protect fish and wildlife. 2.) Make waters safe for swimming. Cleaning up the Air and Water a. Water Pollution Clean Water Act of 1972. a.S. Ecology the total pattern of relationships between organisms and their environment. Environmentalism The movement to protect the environment has been based on two major strands of thought since its beginnings in the early 1900’s: Conservation and Preservation. There have been improvements (thanks to environmental interest groups) . C. 3. Curbing Air Pollution 1975 tailpipe emissions 1990 The Clean Air Act: established strict limitations for the emissions of NO2 and other pollutants c. b.) Eliminate the discharge of pollutants into the water Also. Cost-Effectiv+e Solutions U. a. It also mandated that an EIS be prepared for all major federal actions that could significantly affect the quality of the environment. Environmental Policy A. Established the following goals: 1. The National Environmental Policy Act: This landmark legislation established The Council on Environmental Quality. which amended the Federal Water Pollution Act of 1948. The Environmental Movement (1960s & 70s) Rachel Carson “Silent Spring” b.III. it required municipal and industrial polluters to apply for permits before discharging wastes into navigable waters. The Costs of Clean Air “pollution allowances” b. spends $210 billion annually to comply w/ federal environmental rules.

Air-born lead is 3% of what it was in 1970 and CO emissions 25% D. Nuclear Power— an Unpopular Solution  Three Mile Island. Global Warming a. Alternative Approaches to and Energy Crisis  Geothermal. we are behind the rest of the world in nuclear power production. The Kyoto Protocol In 1997. congress passed a completely new Endangered Species Act. energy policy is entangled with environmental policy. Chernobyl. which made it illegal to kill. and terrorist attacks are frightening to many Americans. Energy and the Environment    Because of the effects of producing energy and burning fuels. E.2% below 1990 levels by 2012. Waves V. harm. Solar. Yada yada yada IV. Energy Policy (tends to only be important during a crisis) A. b. The Endangered Species Act of 1966 & 1973 In 1973. The Global Warming Debate People disagree on the effects of global warming. . The conference proposed a treaty aimed at reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to 5. The Low Income Population  The low-income poverty threshold is based on a study by the department of agriculture in 1963 on the cost of a nutritionally adequate food plan. Thus. Wind. delegates from around the world gathered in Kyoto for a global climate conference sponsored by the UN. comes from coal-fired plants in the Midwest B.S. or otherwise “take” a species listed as endangered or threatened. Poverty and Welfare A.A didn’t sign that shit. C. The United States continues to pump oil from existing wells and offshore platforms The majority of electric power in the U.S. The U.

S.) Limited welfare recipients to only 2 years of assistance at a time 2. originally provided coupons. With TANF the gov’t gives states block grants targeted for welfare assistance Act wanted to reduce welfare spending so: 1. F. D.  <$20.000 for a 4-person family in 2006=poor The income level for the U. Other Forms of Gov’t Assistance Supplemental Security Income (SSI): A federal program established to provide assistance to elderly persons and persons with disabilities. Conservatives argue that there aren’t that many homeless people and that most of them are alcoholics. Homelessness  The homeless problem pits liberal against conservatives. Earned-Income Tax Credit (EITC) Program: A gov’t program that helps low-income workers by giving back part or all of their Social Security taxes. Basic Welfare With the passage in 1996 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (Welfare Reform Act). is twice as high as the world’s average per capita income level. The Antipoverty Budget   Bush’s 2009 budget allocated ~700 billion to federal programs that support persons of limited income. B. but now provided electronically. . Food Stamps: Benefits issued by the federal gov’t to low-income individuals to be used for the purchase of food. the gov’t created TANF to replace and earlier program known as AFDC. Welfare Controversies    Reduces incentive to find paid employment Anti-marriage Non-Hispanic whites made up 30% of TANF recipients in the mid-2000s E.) Imposed a lifetime limit on welfare assistance of 5 years. (Medicaid and other medical care is the largest acceptor of this $$$) Elderly people receive 70% of Medicaid spending C.

2/3 in state/federal prisons F. Confronting Terrorism .drug users.520 D. Crimes committed by Juveniles Decreasing C. Continued Influx of Immigrants   High immigration rate offsets low birthrate and aging population Immigrants expand the workforce and pay taxes B. Immigration A. The Prison Population Bomb 2008 U. School Shootings Annual probability of a school shooting is 1 in 11. The Cost of Crime to American Society Very super expensive E. In contrast.S. or the mentally ill.3 million ppl. prisons held 2. Attempts at Immigration Reform VII. Crime in the 21st Century A. Crime in American History Revolution Era’s crime rates = today’s crime rates B. Federal Drug Policy G. many liberals argue that homelessness is caused by a reduction in welfare benefits and by excessively priced housing. VI.

Income Transfer: A transfer of income from some individuals in the economy to other individuals.000 persons in a particular population group. Single-Payer Plan: A plan under which one entity had a monopoly on issuing a particular type of insurance. Medicaid: A joint state-federal program that provides medical care to the poor. Incarceration Rate: The number of person held in jail or prison for every 100. and government actions that affect each individual’s daily life in the United States. The TANF program replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. or medical care— provided by the gov’t to low-income groups. 6. 2. housing. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): A report that must show the costs and benefits of major federal actions that could significantly affect the quality of the environment. The program is funded out of general government revenues. 3. The costs are met by a tax on wages and salaries. 5. 12. Medicare: A federal health-insurance program that covers U. Food Stamps: Benefits issued by the federal gov’t to low-income individuals to be used for the purchase of food. the program is funded by taxes on wages or salaries. 7. Domestic policy: All of the laws. Earned-Income Tax Credit (EITC) Program: A gov’t program that helps low-income workers by giving back part or all of their Social Security taxes. National Health Insurance: A plan to provide universal health insurance under which the government provides basic health-care coverage to all citizens. but now provided electronically. In-Kind Subsidy: A good or service—such as food stamps. Supplemental Security Income (SSI): A federal program established to provide assistance to elderly persons and persons with disabilities. originally provided coupons. 13. .S. and the insurance is the basic health coverage. In most cases. Energy policy: Laws concerned with how much energy is needed and used 8. the entity is the government. government planning. This is generally done by gov’t action. 4. Typically. residents older than 65. 14. 10. Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF): A state-administered program in which grants from the national gov’t are used to provide welfare benefits. 9.Chapter 16 Terms 1. 11.