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BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems
June 2009

2009-0011

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 130 companies that explore for, develop and produce more than 90 per cent of Canada’s natural gas and crude oil. CAPP also has 150 associate member companies that provide a wide range of services that support the upstream oil and natural gas industry. Together, these members and associate members are an important part of a $120-billion-a-year national industry that affects the livelihoods of more than half a million Canadians.

Review by July 2013

Disclaimer This publication was prepared for the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). While it is believed that the information contained herein is reliable under the conditions and subject to the limitations set out, CAPP does not guarantee its accuracy. The use of this report or any information contained will be at the user’s sole risk, regardless of any fault or negligence of CAPP or its co-funders. .

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...............18 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques ........................................................3......3................................................................Contents Overview ........6 Shielding of Cathodic Protection Current.......6 2....................................................................9 2...............................................1 1 2 Failure Statistics (Alberta) ................................................................. 13-15 Table 4-2: Recommended Practices ...........................................2 2...........................................................................3 Soil Types................5 Coating Degradation ............ 23-24 June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page i ......................................................................................20 Leak Detection Techniques ......................................................3..........................................4 2..13 Corrosion Mitigation Techniques...........................................................................................................................................2 Field Applied Protective Coatings .2 Tables Table 2-1: Soil Resistivity Effect on Corrosion Rates4 ... 15-17 Table 5-1: Corrosion Mitigation Techniques.....7 2.............................2 Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation................Operating ..........................................3..19 Inspection Techniques ........................................18 Table 6-1: Corrosion Monitoring Techniques .........................................................................................Design and Construction ...................9 2.....................................3 Installation Quality for Field Applied Coatings ..........................6 2.........4 Coating Degradation – Heat Damage.....................................................8 2............................................................................................................................................................................................................24 Figures Figure 2-1: Operating Pipeline Failures Caused by External Corrosion............................................................................................19 Table 7-1: Inspection Techniques........4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Recommended Practices .............................................................................20 Table 8-1: Leak Detection Techniques .........1 Thermally Insulated Pipelines ........3 2..........3............................................. Disbondment & Blistering ...........3......21 Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques...........22 Additional Resources ..................................................................................................4 Plant Applied Protective Coatings................................................................................................................................... 21-22 Table 9-1: Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques .......4 Table 2-2: Contributing Factors and Mitigation of External Corrosion...........................................................................UV Damage......................................................9 Contributing Factors.........................1 2..................................................... 10-12 Table 4-1: Recommended Practices ...........................3 Localized and General Corrosion .........................................

This document addresses the design.ca. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 1 . it is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all practices.Overview Corrosion is a dominant contributing factor to failures and leaks in pipelines. In the case of any inconsistencies between the guidance provided in this document and either Z662 or regulatory requirements. This document is complementary to CSA Z662 and supports the development of corrosion control practices within Pipeline Integrity Management Programs. and identify effective measures that can be taken to reduce the likelihood of corrosion incidents. and operations personnel involved with the implementation of corrosion mitigation programs and operation of wells and pipelines in a safe and efficient manner. as required by CSA Z662 and the applicable regulatory agency. To deal with this issue. This document does not address failures due to environmental cracking such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). the CAPP Pipeline Technical Committee has developed industry recommended practices to improve and maintain the mechanical integrity of upstream pipelines. Additional corrosion mitigation recommended practices available are: • • • • Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Sour Gas Pipeline Systems Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems These documents are available free of charge on the CAPP website at www. It contains a consolidation of key industry experience and knowledge used to reduce external corrosion. They are intended to assist upstream oil and gas producers in recognizing the conditions that contribute to pipeline corrosion incidents. This document is intended for use by corrosion specialists involved with the development and execution of corrosion mitigation programs. the latter should be adhered to.capp. engineering teams involved in the design of gathering systems. maintenance and operating considerations for the mitigation of external corrosion on buried pipelines constructed with carbon steel materials. however.

1 Failure Statistics (Alberta) • In 2008. 2% Weld Failure (Girth or Seam Rupture) (24). 39% Construction Damage/ Installation (93). 13% Figure 1-1: Operating Pipeline Failures Caused by All Causes June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 2 . 13% of the total incidents in Alberta were due to external corrosion. 1% Overpressure (21). 10% Earth Mo vement (13). Unknown (17). 2% Mechanical or Valve/Fitting Failure (82). 2% Miscellaneous/ Pipe Failure (90). 9% Damage by Others (98). 8% Internal Corrosion (384). 2% Operator Error (21). 10% External Corrosion (131).

Effective cathodic protection will reduce the soil side corrosion rate to a negligible level. Disbonded coating may create a holiday as well as shield the cathodic protection current. no coating or CP) vary depending on a number of factors including soil resistivity.e. Industry experience has shown that underground corrosion rates on bare unprotected pipe (i. The common features of this mechanism are: • • • Coating defects such as holidays1. the failure mode should be considered in the consequence analysis. Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems. (3) Shielding is the prevention or diversion of cathodic protection current from its intended path. specifies requirements for external coatings and cathodic protection of pipelines.2 Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation Corrosion of underground structures such as pipelines is controlled by the use of protective coatings and by maintaining adequate levels of cathodic protection (CP). The protective coating acts as the primary or first line of defense against corrosion. Disbondments allow water to migrate under the coating. 2. (1) A holiday is a break in the coating system that exposes the bare metal to the environment (2) Disbondment is a failure of the bond between the coating and the steel pipe. cathodic protection current is applied. CSA Z662. or breaks referred to as holidays. External corrosion damage which may start as localized pitting can interact to an extent that the load bearing capability of the pipeline is decreased and a failure may result. To protect the pipe against corrosion at coating voids. wrinkling or disbanding2 Moisture from the soil is in contact with the metal surface Cathodic protection is shielded3 or is not sufficient External corrosion of underground structures manifests itself as either general wall loss or localized corrosion. Although the corrosion rates may vary it is generally accepted that all soils are corrosive. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 3 .1 Localized and General Corrosion External corrosion of pipelines typically occurs where coating defects allow contact of the steel with the wet soil. When doing predictions and engineering assessments of external corrosion on carbon steel underground structures. The role of the coating is to act as a physical and dielectric (low or nonconductive) barrier. There must be a continuous electrolytic path between the protected pipe and the anodes. however no coating systems are perfect.

which has resulted in the use of many different types of coating systems. accelerators. sandy Always dry Source: Modified from Corrosion Basics—An Introduction.0 Corrosive to moderately corrosive 0. Table 2-1: Soil Resistivity Effect on Corrosion Rates SOIL RESISTIVITY (ohm-cm) SOIL TYPE MOISTURE CORROSION (mm/yr) <500 Muskeg/sloughs/free water accumulations Loams/clays Always wet Very corrosive > 1.2. moisture content.2 500 .5 – 1. Coating technology has changed over time. and microbes all affect corrosivity where bare steel is exposed.3 Plant Applied Protective Coatings Coatings perform two distinct functions.2 . Coatings also reduce the amount of cathodic protection current required by lowering the amount of metal which directly contacts the soil. They provide a physical corrosion barrier between the steel structure and the surrounding environment. The soil resistivity at different areas on a pipeline will vary based on moisture content and mineral composition. curing agents. NACE Press 2.2 Soil Types Soil pH. Table 2-1 summarizes the effect of different soil types/resistivity on typical external corrosion rates. sandy Mainly dry >10000 Arid. The corrosion rates identified in Table 2-1 are for bare steel and no cathodic protection. catalysts. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 4 . resistivity.2000 Mainly wet 2000 .5 Non-corrosive < 0.10000 Gravels. salinity.0 Mildly corrosive 0.0. etc. including but not limited to the following: 1) Fusion Bond Epoxy (FBE) • Epoxy coating consisting of resins.

outdated • Two layer extruded polyethylene anti-corrosion barrier. polyurethane foam. polyethylene tape anti corrosion barrier. an FBE primer.e. polyethylene tape or extruded polyethylene outer jacket – outdated • Primer. and polyethylene solid film backing applied in a spiral wrap • Poor adhesion. Yellow Jacket) • Rubber modified asphalt adhesive covered by an extrudes polyethylene outer sheath 5) Thermally insulated Pipeline coatings such as: • Polyurethane foam applied direct to pipe. polyethylene tape anti corrosion barrier. to provide improved abrasion resistance • Often used for horizontal directional drill (HDD) sections 3) Three (3) Layer Extruded Polyethylene • Product consists of three layers.outdated • Fusion bond epoxy anti-corrosion barrier. soil stress resistance. polyurethane foam. fails safe) 2) Abrasion Resistant Fusion Bond Epoxy (Dual Power – DPS) • Several layers of FBE. gouging and abrasion. extruded polyethylene outer jacket • Primer. extruded polyethylene outer jacket • Three layer extruded polyethylene anti-corrosion barrier. a co-polymeric adhesive. Low operating temperature. polyethylene tape outer jacket . polyurethane foam. butyl rubber or similar adhesive. and a extruded polyethylene outer sheath 4) Two (2) Layer Extruded Polyethylene (i.e. extruded polyethylene outer jacket 6) Polyethylene Tape (solid film backing) • Primer. Coal tar pipe coatings can contain kraft paper layers.• Excellent adhesion and resistance to soil stress. YJ-1. 7) Coal-tar enamel and asphalt mastics • 1950-60’s technology no longer in use. or fiberglass layers to improve their performance • Care must be taken when working with coal tar coatings to avoid asbestos hazards June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 5 . polyurethane foam. polyurethane foam. extruded polyethylene outer jacket . or FBE overcoated with a liquid epoxy. Does not shield cathodic protection current (i. asbestos.

the insulation system is commonly provided by the use of half shells. which provide thermal insulation. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 6 . Due to serious problems with external corrosion the current recommended industry practice is to always apply an anti-corrosion barrier coating. In the past. 2. The outer jacket coating is meant to prevent water ingress into the insulation as well as to provide mechanical protection to the insulation. to prevent external corrosion. The outer jacket can.3. For insulated pipelines.1 Thermally Insulated Pipelines Coating systems. At the field joints. it cannot be relied upon to protect uncoated steel. be damaged and not completely effective. are widely used on upstream pipelines that transport wet gas. This is due to the multiple layers of dielectric material that tend to shield the protective current. using a portable mould. Gaps along the edges of the half-shells can allow the easy ingress of water. The thermal insulation helps prevent hydrates from forming. An industry recommended practice is to select joint coating that closely matches the performance characteristics of the plant applied protective coating. cathodic protection is believed to have very limited benefit. for a number of reasons. Typically a thermally insulated pipe system will include an anti corrosion barrier on the pipe (ie. The molded insulation fills the girth-weld insulation cavity better than half-shells and adds an additional moisture seal. If water does reach the pipe surface the anti-corrosion barrier is meant to prevent corrosion. a layer of polyurethane foam (typically 2” thick). Insulated pipelines rely solely on the integrity of the external outer jacket coating. and a polyethylene outer jacket coating.2. An alternative approach involves the use of field-molding the girth weld insulation. The field molding process is highly recommended and leads to a much lower risk of external corrosion. The polyurethane foam material used for the insulation is not water resistant. and the anti-corrosion barrier.2 Field Applied Protective Coatings It is important to ensure that the joint coating material used is compatible with the plant applied pipe coating material. Polyethylene tape or FBE applied directly to the steel surface). some thermally insulated pipelines were installed without an anti corrosion barrier. Therefore.3.

The sole use of coating manufacturer’s installation guides does not adequately cover the above requirement. However. These generally require the use of a hand wrapping machines. Irregular shapes should be coated with Petrolatum tapes or other conformable coatings specifically meant for the task. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 7 .3 Installation Quality for Field Applied Coatings Field applied coatings used for coating weld joints. The use of older tube style sleeves is not recommended as they tend to get contaminated before they can be shrunk down. weld-o-lets. Soil stresses tend to damage tapes especially on large diameter pipelines. The field application of pipeline coatings is always challenging. etc. If the pipe is coated with a two-layer extruded polyethylene system the sleeve will typically be a two-layer sleeve to match. are an important part of any coating system. Liquid epoxy may also be used for the same purpose. will result. Similar to polyethylene tape but with superior soil stress resistance. Shrink sleeves or tape coatings are not designed to coat such irregular shapes. often referred to as joint corrosion. risers. It is important that owner companies develop specific coating application standards. Hand applied two part liquid epoxies are typically used for fusion bond epoxy pipelines as their performance characteristics closely match the FBE material. and have lead to corrosion problems in service. The key to successful application relies on tape selection. Coatings must also be inspected prior to backfill. specifications. CSA Z662 requires that field applied coatings be applied in accordance with documented procedures and an appropriate quality program. fittings. tees. 90 deg elbows. These coatings are applied outside in non-ideal weather conditions and in difficult terrain. Woven Geotextile tapes are also available. 45 deg elbows. or for making repairs to damaged coatings. These include shop bends. Wrap-around style sleeves are superior in performance.The most common field joint coating systems used for upstream gathering system pipelines are: • • • Heat shrink sleeves Polyehylene tape wrap Hand applied liquid epoxy Heat shrink sleeves applied in the field to pipeline girth welds are either two-layer or three-layer systems depending on what type of plant applied coating is used. repair sleeves.3. surface preparation and proper application. 2. Polyethylene tapes can be applied by hand wrapping. or by using portable hand wrapping equipment. Irregular shapes are often encountered on pipelines. if the quality of the work is not comparable to the plant applied coating corrosion problems.

The number of workers in a coating crew must be sufficient to ensure quality and the required productivity. and a lack of proper coating inspection. Grit blasting helps improve adhesion for all coatings and is mandatory for some types of coatings. peel tests for shrink sleeves. Soil stresses from due to backfill weight. soil-induced shear stress applied to the coating due to thermal expansion. 2. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 8 . or become cracked and brittle. Addressing these issues will improve the long term performance of any coating system and help avoid disbonded and shielding joint coatings. Disbondment & Blistering Excessive heat can cause pipe coatings to soften. The result will be a disbonded and ineffective coating. Inspection may include item such as grit blast profile.a coating crew foreman responsible for quality is important.or procedures to make clear the minimum requirements for field applied coatings. flow. Application Crew Training – The workers must be trained on how to proper apply protective coatings Minimum List of Tools and Equipment – specialized tools and equipment are needed to do the work properly Storage and Handling Requirements – most coating materials should not be frozen. or otherwise contaminated prior to use Surface Preparation – the level of surface preparation is crucial for achieving a bond to the pipe. • • List of Approved Coatings – suitable coatings selected to be compatible with the plant applied coating are described by manufacturer and product name Contractor Supervision and Crew Size . hardness (cure). is a common aspect of joint corrosion. pipe settlement or soil settlement. can cause disbondment or wrinkling of the coating. poor training of the workers that are applying the coatings. Pre-Heating – pre-heating is crucial form most types of pipeline coatings Application Requirements – application procedures should meet or exceed the coating manufacturers minimum requirements Inspection – CSA Z662 requires that coating work be inspected. • • • • • • • Common barriers to obtaining good quality field applied coatings are lack of worker supervision. Such standards should consist of the following elements. or a lack of inspection.4 Coating Degradation – Heat Damage. etc. Poor inspection.3.

Excessive CP current can also cause blisters in FBE coating. shrink sleeves. especially in hot and wet soil environments.6 Shielding of Cathodic Protection Current The shielding of cathodic protection current is a common problem that can lead to external corrosion damage and pipeline failures. populated areas. fail safe) coatings such as FBE can be used. Ultraviolet exposure of fusion bond epoxy coatings may result in chalking and should be evaluated with the manufacturer prior to use. Improving the quality of the application work can reduce the affects of disbonded and shielding pipe coatings. In-line inspection and repair is the best way reduce corrosion failures if disbonded coatings and CP shielding are present. environmentally sensitive areas. etc. causes and effects of external corrosion of pipelines. 2. The table also contains corresponding industry accepted mitigation methods used to reduce external corrosion.5 Coating Degradation . and polyethylene tape may lead to the shielding of cathodic protection current if damaged or disbonded.e. 2.4 Contributing Factors Table 2-2 describes the most common contributors.3. especially at high consequence areas such as waterways. 2. The locally increased pH and/or hydrogen molecules being liberated at a holiday in the coating may cause the coating to disbond around a holiday. Alternatively non-shielding (i. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 9 .UV Damage Cracking or embrittlement of coatings can occur due to prolonged ultraviolet exposure prior to burial.3. This can also occur at locations where the pipe coating comes above ground but it not protected from the elements. Most over the line survey techniques will not reliably detect the presence of shielding coatings. Coatings with high dielectric strength such as extruded polyethylene. This can happen if coated pipe is stored outside for prolonged periods.

Table 2-2: Contributing Factors and Mitigation of External Corrosion Contributor Excess operating temperature Cause/Source • Coating failure • Coating disbondment Effect • Water ingress • cathodic shielding Mitigation • Reduce operating temperature below limit of coating and mastic • Select coating system with temperature greater than operating temperature Pipe movement/soil stress • Excess operating temperature • Operating temperature variation • Improper support Ground movement/soil stress • Unstable soils • Freeze thaw cycles • Coating damage • Water ingress • cathodic shielding Improper handling and backfill • Rock damage • Coating damage • Water ingress • cathodic shielding Poor joint coating • Poor joint coating selection / Incompatible pipe and joint coating • Improper application of joint coating • Inadequate personnel training • Limited supervision or inspection of work • disbonded coating • water ingress • cathodic shielding • Coating damage • Water ingress • cathodic shielding • Proper pipeline design • Coating selection that meets the design requirements • Route selection • Soil stabilization • Coating selection • Proper construction practices • Coating selection • proper design and engineering • application standards or specifcations • trained personnel • construction QC • coatings inspection June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 10 .

Contributor Cause/Source Effect Mitigation See NACE RP0303 Field Applied Heat Shrinkable Sleeves For Pipelines. Performance. Application. Quality Control Insulation • pipelines without a corrosion barrier between pipe and insulation • Poor joint coating quality that allows water ingress • water can enter at holidays and follow the pipe wall • water can enter joint area • outer coating and insulation will shield cathodic protection • ensure coating system includes anti-corrosion barrier • Follow written coating standards or specification to ensure quality work done on joint coatings • Injection mould foam at joint rather than half shells • Employ qualified coating inspectors to ensure quality of work Concrete weights and anchor blocks • pipelines with out adequate coating with in the concrete portion • damaged coating • water ingress • Cathodic shielding by the concrete • Coating must be designed with consideration for anchor • coat pipe prior to pouring concrete • inspect coating prior to installing anchor Externally weight-coated pipe. and rock shielding • these are not corrosion barriers • water ingress • cathodic shielding • install 100% holiday free corrosion barrier applied directly to pipe June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 11 .

Contributor Cased Crossings Cause/Source • casing in contact with carrier pipe • damaged coating Effect • Cathodic shielding by casing • Insufficient cathodic protection Mitigation • install non metallic centralizers • ensure coating is 100% holiday free • keep water out of casing Bored Crossings – no casing • coating damaged during installation • water ingress • cathodic shielding by protective coatings used as rock shields • install 100% holiday free corrosion barrier • apply cathodic protection • proper coating selection • install coating above interface • inspection and maintenance • mechanical shielding • perform CP system survey and adjust Soil to Air Interface (Risers) • Damaged coating • Lack of coating • Coating UV degradation • Coating mechanical damage • water ingress • unreliable CP due to intermittent electrolyte Cathodic protection insufficient • cathodic protection system operating below NACE RP0169 criteria • foreign cathodic protection systems • AC power lines • external corrosion at coating defects Cathodic interference • Improper cathodic protection • Properly design cathodic protection system • Proper survey and maintenance Excess CP • Improperly operated system • Possible coating damage • Perform CP system survey and adjust June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 12 .

Table 3-1: Recommended Practices – Design and Construction Element Coating – Plant Applied Recommended Practice • Select coating system with design temperature exceeding operating temperature • Coating selection should consider type of soil (water. sand.3 Recommended Practices Table 3-1 describes the recommended practices for mitigation of external corrosion during the design and construction phase of a piepline’s lifecycle. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 13 . rock) Benefit • Prevent disbondment and cathodic shielding • Minimize cathodic protection current needed to prevent external corrosion Comments • monitor operating conditions to prevent exceeding design specifications Coating – Plant Applied Thermally Insulated Pipe • Select coating system that includes an anticorrosion barrier between pipe and insulation • Protect install outer jacket coating system in rocky soils • Prevents water ingress to pipe surface • cathodic shielding may occur due to the insulation • cannot holiday check outer coating. Table 3-2 describes the recommended practices for the mitigation of external corrosion during the operating phase of a pipeline lifecyle. therefore corrosion barrier must be 100% holiday free. clay.

zap-lok) are used consider the effects on cathodic protection • Install cathodic protection system • ensures electrical continuity necessary for CP system to function along the full length of the pipeline • Protects pipe against corrosion at coating holidays or damage • Verify by periodic system surveys Cathodic Protection • Design in accordance with NACE RP0169 • Use proper electrical isolation to avoid current drainage to surface facilities and well casings June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 14 .Element Coating – Field Applied at Joints Recommended Practice • select a joint coating system that considers the current and future operating conditions • select a joint coating system that is compatible with the pipe coating system • select a joint coating system appropriate for the field construction environment • use proper surface preparation as recommended by the coating manufacturer • Develop coating application standards or specifications Benefit • prevents water ingress • ensures coating system integrity Comments • quality control is essential • applicators must be trained • applicator must be using the correct equipment and written procedures • Coating inspection to ensure quality and prevent joint corrosion Joint type • if joints other than butt welds (i.e.

• Use piggable valves. discontinued. method for confirming tees.Element Inspection Capability Recommended Practice • Install or provide capability for inspection tool launching and receiving • Use consistent line diameter and wall thickness. or suspended lines • only abandoned lines should have cathodic protection disconnected Benefit • Understand and document design and operating parameters Comments • Refer to CSA Z662 Clause 9 – Corrosion Control June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 15 . and fittings Benefit Comments • Internal inspection • Consideration using intelligent pigs is should be given to the most effective the design of bends. flanges. and risers to overall pipeline allow for passage of integrity inspection tools • Proper design allows for pipeline inspection without costly modifications or downtime Table 3-2: Recommended Practices – Operating Element Corrosion Assessment Recommended Practice • Understand what type of coatings exist in a gathering system • Evaluate operating temperature against coating system design • Assess potential for cathodic shielding • Re-assess CP system operation subsequent to a line failure or system addition CP system maintenance • Perform annual survey to verify sufficient CP current • Check all insulating kits/joints • Check for interference • Check rectifiers periodically and record outputs • Ensures reliability of CP system • Enables proof of regulatory compliance • regulatory requirement • need to include deactivated.

10 for repair requirements Failure Analysis • Recovery of an undisturbed sample of the damaged pipeline • Conduct a thorough failure analysis • Use the results of failure analysis to reassess CP system • Measure pipe to soil potential at failure site • To understand • Adjust corrosion corrosion mechanisms mitigation program detected during based on results of failure analysis inspections or as a result of a failure June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 16 . • Develop an inspection strategy • Utilize root cause analysis results to modify corrosion mitigation and inspection programs • Provides assurance that the corrosion mitigation program is effective • Allows for corrosion mitigation program adjustments in response to inspection results • Prevents multiple failures on the same pipeline • Prevents recurrence of problem • Refer to Section 7 for Corrosion Inspection Techniques • Refer to CSA Z662 Clause 9 – Corrosion Control Inspection Program Repair and Rehabilitation • Inspect to determine extent and severity of damage prior to carrying out repair or rehabilitation • Based on inspection results. use CSA Clause 10.Element Recommended Benefit Comments Practice Note: ensure all personnel are trained and hold the required certification for the work being performed.2 to determine extent and type of repair required • Refer to Section 7 for Corrosion Inspection Techniques • Refer to Section 9 for Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques • Refer to CSA Z662 Clause 10.9.

Element Leak Detection Recommended Practice • Integrate a leak detection strategy into a Pipeline Operation and Maintenance Manual Benefit • Permits the detection of leaks Comments • Refer to Section 8 for Leak Detection Techniques • Technique utilized depends on access and ground conditions Management of Change • Integrate an MOC procedure into a Pipeline Operation and Maintenance Manual • Maintain records of pipeline operation and maintenance • Ensures that change • Unmanaged change does not impact the has resulted in integrity of the pipeline many pipeline system failures • Understand and document design and operating parameters • Refer to Section 10 for Pipeline Integrity Management System June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 17 .

and other problems to ensure CP are functioning properly • Replace deplete groundbeds in a timely fashion • Upgrade CP system if more current is need to provide the proper levels of protection Comments • Regulatory requirement • CP system require regular maintenance June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 18 . • Ensure annual CP surveys are conducted • React quickly to insulation deficiencies. continuity bonding issues. The success of preventing external corrosion is highly dependant on the choice of coating and the quality of the field applied coating work. Table 4-1: Corrosion Mitigation Techniques Technique Cathodic Protection Description • Design. Table 4-1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the mitigation of external corrosion of pipelines once a pipeline is in operation. and maintain CP system in accordance with NACE RP 0169 • Ensure rectifiers are checked routinely to ensure they are operating at the target current output • Reduce unnecessary rectifier down time due to maintenance activities. operate.4 Corrosion Mitigation Techniques Protective coatings have a significant impact on the life cycle costs of a pipeline. install.

check. Table 5-1: Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Technique Production Monitoring Cathodic Protection Description • Ongoing monitoring of fluid temperature • Maintain. and operate CP system in accordance with NACE RP 0169 Comments • Excess temperature may damage the coating • Regulatory requirement June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 19 .5 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Table 5-1 describes the most common techniques for monitoring corrosion and operating conditions associated with external corrosion of pipelines.

ultrasonic and eddy current tools are available. MFL is the most commonly used technique Note: Pressure testing alone is not recommended as a method to prove long term pipeline integrity. Table 6-1: Inspection Techniques Options CP effectiveness survey Technique • Close interval survey • Annual system survey Comments • Determines adequate protection level • Detects interference • May detect significant coating problem areas Coating Integrity Survey • C – Scan Coating Conductance Survey • ACVG (pin to pin) Coating survey • Detailed coating evaluation techniques intended to identify areas of compromised coating • May employ the NACE PR05202 Pipeline External Corrosion Direct Assessment Methodology • Effective method to accurately determine location and severity of corrosion • In-Line Inspection can find internal and external corrosion defects • The tools are available as self contained or tethered • The pipeline must be designed or modified to accommodate InLine Inspection • May not be effective at risers In-Line Inspection • Magnetic flux leakage (MFL). June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 20 .6 Inspection Techniques Table 6-1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the detection of external corrosion and coating degradation of pipelines.

Table 7-1: Leak Detection Techniques Technique H2S detection Description • H2S detection can be portable or permanent tools • Visual inspection by ground access or aerial surveillance to look for indications of problems Comments • Permanent monitors are used at surface facilities. soil. or vegetation discoloration • Can be used in combination with infrared thermography and flame ionization surveys Right-of-Way (ROW) Surveillance Production Monitoring • Volume balancing or pressure monitoring to look for indications of leaks • Changes in production volumes or pressure can indicate a pipeline failure • This is a more effective tool for finding large leaks and ruptures Flame Ionization Survey Infrared Thermography • Electronic instrumentation used to detect low concentrations of gas • Thermal imaging is used to detect temperature change on Right-ofWay due to escaping gas or produced water • Equipment is portable and used to find small leaks • Need sufficient volume of escaping gas to create an identifiable temperature difference • Normally completed using aerial techniques • Capable of detecting pinhole leaks that may be otherwise nondetectable • This can only be used after the system has been purged of fluids and displaced with a special odorant Odor Detection • Odorant detection using trained animals and patented odorants June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 21 . • Indications include soil settlement. and water.7 Leak Detection Techniques Table 7-1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the detection of pipeline leaks caused by external corrosion. Proactive leak detection can be an effective method of finding small leaks and mitigating the consequences of a major product release or spill. gas bubbling.

consideration must be given to the circumferential extent of corrosion that may affect the load bearing properties where secondary stresses may be critical (e. Prior to the repair or rehabilitation of a pipeline the appropriate codes and guidelines should be consulted. Table 8-1: Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques Technique Coating Replacement Description • Excavation. the user is cautioned that in addition to the assessment methods for internal pressure (hoop stress) calculations. bending loads. consideration should be given to the need for coating the inside of the pipe with a corrosion inhibitor prior to commissioning June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 22 . including: • CSA Z662. thermal stresses. stripping or blasting and re-coating Comments • More suitable for localized areas of damage (e. Section 10.10 “Permanent and Temporary Repair Methods” When evaluating localized corrosion. soil stresses).g.g.8 Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques Table 8-1 describes common techniques used for repair and rehabilitation of externally damaged pipelines. • Joint areas should be properly coated after the new repair section is installed • When determining the quantity of pipe to replace consider the extent of corrosion and the condition of the remaining pipeline and joint areas • Impact on pigging capabilities must be considered (use same pipe diameter and similar wall thickness) • For certain services. joints) and areas that do not require replacement • May be possible to do without a production outage Pipe Section Replacements • Remove damaged section(s) and replace with new externally coated pipe.

damage at joints) replacement of the pipeline may be the best option • Consider need for pig and inspection tool compatibility • Refer to Section 4 “Recommended Practices ” in this document for details June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 23 . badly disbonded coatings. weld-on and bolt-on types.Technique Repair Sleeves Description • Reinforcement and pressurecontaining sleeves may be acceptable for temporary or permanent repairs of external corrosion as per the limitations stated in CSA Z662 Comments • For external corrosion it may be possible in some circumstances for the damaged section to remain in the pipeline as per the requirements in CSA Z662 Section 10 • Different repair sleeves are available including composite.g. The sleeves must meet the requirements of CSA Z662 Section 10 • Note: See above comments on considerations for secondary stresses when evaluating the use of different types of repair sleeves Pipeline Replacement • In situations where it may be difficult or uneconomic to prevent continued external corrosion damage (e. insulated pipelines.

asme.org/ • European Federation of Corrosion (EFC): http://www.nace. pipeline coatings and cathodic protection the reader should refer to the following organizations: • NACE International http://www.org/ • The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME): http://www.efcweb.org/catalog/ June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems Page 24 .9 Additional Resources For more information on external corrosion of pipelines.