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ENVS Homework #3 due thursday the 29th Quiz • hydro electric power plants • how they work • major

advantages • they produce enough energy that we don’t need to build as many coal burning power plants major disadvantages • • ecological disruption (loss of bio diversity ect.) • human displacement • add significant amount of methane (greenhouse) gas \ • safety concerns (damn failures) • maximum usage of 200 years Aral sea case study • • cause of its “death” • major consequences • Colorado River • similarities between of the colorado river and Aral sea • they both have a dry climate • salt content is increasing • similarities in usage of the water (irrigation) how the water is divided between the states (i don’t think this is needed for the quiz • just the concept that mexico gets shafted) • wyoming gets 14% • colorado gets 51% • new mexico gets 11%. • mexico whatever is left. usage • • 85% irrigation • 10% evaporation • 5% municipal assignment • interview 5 people with the questions on blackboard. • their answers can be “wrong” just write whatever they say • 1 sentence or so. The blue planet 70% of the earth’s surface less than 1% of it is fresh

• salt content in water to be defined as fresh water 0.1% • The US as a whole does not have a water shortage problem • but in certain areas there are • Water is a renewable resource • it is constantly renewed Hydrological cycle • this chart shows the movement and renewal of water (renewal of freshwater) • The amount of water in the ocean remains constant because the evaporation = runoff/ groundwater + precipitation .

14. or 40. • (That is 246.359 km3/year (approx.html Total Renewable Freshwater Supply by Country”: (including both surface water and • groundwater) 3.069 km3/year (approx.) • Reference 2: http://www.614.) (Over 90% of this amount is in the Great Lakes region.040 bgd ) in the world . or 2.200 billion gallons per year.776 billion gallons per year.375 billion gallons per year.200 billion gallons per day (bgd) Returned to the atmosphere: 2750 bgd (two-thirds of the 4200 bgd) • Stored: 1450 bgd (one-third) Only 675 bgd is considered to be available surface freshwater.• All of these things are interrelated and in balance as a whole • living things are included in land and oceans (apparently people and other lifeforms hold water) How much water do we us • Reference 1: According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS): • Average precipitation in the US: 4.220 bgd) in the US • 55. 810.worldwater.org/data.

• • The water is not being captures • increased surface run off • increased sediment buildup in the watershed of the ganges • as a result the river (the part that holds the water) has less capacity to hold water. . isn’t used for agriculture) Stressors to the Lower Colorado river basin • • Climate Change • agriculture • agriculture is prevalent because the have a long growing season population growth • • see slides for some numbers for importance of Colorado river basin • California uses more that 10% of the water in the united states • 80% for Agriculture Ganges River Study • Bangladesh half of the population of the US in the size of Wisconsin • They produce a lot of rice • so moderate flooding is ok during the monsoon seasons • however it has become more severe • FYI: to keep up with it’s increase in population its rice production shoud increase by 40% by 2050. ect) • then falls in rain as acid rain • soil filters water when it falls on the ground (if it is not polluted. has vegetation. so it runs off and floods.• We actually use less than we have available (surprising to me) • current usage is 345 billion gallons per day. We have available 675 per day. sulfuric acid. in reality it is over all rice production has decreased by 10% due to severe floods The cause is the deforestation in the foothills. • per capita water usage has gone down • this is a largely a result of an increase in technology in the agriculture industry (we use less water to produce the same amount of food) • 75% of water is used in agriculture • North America we 50% is used for industry aprox 37 % in agriculture • Africa uses almost 90% of their water for irrigation • we need to help them be more efficient • Segue to a discussion on acid rain • water evaporates leaving behind salts and other things dissolved in them • when they condensate in the atmosphere they condensate around dust particles (ozone.