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First year First Term: M.C.Q One or more of the given completions is/are correct, Choose answers. Pick the one correct answer

Microtechniques:
abcd1- Fixation (Mid,97-Sept.,99-Mid,99) prevents putrifaction and autolysis hardens the tissue supports the tissue, to facilitate cutting increase affinity of tissues to stain (Correct / a-b & d) 2- Fixation of fresh tissue is essential to(Mid,2000) remove water prevent deterioration replace alcohol clear the sections keep the cells alive (Correct / b ) 3- In dehydration of the tissue we use different grads of formaldehyde alcohol xylol paraffin wax hematoxylin (Correct / b ) 4- The aim of dehydration is to add water to the tissue add paraffin to the tissue remove water from the tissue remove paraffin from the tissue prevent postmortem decomposition (Correct / c ) 5- Clearing is done by placing the tissues in (Desc,89) Suza Bouin Zinker Xylol or benzol (Correct /d ) 6- The stain used for demonstration of the following: (Cairo,Mid,86-Jan,2000) a- Adipose C.T. b- Mast cells.. c- Myelin sheath… d- Reticular fibers…….

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What is the stain of choice for (Desc.,89- Mid,99) mitochondria Golgi body centrioles glycogen granules The most commonly used basic dye is (Mid,20000) Eosin Methylene blue Toluidine blue PAS Hematoxylin (Correct /e ) 9- The most commonly used acidicdye is a- Eosin b- Methylene blue c- Toluidine blue d- PAS e- Hematoxylin (Correct /a ) 10- Vital stain is (Mid, 97-Sept,97-Desc.,98) a- staining of dead tissue outside the body b- staining of a living cell inside the body c- staining of a living cell outside the body d- staining of a dead tissue inside the body (Correct / b) 11- Supravital stain is (Mid, 97-98-Mid,2000) a- staining of a living cell outside the body b- staining of a living cell inside the body c- staining of phagocytic cells. d- staining of reticulocytes (Correct / a & d) 12- Metachromasia(Desc.,98) a- staining of a tissue by the color of the original stain b- staining of a tissue by a color differs from the original stain c- staining of granules of mast cells by a red color after toludine blue d- staining of phagocytic cells by trypan blue (Correct / b & c)

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13- Metachromasia is a character of macrophages plasma cells mast cells fibroblasts fat cells (Correct / c)

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14- Advantages of paraffin sections (Mid,97-98-Sept,97-99) ashort period of time blarge pieces of tissues could be used cexcellent for soft tissues as brain dsections are easily stained (Correct / a & d) 15- Advantages of celloidin sections (Mid,97) agives perfect sections, as no heat is used bshort period of time cexcellent for soft tissues as brain dsections are easily stained (Correct / a & c) 16- Paraffin sections are cut (for light microscope) at a 5 to 8 A 5 to 8 nm 5 to 8 um 5 to 8 mm 5 to 8 cm (Correct / c) 17- Which of the following is used to make fat visible (Sept.,98) Eosin Hematoxylin Sudan III Toluidine blue Mallory stain (Correct / c ) 18- Complete : (Desc.,89) Sections for E/M are cut by …………… mounted on ……………. and stained with………….. abcde19- The purpose of the microscope is fixation staining mounting resolution clearing (Correct / d ) 20- Micrometer is equivalent to 10-3 mm 10-6 mm 10-9 mm 10-12 mm 10-15 mm (Correct / a )

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The following are membranous cell organoids except: (Mid.4 abcd- e- 21.98) mitochondria cell membrane lysosomes secretory vesicles ribosomes (Except / e) 4...Nanometer is equivalent to 10-3 mm 10-6 mm 10-9 mm 10-12 mm none of the above (Correct / b) ____________________________________________________________ The cell General features: 1abcde2abcdHuman cells vary in size from 4 to 200 A 4 to 200 nm 4 to 200 um 4 to 200 mm 4 to 200 cm (Correct / c ) The largest cell in human body (Desc.membranous cell organoids except: microtubules ribosomes centrioles microfilaments cell membrane abcdeabcde5- abcde- . 2001) mitochondria cell membrane microtubules lysosomes secretory vesicles (Except / c ) The following are non.89) lymphocytes fat cells RBCs Mature ova (Correct /d) 3.The following are membranous cell organoids except: (Sept.

Fluid-phase micropinocytosis is acellular process that employs pseudopodia is directly visible with the aid of a light microscope occurs with the formation of small fluid-filled vesicles is narrowly selective or specific in the materials it takes in characterizes cell breakdown (Correct / c ) The plasma membrane is visible with the light microscope as thin basophilic line consists of a lipid trilayer contains a glycocalyx on its external surface ddoes not permit protein movement within the plane of the membrane (Correct / c ) 6.The cell membrane (Mid.does not permit protein movement within the plane of the membrane (Correct / a & c ) 7.99) it appears as two dark layers.Glycocalyx is athe protein component of the cell membrane bthe carbohydrate component of the cell membrane cthe hydrophilic end of lipid dthe hydrophobic end of lipid ethe inner layer of the cell membrane (Correct / b) . separated by a light one (trilaminar) consists of a lipid trilayer contains a glycocalyx on its external surface does not permit protein movement within the plane of the membrane (Correct / a & c) The cell membrane is composed of lipid protein carbohydrate all of the above none of the above (Correct / d ) 3.consists of a lipid trilayer c.Mid.5 (Except / e ) The cell membrane 1abcd2abcdeabcdeabcde5abcThe plasma membrane (Mid.97.2000) a.is associated with certain cytoplasmic components b.2001 b) is structurally based on a lipid bilayer contains proteins which only acts as enzymes surrounds the nucleus in a single layer surrounds the individual ribosomes within the cell is maintained by vesicles derived from the Golgi (Correct / a & e ) 4.The plasma membrane (Mid.contains a glycocalyx on its external surface d.

.chiefly of the basal plasma membrane (Correct / d ) 3.b & c ) abcde2.97) ainclude sterocilia bform the brush border in proximal tubule cells of the kidney cfacilitate absorption dcontain an axoneme composed of 9 peripheral doublet microtubules and a central pair of microtubules (Correct / a.6 Specialization’s or modifications of cell surfaces 1.Microvilli (Desc.2000) are restricted in occurrence to the lining of digestive system are generally visible with light microscope develop into cilia increase the absorptive capacity of the cells are motile appendages .Microvilli of epithelial cells (Mid.Microvilli have the following characters except : ainclude sterocilia bfull of microfilaments ccontain an axoneme composed of a doublets dfacilitate absorption (Except / c ) abcde4.Sterocilia are amotile cilia bshort cilia cmotile microvilli dlong microvilli eterminal webs (Correct / d ) 6.The following can be found on the apical surface of simple columnar epithelium villi hemidesmosome desmosome basal lamina none of the above (Correct / e ) abcde- .Sterocilia are long motile cilia true cilia long motile microvilli long microvilli short true cilia (Correct / d ) 5.

usually contains a hemidesmosome eis composed of the peripheral cytoskeleton of two adjacent cells (Correct / c ) Epithelial cells have junctions of varying types a.The classical description of a junctional complex includes which of the following components (Mid.The classical description of a junctional complex includes the following except: a.consists of two adjacent sets of internal laminae c.is the same as desmosome b.gap junctions have a role in intercellular communication (Correct / a.the fascia occludens bthe zonula adherens cthe nexus dthe zonula occludens (Correct / b & d ) 4.7 Cell attachments: 1.fascia occludens b.2000) a.The macula adherens is called ajunctional complex btight junction cdesmosome dgap junction enexus (Correct / c ) 5- .occluding junction prevent lateral diffusion of membrane proteins b. zonula adherens.b.In epithelia.macula adherens (desmosome) ( Except / a ) 3.d & e ) 6.adherent junctions interact with the actin filaments in cells c.Which of the following prevents the passage of unwanted materials into the body via adjacent epithelial cells azonula adherens bzonula occludens cmacula adherens dmacula occludens efascia adherens (Correct / b ) 2.hemidesmosomes anchor cells to the basement membrane e.zonula occludens c.generally consists of three regions: zonula occludens.zonula adherens d.desmosomal junctions interact with the actin filaments outside cells d. a junctional complex a. and macula adherens d.

is a disk like attachment between cells b.zonula occludens d.is specialized for adhesion d.2001 b) apermit the passage of large proteins from cell to cell bform part of the classical junctional complex cexist only between epithelial cells dare areas of low resistance for nerve stimulation (Correct / d ) .zonula adherens e.is associated with filaments c.Hemidesmosome is located between athe basal surface of epithelial cell and its basement membrane bthe lateral surface of epithelial cell and its adjacent cell cthe smooth muscle cells dthe cardiac muscle cells ethe connective tissue cells (Correct / a ) 12.Desmosome is amacula occludens bmacula adherens c.is specialized for adhesion d.Desmosome a.is located only between epithelial cells (Correct / a –b & c) 11.Desmosome has the following characters except: ais a disk like attachment between cells bis located only between epithelial cells c.8 7.fascia occludens (Correct / b ) 9.The macula adherens is called ajunctional complex btight junction czonula occludens dzonula adherens edesmosome (Correct / e ) 8.Gap junctions (Mid.is called macula adherns ( Except / b ) 10.

The number of mitochondria present in a cell depends on its size shape energy requirements capability of division none of the above (Correct / c ) 5.they contain DNA e.2001) a.they need special stain to be seen b.98) aGolgi apparatus bMitochondria cLysosomes dEndoplasmic reticulum eNucleus (Correct / b ) abcde2.The organoids that can duplicate themselves are Ribosomes Lysosomes Mitochondria Golgi apparatus none of the above (Correct / c ) 3.9 The mitochondria 1.The following are the characters of the mitochondria except: (Mid..c –d & e ) abcde4.The mitochondria (Mid.The following are the functions of the mitochondria except: aheat production in the brown fat bsites of krebs cycle cdrug detoxification dconcentration of calcium esynthesis of protein and lipids (Except / c ) .The power house of the cell is (Sept.they have double membranes c.b.2000) areplicate independently from the cell bare the main site for oxidative phosphorylation chave an outer cell membrane dvary in morphology between different cell types econtain their own DNA & genetic materials (Correct /a.they contain some hydrolytic enzymes (Except / e ) 6.they can divide d..

10 The Golgi apparatus 1.2000) a.synthesizes multivesicular bodies (Correct / a –b & c) abcde2.99-Jan.97-Desc.The following are features of Golgi apparatus except: synthesis of proteins concentration of proteins package of proteins chemical modification of some secretory products segregation of hydrolytic enzymes into lysosomes (Except / a ) abcde- ..At LM level Golgi apparatus can be demonstrated using (Sept.has transfer vesicles associated with its outer convex surface (cis) face c.has secretory vesicles associated with its inner surface (trans) face d..Golgi apparatus synthesizes multivesicular bodies synthesizes protein that will be excreted is one of the cell inclusions all of the above none of the above (Correct / e) abcde4.The function of Golgi apparatus is/are chemical modifications of some secretory products distribution and package of the secretion into secretory vesicles segregation and package of hydrolytic enzymes into lysosomes distribution and recycling of various kinds of membranes all of the above (Correct / e) abcde6.98) Sudan black Best’s carmine Silver impregnation Osmic acid none of the above (Correct / c) abcde3.the site of protein concentration b..The Golgi apparatus is (Mid.The Golgi apparatus is the site of packing of secretory products of the cell the site of protein synthesis continuos with smooth endoplasmic reticulum capable of providing energy visible only by E/M (Correct / a) 5..98-Sept.

protein that will be secreted by the cell d.11 abcd- 7.carbohydrate c.cytoplasmic protein necessary of the cell own existence e.lipid b.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Mid.2001) has condensing (secretory) vacuoles associated with its outer (cis) face has condensing(secretory) vacuoles associated with its inner (trans) face synthesizes multivesicular bodies functions in the synthesis of certain lipoprotein (Correct / b & d ) --------------------------------------------------------------------Endoplasmic reticulum abcde1.The Golgi apparatus (June.97) often occurs in the form of branching anastomosing tubules sometimes has ribosomes attached to its membranes is present in cells where drug detoxification is taking place is rarely found in skeletal muscle cells (Correct / a & c) abcde- abcd- .The localized cytoplasmic basophilia indicates the presence of mitochondria Golgi apparatus rough endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum lysosomes (Correct / c) 4.The function of rough endoplasmic reticulum is to synthesize a. it is composed of membranous tubules and sacs the site of protein synthesis that will be secreted by he cell widely distributed throughout the cytoplasm its surface membrane is studded with ribosomes all of the above (Correct / e) 2.Granular endoplasmic reticulum is most abundant in cell types that are involved in transport of calcium ions producing steroid hormones lipid metabolism detoxification of foreign compounds protein synthesis (Correct / e) 5.Concerning rough endoplasmic reticulum.glycogen (Correct / c) abcde3.

12 abc- 6.Sudan III (Correct / a ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ abcde- abcde- abcd- lysosomes abcde1.is present in cells where drug detoxification is taking place (Correct / d ) 7.osmium tetraoxide e.silver stain d.89-Mid.The function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum are the following except: lipid synthesis protein synthesis drug detoxification glycogen metabolism regulation of intracellular calcium distribution (Except / b ) 9.Organelles involved in the process of secretion (Desc.One of the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is protein synthesis regulation of intracellular calcium distribution excretion maintain the skeleton of the cell phgocytosis (Correct / b ) 8.Secretory (Zymogen ) granules can be stained by a..Hematoxylin & eosin b..The following of are the functions of lysosomes except: phgocytosis pinocytosis exocytosis autophagy breakdown of some intracellular materials (Correct / c ) .Trichrome stain c.97-98 Sept.97-99) endoplasmic reticulum (rough & smooth) Golgi body Cell membrane cytoskeleton (Correct / a & b) 10 .Smooth endoplasmic reticulum sometimes has ribosomes attached to its membranes is rarely found in skeletal muscle cells areas of localized basophilia indicate its presence d.

The site of lysosomes can be seen using a specific histochemical reaction called alkaline phosphatase acid phosphatase peroxidase succinic dehydrogenase PAS (Correct / b ) 5.13 abcde- 2.d & e) .Hydrolytic enzymes are found in Golgi apparatus RER SER Lysosomes Ribsosomes (Correct / d ) 3.c.Multivesicular bodies are primary lysosomes secondary lysosomes formed as a result of digestion of fluid material autophagic vacuoles Phagosomes (Correct / b & c ) 4.Intracellular digestion is associated with lysosomes include the process of autophagy is involved in the turnover of organelles takes place within the Golgi apparatus all of the above (Correct / a – b & c ) 7.Lysosomes lysosomes have a membrane H+ -ATPase capable of maintaining an acid environment the enzymes contained in lysosomes are also contained in peroxisomes vesicles from the Golgi take acid hydrolases to lysosomes fusion of an endosome with a vesicle containing acid hydrolases forms an endolysosome lysosomal storage diseases are caused by lack of specific lysosomal enzymes leading to accumulation of a metabolic product (Correct / a.Intracellular digestion is associated with lysosomes include the process of autophagy is involved in the turnover of organelles none of the above all of the above (Correct / e) abcde- abcde- abcde- abcde- a- bcde- 6.

glycogen (Correct / c) 4.The function of free ribosomes is to synthesize lipid carbohydrate protein that will be secreted by the cell cytoplasmic protein necessary for the cell own existence all of the above (Correct / d) 3.96) afusion of primary lysosomes with phagosomes. containing endogenous substrates bfusion of primary lysosomes with pinocytic vesicles cfusion of primary lysosomes with warren out mitochondria (Correct / a & c) abcde9.14 8 .cytoplasmic protein necessary for the cell own existence e.The function of attached ribosomes to RER is to synthesize a.protein that will be secreted by the cell d.Organelles most notable for producing and degrading hydrogen peroxide are lysosomes mitochondria Golgi bodies Peroxisomes genomes (Correct / d ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ribosomes abcd1.lipid b.Autolysosomes is formed by (Sept.Ribosomes (Mid.97) are attached to the surface of the inner nuclear membrane are organized into polysomes in cells synthesizing intracellular proteins are always associated with cell growth and regeneration of organelles consist of a large and a small subunits (Correct / b & d) 2..arbohydrate c.Ribosomes are acidophilic organoids surrounded by a single membrane surrounded by a double membrane attached to the immature face of Golgi body none of the above (Correct / e) abcde- a abcde- .

Centrioles do not self-replicate nine doublets of microtubules and one central single contain an inner core of actin filaments contain a 9 +0 configuration of microtubules (Correct / d) abcde2.Centrioles are associated with each of the following except: ciliogenesis (cilia formation) nine triplets of microtubules dynine arms that possesses ATP ase activity the ability to duplicate themselves development of mitotic spindle ( Except/ c) 3.E/M picture of centrioles appears as (Sept.Ribosomal RNA is formed in the euchromatin the nucleolus the RER the hetrochromatin ribosomes (Correct / b) abcde- --------------------------------------------------------------------------Centrioles abcd1.Ribosomes are attached to the surface of the nuclear membrane are organized into polysomes in cells synthesizing intracellular proteins are always associated with a strand of mRNA are surrounded by a delicate thin membrane (Correct / b) 6.96) 2 perpendicular cylinders. the wall of each 27 microtubules a central pair and 9 peripheral pairs of microtubules none of the above All of the above (Correct / a) .nine triplets of microtubules and no central singles c.nine triplets of microtubules and two central singles b.At E/M level the centrioles shows a.nine doublets of microtubules and no central singles e.nine doublets of microtubules and one central single (Correct / b ) abcd4.nine doublets of microtubules and two central singles d..15 abcd- 5.

In electron micrograh a cross section of the cilium shows(June.Microtubules are formed from albumin tubulin actin globulin myosin (Correct / b ) 4.16 abcde- 5.nine triplets of microtubules and two central singles b.b-c & d) 2.2001) nine triplets of microtubules and two central singles nine triplets of microtubules and no central singles nine doublets of microtubules and two central singles nine doublets of microtubules and no central singles nine doublets of microtubules and one central single (Correct / c) 6.The function of microtubules is/are aformation of microtubules of the cells bformation of cell spindle during mitosis ctransport of substances within the cytoplasm dall of the above enone of the above (Correct / d ) abcde- abcde- .At E/M level a cross section of basal body shows a.nine doublets of microtubules and one central single (Correct / b ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The cytoskeleton abcd1.nine triplets of microtubules and no central singles c.Microtubules have important role in carbohydrate metabolism oxidative phosphorylation water balance formation of cell spindle during mitosis none of the above (Correct / d) 3.nine doublets of microtubules and no central singles e.nine doublets of microtubules and two central singles d.The cytoskeleton includes microtubules includes the microtrabecular lattice includes intermediate filaments includes actin filaments (Correct / a.

17 Cellular inclusions abcde1.particles acidophilic small granules (Correct / c) 3.The most important and essential pigment in the body is carotene melanin hemoglobin carbon particles bilirubin (Correct / c) 5.Which set of items below includes only those that are either cytoplasmic inclusions or that are found within some kind of cytoplasmic inclusions a. endoplasmic reticulum.particles membranous electron dense.lipofuscin.At E/M glycogen is seen as non electron dense.hemosiderin. glycogen c.melanin.secretory granules. karyosome. glycogen.Glycogen can be demonstrated using H &E Sudan III Silver Best’s carmine Osmic acid (Correct / d) 4.Iron containing pigment is bilirubin lipochrome hemosiderin melanin carotene (Correct / c) 6.particles non membranous non electron dense.endoplasmic reticulum. autosome (Correct / c) abcde- abcde- abcde- abcde- . Golgi bodies e.particles non membranous electron dense. glycogen. melanin. lipofuscin d. melanosome. lipid droplets. secretory granules. lipid droplets.The following are regarded as cellular inclusions except : carbon particles pigments glycogen lipofuscin residual bodies (Except / e ) 2. lipid droplets b. lipofuscin.

The nucleus is always found one per cell an essential organelle present in all complete cells enclosed within a nuclear membrane enclosed within inner.type of cell inclusions (Correct / a ) 6.special type of stain d.Euchromatin contains the active genes the inactive genes both types of genes RNA none of the above (Correct / a ) abcdeabcde- .type of cell organoids e.Hetrochromatin is predominant in : present in the nuclei of metabolically active cells present in the nuclei of metabolically inactive cells special type of stain type of cell organoids type of cell inclusions (Correct / b) 4.The nucleus of inactive cell has hetrochromatin only euchromatin only hetrochromatin is predominant euchromatin is predominant equal amounts hetro & euchromatin (Correct / c) 2. and outer unit membrane completely covered externally by the fibrous lamina (Correct / b & c ) 3.18 The nucleus abcdeabcdeabcdeabcde1.Hetrochromatin is condensed chromatin intensely basophilic predominant in inactive cells none of the above all of the above (Correct / e) 5.Euchromatin of a cell is active in controlling the cell’s metabolic processes concentrated within the cell’s karyosomes metabolically active during mitosis more heavily stained by nuclear stains than is hetrochromatin typically complexed chemically with histones (Correct / a ) 7.present in the nuclei of metabolically active cells b. intermediate.present in the nuclei of metabolically inactive cells c.Euchromatin is predominant in : a.

DNA could be found in ribosomes Golgi apparatus mitochondria lysosomes none of the above (Correct / c ) 13.Chromatin is a component of the nucleolus nucleus cytoplasm intercellular space none of the above (Correct / b ) 9.The nucleolus is formed of hetrochromatin and euchromatin granular and fibrillar parts nucleolus associated and peripheral chromatin condensed chromatin extended chromatin (Correct / b ) 11.The nucleolus is formed of protein & DNA protein & RNA chromatin protein only none of the above (Correct / b ) 10.Ribosomal RNA is formed in hetrochromatin euchromatin nucleolus Golgi apparatus Mitochondria (Correct / c ) abcde- abcde- abcd- abcdeabcdeabcde- .19 abcde- 8.The nuclear pore is hexagonal in shape is bridged by a unit membrane is a transient structure allows for communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm (Correct / d ) 12.DNA contains the following nitrogenous bases except : Thymine Cytosine Uracil Adenine Guanine (Except / c ) 14.

Bar body (Mid. within the pars granulosa of cytoplasmic nucleoli pars granulosa of membrane-bound nucleoli pars fibrosa of nuclear nucleoli pars granulosa of nuclear nucleoli nucleolus associated chromatin (Correct / d ) 16.Bar body (Mid. anaphase and telophase (Correct / a) ababcde2.is X-chromosomes in males c.The centrioles is duplicated during synthesis (S) stage of interphase Gap two (G2) stage of interphase Gap one (G1) stage of interphase meiosis leptotene stage (Correct / a) .97) is an inactive (coiled) X-chromosomes is a sex chromatin in somatic female cells is an inactive (coiled) Y-chromosomes during the interphase.99) includes an interphase and a complete cell division is the period between two cell divisions cis divided into three phases G1..97.is Y-chromosomes in males d.is an inactive (coiled) X-chromosomes in females b..is XY-chromosomes in males (Correct / a ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The life cycle of the cell 1.89) micro-tubular organizing center (MTOC) karyotyping Bar body 18.is XX-chromosomes in females e.b & d) 19. metaphase.The sugar in RNA is purine pyrimidine ribose desoxyribose essential for code formation (Correct / c ) 17-Define (Desc.Dense granules of RNA typically occur.Mid.The life cycle of the cell (Desc.97) a.20 abcdeabcdeabcabcd- 15. among other places. appears as a drumstick stained with basic dyes Hx and Feulgon +ve (Correct / a. S & G2 phases dincludes prophase.

metaphase stage of mitosis e.in its second cell produces sister chromatids d.The cell undergoes duplication of its nuclear DNA at a.Gap one (G1) stage of interphase d. (Correct / a –c & e ) 5.synthesis (S) stage of interphase b..Chiasmata are formed in leptotene zygotene pachytene diplotene diakinesis (Correct / d ) 8. b..Gap two (G2) stage of interphase c.d & e ) 6-Prophase of the first meiotic division (Desc.21 abcdeabcdabcdeabcde9abcde- 3. highly specialized cells can divide usually divide have no capacity for further proliferation are in G2 phase of the cell none of the above (Correct / c ) MTOC is formed of in part by the two Centriole pairs that will form the mitotic spindle two kinetochores Leptotene Zygotene Pachytene (Correct / a ) .b.in its first cell division produces haploid cells.2001) is the longest phase of meiosis it includes leptotene stage it includes diplotene stage it includes telophase (Correct / a-b & c ) 7.In dividing cells the nuclear membrane is fragmented during separation of chromosomes the nucleolus is involved in ribosomal biogenesis (synthesis) and is a prominent structure in dividing cells prophase and metaphase both occur in S phase of the cell cycle the final daughter cells which derive from meiosis are haploid control of the overall population may be regulated by apoptosis (death) (Correct / a. e.2001) a.is characterized by two cell divisions but only one includes replication of DNA. each representing homologous chromosomes.97-Mid. c.in its first prophase is similar to that of mitosis.Meiosis (Mid.In normal conditions.in its first prophase has tetrads formed.meiosis (Correct / a) 4.2000-June.

Submetacentric chromosomes have (Sept.Chromosomes are submetacentric in group Group A Group B Group C Group E Group G (Correct / b.The number of autosomes in human somatic cell is 22 chromosomes 22 pairs of identical chromosomes 23 chromosomes 23 pairs of identical chromosomes 46 pairs of chromosomes (Correct / b ) 3.In metacentric chromosomes the centromere is absent terminal median submedian subterminal (Correct / c ) abcde6.In acrocentric chromosomes the centromere is absent terminal median submedian subterminal (Correct / e ) abcde5.97) centromere located near the center centromere located median in position centromere located near one end none of the above (Correct / a ) 4.22 Karyotyping abcde1.c & d) abcde- abcd- abcde- ..Mitosis may be arrested at metaphase by phytohemagglutinin colchicine antibiotics any toxic drug none of the above (Correct / b ) 2.

Chromosomal study helps in clinical diagnosis in amental retardation babnormal sexual development cinfertility dmultiple congenital malformation eall of the above (Correct / e ) abcde____________________________________________________________________ Epithelial Tissues: General Characteristics: 1.they are separated from the underlying connective tissue by a basal lamina e.most epithelial cells have the ability of regeneration d.they are vascular c.they contain relatively large amounts of intercellular substance (Correct / a -c & d ) .they are vascular c.they have basal lamina d.23 abcde- 7.Chromosomes are metacentric in group Group A Group B Group C Group E Group F (Correct / a & e ) 9.2000) a.they line body surfaces b.2001 b) aGroup A bGroup B cGroup C dGroup D eGroup G (Correct / d & e ) 10.97) a.they contain relatively large amounts of intercellular substance (Correct / a &c ) 2.Chromosomes are acrocentric in group (Mid.Chromosomes are short and submetacentric in group Group A Group B Group C Group E Group G (Correct / d) 8.Which of the following characteristics are true of epithelia (Mid..they line body surfaces b.Characteristics of epithelial cells (Desc.

Simple epithelium 1- abcde- Simple squamous epithelium lines all of the following structures except: (Mid.The general characteristics of epithelial cells are all the following except: (Mid.97) the alveoli of the lung parietal layer of Bowman’s capsule distal convoluted tubule lymphatic vessels blood vessels (Except / c ) .most epithelial cells have the ability of regeneration (Correct / c ) Epithelium is the tissue that is composed of cells and large amount of intercellular substance develops from embryonic mesoderm only contains fine blood capillaries can regenerate provides support for other tissues (Correct / d ) Epithelium is composed of cells and few fibers contains blood capillaries has many functions depending on its site can not regenerate provides support for organs (Correct / c) The epithelial tissue is ectodermal in origin mesodermal in origin endodermal in origin all of the above none of the above (Correct / d ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5abcde6abcde7abcde- I.24 3ab- There are several distinct features of epithelial cells squamous epithelial cells are flat and plate.2001) intercellular substance is nearly absent b.nerve fibers and blood vessels can pass within epithelial cells d.all the cells in the basal layer are resting on a basement membrane.like pseudostratified epithelium has all its cells in contact with the underlying extracellular matrix ca simple columnar cell is typically 2-3 times higher than its width dcell division occurs at all layers in a stratified squamous epithelium etransitional epithelium is a characteristic cell lining the urinary tract (Correct / a –b-c & e ) a4.endoderm. ectoderm and mesoderm can share in formation of epithelium e. c.

97) a.Mesothelium is a special type of a.simple squamous epithelium lining lymphatics c.it lines blood vessels (Except / d) 7.it is derived from mesoderm b.none of the above (Correct / e) Mesothelium is derived from(Mid.2000) ectoderm endoderm mesoderm all of the above none of the above (Correct / c) 4- 8abcde- .it is simple squamous epithelium c.pseudostratified columnar epithelium (Correct / a ) 6.simple ciliated columnar epithelium e..connective tissue b b.simple squamous epithelium lining blood vessels d.all of the above e.-96-97-98 Sept.Each of the following concerning mesothelium is true except :(Mid.Which one of the epithelial subtypes listed below typically is also simple squamous amesothelium bdistended transitional (in distended organs) cgerminal dkeratinized epseudostratified (Correct / a ) abSimple squamous epithelium lines all of the following structures except: the alveoli of the lung parietal layer of Bowman’s capsule clymphatic vessels dthin limb of Henle’s loop edistal convoluted tubules (Except / e ) 5.The alveoli of the lung are lined mainly with asimple squamous epithelium bsimple cuboidal ciliated epithelium csimple columnar epithelium d.it lines pleural cavity d.25 Simple squamous epithelium lines all of the following structures except: athe alveoli of the lung bparietal layer of Bowman’s capsule cthin limb of Henle’s loop ddistal convoluted tubules (Except / d ) 2- 3.

96) a.At E/M level secretory cuboidal epithelium is characterized by aprominent nucleus bsecretory granules crich in RER dclear Golgi apparatus eall of the above (Correct / e ) 15..98) large blood vessels small intestine gall bladder urinary bladder none of the above (Correct / e ) abcde- 12.medium sized ducts of glands c.none of the above (Correct / b & d ) 13.it is dark in the intestine and clear in the stomach (Except / b) .Simple cuboidal epithelium is found in (Sept.none of the above (Correct / b) 10.gall bladder d.its nuclei are oval and basal c d.it lines the serous cavities b c.it lines the stomach and small intestine a b.Simple cuboidal epithelium is found in (Jan.large blood vessels b..Each of the following statement concerning simple columnar epith. the nuclei (at L/m level) arounded and central brounded and apical coval and central doval and basal eabsent (Correct / a ) 14.2000) a. is true except: (Mid.thyroid follicles e.Endothelium provides lining of peritoneum pleural cavity cpericardial cavity dthe heart the alveoli of the lung (Correct / d) 11.26 ad- abe- 9.Endothelium is the lining epithelium of pleural cavity bblood vessels cthyroid follicles the alveoli of the lung e.In simple cuboidal epithelium.

the brush border seen at L/M level is sterocilia true cilia long microvilli short few microvilli ebasal infoldings (Correct / c) abcd- abcd- 19-The brush border of the absorptive columnar epithelium at E/M level is (Mid. b.91) esophagus gall bladder G.T..2001 b) amicrotubules bmyofilaments clong cilia dmicrovilli ebasal infoldings (Correct / d) 20. is true except: (Mid.Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is a type of asimple epithelium bstratified epithelium cglandular epithelium dneuro.Each of the following statement concerning pseudostratified epith.27 abcd- 16.epithelium emyoepithelium (Correct / a) .some of its cells reach the apical surface e c.it is found in the respiratory system d.I.all of its cells rest on the basement membrane.Simple columnar epithelium is found in Except (Sept.96) d a.Absorptive simple columnar epithelium is seen in aurinary bladder buterus ctrachea depididymis esmall intestine (Correct / e) 21.it is found in the epidermis (Except / d) 22.The function/s of simple columnar epithelium is/are secretory absorptive all of he above none of the above (Correct / c) 18-In absorptive cells. the large bile ducts (Except / a) 17.

it is found in the esophagus d. b.Pseudostratified epithelium may be keratinized is highly vascular has more than one layer of cells all its cells are resting on a basal lamina found in the urinary bladder (Correct / d) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ II.-96-97-Sept.28 abcde- 23. is true except: (Mid.99) f a.Mid.97-99.some of its cells reach the apical surface g c.it is found in the epidermis ( Except / a ) abcde3abcde4abcde5abcde2..Stratified epithelium 1.all of its cells rest on the basement membrane.Each of the following statement concerning stratified epith.2001) endothelium pseudostratified columnar stratified squamous stratified columnar mesothelium (Correct / c) Which of the following is typical feature/s of protective epithelium stratified phagocytic activity antibody production brush border all of the above (Correct / a) Which of the following features is of epithelium that has protective role stratified phagocytic activity antibody production possesses microvilia has a brush border (Correct / a) .Stratified squamous epithelium consists of a single layer of flattened cells is protective rather than secretory or absorptive is keratinized where it lines enclosed areas has rich supply of capillaries running between its cell layers may be ciliated (Correct / b) The epithelium that lines all body openings on the skin is : (Mid.

Transitional epithelium is pseudostratified ciliated stratified columnar found in the gall bladder none of the above (Correct / e) 12.92) soft palate bfetal esophagus crecto-anal junction dstomach (Correct / a &b) 9.stratified squamous d.stratified with large surface cells (Correct / e) abcde- abcde- abcde- .ciliated c.Transitional epithelium is (Mid.Transitional epithelium may be keratinized may contain goblet cells is a special type of stratified epithelium all cells are in contact with basal lamina found in the gall bladder (Correct / c) 11.29 6- abcd7abcd8a- The followings are true regarding squamous epithelium except: it lines the esophagus its most superficial layer of cells is flattened its nuclei are not on the same plane it lacks a basal lamina ( Except / d ) The followings statements are true regarding stratified squamous epithelium the surface layer of cells is always keratinized it lines the esophagus it lacks a basal lamina its most superficial layer of cells is flattened (Correct / b & d ) Stratified columnar ciliated epithelium is found in (June.found in the gall bladder e.2000) a..98) gall bladder uterus ureter epididymis small intestine (Correct / c) 10.Transitional epithelium is found in (Sept.pseudostratified b.

a. Large intestine.98) a-Aorta………….Stomach… d. a.Epididymis…… 15-Types of epithelium in: (Cairo.Skin. 85).93) Bowman’s capsule. Mid. to form the secretion no change occur in the secretory cells the apex of the cell is destroyed during secretion salivary glands sebaceous glands (Correct / c ) 2. d.Types of epithelium in: (Sept. to form the secretion no change occur in the secretory cells the apex of the cell is destroyed during secretion salivary glands sebaceous glands (Correct / a & e ) abcde- bcde- .. c..30 13.Esophagus…. h b-Urinary bladder …. ac17.Merocrine glands some cells are destroyed.. d..Urinary bladder… b.Types of epithelium in: (Cairo.2001) a.Gall bladder……. c.Trachea. a.88-89).Epidermis of skin…. c. 16.Skin……..Holocrine glands (June.Fallopian tube.Uterus…. b.97-Desc.Ureter. to form the secretion no change occur in the secretory cells the apex of the cell is destroyed during secretion salivary glands sebaceous glands (Correct / b & d) 3.Thyroid gland….Aorta… b.Trachea…… d.Apocrine glands (Mid.86). b. c.some cells are destroyed. 14-Types of epithelium in: (Cairo.Recto-anal junction III. d.Mention the epithelium of the following: (Mid.. 97) some cells are destroyed. Mid..Glandular epithelium abcde1.

31 abcd- 4.Glands are classified according to the presence or absence of ducts into (Mid.inter = between 9. 2001) unicellular gland mucous gland Simple columnar secretory epithelium exocrine gland all of the above (Correct / e ) abcdabcd- abcde- abcde- abcdeabcde- .In exocrine glands ducts (Jan. endocrine or mixed glands serous and mucous glands unicellular and multi-cellular glands none of the above (Correct / a) 5.93) liver mammary glands pancreas intestinal crypts 6.Compound exocrine glands have unbranched duct have branched secretory ducts secrete hormones have specific target organs secrete into the blood stream (Correct / b ) 10-Goblet cell is an example of: (Mid..B intra =within .2000) are not present open into the blood stream are branching are lined by different type of epithelium (Correct / c & d) 7.93) exocrine.Mention the types of the following glands (Mid.In exocrine glands the intralobar ducts are not present lie within lobules lie between lobules lie within lobes lie between lobes (Correct / d) 8-In exocrine glands the intralobular ducts are not present lie within lobules lie between lobules lie within lobes lie between lobes (Correct / b) N.

Neuro-epithelium abcd1.Myo-epithelium 1abcdeMyoepithelial (basket) cells are (Mid.32 11.T and urinary bladder Salivary glands and mammary glands Taste buds and organ of corti Maculae of utricle and saccule (Correct / c & d) 2.Epithelial cells have a secretory role endocrine secretion occurs when a cell enters the blood stream mucin-secreting cells have a well developed Golgi.surface epithelium secretory epithelium protective epithelium absorptive epithelium neuro-epithelium (Correct / e) 3.-90-93) G.Neuro-epithelium is found in (Mid. this being the main site of protein glycosylation cion-pumping cells have many lysosomes to export transported solutes dmerocrine secretion occurs when a secreted product is exocytosed from the cell onto a surface or into a lumen eapocrine secretion occurs when the whole cell is shed as the secreted product (Correct / b & d ) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ab- IV.I.Taste buds is a type of a. 2001 b) myoepithelial cells located between the basal part of secretory cell and its basal lamina able to squeeze the secretion out of secretory cells all of the above none of the above (Correct / d ) .Taste bud is an example of neuro-epithelium myoepithelium merocrine gland simple alveolar gland sero-mucous gland (Correct / a) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- bcde- abcde- V.

erythrocytes (Correct / e) .endothelial cells c. cells except neutrophils b.33 2abcde- Myoepithelial (basket) cells are simple squamous epithelial cells that have contractile ability consist of actin containing contractile cells associated with some gland cells represent striated muscle cells that lie adjacent to certain epithelial cells generally lie outside the basement membrane of the adjacent epithelial cells are incompletely differentiated mesenchymal cells (Correct / b) Connective Tissues General Characteristics: abcdeThe origin of connective tissue is ectodermal in origin mesodermal in origin mesodermal and endodermal in origin ectodermal and endodermal none of the above (Correct / b) 2-Connective tissue could be vascular highly vascular c.reticular cells e.none of the above (Correct / d) 3-Mature general connective tissue consists chiefly of (Jan. cells and ground substance connective tissue cells tissue fluid (under normal conditions) mesenchyme (Correct / b) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ab- abcde- General ( Proper) Connective Tissue Cells: 1- ai j k The following are C.avascular d.2000) intercellular material that contains only ground substance matrix that contains fibers.macrophages d.all of the above e.T.

34 2-

abcde-

Wandering C.T. cells are except : (Desc.,97) pigment cells mast cells leucocytes plasma cells fibroblasts (Correct / e)

3- The following are free C.T. cells except : a- pigment cells b- fibroblasts cplasma cells dmast cells eneutrophils (Correct / b) 4- The following are free C.T. cells except : (Mid, 2001) amacrophages badipose cells c- plasma cells d- mast cells e- neutrophils (Correct / b) 5- The permanent (fixed) C.T. cells are except : ( Mid,200) a- pericytes l b- endothelium m c- plasma cells d- fibroblasts n e- macrophages (Correct / c) 6- Branched C.T. proper cells are except (June,92) a- fibroblasts b- undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (UMC) c- histiocytes d- fat cells e- pigments cells (Correct / d)

Fibroblasts
1- Fibroblasts differentiate into : (Mid,97-98) a- pericytes b- macrophages c- mast cells d- none of the above (Correct / d)

35

abcde-

2- Fibroblasts secrete collagen fibers only elastic fibers only antibodies amorphous extracellular material heparin (Correct / d) 3- Fibroblasts differentiate into a- mast cells b- macrophages c- plasma cells d- pigment cells e- none of the above (Correct / e)

4- The structural unit of collagen (tropocollagen) is synthesized by amacrophages bfibroblasts cmegakaryocytes dplasma cells emonocytes (Correct / b) 5- Collagen precursors are secreted by aplasma cells bmast cells cfibroblasts dreticular cells (Correct / c) 6- The most common cell type of loose areolar C.T is aundifferentiated mesenchymal cells (UMC) bplasma cells cmast cells dfibroblasts efat cells (Correct / d)

Histiocytes
abcde1- The main ultrastructural feature (E/M) of histiocyte is the presence of microvilli secretory granules lysosomes smooth endoplasmic reticulum rough endoplasmic reticulum (Correct / c)

36

2- The main function of histiocyte is asecretion of antibodies bsecretion of histamine cphagocytosis dexocytosis esupportive (Correct / c)

Pericytes
abcde1- Pericytes are found close to skin lymph vessels large blood vessels small blood vessels cartilage (Correct / d) 2- Pericytes are undifferentiated cells of adult tissue able to form fibroblasts considered as myoepithelial cells fixed connective tissue cells all of the above (Correct / e)

abcde-

3- Cell that is most often found along capillaries and resembles fibroblasts a- plasma cells o b- lymphocytes p c- macrophages q d- pericytes (Correct / d)

Mast cells
1- Mast cells possess or contain (Mid,97-Desc.,98-Sept.,99) a- deeply stained basophilic granules r b- rich in melanin pigment c- cytoplasm is basophilic non-granular s d- eccentric nucleus which has a cart-wheel (clock-face) appearance (Correct / a) 2- Mast cell is (June,90) abranched and phagocytic bcan differentiate into other C.T cells` coval or round, secrete heparin and histamine t d- rich in melanin pigment (Correct / c)

2001 b) antibodies histamine mucous hydrolytic enzymes collagen (Correct / b) 6.Mast cells possess or contain ahetrochromatin arranged in a spoke.98) amast cells bplasma cells cfat cells dpigment cells ereticulin (reticular) cells (Correct / a) 4.37 3.Mast cells have well developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum have phagocytic ability are common found in peripheral blood show all E/M features of protein synthesizing cells none of the above (Correct / e) abcde- 7..adipose cells c.Metachromasia is a characters of (Mid.plasma cells d.mast cells e.The main function of mast cells is the secretion of (Mid.Plasma cells have well developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum have phagocytic ability are commonly found in peripheral blood show all E/M features of protein synthesizing cells are usually seen in bone marrow (Correct / d) .2000) a.wheel ( cart-wheel ) pattern bdeeply stained basophilic granules cwell developed endoplasmic reticulum dmany primary lysosomes (Correct / b) Plasma cells abcde1.Metachromatic granules are present in (Sept.neutrophils (Correct / d) abcde5.macrophages b.

The nucleus of plasma cell is acentral and rounded bperipheral and flattened chave a cart-wheel appearance dvery pale in Hx & E stain edifficult to be seen by L/M (Correct / c) abcd3.Plasma cells produce heparin histamine antigens plasma e..Mid.97-June.2001) large unilocular cells small multilocular cells cfat is pigmented drich in blood supply (Correct / b-c & d) 3.Adipose cells apossess a flattened nucleus bpossess a thin rim of cytoplasm cstore fat dall of the above (Correct / d ) ..99) aunilocular cells bmultilocular cells cfat is pigmented drich in blood supply (Correct / a) ab2.Brown fat cells are (Sept.The main function of brown fat is ato provide heat in newborn babies bfat metabolism cstorage of fat dbinding organs together eall of the above (Correct / a ) 4.White fat cells are (Sept.38 2.antibodies (Correct / e) Fat cells 1.97.

b.87-88).fibroblasts d.(89).Monocytes in the blood are precursors of a.Plasma cell.Which of the following is used to make fat visible Eosin Hematoxylin Sudan III Toluidine blue Mallory stain (Correct / c) abcde- Macrophages abu v 1.Foreign body giant cells are coalesced macrophages lymphocytes c.C. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fibers 1abcdWhich of the following statements regarding collagen is /are not true is composed of tropocollagen reticular fibers are composed of collagen is affected by boiling.adipose cells (Correct / a) 2.Fibroblast……. acids and enzymes elastic fibers are composed of collagen (Correct / d) .Mast cell. d.39 5.Sudan III is a specific stain to show afat cells bplasma cells cmast cells dpigment cells efibroblasts (Correct / a ) 6. a.Functions of: (Cairo.plasma cells b. c. histiocyte…….fibroblasts cmast cells dmacrophages elymphocytes (Correct / d) 3. Mid.T.

The protein elastin can be formed by asmooth muscle fibers bskeletal muscle fibers ccardiac muscle fibers delastic fibers ecollagen fibers (Correct / a) 7. Van Geison’s) delastic fibers are completely digested by hot water (Correct / c) 5.enzymes. acids & alkalies elastic fibers are composed of collagen (Correct / d) Collagen type I is the main collagen in tendons type II is the main type in bone type III is the main type in reticulin (reticular fibers) is secreted by fibroblasts as procollagen molecules is one of the matrix component of osteoid (Correct / a-c-d & e ) Which one of the following is true elastic fibers (Mid.Elastic fibers are completely digested by hot water cold water cdiluted acids dtrypsin eelastase (Correct / e) ab- 6. 2001) are more variable in diameter than collage fibers ba major fibrous component of scar tissue cwell seen by light microscopy after routine histology/pathology staining procedures (e.Elastic fibers are completely hydrolyzed and digested by hot water cold water celastase dtrypsin ediluted acids (Correct / c) 8.Reticular fibers are areadily visible by Hx & E preparation byellowish in fresh preparation cfound to have large bundles of fibrils than collagen fibers ddark brown in fresh preparation edark brown network by silver staining (Correct / e) ab- .g. hematoxylin-eosin..40 2- abcd3abcde4a- Collagen has the following characters except : it is composed of tropocollagen its main origin is fibroblast is affected by boiling .

heparin and fibronectin einclude hyaluronic acid. hematoxylin-eosin..Silver stain is specific to show acollagen fibers belastic fibers creticular fibers dfat cells emyelin sheath (Correct / c) abcde- Ground substance (matrix) 1. chondroitin sulfate and other sulfated saccharides (Correct / a-c & e ) 2.Glycosaminoglycans are composed of repeating sugar residues are weakly hydrophilic may be attached to proteins include hyaluronic acid. Masson’s etc) ewith electron microscopy they are seen to have the same banding pattern as collagen fibers (Correct / e) abcde10.Reticular fibers are very thin collagen fibers type type I type II type III type IV type V (Correct / c) 11.Glycosaminoglycans aalways contain hexosamine binclude hyaluronic acid care made up of disaccharides dare a primitive form of collagen (Correct / a-b & c ) abcd- .41 9a- which one of the following is true of reticular fibers concentration into bundles bsecreted by reticulocytes in red bone marrow ca major fibrous component of scar tissue dwell seen by light microscopy after routine histology/pathology staining procedures (e. dermatan sulfate.Reticular lamina composed of collagen fibers type type I type II type III type IV type V (Correct / c) 12.g.

Basement membrane contains type I collagen contains laminin contains glycosaminoglycans links to epithelial cells acts as a permeability barrier (Correct / b-c-d & e ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- abcde- abcde- Types of connective tissue a1.2000) regular parallel bundles of collagen fibers regular parallel bundles of elastic fibers irregular bundles of collagen fibers irregular bundles of elastic fibers histiocytes or mast cells between bundles of fibers (Correct / a) 2abcde3abcde- . chiefly because of its contained network of long-chain carbohydrates (Correct / b ) 5.97) organ capsules bbasement membrane ctendons dskin (Correct / c) Tendons are rich in elastic fibers show many histiocytes or mast cells between bundles of fibers are white in color when fresh show many reticular fibers and collagen fibers all of the above (Correct / c) Tendons in histological preparations show (Mid.Dense regular connective tissue includes (Mid.Glycoproteins found in the matrix include laminin chondronectin fibronectin dermatan sulfate (Correct / a-b & c ) 4-Ground substance of general connective tissue (one choice) typically has a large content of free water. the intracellular fluid contains glycoproteins.42 abcd- 3. glycosaminoglycans and elastin does not contain collagen or tropocollagen owes its changeability in viscosity and permeability to its content of glycoproteins retards the spread of microorganisms.

fibrocollagenous tissue is formed in healing to produce a fibrous scar (Correct / a.irregular white collagenous connective tissue d. 2001) dense yellow elastic connective tissue regular white collagenous connective tissue cirregular white collagenous connective tissue yellow elastic fibro-cartilage e.Yellow elastic connective tissue is present in Except (Sept.dense yellow elastic connective tissue fregular white collagenous connective tissue c.There are several types of support tissue afibrocollagenous tissue is the major support tissue in most organs bchondroblasts elaborate the specialized extracellular matrix of cartilage chyaline cartilage contains type II collagen and forms the main component of the auricle of the ear dunilocular adipose tissue produces heat in the neonatal period efollowing severe tissue damage ..43 abcde5abd- abcd- 4.Irregular dense white collagenous connective tissue adeep fascia bcapsule of organs cperichondrium dperiosteum eall of the above (Correct / e ) 9.b & e ) .white collagenous fibro-cartilage (Correct / a ) 6.The sclera of the eye is formed of a.91) aumbilical cord btendons of muscles cvitreous humor of eye dpulp of growing teeth (Correct / b) 10.Mucoid connective tissue is present in Except (Sept.Ligamentum flavum is formed of dense white irregular connective tissue dense white regular connective tissue dense yellow elastic connective tissue dense white fibro-cartilage loose connective tissue (Correct / c) Ligamentum nuchae is formed of : (Mid.reticular connective tissue e.adipose connective tissue (Correct / c ) 8.91) trachea ligamentum flavum ligamentum nuchae periosteum (Correct / d) 7..

Trachea………… x d. Eustachian tube……….98-Sept.Mid.Mid. d..In loose connective tissue..Name the material not formed by connective tissue (Mid. 2001 b) adipose tissue scar tissue stroma of a gland parenchyma of a gland elastic fibers (Correct / d ) _____________________________________________________________________ abcde- Cartilage 1abcdeNutrients and oxygen reach the chondrocytes from perichondrium by fine capillaries diffusion Volkmann’s canal transverse canal Sharpey’s fibers (Correct / b ) 2What is type of cartilage in: (Cairo..Mention types of cartilage in : (Sept. collagen fibers provide the greatest tensile strength are composed of unit fibrils showing repeating transverse bands are composed of macromolecules of tropocollagen & elastin contain alpha units that have uniform amino acid compositions and sequences in different parts of the body can be synthesized only by fibroblasts (Correct / a ) 13.44 abcde- 11..92).Pinna of ear…… c.. Intervertebral discs .. w b. Costal cartilage………….Loose connective tissue contains all except cells fibers chondrocytes water amorphous matrix (Correct / c ) abcde- 12.Epiglotis…… 3What is type of cartilage in: (Cairo.Trachea……. c. b. a.Eustachian tube.Articular surfaces c.Trachea… b. 4.99) a.97-Desc.86) a.Intervertebral discs…….83-85-Menoufia.

2000) is vascular structure grows by interstitial growth only plays a role in endochondrial bone formation contains collagen fibers and chondroitin sulfuric acid (Correct / c & d ) Hyaline cartilage (Desc. 2001 b) can divide inside lacunae do not divide proliferate by meiosis live without nutrition have phagocytic function (Correct / a ) .At E/M level chondroblast shows all features of aabsorption bphagocytosis cprotein synthesis dlipid synthesis einactive cell (Correct / c ) abcde11.97-Mid.45 y 5abcd6abcd7abcdHyaline cartilage is present in : (Sept. June 2001) matrix that contains ground substance and collagen fibers capable of interstitial growth incapable of appositional growth chondrocytes within lacunae where exposed to synovial fluid it usually is covered by a perichondrium (Correct / a-b – d & e ) 10.93) trachea & bronchi...Young chondrocytes (Mid.. symphysis pubis & intervertebral discs all of the above none of the above (Correct / a ) Hyaline cartilage (Desc.97) is a vascular structure contains type II collagen grows by interstitial growth only plays a role in endochondrial bone formation (Correct / b & d ) Hyaline cartilage is a vascular structure contains type II collagen grows by interstitial growth only contains type III collagen (Correct / b ) 8abcd9abcde- Which of the following are characteristics of hyaline cartilage (Mid.

The matrix of hyaline cartilage contains collagen and elastic fibers contains nerves contains blood capillaries is usually acidophilic none of the above (Correct / a ) 13.is a storehouse for calcium bb b.2001) a.White fibro-cartilage (Desc.2000) external ear (pinna) epiglottis intervertebral discs symphysis pubis growing ends of long bones (Correct / a & b ) 14.2001) found in symphasis pubis has no perichondrium similar to hyaline and matrix contains yellow elastic fibers the matrix contains fibers that do not appear (Correct / a & b ) 15-The intervertebral discs possess (Jan.is not influenced by sex hormones ee (Correct / a & c ) .97-Mid.Elastic cartilages of human body include those within the (Mid.is vascular c.Bone(Mid.contains osteoclasts and osteocytes aa d.is vascular dd d..Bone (Mid.is depleted of collagen during calcification cc c.has no periosteum (Correct / a-b & c ) 2.98) a.is a storehouse for calcium z b.46 abcde- 12..2000) hyaline cartilage fibro-cartilage elastic cartilage collagenous connective tissue elastic connective tissue (Correct / b ) abcde- abcd- abcde- Bone General Characteristics: 1..97-Desc.

Adult bone is rigid and.2000) interstitial lamellae circumferential lamellae osteons haversian systems Volkmann’s canals (Correct / c & d) 6.93) aare transverse canals connecting haversian canals together bthey have the same contents of the haversian canals cconnecting haversian canals with the periosteum dconnecting haversian canals with the bone marrow cavity (Correct / a-b-c & d) 9. is fixed for life preceded developmentally by a cartilage precursor or model .Specific “structural units” of compact bone are (Mid. (June. call of the above dnone of the above (Correct /a ) abcde- .. as in the flat bones of the skull without internal blood vessels channels cancellous within the centers of the epiphysis of long bone subject to resorption by osteoclasts (Correct / d & e) 5.2000) Volkmann’s canals.Volkmann’s canals are: (Sept.Volkmann’s canals.Osteon is (Mid. blongitudinal canals that run with the longitudinal axis of the bone. interstitial lamellae concentric lamellae lacunae circumferential lamellae (Correct / a) 8.93). 2001 b) the haversian system the organic part of bone matrix the inorganic part of bone matrix present in spongy bone the osteoprogenitor cells (Correct / a) abcde- abcde- 7.Haversian systems in compact bone are connected by means of (Mid. atransverse canals that connect the haversian canals to the periosteum or bone marrow.47 a- abcde- 3. in its composition and microarchitecture .The following are true as regards bone and nutrition vitamin C is essential for collagen synthesis bosteomalacia is related to a lack of vitamin A clack of vitamin D causes poor calcification dhypervitaminosis A produces bone resorption (Correct / a –b & c ) 4.

-97-98) ff a. megakaryocytes.48 10.92) plasma cells osteoblasts osteocytes osteogenic cells mast cells (Correct / b-c & d ) 2.92-Jan. communicate with haversian canals (Correct / b & d ) abcd11.2000) osteoblasts..Volkmann’s canal (Desc.98) a. osteogenic cells. contain no blood vessels b. are at the center of the osteon d. osteoclasts. 2001) communicate with each other via canaliculi live only for short time c.Bone cells are (June.originate from osteoblasts (Correct / a-b & d ) When osteoblasts are trapped inside lacunae they are called osteogenic cells osteocytes osteoclasts chondroblasts chondrocytes (Correct / b) abcde3ab- 4- 5abcde- . osteocytes.give rise to osteoclasts d.Bone cells are except (Sept.give rise to osteoclasts (Correct / a & c) Osteocytes(Mid.possess long narrow cytoplasmic processes d. are arranged perpendicular to the bone surface c.Volkmann’s canals contains no blood vessels are at the center of the osteon communicate with haversian canals are arranged parallel to the bone surface (Correct / c) Bone cells abcde1.. (Correct / e ) Osteocytes (Mid.97-Desc..communicate with each other via canaliculi b-possess long narrow cytoplasmic processes c.

Osteoclasts have (Sept.produce matrix vesicles important in mineralization of bone matrix d.have abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum e..are derived from blood monocytes b.are derived from osteoprogenitor cells b.49 6.synthesize and secrete osteoid collagen c.have a characteristic ruffled border on the surface closest to the bone (Correct / b.Osteoblasts a.erode bone c.Osteoclasts aare multinucleated bproduce proteolytic enzyme care found occupying Howship’s lacunae dnon of the above eall of the above (Correct / e ) .are stimulated by parathyroid hormone dare stimulated by calcitonin eare rich in alkaline phosphatase (Correct / b & c ) 11.Osteoclasts are derived from osteogenic cells osteoblasts osteocytes monocytes non of the above (Correct / d ) abcde- 10. 2001) a.b & c ) Osteoblasts synthesize collagen fibers type I II III IV V (Correct / a) 8.98) acidophilic cytoplasm many nuclei brush border phagocytic function all of the above (Correct / e ) 9.Osteoclasts (Mid.c & d ) 6abcde7abcdeabcdeOsteocytes lie inside lacunae are interconnected by canaliculi housing their cytoplasmic processes have nexus junctions with their neighbors show cytoplasmic constituents suggesting active protein synthesis are metabolically inert (Correct / a.

Periosteum functions is facilitating the nutrition of new bone the production of osteoblasts appositional bone growth initiating bone repair all of the above (Correct / e) 4. increasing shaft diameter ccan proliferate bone in an epiphyseal ossification center dcan proliferate bone on the outer surface of the bone marrow cavity eenables strong tendon attachments during bone growth and repair (Correct / b & e) abcde3.Osteoclasts aare multinucleated bproduce proteolytic enzyme care found occupying Howship’s lacunae dare derived from fibroblasts (Correct / a-b & c ) Fibers 1.2001) acan proliferate bone. increasing shaft length bcan proliferate bone.Sharpey’s fibers connect haversian canals together are rich in blood vessels run on the outer surface of long bone run on the inner surface of long bone non of the above (Correct / e ) .I bII cIII dIV eV (Correct / a) 1Periosteum of a diaphysis (June.50 12.Endosteum is formed of aouter fibrous and inner cellular layers bouter cellular and inner fibrous layers conly cellular layer donly fibrous layer einner circumferential lamellae (Correct / c) abcde5.The collagen fibers in bone are type a.

Sharpey’s fibers are penetrating elastic fibers penetrating collagen fibers irregular bone lamellae regular bone lamellae fine nerve fibers of bone (Correct / b ) abcde- 7.Perforating fibers of Sharpey’s (June.Major chemical constituents of bone matrix include acalcium phosphate bcalcium carbonate ctype I collagen dtype III collagen eminerals and crystals (Correct / a-b.What are:(June.93) calcified or non – calcified collagenous fibers connect haversian canals to the periosteum extend through the periosteum to the external circumferential lamellae d.only appositionally d.92) aVolkmann’s canals.only interstitially c.Concerning Sharpey’s fibers all are correct except : present in compact bone composed of collagen fibers they extend from the outer layer of the periosteum to circumferential lamellae they are found at the site of attachment of tendons to bones they contain blood vessels (Correct / e ) 8.97-98-Sept.may be extensions of the tendons into the bone (Correct / a-c & d) 10.c & e) Growth of bone 1.Bone grows in adults (Mid.99) a..by two methods (Correct / c ) . babcPerforating fibers of Sharpey’s 9.not at all b.51 abcde- 6.

osteogenic cells appear e.interstitial only c.Types of ossification for the following: (June.chondrocytes die (Correct / b ) .appositional and interstitial d.97-Mid.chondrocytes divide b..chondroblasts develop in primitive mesenchyme and form an early perichondrium and cartilage model b.98) a.Postnatal increase in length is due to endochondral bone formation near the end of long bones.During ossification all are correct except: in a highly vascular environment osteogenic cells grow and differentiate to osteoblasts b.92-Sept. d. bone collar and osteoprogenitor zones e.chondrocytes are surrounded by calcium d.Growth of bone before puberty is a.2001) a.52 2.non of the above (Correct / c ) 3.Sternum a4.appositional only b.b.c & e ) 8.Ribs.in a poorly vascular environment osteogenic cells grow and differentiate to chondroblasts c.Long bones.the term epiphysis refers to the club-shaped expansion at the end of long bones d.Skull.cartilage does not change to bone e. (Correct / a.cartilage does not form bone (Except / c ) 5-IN BONE DEVELOPMENT (June.when ossification occurs around chondrocytes they grow in size d.The stages of ossification in the epiphyseal plate are the following except: azone of resting bone bzone of proliferation czone of maturation dzone of calcification ezone of ossification (Except / a) 6.chondrocytes increase in size c.In the zone of maturation of the epiphyseal plate a.the epiphyseal plate can be divided into periosteum. c.the term diaphysis refers to the shaft region c.stopped after puberty e. b.

The following are true as regards joints may or may not allow movement can be classified into fibrous.is formed from periosteum b.are involved in laying down primary bone d.invade the cartilage model in endochondral bone formation b.contains osteoblasts e.vault of the skull e.Periosteal buds a.die and leave empty spaces ii e.Secondary center of ossification in long bones develop in diaphysis metaphyses epiphyses synovial joints bone marrow (Correct / c) abcd13.differentiate to osteogenic cells hh d.all of the above e.Periosteal bud a.Secondary center of ossification occurs in a.contains blood capillaries c.osteoclasts c.carry blood vessels and osteogenic cells c.During endochondral ossification cartilage cells (chondrocytes) a. cartilaginous and synovial must have a synovial membrane always allow movement between bones (Correct / a & b ) .osteoblasts d.develop into periosteum (Correct / a-b &c ) 10.blood capillaries b.diaphysis d.contains osteoclasts d.proliferate and form osteocytes b.periosteum (Correct / a ) abcde12.all of the above (Correct / e ) 9.non of the above (Correct / d ) 11.epiphyseal plate c.all of the above (Correct / d ) 8.increase in size and form osteocytes gg c.53 7.epiphysis b.Periosteal bud consists of a.

ά.endogenous in origin a form of secondary lysosome stored in secretory vesicles (Correct / c ) 2- de- .54 14. due especially to its content of highly polymerized hyaluronic acid e.d & e ) _______________________________________________________________ BLOOD 1- Serum differs from plasma in that it does not contain the following substance(s) a.fibrinogen (Correct / d) Hemoglobin is a.Joints or articulations that involve skeletal elements that have little if any movement in relation to each other include afibrous joints bsutures csecondary cartilaginous joints dprimary cartilaginous joints esynovial joints (Correct / a – b-c & d ) abc15.Synovial fluid within synovial joints is in direct contact with articular cartilage elaborated by synovial membrane an important route for nutrients to deeper chondrocytes of the neighboring articular cartilage (s) very viscous.γ-globulin c.globulin b.an ultrafiltrate of blood plasma.Synovial membranes are lined with squamous-to-cuboidal cells that secrete synovial fluid produce hyaluronic acid contain A and B cells d.albumin d. plus added mucin (Correct / a-b-c.exogenous in origin c.are found in synovial joints (Correct / a-b-c & d ) abcd16.cell organoid b.

Anisocytosis is (Mid.92-99) immature RBCs.spectrin (Correct / b & d ) 3abcde4abcde5abcdabcdabcd- The average size of RBCs 7. large cells with central basophilic nucleus.actin c.98-June.0 nm 7.Hb A2 d.2um have a role in immunity have biconcave shape can change its shape (Correct / b ) The following is/are associated with the erythrocyte plasmalemma and is/are responsible for maintaining its biconcave disk shape a..55 RBCs 1- abcd2- The following are characters of RBCs except: average diameter is 7.Hb A1 b.7 um 0.0 mm 0. by cells in the spleen (Correct / a.7 mm (Correct / a) Red blood cells have a biconcave shape which maximizes the surface/volume ratio for gas transfer in capillary vessels have no mitochondria have a membrane-associated cytoskeleton which maintains their shape have a life span in peripheral blood of about 20 days are removed.b-c & e ) Energy production in mature erythrocytes is accomplished by the glycolytic pathway mitochondria hexose monophosphate shunt citric acid cycle (kerbs cycle) (Correct / a & c ) Reticulocytes are: (Sept. present in the peripheral blood (Correct / a & d) 7.0 um 7. when aged. stem cell of all blood elements.2001) decrease in the No of RBCs variation of shape of RBCs variation of size of RBCs variation of diameter of RBCs (Correct / c &d) .

.none of the above (Correct / b) 4.2000) 65% of the leucocytes is Neutrophils 30% of the leucocytes is lymphocytes 5% of the leucocytes is Eosinophils 12% of the leucocytes is monocytes (Correct / d ) 3Differential leucocytic count is : (Sept.2000) decrease in the No of RBCs variation of shape of RBCs variation of size of leucocytes variation of size of RBCs none of the above (Correct / d ) Granular leucocytes 1abcdeWhite blood cells have specialized roles basophils emigrate into tissues and form plasma cells monocytes emigrate into tissues and form macrophages lymphocytes of certain types can secrete immunoglobulin eosinophils are increased in number in tissues and blood in allergic reactions neutrophils have a long half-life of about 30 days once they are activated and have entered tissues (Correct / b.56 abcde- 8. granular leucocytes in humans have a nonlobate nucleus have a multilobate nucleus in some cell subtypes have nuclear lobation that usually increases in distinctness and number with cellular development and aging include blood monocytes having cytoplasmic granules are normally formed in the adult by reticular cells in the spleen (Correct / b & c ) abcde- .As a group.93) asaline b1 % acetic acid and o.93) a.c & d ) 2abcdWhich of the following is abnormal (Mid.the percentage of each type of leucocytes c.Anisocytosis is (Sept.5% gentian violet canticoagulant citrates and brilliant cresyl blue dnone of the above (Correct / b ) 5.The diluting fluid for counting leucocytes is formed of (June.97-Jan.the number of leucocytes per cubic millimeter.all of the above d.. b.

.97) possess specific granules that are larger than their azurophilic granules possess specific granules that are smaller than their azurophilic granules form the first line of defense during chronic inflammation phagocytosis of bacteria (Correct / b & d ) Schilling count is : ((Sept.Neutrophils in the blood of man possess small nuclei develop in the spleen develop from megakaryocytes are phagocytic in function constitute about 25% of all leucocytes (Correct / d) 11.92) classifications of neutrophils according to the No of segments of their nuclei.57 6abcde7abcd8abcd9abcd- Neutrophils have a regular. spherical nucleus perform their main functions in the peripheral blood contain the enzyme myeloperoxidase .Neutrophils have the following characters except: contain neutral granules their granules give positive reaction to alkaline phosphatase contain azurophilic granules their granules have lysosomal enzymes their cytoplasm contain large coarse acidophilic granules (Except / e) 12. which is important for bacterial killing express cell adhesion molecules on their surface to allow them to adhere to endothelium prior to emigration into tissues have receptors on their surface which recognize foreign material for internalization by phagocytosis (Correct / c – d & e ) Neutrophils (Mid. classifications of neutrophils according to their maturity.97) possess specific neutral granules form the first line of defense during chronic inflammation form the first line of defense during acute inflammation have one segmented (lobulated) nucleus (Correct / a-c & d ) Neutrophils (Mid.Neutrophils possess specific granules that are smaller than azurophilic granules have amoeboid motility outside the vessels termed polymorphonuclear have relative short life span all of the above (Correct / e) abcde- abcdeabcde- . none of he above all of the above (Correct / b) 10.

Basophils abcde- .58 13. an enzyme complex that can act against components of bacterial cell walls (Correct / c-d & e ) abcdabcde14. (Mid.2000) neutrophils of some females granulocytes the sites of the Y chromosome neutrophils of some males all of the above (Correct / a) abcd15.Human neutrophil granulocytes normally comprise 5 to 15 percent of circulating leucocytes comprise 20 to 45 percent of circulating leucocytes comprise 55 to 70 percent of circulating leucocytes contain a myeloperoxidase that complexes with peroxide to produce activated oxygen.98) contain large pink granules phagocytose bacteria life span is 8-12 days their No increase in allergic state (Except / b ) 16. having bactericidal activity ehave specific granules that contain lysozyme.Eosinophils have the following characters except :(Sept.Histamine is released from amast cells bbasophils cmast cells & basophils dplasma cells enone of the above (Correct / c ) 19.In peripheral blood the drum-stick is found in .At E/M eosinophils have characteristic well developed Golgi many RER microvilli apical secretory granules acidophilic granules (Correct / e ) 17-Human eosinophil granulocytes normally acomprise 10 to 13 percent of circulating leucocytes bcomprise 20 to 35percent of circulating leucocytes chave a decrease in numbers in relation to the alarm reaction and adrencortical endocrine secretion dhave large cytoplasmic granules containing a high content of hydrolytic enzymes ehave large cytoplasmic granules containing a major basic protein that is responsible for their eosinophilia (Correct / c-d & e ) 18..

Basophils have the following characters except : arise from connective tissue undifferentiated cells the cytoplasm contain heparin and histamine associated with allergic reaction their size is 10-12 um (Except / a ) 21-The slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis is produced by monocytes neutrophils eosinophils basophils (Correct / d ) abcd- abcd- 22.Both mast cells and basophils ahave metachromatic granules bare phagocytic chave lobulated nuclei doriginate from red bone marrow eare blood cells (Correct / a ) 23.59 a- have non-segmented nuclei bhave no granules care smaller than erythrocytes dare identical to mast cells erelease histamine (Correct / e ) 20.Mast cells and basophils are similar in one of the followings the size of granules both have lobulated nuclei have arise from the same mother cells both are phagocytic their granules react metachromatically to basic stains (Correct / e ) 24.The cells involved in acute inflammation are the following monocytes Neutrophils Macrophages None of the above all of the above (Correct / e ) 26.The cells involved in acute inflammation are the following except: aNeutrophils bplasma cells cmonocytes dmast cells emacrophages (Except / b ) abcdeabcde25.Cells involved in acute inflammation are the following .

mast cells b.Acute inflammation is accompanied by aincrease of the number of RBCs bincrease of the number of Eosinophils cleucocytosis dleucopenia (Correct / c ) 28.Cells that involved in allergic responses are the following except: a. Neutrophils and plasma cells neutrophils.monocytes eEosinophils (Correct / c ) Nongranular leucocytes 1abcde2abcd3- Lymphocytes in the blood of man are included in the category of “ granulocytes” can produce fibrinogen multiply in the bone marrow constitute about 25% of all leucocytes have lobulated nuclei (Correct / d ) Size of lymphocytes 7-8 um 12 um most are small (7-8 um) and few are large (12um) 12-15 um (Correct / c ) Lymphocytes have the following characters except : their cytoplasm is basophilic account for 40-60% their function is to provide immunological defense secrete chemotatic factor to attract macrophages to the site of infection (Except / b ) 4.2001) blood spleen lymph nodes Peyer’s patches tonsils ( All Correct ) abcd- abcde- .basophils c.60 abcd- monocytes.Lymphocytes from pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow emigrate and then they and /or certain of their daughter cells can be found in (Mid. monocytes and macrophages macrophages monocytes and reticular cells (Correct / c ) 27. pericytes and platelets neutrophils.

All the following characters are correct except : number of platelets is 150.Lymphokines include the following except : phagocytin bchemotatic factor cmitogenic factor dlymphotoxin (Except / a ) a12.Mid.lymphocytes is short (Except / c ) 6.61 abcd- 5.T-lymphocytes may be seen as large lymphocytes in peripheral blood bsecrete lymphokines csecrete antibodies as well as cytokines dmay be divided into groups on the basis of expression of distinct types of T cell eare the main cell responsible for cell-mediated immune response (Correct / a-b-d & e ) 10.All the following characters are correct except : lymphocytes account for 20-40% B..98.lymphocytes form 30% of total lymphocytes lymphocytes are phagocytic cells life span of B. 2001 b) form about 30% of the total blood lymphocytes are responsible for the antibody formation produce the peripheral lymph have long life span are not involved in humoral immune response (Correct / d & e ) 7.000/ mm3 number of leucocytes is from 4000-10.000-400.T-lymphocytes secrete the following except : lymphotoxin bmitogenic factor cimmunoglobulins dlymphokines (Except / c ) a- 11.lymphocytes have the following characters except: aoriginate from precursor cells of bone marrow bmigrate to thymus to be programmed chave long life span dsecrete immunoglobulins (Except / d ) a8.000/ mm3 size of monocytes is 8-10um percentage of Eosinophils is form 1-5% (Except / c ) abcd6abcde- T-lymphocytes (Sept.T.Macrophages migration inhibitory factor is secreted by .

binding the antigen with specific receptors on the B-lymphocytes needs the assistant of T-lymphocytes d.none of the above are its characters (Correct / d ) 15.B-lymphocytes aturn into plasma cells and secrete immunoglobulin bare derived from cells which originate in the bone marrow care the main cell type in the paracortex of lymph nodes dhave receptors for antigen on their surface ecan be seen as small lymphocytes in peripheral blood (Correct / a-b-d & e ) 14.B-lymphocytes have the following characters except : athey originate from bone marrow bresponsible for cell mediated immune response cform 30% of total lymphocytes dhave specific surface receptors (Except / b ) 17.62 a- B-lymphocytes bT-lymphocytes cMacrophages dMonocytes (Correct / b ) 13.all of the above are its characters e.have specific surface receptors for particular antigen c.Multinucleated giant cells aformed from fused macrophages bformed from fused Neutrophils cformed in bone marrow dheir percentage in the blood is 3-8% (Correct / a ) .B-lymphocytes have the following characters except : aformed and differentiated in red bone marrow bform 30% of total blood lymphocytes clife span is few weeks dsecrete antibodies esecrete mitogenic factor (Except / e ) 16.B-lymphocytes adifferentiate from plasma cells b.In connective tissue mature monocytes differentiate to amicrophages bmacrophages cplasma cells dmast cells enone of the above (Correct / b ) 18.

d & e ) 3- abcd4abcd5abcde6abcd- Blood platelets have the following characters except : they are normally 150.2000) apossess small nuclei bdevelop in spleen cdevelop from monocytes dare about 250.000/ mm3 have central granulomere and peripheral hyalomere they initiate local coagulation have small lobulated nuclei (Except / d ) Hyalomere is in T lymphocytes B lymphocytes mast cells platelets (Correct / d ) Granulomere is a central dark granular layer of neutrophils eosinophils basophils erythrocytes none of the above (Correct / e ) Red thrombus (Mid.White thrombus .63 Blood platelets 1.000-400.Blood platelets in man (Jan..000/ mm3 enone of the above (Correct / d ) 2abcBlood platelets of mammals are small but are the most numerous of the formed blood elements are released by megakaryocytes as cytoplasmic fragments have a granulomere with alpha particles containing a wide variety of platelet-specific and platelet-nonspecific proteins dhave a marginal bundle formed by a system of microtubules eare in many ways the functional equivalents of the thrombocytes of some other classes of vertebrates (Correct / b.c.97-98) deposition of fibrin threads that entangle RBCs in stagnant blood deposition of fibrin threads that entangle RBCs in circulating blood platelets adherence on rough surface in circulating blood platelets adherence on rough surface in stagnant blood (Correct / a ) 7.

Bone marrow abcd21.. (Correct / c ) 2.The diluting fluid for counting blood platelets is formed of (Sept.Purpura is caused by : (Sept.. if the father is .93-June. i...93) large multilobed nucleus formed by division of the nucleus without division of cytoplasm.e.Complete A & B are ……………….92) . Group AB..93) Decrease in the number of platelets.92) Group A. found in bone marrow found on bony surface... Group O.Megakaryocytes have : (Sept. in Howship’s lacunae (Correct / a &c ) Cells present in bone marrow. This is called …………….. & the mother is B.Blood coagulation is (June.96) asaline b1 % acetic acid and o. Group B. Decrease in the number of leucocytes.. multiple nuclei formed by fusion of several cells (monocytes). to each other.. Decrease in the number of RBCs None of the above (Correct / a) 10.2001) deposition of fibrin threads that entangle RBCs in stagnant blood formation of white thrombus formation of red thrombus platelets adherence on rough surfaces in circulating blood (Correct / a & c) 9..5% gentian violet canticoagulant citrates and brilliant cresyl blue dnone of the above (Correct / c ) abcd- abcd- Blood group 1abcdA father with group A and a mother with group B will give a child blood group: ((Sept.64 abcd- deposition of fibrin threads that entangle RBCs in stagnant blood deposition of fibrin threads that entangle RBCs in circulating blood platelets adherence on rough surfaces in circulating blood platelets adherence on rough surfaces in stagnant blood (Correct / c) 8. (Sept. the offsprings are ……..

The stroma of the red bone marrow contains all the following except: reticular cells fat cells osteocytes macrophages fibroblasts (Except / c) 5.Adult human red bone marrow acontains a network of reticular fibers bcontains primarily regions of well-vascularized adipose tissue cis anatomically continuous with endosteum dlies in Howship’s lacunae econtains both fixed tissue cells and free cells of blood (Correct / a – c & e ) 6.Bone marrow in adult humans is a major organ for proliferation of cells maturing into a.granular leucocytes ( All Correct ) Hemopoiesis 1.monocytes c.97-98) aactive found in cavities of bones of embryos bfound in epiphysis of long bones .lymphocytes b.plasma cells d.65 3- abcde- Red bone marrow (Mid.red blood cells e.Erythropoietin is secreted from aliver bbone marrow ckidney dspleen (Correct / c ) . flat and short bones in adults cfound in shaft of long bones in adults dhas a high content of fat cells (Correct / a & b ) 4.Hemopoiesis generates all forms of blood cell aall blood cells derived from a common hemopoietic stem cell bboth granulocytes and monocytes derive from a common progenitor cell ceach of the factors which control and modulate hemopoiesis act very specifically on one cell line dplatelets are formed from monocytes ecommitted progenitor cells are not self-restricted (Correct / a & b) 2.

In adults. erythrocytes develop in aperipheral blood bred bone marrow cspleen dliver eall of the above (Correct / b ) 9.2001) athe size of cells gradually decrease bfinally the nucleus disappears cfinally the nucleolus disappears dthe cytoplasm change from basophilic to acidophilic ethe cytoplasm change from acidophilic to basophilic (Except / e) 7- 8. the following are changes except: (Mid.66 a- 3.In human proerythroblasts .The loss of the nucleus from precursor cells of the erythrocytes give rise to normoblasts bmay involve an active expulsion mediated by contractile protein cis preceded by nuclear pyknosis dis preceded by nuclear vesiculation ecan be followed by loss of the expelled nuclei through the activity of phagocytes (Correct / b-c & e ) abce- a- a- During erythropoiesis.Factors that stimulate RBCs formation erythropoietin bhypoxia chemolysis dall of the above enon of the above (Correct / d ) 4.The fundamental stimulus for the production of erythrocytes is erythropoietin the kidney the spleen dhypoxia hyperoxygenation (Correct / d ) 5. the following changes occur except: the nucleus becomes smaller and disappears bthe size of the cells decrease cfine granules appear in the cytoplasm dcytoplasm change to acidophilic 6- (Except / c) During the process of erythropoiesis.

96-Mid.Primitive stem cells of adult human red bone marrow ainclude pluripotent stem cells binclude cells that when transfused can give rise to splenic colony-forming units cinclude restricted stem cells.CFU-S cells give rise to (Mid.97) CFU-G CFU-Eo T.96) .2000) aneutrophils bbasophils clymphocytes dmonocytes (Correct / a & b) 16.97) CFU-Meg CFU-Ly CFU-N CFU-G (Correct / a –c & d ) 14.Derived from meyloblasts (Mid. destined to proliferate only one specific cell line dcan be increased numerically by the appropriate administration of particular antimitotic drugs einclude some that resemble lymphoid cells (Correct / a-b-c-d & e ) ababcdabcdab- cd- 12..CFU-Ly cells give rise to (Desc.97) CFU-Meg CFU-Ly CFU-N CFU-M (Correct / a –c & d ) 13.Polychromatophilic erythrocytes are also called reticulocytes have typically lost their nuclei chave patches of bluish cytoplasm (after usual staining procedure) due to some remaining ribonucleoprotein material dhave areas of acidophilic.67 a- hemoglobin synthesis has not begun bnuclear chromatin masses are large and dense appearing cmitotic divisions no longer occur dsome cytoplasmic regions are eosinophilic ethe cytoplasm is basophilic and relatively small in volume (Correct / a & e ) 10. lymphocytes Monocytes (Correct / c ) 15.THSC cells give rise (Mid. hemoglobin rich cytoplasm ein peripheral blood can provide an indication of the rate of erythrocyte proliferation ( All Correct ) 11.CFU-S cells give rise to (Mid.

CFU-Meg b.Promyelocytes are precursor of erythrocytes b.have lobulated nucleus e.Myelocyte is a cell category and maturational stage anormally found in circulating blood bthat precedes metamyelocyte in the sequence of stages leading to mature granular leucocytes cat which the differentiation of specific cytoplasmic granules can first be seen dat which mitotic activity normally still occurs ethat contributes to erythropoiesis (Correct / b.are relatively small cells c.CFU-Ly cCFU-N dCFU-G eUMSC (Correct /a-b-c.Formation of lymphocytes occur in ared bone marrow bmyeloid tissues clymphatic tissues dall of the above (Correct / d ) Questions: .68 a.contain specific granules d.c &d ) 19.During granulopoiesis the following occur except: athe size of cells gradually decrease bnon specific granules appear cnucleus becomes lobulated dazurophilic granules disappear (Except / d) 20.& d) a17.contain azurophilic granules (Correct / e ) 18.

2000) 20.94) 5.93).95) .Mention four cellular structures which are formed as a result of modifications of the cell membrane with reference to their functions.98) 16.97) 21. 25.Give a short note on cell inclusions .Cairo.Describe with diagram Junctional complex.. 4.The structure of the centriole (E/M) .93). (Cairo.90) 2.(Tanta.Four main functions of lysosomes.98) 11.87-Tanta.99).. Mid... 9.. (Banha.88)..(Sept.99) 10.(Tanta. 8Modifications of the cell membrane with reference to their functions.89-Mid. and their general characteristics.(Tanta.Main functions of microtubules & microfilaments.Cytoskeleton.Mention membranous cell organelles.Enumerate with reference to functions the organoids which participate in cellular metabolism .93. mention the to functions of two of them. Mid.Annulate lamellae (Banha.(Tanta.99) 6.Describe cell membrane with reference to junctional complex (Desc. 12..99) 17. Mid. The importance of fixation. (Cairo.90. including function of cell coat.89-98).Enumerate the cell organoids involved in the secretory activity of the living cells. 19. The cell: 1..(Tanta..Give full account on E/M of cell membrane with reference to function.(Tanta. (Tanta.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.The cilia (Tanta.98-Mid. 18. (Cairo. (Banha.Jan. 13.2000). Mentions advantages and disadvantages of paraffin and celloidin method(Mid.Mention the types and function of endoplasmic reticulum..Desc. (Zagazig.Lysosomes-(Cairo.Give a short note on the E/M of Golgi apparatus (Mid.98) 23.Give a short note on ribosomes and polyribosomes 26.Classifications of enzymes.2000-June.Jan.Mention types of membranous organelles. discuss mitochondria (Sept. 6Preparation of sections for L/M. 3.and stains used (Zagazig.peroxisomes.97).(Tanta. (Cairo. 5Preparation of sections for E/M. 7Difference between vital and supravital stain. (Desc. 89).94-99-Menoufia.83) endosomes.93-Mansoura. 15.89. Mid. Mentions advantages and disadvantages of celloidin method (Mid.Describe cell membrane with reference to modifications(Desc.The molecular structure of cell membrane.97. 90).Give a full account on E/M structure of lysosomes & Golgi apparatus.99) 27.99Mansoura.E/M of the cell junctional complex.99).98).2001).97-Sept. Mid.95) 24. (Desc.87).99). 9The cilia & microvilli at E/M (Zagazig.99) 14.2000).2001). (Cairo. 88-89).98.Mid.87-89-Tant.Mitochondria (Sept.95) 28.(Zagazig.69 Microtechniques: 1234The importance of clearing.Mid. (Cairo. 22.

(Cairo..What is Barr body.The prophase of the first meiotic division (Mid. 42. And mention what is meant by S and D chromosome (Tanta.87-91). (Cairo.93) 38.(Sept.98-99).mention jj two sites of each.87).97.Structural chromosomal anomalies. mention the clinical importance of it (Desc.Define micro-tubular organizing center (Mid. 39.97-Sept.What is meant by diploid & haploid No. 10.(Tant.The different types and functions of chromatin of nucleus.89). 44.99) 35.83-86-Mid..Classify with diagrams the various types of glandular epithelium. (Cairo.2001).Write short notes on the different types of stratified epithelium .Clinical significance of staining the sex chromatin or Barr body..93).98-99).(Tant. 7. 31.97-Mid. of chromosomes. Mid. 4.Difference between mitotic and first meiotic cell division. Epithelial Tissues: 12The characteristics of epithelial tissue.Classify glandular epithelium according to nature of their secretion.90-Zagazig.97). 9.87). 41. (Cairo. Give one example.Draw a diagrammatic structure of one human chromosome (Cairo.The various types of glands according to type of secretion (Zagazig..95) 3. 11.97) 47.Jan. (Zagazig. Mid.Tanta.Nucleolus. (Desc.90).2000).. 34. 32. and one site of each. 45. (Cairo.(Tanta.93). (Cairo. mention an example of each.Cell cycle .91Tanta.Differences between mitosis and meiosis.(Mid.. The characteristics of epithelial tissue including its basement membrane.(Tant.83 97-Desc.Describe the stages of meiosis division (Mid.Inter phase of cell cycle .89).97-Desc.-97-98-Sept.2000).What is neuroepithelium.2000-June. 40.Types of stratified epithelium..Chromosomes of man.70 29. giving one example for each in the human body(Al-Azhar.Nucleic acids .2001) 6.. Mid.86-88).2000) bKaryotype 43.99) not important (concerned with pathology) 36.The structure (LM & E/M) & function of different types of simple columnar epithelium .83-Banha.94). (Cairo.Mid.78).(Tant. 33.(Tanta. (Banha. aMitotic spindle (Tanta. Mid.Pigments.Different types of simple epithelium ..99) 11.98) 46.78-Menoufia.98).99) 30.99) 8.Chromatin of interphase nucleus. 87.97) .Mid.Myoepithelial or basket cells (Tanta.Mid.Write on .mention one site of each(Cairo.Mid. 5. (Cairo.89).Cell division (Al-Azhar.89).Mid.Sites of neuroepithelium. 37.89-99 Sept.-89-97) 48. (Banha. (Mid. Mid.

.T.. The structure of hyaline cartilage and the difference between it and bone.. (Cairo.90). (Cairo. 11. Mid. mention two sites of each.86-Desc.T.99) 4Discuss the different types of Connective tissue fibers and mention types of connective tissue in which they predominate and their sites(Desc.Mention with reference to function the non branched C.71 Connective Tissues Proper: 1.ligamentum flavam. mention two localities of each(Cairo...2000).99) 15.large arteries.94-Sept.. (Cairo.bronchial tree.89-93) 17-Describe in elastic tissue and mention areas in human body rich in it. Mansoura.T. c.Write an account on white fibrous connective tissue . proper .97) Mention types of C. 16. 86). Mid.Jan.Main types of adipose C. 2123Cartilage: Perichondrium Chondroblast and chondrocyte. d.Mid. 19Mucoid connective tissue...(Mansoura. 89). (Desc. Types of cartilage and sites of each.83). (Cairo.(Desc.Brown adipose C.Desc.Mention the cells of C.ligamentum nuchae. e.94) 6. Mid. (Tanta. (Tanta.93 -Jan.89-June 92)..T.T. proper .84) 13. 7.98.98) 10.(Desc..Short notes on mast cells.99-Banha..T. Mid. 2000) 3Connective tissue fibers. 18Main functions of connective tissue proper.suspensory ligament of penis.89-Tant.. 95) Bone: 45- 678910- .Short notes on myofibroblasts cells (Tanta. The structure of hyaline cartilage (Desc.98) White fibro-cartilage (Tanta. 93-Desc.. . discuss three of them (Sept.Discuss the different types of connective tissue proper cells with reference to to their function (Sept.97) 12.97) 5Describe the different types of connective tissue proper cells (Desc. (Cairo. 85Tanta. (Tanta. mention two site of each and discuss one type. describe one of them.96) Mention the difference between cartilage and bone (June.2000).96-99). 87).83). (Answer areas in human rich in it) a. 14.stylohyoid.Draw & label a longitudinal section in a tendon.Loose areolar connective tissue (Tanta.99) Difference between young and old chondrocyte.vocal cords g..95-Zagazig. and discuss adipose C. (Tanta.86) 8.95) Yellow elastic cartilage. b. (Tanta.ligament f.Mid. (Cairo.Mid.94-2000.Mention types of general C. cells. (Cairo.T. 9.Types of connective tissue proper.96) What are the types of cartilage .

97) 11.93-94-June.Mid.Write short notes on types of ossification and sites of each.(Banha.98). Types of bone cells . 9.90-Zagazig. (Mid.. 10.83).Osteon (Haversian system).Discuss types of granular leucocytes.(Mansoura.2001) 6.89-Menoufia. (Zagazig.96) 13. (Cairo.93-Zagazig. (Sept.96) 10.Variations in the number of WBCs and their clinical significance. 12. 15 . 2.90 Menoufia..2000) 6.How the structure of an erythrocyte is adapted to function.Structure and function of neutrophil.99.Intracartilagenous ossification (Al-Azhar. 15.72 1234- Describe periosteum (Tanta.Enumerate the cells involved in acute and chronic inflammation and their functions (Zagazig.Draw a labelled diagram of the ground compact bone . (Cairo.. 7.83).98-99-Tanta.Jan.Describe with diagram section of compact bone (Desc.78) 11. 85.97) 8. (Cairo.Decalcified compact bone. (Sep. 5. . 8..97). (Cairo.93).Neutrophil leucocytes.2001) Blood: 1. (Sept.Clinical significance of differential leucocytic count.99-2000) 12.Agranular leucocytes.Functions of: (Cairo. 14.Tanta. different types of granular Leucocytes & percentage of each.93).97) 4.83-88)..The structure of an erythrocyte and how it is adapted to perform its function.93).. including bone cells (Tanta..87-88).78.Variations in the number of RBCs and their clinical significance.2000-2001).Mid 89).Mid. b.Eosinophil leucocytes.99).lymphocyte. Mid.. Describe primary immature bone. 16.Mention the types of leucocytes and their normal percentage and describe one type that release histamine (June. 5.99). a.Describe the different bone cells with reference to their origin and functions (Sept. (Zagazig.Types of bone cells.Total number of blood leucocytes.Mentions methods of preparation of a histological section in bone and describe section in compact bone (Desc.99) 14.92).90. 13. discuss spongy bone.Tanta.Difference between erythrocytes and leucocytes (Sept. with difference between it and compact bone (Desc. 87).89). .98-99) 7.Differential leucocytic count (Al-Azhar.Eosinophils. (Cairo.The process of formation of primary center of ossification in long bone.Jan. sites of bone marrow. 3. 9. (Mansoura. mention one function for each.(Cairo. Short notes on osteoclasts.Synovial joints ..(Mansoura.Types . (Cairo. c.Mid.2000)..

89-90-94-99).(Tanta.Describe the structure and function of four mature cells related to the immunity process.93) ‫المنتــــدى الطبــي‬ www.93).E/M of blood platelets. 23.89. 24. (Cairo.89-93-June . (Caioro.Mid.What are the difference between B and T lymphocytes.92 Desc. 25.89-96).99-Tanta.(Tanta.Non granular leucocytes with reference to their function (June.97) 18.2001). 32What is Rhesus factor and what is its significance.Discuss Small lymphocytes 20. .(Tanta. (Mid.89).Discuss types and sites of bone marrow.(Tanta. 31Development of granulocytes.2000). (Cairo.com I .Give an account on the colony forming unit cell (CFU).Write short notes on lymphocytes and their role in immunity (Desc. .(Tanta. Mid94).Describe the structure red myeloid tissue. 30Development of erythrocytes. 22 . 89).2mcq..96) 28Development of blood platelets.Short notes on blood platelets.94).Discuss in brief the reticulocytes.(Zagazig. 27. (Sept. 29Difference between osteoclasts and megakaryocytes. 21.Caioro..Mid.98) 19.73 17.(Tanta. 26. 89)..93-Banha.83-Zagazig.

74 MCQs & QUESTIONS .