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TEACHER'S ROLE AS A HUMAN CAPITAL BUILDERS Teachers teacher is a lot are the key asset in the form of an individual

because the parents. Teachers also

of people with the

students after their

a place for students to gain knowledge . After that, teachers were to contribute to the existing body of knowledge. Therefore, aspects of leadershipis in a teacher has to be activated as a whole which in turn will produce human who is success whether in secular and religious. Therefore, the teacher is responsible for developing the potential inherent in the students a holistic and integrated to produce the balanced human intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically. Teachers also play a role as an instructor, manager, mentor, advocate, coordinator and also as

an innovator, which means those who bring innovation in learning sessions. In addition, teachers also must conduct all activities in the classroom with various ways such as using a variety of teaching aids, provide role playing, simulations and so provide.This matter will be put aside by the students to learn and feel good to study. The kind of things that need to be raised because of their interest, teaching and learning will quickly understand. In addition, teachers also must conduct all activities in a classroom. Each activity must be established gradually by having the first step, second step and so on. Every step must be arranged so that students benefit from each learning activity. Teachers were carrying out each step of learning tasks teachers that will meet student needs. This is because a well-planned lessons that will bring great benefits to students. Aspects of teaching also must play its role well by teachers to allow students to understand the topics being taught well. As a teacher who responsible, teachers must use a variety of methods needed to help students understand difficult lesson and by repeating the same explanation has been given several times or use other methods as appropriate examples and burden. Through this method, the teacher has an advantage in terms of knowledge of child psychology and pedagogical expertise. Furthermore, national aspirations of the teachers as nation builders claim high commitment of all educators. Teachers should undertake the task weight to produce a man who excel in science, particularly in science, technology and ICT, skills such as able to communicate effectively in multiple languages and has a positive personality in order to contribute to the well-being, family and country.

Teachers have a key role in the transfer, the noble and good knowledge transformation, raise manners, and moral attitudes that please Allah, give guidance towards the right path and as a facilitator of the learning process. Accordingly, teachers hope to ensure the formation of a strong self-esteem of students, competitive, confident and strong in faith and universal values. More over, efficiency and effectiveness of the role of the teacher education system is able to build a successful nation. As a parent of students at the school, teachers not only know the name but they have to internalize. This means that teachers should understand their needs, habits, attitudes, behavior that includes aspects of student strength and weakness. Finally, teachers are 'agents' changes in society. Teachers were also forming 'hearts and minds of independent’ from the shackles of negative thinking in the community some time ago. Therefore, I would like to call to fellow educators around the country to be 'brave' that can make a paradigm shift in order to see the country's administrative climate change so that future students who will be heir to leadership of the country do not gamble with impunity. Then, bravely to voice their opinions through oral 'to see the survival of these children become more organized and have a clear direction. Finally, the teacher is a noble person as they burning themselves like a candle to illuminate the others.

A noun is the name of a person, a place, a thing or an idea. Sometimes a noun is the name of an action.
person place thing idea action man, woman, child ocean, desert, wood, farm cabbage, hammer, hope, plan, memory intention, thinking, running

Common and Proper Nouns Common nouns describe groups or members of groups; whereas, proper nouns identify a unique example. Proper names are usually capitalised.
Common Noun man aircraft religion entertainers nation Tom Tiger Moth Christianity The Beatles England Proper Noun

In English, the days of the week and the months are capitalised: January, February ... November, December but the seasons are not: winter, spring, summer, autumn (Although the seasons are capitalised in USA). Directions are not capitalised: north, west, south, east Identifying Nouns Proper nouns are easy to identify because they are the names of particular people or things. For instance, Rob, Betty, Lorraine. Common nouns have the following properties:

   They can be preceded by some determiners. To do this. They do not indicate the word is a noun in the given sentence. We note that 'work' is preceded by the determiner 'The'. a few. They can have a possessive case. isn't a noun. They sometimes have plurals. so it is a noun.. makes sense. however. makes sense. To determine whether a word is a noun. If a word is a common noun. some. so: My house is here. . my. Using our test [My [insert noun] (is/are here). Determiners Common nouns can be preceded by determiners: a. The word happy. the. of course). does not make sense.. Note on Using the Tests Most tests show whether a word could be a noun . we need to apply the test in the sentence. then the following sentence makes sense when the word is inserted: My [insert noun] (is/are here). house is a noun. In the sentence: The delicate and time-consuming work is important. So the word work can sometimes be a noun.]: My work is here. (Sometimes it is a verb. For instance. we need to apply the test in that sentence.sometimes. so: My happy is here. Consider this sentence: The delicate and time-consuming work is important. .

do not have plurals. whereas other parts of speech do not. however. So if a word has a plural. We cannot precede the word work with my: My work till they drop. in that sentence). Examples of Nouns and Non-Nouns Here are some examples of applying the test on nouns and non-nouns: Nouns My cat is here My bread is here My principal is here My dollars are here My envelope is here Non-Nouns My entertaining is here My starchy is here My quickly is here My full is here My exceptional is here Plurals Nouns often have plurals. a verb. Singular cat man fish formula MP (Member of Parliament) Plural cats men fishes formulae MPs .In this sentence: They work till they drop. it is a noun. of course. Uncountable Nouns. (It is. Therefore work isn't a noun in this sentence.

But . etc. When the word for the owner ends in s anyway. If periods are retained.P. especially with proper names. acronyms do not have periods. If Mary is the owner of the book we write – Mary's book.. 1's and 2's (because 1s might look like Is. although almost everyone would have said Charles's book. Possession We can check whether a word is a noun. They name people. if this would mean we end up saying a sound like "iz-iz". Abstract and Concrete Nouns What are concrete and abstract nouns? In grammar. The following nouns are abstract: walk. touch. Charles' book and Odysseus' Quest would have been correct. although some might have tried to say Odysseus' Quest (because it sounds more literary). Notes: In older English. ideas. states of mind and events and actions. we do not add the final s. Plurals are made by adding an s – MPs. Charles' dinner. Odysseus's Quest. yesterday's error.. it'll go fine (it will go fine). becomes MP. So if the owner of the book is Mr Bridges. we would normally add only an apostrophe at the end of the word. So M. animals and places. then apostrophe s is used – M. in Standard English. jump. and 2's for consistency). we write and say Mr Bridges' book (without an s after the apostrophe). For instance: Noun dog Charles yesterday Possessive Form the dog's dinner. ours. We indicate possession by adding the apostrophe (') s. it is often said: Concrete nouns name something you can see or touch. The apostrophe is not used with pronouns – its. However.'s. The 's plural is sometimes used when confusion might result – Dot the i's and crosss the t's. we add the apostrophe s when sound requires it – Charles's book. Abstract nouns name things you cannot see. yours. objects. by asking whether it has a possessive form.Nowadays. So we write and say the boys' school. They name qualities. intelligence and . The apostrophe is sometimes called a mark of elision to indicate some letters have been omitted – it's going (it is going).P.

And while we can see someone or something jumping or walking. [Hear intelligence? ] The embarrassment was obvious [clearly seen]. we abstract some important grammatical part. a thoughtful reader might object and say: I saw Mr Jones take a walk with her dog. I heard her speaking I could see he was The embarrassment was obvious [clearly seen]. so 'jump' is not sensory after all. For instance. abstract nouns are nouns that name things that we clearly cannot see or feel. we might wonder whether we can see 'a walk'. So 'jump' is an abstract noun. I can hear the intelligence in her words. luck. After careful thought. I can hear the intelligence in her words. With other abstract nouns. In writing 'the jump' we have made a verb into a noun and abstracted the person.embarrassment. when these become nouns – 'the jump' and 'the walk' – we have omitted or abstracted the subject. In: I saw the jump on the tv. If the writer wished to avoid the abstract noun 'jump'. . However. I saw the record-breaking jump on tv. we hear someone speaking logically and infer they are intelligent. embarrassed. and see 'embarrassment'. We can perceive a horse jumping. such as a subject and the word becomes an abstract noun. We note there cannot be a 'real' jump without a jumper (subject). Can we really hear 'intelligence'. but we cannot perceive the jump without the horse. In a similar way. when we make an adjective or an adverb a noun. freedom and justice are more or less intangible. Or see a 'jump'. animal or thing that did 'the jumping' (jumping is also an abstract noun). we might be unsure. Actually. and the jumper has been omitted or abstracted. intelligently [adverb]. she would have written: I saw the horse jump the hurdle on the tv. It seems we infer 'intelligence' and 'embarrassment' rather than perceive them directly through the senses – we see a red face and infer embarrassment.

Examples of Concrete and Abstract Nouns Concrete nouns are perceivable by the senses.

Concrete Nouns People Objects Animals Places Tom, woman, man, doctor, policeman, turnip, wind, bed, test-tube, chair, basket, atom, DNA, cell, tree puppy, lion, animal, germ, virus, England, country, island, mountain, lake

Abstract nouns are not perceivable by the senses. For instance, we can see a person is joyful, but we cannot perceive joy apart from someone being joyful. The word joy is therefore an abstract noun.
Abstract Nouns Qualities intelligence, beauty, ugliness, kindness, strength, vulnerability, truth, heat, humanity, freedom, abstraction, energy, force, luck, justice, injustice, misfortune, grammar, calculus, ideas, disease, (the common) cold, love, hate, fear, anger, imagination, courage, loneliness, happiness, sadness, bravery, cowardice, embarrassment, joy, confidence, bitterness, grief, boredom, cheerfulness, cognition, depression, dream,


States of Mind

walk, sleep, jump, explosion, journey, childhood, Actions and progress, growth, year, day, week, Tuesday, March, war, Events history,

The classes above are not exclusive. So a word, such as day could be an action (series of actions) or event, or an idea. Nominalizations A nominalization is a noun which has been made from another part of speech, such as a verb, adjective or adverb. They are abstract nouns. Nominalizations summarizing Previous Ideas

The nominalizations are shown in bold. By excluding details, you produce an abstract idea. Therefore, an abstraction has fewer details than the original. He campaigned against violent behaviour on the streets. He would not tolerate street violence.

They selected the important books. This selection was controversial. Nominalizations naming the Verb's Subject or Object Nominalizations can be used to replace a wordy subject or object. In the sentences below, the subjects or objects are in italic, and the nominalizations in bold. I was wondering about what they concluded. I was wondering about their conclusions. He inferred a number of things about the new substance. What he had

inferred, however, was invalid.
He inferred a number of things about the new substance. However, his inferences were invalid. Common Ideas A nominalization can be used to succinctly express a common idea, when it becomes a short-hand way of referring to a complex idea. For the new year, I resolved to do some new things. I made some New Year Resolutions. He believed that individuals should be free to inspect what organizations held about them on computer. He believed in freedom of information.

They objected to women being allowed to ask doctors to abort their foetuses, for non-medical reasons. The objected to abortion on demand. General and Specific Nouns A general noun or expression can be concrete or abstract.
General and Specific Nouns General animal furniture food subjects sport More Specific carnivore table, chair, sofa, meat, vegetables, fruit, fish, mathematics, English, science running, swimming, football, cricket Even More Specific cat, lion, tiger divan beef, turnip, apple, cod calculus, grammar, chemistry sprint, back-stroke, soccer, bowling or batting bakery, grocers, supermarket men, women, children thinking, remembering, loving, hating

business shop humanity people mind cognition, affect

Countable and Uncountable Nouns (Mass Nouns) Most nouns have a plural and a singular form. For instance:
Singular man dog idea beach mind men dogs ideas beaches minds Plural

art. watching films. Other nouns are uncountable in certain uses. use the determiners the and some. piece. etc). snippets For example: Singular a slice of bread a piece of fish an ounce of salt a snippet of music a book on film Plural some slices of bread some pieces of fish several ounces of salt several snippets of music several books on film Uncountable nouns are sometimes called mass nouns. film.All such nouns are countable. we do not use the plural. data We cannot use the determiner a before uncountable nouns: we can. bread. When we think of watching several films. Collective Nouns (Group Nouns) . In American English. but is countable when we think of a number of individual fish. fish is uncountable when used to refer to food. We think of them as a mass. ( American) We can sometimes quantify such nouns using words like: slice. Similarly. (Reading books about film or films. we can say: I spent the weekend watching films. The data are ready. ounces. flour. data is regarded as plural. We might say: I spent the weekend studying film. greed. but in English it is singular: The data is ready. luck. For instance: fish. But when we think of the subject. when its plural is fish or fishes. bits. For instance. however.

Considered as a number of Individuals The audience are clapping their hands. The team is working together. A few people are coming today. The team are squabbling. Now. The couple over there are available. flock. The staff has objected. The family are at loggerheads. except when this seems obviously wrong. The Union refuses to negotiate. The audience is quiet The flock of birds is heading North. Quantity Nouns In the following sentences. Examples are: audience. the flock of birds are competing for food. One half of the animals are trained. . For instance: The audience is clappings its hand. is obviously wrong. the quantity nouns take a plural verb: A number of books are on the table. The flock turned and flew away The herd is about to stampede. jury. Considered as a unit. The family is going to the cinema. Collective nouns are normally singular. The jury is hung.Collective nouns identify groups of things. council. herd The group is considered as a unit. The team plays well.

A combination of increased physical activity and suitable weight reducing diets are recommended for overweight/obese adults who wish to lose weight. Every pronoun must have a clear antecedent (the word for which the pronoun stands). the quantity nouns take a singular verb: The number of applicants is small. The weight of the truck is ten tons. The quantity of sand is large. Personal Pronouns: SINGULAR subjective objective 1st person I 2nd person you me you possessive PLURAL subjective objective us you possessive our. we use a singular verb: The number of applicants has increased recently. In the following sentence. Kinds Of Pronouns A. is. we use a plural form: A number of people are coming. PRONOUNS Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns. the author says a combination .. are instead of a combination .. yours my. But when it is indefinite... ours your. The measure of success is profit Where the number is definite. yours you . mine we your.In the following sentences.

theirs Personal pronouns have the following characteristics: 1. three genders feminine (she her hers) masculine (he him his) neuter (it its they them their theirs) Examples . hers its they them their.3rd person he she it him her it his her.the one(s) spoken about (he him his she her hers it its they their theirs) Examples 2.the one(s) speaking (I me my mine we us our ours) 2nd person . three persons (points of view) 1st person .the one(s) spoken to (you your yours) 3rd person .

3. three cases subjective (I you he she it we they) possessive (my mine your yours his her hers our ours their theirs) objective (me you him her it us them) Examples . two numbers singular (I me my mine you your yours he him his she her hers it its) plural (we us our ours you your yours they them their theirs) Examples 4.subjective case .

possessive case Examples .objective case .Examples .

Example: Hand me that hammer. (that describes the noun hammer) Demonstrative pronouns can also be used as qualifiers: . Demonstrative Pronouns: Demonstrative pronouns can also be used as determiners. Follow this link to pronoun case for more information.NOTE: Because of pronoun case. the pronoun's form changes with its function in the sentence. B.

Indefinite Pronouns: Singular: one each (n)either Examples: Somebody is coming to dinner. (Myself is an intensive pronoun. reflecting the pronoun I.) I’ll do it myself. Plural: someone somebody something anyone anybody anything no one nobody nothing everyone everybody everything Examples: . Reflexive / intensive pronouns CANNOT REPLACE personal pronouns. intensifying the pronoun I. Examples: I saw myself in the mirror. Neither of us believes a word Harry says.Example: She wanted that much money? (that describes the adjective much) C. (Myself is a reflexive pronoun. Reflexive / Intensive Pronouns : the "self" pronouns These pronouns can be used only to reflect or intensify a word already there in the sentence.) Note: The following words are substandard and should not be used: theirselves theirself hisself ourself D.

some. either. Some of the trees have been weakened by the storm. (Each is an indefinite pronoun replacing a noun.) Both lawyers pled their cases well. Singular with non-countables / Plural with countables: Examples: Some of the dirt has become a permanent part of the rug. Several have suggested canceling the meeting. (Both is an indefinite pronoun replacing a noun.) Both were in the room.) Each has a chance. several. Indefinite pronouns use apostrophes to indicate possessive case. few. any. (Each is a determiner describing person. (Both is a determiner describing lawyers. neither.Both are expected at the airport at the same time. Interrogative Pronouns: . one. both. Examples: The accident is nobody’s fault. one. many. How will the roadwork affect one's daily commute? Some indefinite pronouns may also be used as determiners. most Note the differences: Each person has a chance. each.) E. all.

Examples: What do you want? Who is there? F. . Note: Use who. Use that and which to refer to things. whom. and whose to refer to people. Relative Pronouns: Relative pronouns introduce relative (adjectival) clauses.Interrogative pronouns produce information questions that require more than a “yes” or “no” answer.

your Interrogative: which.ADJECTIVE Adjectives describe or give information about nouns or pronouns. his.nice. . Possessive: my. your. Some adjectives give us factual information about the noun . soft. our. size. more than enough Qualitative: colour. (The adjective grey describes the noun "dog". funny. It does not matter if the noun being modified is male or female. some. subject or object. and the and the possessives my. light.not everyone may agree). an. hard etc. their. good. all. singular or plural. what Demonstrative: this.The articles a. what kind. full. that. sad. wrong. those. There are different types of adjectives in the English language:       Numeric: six. and their are also adjectives. Some adjectives show what somebody thinks about something or somebody . these Note . pretty.) The good news is that the form of an adjective does not change. one hundred and one Quantitative: more. or how many. Opinion Adjectives can be used to give your opinion about something. If you are asked questions with which. For example:The grey dog barked. size colouretc (fact adjectives can't be argued with). whose.age. smell etc. right. whose. horrid. half. happy. you need an adjective to be able to answer. beautiful etc (opinion adjectives .

. long. For example:  "The big man." or "The big woman". Size Adjectives can be used to describe size. rectangular.For example: He was a silly boy. For example:  "He was an old man." Shape Adjectives can be used to describe shape. big. little. triangular. same as. Age Adjectives can be used to describe age. short. small. etc. oval. tall. round." or "She was an old woman. square. etc. circular.

g / short long.a metal tray etc.  "A wooden cupboard. red. For example:  "The blue bag. brown. start. around. Distance Adjectives can be used to describe distance.For example:  "It was a square box.n -. white. yellow. etc." Colour Adjectives can be used to describe colour." or "The blue bags". short. green. black." Note ." or "They were square boxes. . blue. Origin Adjectives can be used to describe origin. far." or "They were German flags. low.In English we often use a noun as an adjective. etc. high." Material Adjectives can be used to identify the material something is made of." or "Wooden cupboards.a glass vase / metal .o -. l -. For example: "It was a German flag. For example: glass .

morning." Temperature Adjectives can be used to describe temperature. cold. etc.For example:  "She went for a long walk." Purpose Adjectives can be used to describe purpose. etc." Time Adjectives can be used to describe time. cool. day. dinner. (These adjectives often end with "-ing". night. early. lunch. bed.) For example: . For example:  "She had an early start. For example:  "The day was hot." or "The days were hot." or "She went for lots of long walks. late. nap. warm. hot.

Adjectives that go immediately before the noun are called attributive adjectives. For example:  "David looks tired. which is explained here. feminine." More examples: Adjective Example Pretty She was a pretty girl. "She gave them a sleeping bag. . Adjectives after a verb describe the subject of the verb (usually a noun or pronoun)." or "She had long. adverbs do that. For example:  "Her hair was long and blonde. They are called predicative adjectives. Fast It was a fast car.).In each case the adjective stays the same. singular or plural noun. There is also the adjective used to. Adjectives can also be used after some verbs. Verb Phrases 1. Serious He was a serious boy." or "She gave them sleeping bags." !Note . When using more than one adjective to modify a noun." The subject (in this case David) is being described as tired not the verb to look. blonde hair. Note . A verb expresses action or being. VERB NOTES  Verbs. whether it is describing a masculine. Quiet They were quiet children. They do not describe the verb. the adjectives may be separated by a conjunction (and) or by commas (.

and the other words are called auxiliary or helping verbs. but instead shows state-of-being. 4. Examples: a.2. the main verb and its auxiliaries may be separated by the subject of the sentence. Ex: We were at the store for an hour. c. A verb that is made up of more than one word is called a verb phrase. 3. A linking verb does not show action. The last word in a verb phrase is the main verb. I eat dinner at six o’clock. main verb=going helping verb=are Common Helping/Auxiliary Verbs am is are were be do does has had can must will shall might would should being did 5. You are in sixth grade. Should we eat dinner now? b. Usually when auxiliaries are used in questions. Will you go to school next Monday? Who would like more macaroni and cheese?  Linking Verbs . Ex: Everyone runs when the coach blows her whistle. Ex: Cesar and Ruth are going to soccer practice after school. An action verb tells what the subject of the sentence does.

 Sentence with helping verbs: Carmen will be practicing all afternoon.Remember: 1. Verbs called being verbs or linking verbs do not show action. but instead shows state-of- being. Instead they show what the subject is or is like. These linking verbs link the subject of the sentence with a word in the predicate that tells more about it. Examples : 1. A verb expresses action or being. You become 7th graders later this year. 3. An action verb tells what the subject of the sentence does. A linking verb does not show action. but a linking verb never ends with an action verb. 2. Common Linking Verbs am is was were be being become look feel taste What is the difference between a helping verb and a linking verb?” Answer : Helping/auxiliary verbs are always part of a verb phrase which ends with a main (action) verb. The dog seems hungry. 2. Because of this we say linking verbs show state-of-being. verb phrase= will be practicing main verb= practicing helping verbs=will be .

Adverbs modify everyting else. ('very' modifies adjective 'careful') An adverb modifies an adverb He is almost always hungry. "Why?". ('suddenly' modifies a whole sentence) Finally. ('too' modifies adverb 'carefully') An adverb modifies a clause Perhaps you are correct. ('surely' modifies clause 'he will be on time') An adverb modifies a sentence Suddenly. he will be on time. "How often?". ('almost' modifies adverb 'always') John plays tennis very well. "In what way?". an adjective. linking verb=smells Adverb What is an adverb? An adverb is a part of speech that describes or modifies a verb. "When?". An adverb can be placed anywhere in a sentence. Adverbs answer the questions "How?". clause. ('finally' modifies a whole sentence) .Sentence with linking verb: Mom’s laundry smells so fresh and clean. but not at first glance. but I hope not. ('willingly' modifies verb 'accepted') Mike snored melodically. Some adjectives end with -ly also but remember that adjectives can modify only nouns and pronouns. she went home. ('quickly' modifies verb 'walked') I accepted new task willingly. "To what degree?" The easiest adverbs to recognize are those that end in -ly. "How much?". Adverbs as modifiers (adverbs in adverbial functions) An adverb modifies a verb He walked quickly. ('melodically' modifies verb 'snored') An adverb modifies an adjective They were really unhappy. "Where?". ('completely' modifies adjective 'fearless') I know she is very careful. ('very' modifies adverb 'well') You never can work too carefully. another adverb. ('perhaps' modifies clause 'you are correct') Surely he will be on time. or sentence. ('really' modifies adjective 'unhappy') My brother is completely fearless. "Under what condition".

('today' modifies a whole sentence) Adverb Formation Adverbs that end in -ly are formed by adding -ly to an adjective. a present participle.happily lucky . the adverb is formed by replacing final -ic with -ically economic . At the end of the sentence I learn English slowly.from an adjective careful .glowingly surprising .beautiful fitting . At the front (prior to the subject) Today we will study adverbs.surprisingly .terribly When adjective ends in -y.affectedly surprised .assuredly affected .from a present participle willing .horribly terrible .surprisedly When adjective ends in -able or -ible. At the center of the sentence (between the subject and the verb) He seldom goes to movies. or a past participle.luckily When adjective ends in -ic. I hardly noticed her.carefully beautiful . I have had lots of phone calls.from a past participle assured .economically ironic . the adverb is formed by replacing final -e with y horrible .fittingly . .willingly glowing . . Lately. we can take a vacation. the adverb is formed by replacing final -y with -ily happy .Today.ironically Adverbs Position Adverbs can be placed anywhere in a sentence.

I arrive late for most appointments. List: cheerfully. slowly. there. I absolutely refuse to leave. I literally wrecked my car. occasionally . fast.answer the question Where? I walked downstairs. Have you ever gone there? I will meet you outside. healthy Adverbs of time . always. entirely. inadequately. List: early. List: above. too Adverbs of frequency . He is completely tired from the journey. quicly. Peter almost quit that job. today.I study adverbs now. rather. I walk carefully. sometimes. I really like him. frequently. up Adverbs of degree . I have had many sleepless nights.answer the question How much? He is totally prepared for his birthday. down toners I somewhat like this movie. Adverbs as intensifiers Adverbs can be used as amplifiers.answer the question How? I watch them closely. Adverb lists that follow each category are only partial amplifiers They completely abandoned the city. Adverbs of manner . down toners. now.answer the question How often? He rarely goes by himself.answer the question When? He has not played chess emphasizers. never. . I am too tired to play tennis tonight. never. below. little. She constantly finishes her job first. tomorrow Adverbs of place (location. inside. . or emphasizers. often. away. then. direction) . List: almost. Adverbs can be classified by their functions. here. soon. usually. . much. down. I play well. Lately.

still. how.Conjunctive (connecting) adverbs . More or less are used to express the comparative degree. or adverbs. when Comparison of adverbs. I dance most gracefully ( or most horribly). Therefore. however. Like adjectives. I will. Interrogative adverbs . I need to study. I will arrive soonest (or fastest). therefore. commas are used to set it off. Why are you so angry? When does the movie start? List: why. otherwise. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs: accordingly. Irregular comparison . go to sleep. therefore. and superlative. Most or least are used to express the superlative degree. note that the period takes the place of a semicolon. Adverb comparison Most adverbs are compared by using another adverb. however. I dance more gracefully (or more horribly). Suffix comparison Some adverbs are compared using a suffix –er for the comparative forms and –est for the superlative forms. I will arrive soon (or fast). Use of conjunctive adverb between two independent clauses requires a semicolon before the adverb and comma after it. The day was over. The day is over. adjectives.connect the ideas expressed in different clauses or sentences. I dance gracefully (or horribly).used at the beginning of questions. also. where. If conjunctive adverb is used at the beginning of a sentence. If conjunctive adverb is placed within a clause. I went to sleep. I want to sleep. I will arrive sooner (or faster). anyhow. Comparative degree compares two verbs. adverbs have three forms of comparison: positive. Positive degree expresses the quality without comparison. adjectives or adverbs. comma is used to set it off. Superlative degree compares three or more verbs. moreover. comparative. furthermore.

They express qualities unsuitable for comparison. And B. too. Bone 6. Bridge B. POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE bad/badly worse worst far farther/further farthest/furthest late/lately later latest little less least much more most well better best Beyond comparison Some adverbs are never compared. there. 1. A. Energy 2. now. Great C. very. too  NOUN Please select the answer choice that identifies the noun in the sentence. A. Take B. All C. The works of many great poets have been placed on reserve. Sparta and Athens were enemies during the Peloponnesian War. very. Reserve 3. Here are some of them. Many B. A. before. Yours D. A. There D. Note The three most common adverbs used in English Language are: not.There are also a number of adverbs compared irregularly. never. twice. During D. thus. Sharks and lampreys are not true fish because their skeletons are made of cartilage rather than bone. then. there. War 5. Here are some of them: again. Joe. Opened D. have you met your new boss? . Was C. A. almost. In 4. Placed D. here. True B. The Brooklyn Bridge was opened in 1883. Because C. Were C. ever. It will take all of your energy and will to be able to walk again. These must be remembered.

ships D. Flagrant D. Important C. As she looked up. Adapt 8. to accept the wooden horse. insects D. The Trojans' rash decision. Mastering B. Accept D. ships 13. houses B. Stones 14. Neutrality 10. Students 9. Not D. Destruction Please select the answer choice to fill in the blank. blankets C. A. 11. In the distance. A swarm of ____________ gathered around the swamp. A. But C. Your D. Its C.A. Have B. Younger D. A. flowers C. Led C. sheep B. the onloookers could see a fleet of ____________. A. cows 17. there was a heap of ____________. cows 16. Sue's parents tried living in the North. led to their destruction. insects C. The boy gathered a bundle of ____________. Boss 7. Stairs 15. The flock of ____________ stayed together. Over by the railroad tracks. players B. People C. A. clouds D. sheep B. Mastering basic mathematics is an important goal for younger students. A. To seize a foreign embassy and its inhabitants is flagrant disregard for diplomatic neutrality. North B. houses 12. sticks B. Their B. insects C. A. but they could not adapt to the cold. A crowd of ____________ lined up to see what was happening. . she saw a fight of ___________. A. Met C. stairs D. Seize B. planes B. birds C. stairs D. A. A. beads D.

sky B. attic B. he’s a adult. drill C. hose D. water C. houses 19. glases . He needs to clean his room. The herd of __________ kept eating as the wind blew past them. A. shed C. In the show. castle C. He’s not a animal. summer 23. A. pastors C. crows 20. man D. stairs D. clothing D. sheep C. I have one brother and two ____________. A. birds B. land C. A. birds C.A. autumn B. toys D. The basement is below it. plant D. we saw many different schools of ____________. A. wind D. monkeys B. There was a long row of ____________ near the beach. insects C. cows B. He is a ____________ being. animal C. space 27. A. sisters 26. There is more water on this planet than there is ____________. books B. A. pig B. The ____________ is the top of the living room. A. water C. A. plant 25. cows D. people D. I’m a boy. people B. lawn 24. Joe goes to school. He should get a job. girl B. There are a lot of ____________ in his bag. cows B. queens D. He is not a ____________ anymore. I don’t play with Barbies. fish D. not a ____________. A. child 22. birds 18. Beads 21.

Florida D. going C. older D. A. A. The class is going to work hard today. fast 34. vacation Find the Common Noun in each sentence. I B. The B. I 37. today 36. Clifford D.Find the Proper Noun in each sentence. big C. eat D. class C. cat B. My B. dog D. his D. My B. fluffy D. you B. I B. brother C. working hard . A. My cat is big and fluffy and white. A. 33. The B. me C. A. big C. Midnight 32. A. My favourite cereal is to eat is Cheerios. A. white 35. I have a black cat and his name is Midnight. A. machine 31. Are you going to Florida for vacation. Coke D. watch C. My teacher said that we are working hard. My B. My brother is older than I am. 28. A. I like to watch Clifford on television. cereal C. teacher C. Will you get me a Coke from the machine ? A. The big dog ran away fast. television 30. Cheerios 29. cat C. we D. you B. work hard D.

army 5. The thief ran off with a large ________ of cash. A _______ of children ran around in the classroom. 1.Answer Key :Noun 1)D 2)D 3)A 13)D 23)A 33)C 4)D 14)D 24)A 34)A 5)D 15)A 25)D 6)D 16)C 26)B 7)A 17)C 27)A 8)D 18)D 28)D 9)D 10)D 11)A 12)D 21)D 22)B 31)D 32)C 19)C 20)C 29)C 30)C 35)B 36)B 37)A Multiple-choice Exercise Choose the correct answer for each question. There was a robbery at the ABC Bank. A. Last Sunday. bundle B. nest 6. bevy B. brood 3. We had to eat our lunch quickly because an _______ of ants attacked our food. swarm 4. pod B. Bevy C. On Sunday. A. A. School C. A. herd C. B. crowd B. . A ______ of cows was transported to a farm in Texas for slaughter.drove The boy saw a _______ of sheep grazing in the fields. Flock C. A. I went to Stanley Park and saw a _______ of ducklings in Lost Lagoon. Group C. I went with my friends to the park. pack 2.

. A. herd B. A. Nest C. It is a group of small islands. A. horde B. bevy B. school B. A. pod B. pod 7. pack 8. deck 10. Nest C. My sister in Sweden took me on a boat cruise to see the famous ________. I usually take a _______ of cards with me . Archipelago C.A. School C. crowd 14. army There was a _______ of visitors in the Vancouver Art Gallery on Sunday. I saw a ________ of whales in the ocean. A _______ of geese was heard a mile away. Stack C. Bundle C. B. pod 11. So when I go camping. I had so much fun in Hawaii swimming with a _________ of fish. archipelago 13. A. swarm B. A. deck On a stormy night you could hear the howling of a _______ of wolves. On a clear summer night you can see a _________ of stars. mass B. School C. I like to play card games. There was a _______ of bird eggs on the tree. Bevy C. nest 9. Pack C. A. A. bundle B. B. The man never cleaned his office. army 15. A. school 16. galaxy 12. A. On the ferry ride from Victoria. pack 17. He left a ________ of files and papers on his desk. Pack C. I love hiking in the spring because the mountains are covered with a ________ of wild flowers. Swarm C. crowd B.

crowd 22. I received in the mail a small ________ from my cousin. package 19. pack B. swarm B. is B. A. On my African trip. A. A. A. Here_________ the news. pride 24. litter B. Ladies and gentlemen. Deck C. bevy B. Where________ my jeans. Further information_________ available in the office. deck B. such as: books. Litter C. A. Parcel C. is B. Gaggle C. herd I was attacked by a _______ of bees. swarm 21. I was so happy to see a _______ of quails on the country road. A. are C. . there is a ________ of useful educational resources. is B. nest 23. Archipelago C. For Christmas. A. Sir. My friend's cat had a __________ of kittens on the weekend. She sent me a woolen scarf. At the library. dictionaries. Bundle C. were 26. are C.A. were 25. The stairs_________ over there. B. etc. audio tapes. A. are C. Gaggle C. were 27. crowd 20. A. host B. computers. litter 18. I saw a ________ of lions.

They C. I D. He B. are C. Me D.A. A. He B. were 30. A. I have a friend. His D. She 4. The USA a very nice country. His 5. A. Him C. We D. I visited my uncle last Friday. Your sunglasses on the table. She D. He 3. __________ bought me a new T-shirt. is B. Hers C. He C. Her B. B. were The furniture in our classroom uncomfortable. A. I . were  PRONOUN Please select the answer choice to fill in the blank. Mine 6. __________ am a student. __________ name is Ahmed. 1. We C. You B. My mother went shopping. Her B. I C. is B. __________ are diligent students. My B. A. are C. A. She D. Him 2. are C. A. __________ classmates often come to my house. were 29. __________ gave us some orange. A. is B. A. are C. is 28.

Ours B. they’s 15. A. our 13. him C. If you happen to see your parents this weekend. her B. one 14. she D. his D. they D. them 12. Despite her parents complaints. their B. you 9. A. myself D. Us C. Bob and Ted live near _________ school. Is this apple for __________ ? A. I B. herself C. mine D. Our 16. The bird sang __________ happy tune. A. That old woman is very kind to __________.7. my C. __________ school is in the mountains. me 8. them C. A. it’s B. A. give __________ my best regards. your B. yourself 10. my D. mine B. A. A. them D. A. Do you have a dictionary? Yes I have a good __________. us B. me C. some B. they 11. He came to see __________ last night. I don’t know what __________ name is. its D. it C. us B. We D. we C. him B. it C. ours D. her C. The coat of __________ is very warm. mine 17. A. A. the . yours C. she desided to live by __________ in New York City. he D.

me. me B. A. yours 23. Mary? A. whose C. him D. me WHO. A. she B. which 27. Her uncle is a doctor.This is the teacher __________ told me my son has been misbehaving in class. whose C. whom D. mine. my. your. it C. he 21. 24. me C. Can I use __________. who B. which 25. my D. sent me flowers at work last night. mine. isn’t __________? A.18. whom D. whom D. us D. mine. my. me D. which 26. your B. mine C. A. her C. whose C. Give it back to __________. Those were the boxes __________ were sent to you last month but never made it here. My aunt gave ________ to me last month. It’s __________. her 22. I have many besutiful flowers. me. A. A. WHOSE. mine. This is the girl __________ car hit that tree last week. he 19. My husband. mine C. yours C. her. them B. it D. you. I can’t understand __________ when she speaks German with __________. my B. who B. I can’t find __________ pencil. us 20. who B. who B. which . whose C. WHOM AND WHICH Please select the answer choice. your D. A. Is this drink for _________ or for you? A. whom D. him. __________ i love. me B. A.

whom D. A. which 32. whom D. which 33. to __________ we owe many thanks. whom D. HIS OR HER THEIR . __________ is going to take the dog for a walk? A. whose C. whose C. whose C. A. whom D. __________ shall I fear but the ones who hurt me? A. That young man. who B. whose C. who B. whose C. who’s B. __________ house is this. A. which 30. which Answer Key :Pronoun 1)C 2)C 3)B 13)D 23)B 33)B 4)A 14)A 24)A 5)A 15)B 25)A 6)D 16)B 26)D 7)D 17)C 27)B 8)A 18)D 28)C 9)B 10)C 11)B 12)A 21)B 22)D 31)A 32)B 19)A 20)A 29)C 30)A 1.28. I asked you __________ of these shoes you think would go with my outfit. whom D. I have friends __________ love me so much that they threw a surprise birthday party for me last night. anyway? Are we allowed to stay here? A. saved our mom’s life after the car accident. whose C. which 31. who B. whom D. who B. who B. which 29. Be sure that everyone brings ____________ own book.

and ____________ . SHE THEY 11. HIS OR HER THEIR 12.2. ME I 6. THEIR HIS 7. We know that we can count on James. HER SHE 8. ME I 4. HIM OR HER THEM 3. The children in that neighborhood often ride ____________ bikes through the park. HIS OR HER THEIR 10. Rhonda explained that ____________ and her sister had often eaten at that restaurant. Anne. tell ____________ that I'll be back in half an hour. Did you see Derek and ____________ at the game? HER SHE 5. If anyone calls. Between you and ____________ . this politician cannot be trusted. Most of the workers were wearing ____________ hard hats. ITS THEIR . Each person in the room turned ____________ head to the front when the teacher entered. Joe and ____________ have been close friends for many years. It's always best for a student to ask questions when ____________ doesn't understand a problem. HER SHE 9. The local government plans to cut ____________ budget for recreation.

I ME 17. When I meet new people. I'm usually curious about ____________ occupations.13. I ME 18. To Maria and ____________ . IS ARE 21. WERE WAS 15. the movie seemed very silly. The dog ate ____meal o it’s o its o it . WERE WAS 19. My car is new. Few of the suggestions ____________ reasonable to me. o his o him 22. Christopher and ____________ want to travel to the Far East some day. HINT: Are you looking for a subject or the object of a preposition here? HER SHE 20. Most of the congestion on the highway ____________ caused by an overturned truck. The cost of the repairs shocked both my brother and ____________ . Both of the bicycles in the garage ____________ broken. but ___ is old. That coat of ___ is very warm. THEIR HIS OR HER 14. o his o him o he’s 23. Everyone who purchased one of the paintings ____________ pleased. SOUND SOUNDS 16.

She has an apple in ____hand. o o o o we us ours our 27. He came to see _____last night. ______school is in the mountains. We are glad that you could stay with_____.24. a new steel carving knife . Which is the correct order? A. I gave _____my pencil. It was my brother who went with_______ o she o her 25. a steel new carving knife B. o o o o our ours we us 29. o my o I o me 30. o hers o she o her  ADJECTIVE 1. o his o him o he 28. isn’t___? o it o she o he 26. Her uncle is a doctor.

a plastic big red hat a red big plastic hat a bit plastic red hat 4. an exciting French new band B. an old cotton dirty tie a cotton dirty old tie a dirty cotton old tie 5. Which is the correct order? A. a big red plastic hat B. C.C. Which is the correct order? A. D. C. Which is the correct order? A. a small thin Canadian lady a small Canadian thin lady a Canadian small thin lady 7. Which is the correct order? A. a thin small Canadian lady B. D. C. D. a French new exciting band an exciting new French band an new French exciting band 3. an old square wooden table B. D. a small Japanese serving bowl . C. a new carving steel knife a carving steel new knife 2. D. an old wooden square table a wooden old square table a square wooden old table 6. D. C. Which is the correct order? A. Which is the correct order? A. a dirty old cotton tie B.

whom who which 10. D. C. D. A. whose B. D. A. C. Which is the correct order? A. forests. a small serving Japanese bowl a serving small Japanese bowl a Japanese small serving bowl 8. plains and mountains. cougars very rarely attack humans. of ________ they are usually afraid.B. a blue sailing beautiful boat B. C. which whom who 11. Cougars sometimes prey on sheep and goats. D. which B. However. it is becoming endangered in some areas. The cougar lives in deserts. ________ it uses to climb and to jump into trees. so they may be killed by the farmers ________ animals they attack. A. D. but according to scientists ________ have studied the animal. whose B. whom whose who 12. a beautiful blue sailing boat a sailing beautiful blue boat a blue beautiful sailing boat 9. C. . The cougar has powerful legs. C.

slow b. C. Mr. A. Mary is a ___ swimmer. Andrew plays the piano ___. loud b. a. a. beautifully 16. His kids are ___ students. The cougar is a member of the cat family ______ grows to around 8 feet in length. good b. slowly 15. Mrs. quickly 17. awful b. C. beautiful b. quick b. a. that whom which who 13. neat b.A. awfully 20. D. neatly . B. a. Joanna sings ___. well 19. Garcia speaks ___. Faye writes ___. a. who B. loudly 18. D. Thompson sews ___. which that whom 14. a. a.

a. in a wild manner . d. carefully 25. badly 27. in a wild way b. The music was __________ (loud). well 24. Yesterday I went to a __________ (nice) party. a. Douglas and Hannah are ___ students. I don't think I am a ___ athlete. bad b. badly 22.21. a. Mr. c. intelligently 26. intelligent b. a. Jessica is a ___ basketball player. b. friendly friendlily frendly friendly 29. nice b. a. nicely c. d. Lopez is not a ___ policeman. careful b. well 23. a. bad b. Those girls talk ___. a. a. Patty doesn't cook ___. good b. And we danced ________ (wild). A lot of _________ (friendly) boys and girls were there. good b. loudly loud heavy laud 30. c. a. b. in a nice way 28. a.

b. a. Has the advertising agency __________ the new promotional material yet? I need it by this afternoon. back off on b. come across drawn out gotten across made out 4 We've decided to __________ billboards and use more double-page spreads instead. a. b. c. dropped off dropped in dropped out dropped by 2 We need to ________ the price of the product. wild d. d. a. wildly  VERB 1. c. b. and focus on its quality as a selling point.c. d. which is relatively high. c. d. come down with . back down break down play down settle down 3 Have you __________ any other interesting product features that we could emphasize in the ads? a.

The colors and images are all wrong. Can you explain to me how dancing chickens __________ sport shoes? a. a. b. a. d. drop off 5 This poster is horrible and can't be used. c. broken in . a. a. b. b. cut back on d. d. d. b. but I think we should __________ advertising in it until its circulation has increased. d. c. a. c. call on call off drop off drop out 8 This commercial doesn't seem to promote the product. d. kept off left out passed out shaved off 7 We're going to have to __________ the advertising campaign if we can't get any TV or radio time. We will have to __________ . do it over even it out do it in put it down 6 We had to reorder the printed advertisements because the printer completely forgot and __________ the free sample coupons. broken down b. c. c.c. put out put back put away put off 10 My new assistant needs to be __________ before I trust her to run an ad campaign like this one. pan out as hold up to add up to have to do with 9 I like that magazine. b.

reminded c. c. assured notified threatened directed 15. c. d. stated ruled ordered explained 16. a. She ____________ that I had already told her the answer. b. c. b. broken up d. He ____________ to tell my father about it. taught suggested notified instructed 14.c. Mary finally ____________ why she had been late. He ____________ that I was wrong. . broken into 11 . described b. d. b. commented 12. a. He ____________ that he had stolen the car. d. assured directed suggested added 17. d. They ____________ that they had also been to London. c. b. b. a. a. admitted d. answered maintained explained refused 13. c. The teacher simply ____________ the class to do it. a. a. d.

a. They ____________ him to lie down. directed observed recited recorded . c. c. a. b. d. d. b. b. c. b. requested assumed convinced reminded 22. d. d.a. They ____________ to come on time. a. The teacher simply ____________ the class to do it. c. denied answered responded refused 20. a. He ____________ to most of my questions. suggested promised instructed mentioned 19. b. a. He ____________ to tell my father about it. recalled assured notified directed 18. d. c. b. proposed recalled responded complained 23. d. c. b. c. mentioned promised suggested instructed 21. She ____________ that I had already told her the answer. a. d.

d. a. b. c. They ____________ to come on time. proposed 27. a. commanded d. c. swore c. persuaded stated objected informed 30. predicted b. acknowledged guaranteed invited refused 26. b. insisted b. d. b. a. He ____________ to most of my questions. He ____________ that I was wrong. He ____________ that he had stolen the car. c. b. They ____________ that they had also been to London. a. c. mentioned told responded denied 25. d. c. ordered demanded confirmed maintained 28. b. d. They ____________ him to lie down.24. informed c. a. asserted . a. a. showed begged proposed revealed 29. d. Mary finally ____________ why she had been late.

just now 4. meekly B. last night B. now C. at his damaged car. told  ADVERB 1. . quietly B. quickly C. He looked A. . sadly B.d. the sun shines . The taxi is leaving A. . Every day. slowly 2. . yesterday B. before it melts. bravely 5. Eat your ice-cream A. We went shopping A. soon 6. happily C. The soldiers won the battle because they fought A. nicely 3. greatly C. powerfully C.

greatly 10. . heavily 7. briefly C. when he was in bad mood. comfortably B. quickly C. always 14. busily 9. He spoke to them because they were far apart. simply C. quickly C. . slowly 13. slowly B. The guests will be leaving A. He waited A. soon C. on the chair. quickly C. easily 12. for his friends. clearly B. patiently B. slowly B. Please show them the way out. I didn’t quite catch that. He sits A. Could you repeat your number __________ please? A. often B.A. angrily 11. peacefully C. fastly 8. Thank you for returning my call so __________ . quickly C. He would shout A. A. brightly B. Could you say it again __________ please? A. softly B.

soundly C. She dressed A. quickly C. slightly B. never B. They were in great pain because they were A. . freely B. too 19. how to use it. quietly B. in his sleep. tightly 16. He reads the problem A. clearly 22. Please explain to him A. bitterly 17. loudly 15. carefully 18. neatly C. weak to carry the box. smartly B. only C. My grandfather died A. He is A. peacefully C. gracefully C. slowly 21. peacefully B. immediately B. cutely for the party. beautifully B.A. injured. The couples strolled A. smartly B. before answering it. patiently 20. in the park. seriously C. He has arranged the books A. quickly C. on the shelves.

quickly C. 25. anxiously 30. up C. slowly B. She is old and walks very A. They reach England A. by air last night. She shut the door A. slowly B.C. cheerfully C. The boy fell A. fastly 26. busily 23. immediately C. every night. after he had heard the news. . in the library. He left the place A. quickly C. The baby sleeps A. down from the chair. safely 29. as her son was sleeping. quickly now. drastically 27. slowly B. slowly B. slowly B. heavily B. soundly B. quickly C. soundly 24. quietly 28. They are studied A. It is raining A. . happily B. quickly C.

. _______does John drive? Cars. 4. Am I in your way? WH questions 1. _______do you want to eat? Pasta and cheese. Is this car yours? 3. c. _______ does that child go to school? 7. quietly  TYPE OF QUESTIONS Yes or No questions 1. few less a lot many 2) Give my love to your grandma. Are Jane and Alice sisters? 2. _______do they smoke? Cigarettes. b. _______ does Helen help at home? Multiple Choice Questions 1) What's the opposite of more? a. 2. _______does that girl go swimming? At the club. 5.C. _______do we get up? Early in the morning. 3. 6. d.

b) The hotel room were very nice. b) He can ride a bike.a. b) Carol cleans the bathroom. _________? TENSES Simple Present 1) In which sentence is the Simple Present used correctly? a) Carol clean the bathroom. 2) 3) Simple Past 1) Which negative sentence is in the Simple Past? a) We did not speak Russian. I will. b) He does not read a book. In which sentence is the Simple Past used correctly? a) The hotel room was very nice. ________? 3) You are John. b) We not spoke Russian. Which sentence is in the Simple Present? a) He can a bike ride. sure. _________? 4) She went to the library yesterday. _______? 2) The car isn't in the garage. Which question is in the Simple Past? a) Did you saw her? b) Did you see her? c) Have you seen her? 2) 3) Simple Future . Which negative sentence is in the Simple Present? a) He do not reads a book. Yes. c) We spoke not Russian. b. Yes. Tag Questions 1) Mr McGuinness is from Ireland. Thank you. c. Yes. please.

was swimming He_______ a loud bang while he______ to his friend.were swimming b) was having………. a) heard……was talking b) was hear……was talking While he______ a shower. (to paint) a) have painted b) has painted . a) were taking……were eating b) was taking……were eating 2) 3) Present Perfect 1) Emily ______ her room. a) will earn b) would earn You (travel) ______ around the world. a) is b) are They _____ to the radio. his dogs______ his steaks.1) You (earn) _____ a lot of money. a) will travel b) will travelled You (meet) ______ lots of interesting people.. a) were having………. a) will meet b) will met 2) 3) Present Progressive 1) Our friends ____ packing their rucksacks. a) are listening b) Is listening ______the lady is leaving the office.. his wife_____ in the sea. a) At this moment b) Every afternoon 2) 3) Past Progressive 1) While Henry _____ a drink at the bar.

so they could spend the money on new furniture. (to give up) a) have give up b) has given up 3) Past Perfect 1) Lisa ______the book. (not/to cycle) a) have not been cycling b) has not been cycling . (to go) a) have gone b) has gone My friends smoking. I _______ (not/finish) the report. by next week.2) Lisa and Colin to a concert. (not/to buy) a) had not buy b) had not bought The cat hid under the chair because the children ______ so loud. (to be) a) had been b) has been 2) 3) Future Perfect 1) I’m sorry. so she didn't understand the film. (not/to read) a) had not read b) have not read The Smiths________ the new camera. a) won't have finished b) would’t have finished 2) Julia _____ (not/send) the emails today a) won't have sent b) would’t have sent 3) They ______ their essay by tomorrow. (to write) a) will have written b) would have written Present Prefect Progressive 1) They_____ .

a) have been chatting b) had been chatting I _______ (wait) there for ages.2) Tony _____this book. a) had been waiting b) have been waiting After John _______(work) for hours on end he left the office. (not/to do) a) I have not been doing b) I has not been doing 3) Past Prefect Progressive 1) They ______ (chat) for over 2 hours. a) had been working b) has been working 2) 3) Future Perfect Progressive 1) The girl ______(plan) the party. a) will had been helping b) will have been helping Bob and Sarah ______ (cook) for 2 hours at 8 o'clock. a) will have been planning b) will had been planning Jessica ________(help) them for 12 months. (not/to read) a) had not been read b) has not been reading I____ my homework. a) would have been cooking b) will have been cooking 2) 3) . but Mary has.

I have a lot of experience during her class and enjoy it. She gave me a full commitment to complete this task on the correct time. I also get the problem may be information about this course work. I remain patient to do the work little by little until the course work can be delivered on the date are specified. She make me comfidence to talk and to improve myself especially in english. Madame Ziraiza also make me feel comfotable in the class because she did not scold me during her class because of my pronounciation when speaking or presentation. The information I got from her I applied to the reference materials that I consider the reference in the library. things such as this. I hope that this task can continues to help me and to guide me in searching and learning of knowledge to successfully becoming a teacher who can be considered as a store of knowledge to religion. Finally. I hope that I will learn a lot of thing in her class in the time remaining in this semester. Accordingly. grateful to god that give me opportunity and I can work to complete the task given short courses for the semester three. I am very thankful because after reading the print media and internet surfing. I would like to thank to Madame Wan Ziraiza Wan Ismail for her talent to this subject because i got a lot of knowledge and help during the preparation of this task and i have assisted in providing knowledge and information on that topics that give me guide to completed this task. a lot of input that I have information or knowledge related course work at this time. I also feel very happy because after a lot of the challenges faced in completing course work.REFLECTION Alhamdulillah. . it also make me become more taught to be a student that are more focused and concerned about work which has been and always seizing the opportunity especially when it is called a future teacher who will shape the future of the nation. However. Further more. Firstly. I am also have a guide from the lecturer of this course work make me know about the content of this course work and also that how to complete this course. I faced many problems as there is no facility for this type of task on this semester. But when the problem can be over come in a short time. race and nation.