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Problem Set 5

Distributed: Tuesday, March 1, 2011 Due: Thursday, March 10, 2011 Assignments can be worked in Groups of 2. A cover sheet, which is found at the bottom of the Assignments page in the ECSE304 webCT site, should be handed in with each assignment.

MatLab Exercises

In all MatLab Exercises, you are to show all your work and hand in both your MatLab code and the plots that you generate.

**An Introduction to Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation:
**

Amplitude modulation is often used to transmit a signal with low-frequency content using a high frequency transmission channel. A common example is AM radio. In AM radio a relatively low frequency signal such as a speech signal (which has frequencies between 50 Hz and 4 kHz) is transmitted by radio waves at frequencies around 1 MHz. Amplitude modulation is performed by multiplying a high frequency signal (called the carrier) by a the low-frequency message signal m(t): (1) x (t ) = (1 + m (t )) cos(2π fc t + φ )

where the carrier signal corresponds to the cos(2π fc t + φ ) term. Although the message signal m(t) may be very complicated, a good understanding of AM can be obtained by analyzing AM signals of the form: x (t ) = (1 + A cos 2π fm t ) cos(2π fc t ) (2)

i.e., the message signal is a cosine, m (t ) = A cos 2π fm t . A straightforward expansion of (2) shows that: A A x (t ) = cos(2π fc t ) + cos ( 2π ( fc + f m )t ) + cos ( 2π ( fc − f m )t ) (3) 2 2 In communications terminology, the signal components at f = fc ± f m are called the

sidebands and the signal component with a frequency of fc is called the carrier. When fc >> fm the spectrum of the AM signal looks like that shown in the following figure:

Problem Set 5

The scale factor of 1/2 multiplying m(t) can be compensated by doubling the final output. we can isolate the message signal by multiplying x (t ) by cos 2π fc t x (t ) cos(2π fc t ) = (1 + m (t )) cos(2π fc t ) cos(2π fc t ) ⎛1 1 ⎞ = (1 + m (t )) ⎜ + cos( 2π (2 fc )t ) ⎟ ⎝2 2 ⎠ = (4) 1 1 1 m (t ) + + (1 + m (t )) cos ( 2π (2 fc )t ) 2 2 2 Notice that the message signal is now available outside of the product term.2 AM Demodulation involves recovering the message waveform from a modulated signal of the type given in Equation 3. the 1/2 is a DC offset which can simply be subtracted out or ignored. Problem Set 5 . For example. A Notch Filter can be used as part of the demodulation process. Our specifications will be given in terms of continuous time frequency. It is possible to recover the message signal by modulating the modulated signal and then filtering. we will look at a LTI filtering approach. Given an AM signal of the form (2). If ωnot is the desired notch frequency. This is the basic principle used in all commercial radios nowadays. We must convert to discrete-time frequency by using the frequency scaling that is due to sampling: f ˆ ωnot = 2π not fs where f s is the sampling frequency. While there are many methods for demodulating AM signals. There are still two terms in the above equation which must be eliminated. we will be asked to eliminate the spectral component at fnot . We can create a notch ˆ filter using as few as three coefficients. then the following length-3 FIR filter ˆ y[ n ]= x[ n ]− 2 cos(ωnot ) x[ n −1]+ x[ n − 2] ˆ will have a zero at ω = ωnot in its frequency response. the other term is a very high frequency term (at f = 2 fc ) which we will eliminate by filtering.

and the modulated signals using the function showspec() given in the matlab mfile which is provided online: showspec(cc. Use different colors or different line types for the two signals.8000). Problem Set 5 . a sample rate of 8000 Hz. you are to demodulate the AM signal created in Problem M-1. Plot the frequency response of this notch filter to verify that you have done this correctly. d) Compare the spectra of the message. aa. you are to create and plot an AM modulated signal a) Derive Equation 3 above from Equation 2. iii) Filter the product signal created in step (i) with your notch filter.8 c) Plot the first 200 points of the modulated signal and the message signal on the same plot.8000). Identify each of the spectral peaks with terms in Equation 3. and a phase of 0.3 Problem M-1: In this problem. must have a frequency of 1200 Hz. Problem M-2: In this problem. showspec(mm. a duration of 1 second. mm. the carrier. a) Implement the LTI filtering method using the following steps: i) Multiply the AM test signal by the carrier as described in Equation 4 and look at the spectrum using the showspec() command. ii) Create a three-term notch filter designed to eliminate the high-frequency component at 2400 Hz.8000). b) Create a test AM signal. showspec(aa. with the following characteristics: i) The carrier tone. b) Compare the spectra of the message and the demodulated signal using the showspec() command. should be a 100 Hz tone with amplitude of 0. cc. ii) The message signal. Is the high frequency component completely gone? c) Filter the signal again with the same notch filter used in part (a) of this problem and compare the spectrum of this signal with the original demodulated signal using showspec(). The result should look similar to the original message signal.

Problem 2: Discrete Time Processing of Continuous Time Signals A discrete time system for processing continuous time signals is shown in the following figure. Sketch the magnitude of the frequency response of an equivalent continuous time system for Ω1 = π / 4 and Wc = 20π . Note: The sample period is T=0. x[n] H a ( jω ) H a ( jω ) Sample H (e jΩ ) H (e jΩ ) Zero Order Hold H c ( jω ) H c ( jω ) y[n] 1 −10π 10π 1 1 −π −Ω1 Ω1 π −Wc Wc Problem 3: Discrete Time Processing of Continuous Time Signals Consider the following system: Problem Set 5 .4 Regular Problems Show all of your work for the following problems: Problem 1: The Sampling Theorem The signal y (t ) is generated by convolving a band- limited signal x1 (t ) with another bandlimited signal x2 (t ) : y (t ) = x1 (t ) * x2 (t ) where X1 ( jω ) =0 for ω >1000π X 2 ( jω ) = 0 for ω > 2000π Impulse train sampling is performed on y (t ) to obtain ∞ y p (t ) = ∑ y ( nT )δ (t − nT ) n =−∞ Specify the range of sampling period T which ensures that y (t ) is recoverable from y p (t ) .05 seconds.

p[n] . and them down-sampling by a factor of M. jω [ Specify L and M.5 Assume that X c ( jω ) = 0 for ω ≥ π /T . jω x[n] Zero Insertion w[n] − 14 H ( e ) p[n] y1[n] Decimation y[n] π 14 π 14 Problem Set 5 . jΩ Find the frequency response H ( e ) of the discrete time system whose unit sample response is h[ n ] such that the output is yc (t ) = xc (t − 100T ) . and y[n] . The non-zero portion of the Fourier transform can be made to occupy the entire region from −π to π by up-sampling by a factor of L. filtering with an ideal low pass filter. What is the impulse response? Problem 4: Interpolation/Decimation A real valued discrete-time signal x[ n ] has a Fourier transform X ( e jω ) that is zero for 3π /14 ≤ ω ≤ π . Specify ωc for H(e ) and draw w n].

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