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November 15, 2009

11.0 FAILURE ANALYSIS

1.0 PURPOSE
This standard defines the process for performing Failure Analysis on assets at the Water Authority.

2.0 SCOPE
This standard applies to the Water Authority facilities and divisions involved in recording failure classes and failure hierarchies on assets and workorders.

3.0 DEFINITIONS
3.1 Cause Code - Defines the CAUSE of the failure and/or Problem. 3.2 Failure Analysis - Failure analysis is the process by which you examine asset or location failure history, reported over a significant period of time. Use any Asset or Location failure reports to look for breakdown trends, average time between failures, and so on. By correlating this failure information with other data available to you, for instance, preventive maintenance schedules for an Asset or Location, you can develop ways to reduce or limit equipment failures in the future. For example, you might want to review your preventive maintenance schedule, or you might be able to identify a branch of faulty inventory items. 3.3 Failure Reporting - Failure reporting is a long-term process where you gather data about failures so that you can analyze trends and take steps to avoid problems in the future. For example, in looking back over the failure reports for a pump, you might notice that the pump often breaks down about one week before its monthly preventative maintenance check is scheduled. You might decide to change the frequency of the PM checks to every other week, rather than every four weeks. You conduct failure analyses to review histories of asset and location failures over time. Look for issues such as breakdown trends or mean time between failures on printed reports. You can correlate this failure information with other data such as preventive maintenance (PM) schedules to develop ways to reduce or limit asset failures in the future. 3.4 Failure Hierarchy - A failure hierarchy is an organized set of Problems, Causes, and Remedies related to Asset and Location failures. The failure hierarchy is identified by its top-level component, called a Failure Class. There must be an associated failure class for each Asset or Location that you want to report failures for. Groups of data called failure codes are linked in parent-child relationships to form a failure hierarchy. 3.5 Failed System Defines the system where the failure occurred. This is tied to the type of system (i.e. - Sewage, Gravity). 3.6 Failure Class - Defines where in the system the failure occurred. This is tied to the type of Asset (i.e. - Meter, Pipe, Fire Hydrant). 3.6 Problem Code - Defines the PROBLEM of the failure. I.E. Leaks, Knocked Out, Blocked, Backed Up, etc. 3.7 Remedy Code -Defines the REMEDY to fix the failure/problem. Page 1

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11.0 FAILURE ANALYSIS

4.0 RESPONSIBILITIES
The following provides typical descriptions of responsibilities and accountabilities for implementing the failure analysis process. Each Superintendent or Supervisor, as appropriate, should designate responsibilities. 4.1 Superintendent - Responsible for the review and approval of workorder documentation, including the Failure Hierarchy. 4.2 Supervisor - Responsible for the review and approval of workorder documentation, including the Failure Hierarchy. 4.3 Maintenance Technician Responsible for performing the initial steps in completing the Failure Analysis, which includes the proper recording of the Failure Class, Problem, Cause and Remedy. 4.4 Planner/Scheduler - Responsible for completing all workorders and ensuring that the workorder is documented with the appropriate Failure Hierarchy.

5.0 INSTRUCTIONS
5.1 Unless required, the Failure Hierarchy need only be completed at the Parent level of the working being performed. If the work being completed is not applicable to a failure hierarchy, then the Failure Class will be noted as NA (Not Applicable), and the Problem, Cause and Remedy codes may be left blank. 5.2 Any person authorized to create or modify workorders can document the Failure Hierarchy as work progresses through the completion of a workorder and its tasks. 5.3 Levels of the hierarchy can be added at anytime. Changes to the failure hierarchy codes must be requested through the Maximo Support team and will be immediately completed. These requests must conform to the definitions identified in this standard. 5.4 Unless it is not required, all workorders will be documented with a Failure Class as defined in this standard. This will represent what asset class failed. If the asset itself has already been identified with a failure class, the workorder will automatically have this completed once the workorder is assigned an asset. Completion of the Failed System field is optional. 5.5 During the completion of the workorder, the Problem, Cause and Remedy of the workorder will be documented. These items may change during the course of workorder completion as more information is obtained during the work process. 5.6 Failure Hierarchy Completion: If possible, the person creating the workorder will identify the Failure Class and Problem. As the workorder progresses, it is responsibility of the Maintenance Technician, Supervisor and Superintendent to perform a review of the Failure Hierarchy prior to submitting the workorder for final completion. Additional notes related to the Problem, Cause and Remedy will be noted on the workorder log. 5.7 The Planner/Scheduler has final approval on the Failure Hierarchy, or lack thereof. No workorder will be marked with a status of COMPLETED until the Failure Hierarchy is final. Page 2

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6.0 APPENDICES
APPENDIX 11.0.A Building a Failure Hierarchy Maximo Example

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Appendix 11.0.A - Building a Failure Hierarchy Maximo Example


Failure reporting lets you identify and track asset and location failures. Entering Failed System, Failure Class and Problem Code data on work orders provides data that can be used for failure analysis. You use the Failure Reporting subtab of the Quick Reporting application, and the Failure Reporting tab of the Work Order Tracking application to record failure data. Failure analysis is how you examine your failure history data, reported over a significant period of time. You use asset or location failure reports to look for breakdown trends, average time between failures, and so on. By correlating this failure information with other data available to you, for instance, preventive maintenance schedules for an asset or location, you can develop ways to reduce or limit future failures. For example, you might want to review your preventive maintenance schedule, or you might be able to identify a branch of faulty inventory items. A failure hierarchy is a set of data on problems, causes, and remedies for asset and operating location failures. Groups of data called failure codes are linked in parent-child relationships to form a failure hierarchy. Each hierarchy is identified by its failure class. Failure hierarchies are built from the top down. You navigate the failure hierarchy from top to bottom. A failure hierarchy can be created all at once, or completed partially and added to later as necessary. You can use existing failure codes and/or create new ones to build the hierarchy. Maximo and Failure Hierarchies You can select existing failure codes by clicking the Select Value icon next to the field used in Maximo for recording Failure Hierarchies. You can create new failure codes by typing a value into the field. Maximo will attempt to match the value you entered with an existing failure code value. If one already exists, Maximo copies it into the field. If one does not exist, Maximo displays the Select Value dialog box. Click Continue to accept the value. NOTE: Failed System is a Water Authority custom field and has been added to the Failure Analysis Program procedures. It is not a required field, but provides means to track failures at a system level rather than the Failure Class level. NOTE: Failure codes can be used at any level of the hierarchy. For example, jammed" could be both a Problem and a Cause. The procedures for adding Problem, Cause, and Remedy level failure codes are the same with one exception: selecting the parent for Causes and Remedies. All Problem failure codes are children of the Failure Class, but note the labels for the Cause and Remedy tables, which indicate the parent levels for the records in each table window. The Cause and Remedy table windows are both paired table windows, their labels reflect the selected row in the table above. CAUTION: Before entering Causes or Remedies, check that the table window label reflects the correct parent for the failure code you are about to enter. To change the table label, click the appropriate row in the parent table window.

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TIP: Using failure codes on work orders can help reduce the number of duplicate work orders that are entered in the system. Maximo displays a message if a work order with the same Problem Code already exists for the asset or location! Failure Hierarchy Example This example demonstrates the steps you could use to build a three-level failure code hierarchy named PUMPS in the Failure Codes application. Click the links below to see how you build each level. The following figure shows a failure hierarchy for a pump:

Failed System To create a Failed System selection, a request must be submitted to the Maximo Support team with the Failed System Code and Description. This information will be configured in the system and made available via a drop down list. Failure Class and Failure Codes To create the failure class and first level failure code of the PUMPS failure hierarchy in the Failure Codes application: 1. 2. On the Failure Codes tab of the Failure Codes application, click New Failure Code . In the Failure Class field, enter PUMPS. In the Description field, you can enter a description; e.g., Pump failures.

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You have just created the top level of the failure hierarchy. Next, you will create three failure codes in the top failure code type within this hierarchy. Problems The Problems table contains the top level failure codes in the hierarchy. Under the Problems table, click New Row. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In the Problem field, enter LOW PRES. In the Description field, enter Low Pressure. Repeat steps 3-5 to enter the following additional problems: LOW VOL, Low Pressure, Problem STOPPED, Stopped, Problem Click Done, and then click Save Failure Code .

You have now identified three main problems that could put the pump out of service. These problems are the first level of the failure hierarchy. You must save each level of the hierarchy before you can create or add to another level of the hierarchy. Causes You are now ready to start building the second level of the PUMPS failure hierarchy in the Failure Codes application. For every cause, or second level failure code that you create, you must first select its parent from the first level of failure codes. 1. In the Problems table, click LOW PRES to select it as the problem to which you want to add a cause. Under the Causes table, click New Row. In the Cause field, enter FITTING. In the Description field, enter Fitting Leaking. Repeat steps 2-4 to insert the following additional causes for the problem of low pressure: HOUSING, Housing Leaking, Cause SEAL, Seal Leaking, Cause Click Done, and then click Save Failure Code.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

You have just created three causes for the problem of low pressure in this failure hierarchy. Next, you can enter remedies, or children, for these causes. Page 6

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Remedies Take these steps to build the third and final level of the PUMPS failure hierarchy in the Failure Codes application: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. In the Causes table, click Fitting to select it as the cause to which you want to add a remedy. Under the Remedies table, click New Row. In the Remedy field, enter REPFIT. In the Description field, enter Replace Fitting. Repeat steps 2-4 to insert the following additional remedy for the cause Fitting: TIGHT FIT, Tighten Fitting, Remedy Click Done, and then click Save Failure Code.

You have completed building a failure hierarchy. You can add and delete problems, causes, and remedies to the failure hierarchy.

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