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Present Perfect (have/has +participio pasado)  Affirmative Have/has + Past participle Ex (see) I have seen/ she

has seen  Negative  Haven’t/ hasn’t + past participle Ex (see) I haven’t seen/ She hasn’t seen Uses:  When we use the present perfect there’s always a connection with now. The action in the past has a result or a consequence now:  ‘Where’s your key?’ ‘ I don’t know. I ‘ve lost it. ( I haven’t got it now.)  ‘Is Sally here?’ ‘ No, she has gone out. (She is out now)  I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it? ( do you know where it is now?)  We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:  OW! I’ve cut my finger.  The road is closed. There has been an accident.  (From the news) The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.  We can use the present perfect with just, already and yet:  JUST ( meaning’ a short time ago’. Just is placed between have and the past participle) Hello. Have you just arrived? Would you like something to eat? No, I’ve just had lunch.  ALREADY (to say that something has happened sooner than expected. We place already between the auxiliary have and the past participle) ‘Don’t forget to post the letter, will you? ‘‘I’ve already posted it.’ ‘What time is Mark leaving?’ ‘ He’s already gone’  YET (meaning ‘until now’ and shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. We use YET in questions and negative sentences and we write it at the end of the sentence) Has it stopped raining yet? I’ve written the letter but I haven’t posted it yet.  We use the present perfect to talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now. Therefore it can be used with temporal expressions such as recently, so far, since…, for…., in the last few days, lately…  Have you ever eaten  I haven’t eaten anything since caviar?(in your life) last night.  Everything is going well. We  It’s nice to see you again. We haven’t had any problems so haven’t seen each other for a far. long time.  Have you heard from Anne recently?  We use the present perfect with temporal expressions such as today, this morning, this year,etc when these periods have not finished at the time of speaking.  I’ve drunk four cups of tea today.  Have you had a holiday this year?  We also use the present perfect to say that it is the first time that something happens:  It’s the first time I’ve driven a car (not I drive)  Questions  Have/has +subject+ past participle Ex (see) Have you seen/has she seen…? Translation pretérito perfecto compuesto (he visto)

were at school. . last night. last week.) use the past simple instead. we it now) simply know that he lost it at some time in the past) DO NOT use present perfect if there’s To talk about things that happened a no connection with the present (for long time ago example things that happened a long time ago) use the past simple instead: The Chinese have invented printing WRONG How many plays has Shakespeare written? WRONG DO NOT use present perfect when you talk about a finished time in the past(yesterday. The weather has been nice The weather was nice yesterday. The Chinese invented printing How many plays did Shakespeare wrote? To talk about finished time in the past.Present Perfect or Past Simple? Present Perfect Past Simple it always tells us something about It tells us only about the past: now: Tom lost his key ( we don’t know Tom has lost his key ( he doesn’t have whether it was now or not. They arrived ten minutes ago. yesterday. 10minutes ago. It’s usual that it goes with temporal expressions like yesterday. WRONG In questions asking HOW LONG…? Questions asking WHEN…? How long have Tom and Carol known When did Tom and Carol first meet? each other? They’ve known each other for a long They met a long time ago/when they time/ since they were at school. when I was a child…. in 1992.when I was younger.WRONG They have arrived ten minutes ago. from 1992 to 1996….

Hurry up! We’re waiting now I’ve been working hard.Present perfect Continuous (have/has been + -ing) Affirmative have/has been+-ing (do) I have been doing/She has been doing. . They’ve been going there for ages. It’s been raining. I’m working.  You can use the present perfect continuous for actions repeated over a period of time:  Debbie is a very good golf player. We need an umbrella. He has been working very hard. Negative Haven’t/hasn’t been +-ing (do) I haven’t been doing/ he hasn’t been doing. Interrogative Have/has+sujeto+ been+-ing (do) Have you been doing.  Every morning they meet in the same café. It’s raining.  George Hasn’t been feeling well recently. We’ve been waiting for a hour. WATCH OUT!! Difference between PRESENT CONTINUOUS/PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PRESENT CONTINUOUS I am doing PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have been doing…. so I’m going to have a rest. Now Don’t disturb me now. She’s been playing since she was six. It is usual to find this tense with How long. The ground is wet. (he’s tired now)  I’ve been talking to Carol about the problem and she thinks….and since… :  It has been raining for two hours.. Have you been running? (you’re out of breath now)  Paul is very tired. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining)  How long have you been learning English? (You’re still learning English)  Where have you been? I’ve been looking for you for half an hour.?/Has she been doing…? Traslation He estado haciendo Uses:  We use present perfect continuous for an activity that has recently stopped or just stopped.  To talk about an action that started in the past and it is still in progress or has just stopped. There’s a connection with now:  You’re out of breath. for…. (It is raining now.

I’d never seen her before. I’ve never seen her I didn’t know who she was. He’s been running. Past Perfect Continuous (had been + -ing) ( Había estado haciendo) Affirmative had been+-ing (do) I had been doing Negative  hadn’t/had not been+ -ing (do) I hadn’t been doing Questions Had + sujeto + been + -ing (do) had you been doing…. The sun was shining but the ground was white. the sun was shining. He had been running. for example Johanna arrived to the party. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have been +ing I had been +ing past now Past now I hope the bus comes soon. but it had been snowing before. We have just had lunch We weren’t hungry. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. before (= before then) We aren’t hungry. We had just had lunch. PERSENT PERFECT Have done PAST PERFECT Had done Past now Past now Who is this woman. Michael had already gone home. ( It was not snowing when I looked out of the window.Past Perfect (had + past participle) (Había hecho) Affirmative had+ past participle (do) I had done Negative Had not/hadn’t + past participle (do) I hadn’t done Questions had + sujeto + past participle (do) Had you done…? Uses: To talk about an action that happened before another past action. We can take this sentence as the starting point of a story and talk about other things that happened before this time. For instance: When Johanna arrived to the party. we found that someone had broken into our flat. I’ve been waiting At last the bus came. She was tired because she had been working very hard. When we got home last night.I had been waiting for for 20mins. Uses: To talk about a continuous action that preceeded another action in the past: Yesterday morning I got up and looked out of the window.( before the bus came) He’s out of breath. (before now) 20mins. That is to say: sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past. . He hadn’t flown before. that’s why the ground was white) Ann was sitting in an armchair watching tv. He was out of breath. It had been snowing.

Future Perfect (Will have +past participle) (habré hecho) AffirmativeWill have + past participle (do) I will have done Negative Will not/won’t have +past participle (do) I won’t have done Questions Will + sujeto + have+ past participle (do) Will you have done…. (past perfect) .? Uses: To talk about an action that will be finished at an specific time in the future:  We’re late. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema.  Will you have finished your task in half an hour?  I won’t have finished in half an hour if you keep talking to me. Compare the use of the future perfect with other perfect forms:  Ted and Amy have been married for 24 years. (present perfect)  Next year they will have been married for 25 years and will celebrate their silver weddings (future perfect)  When their first child was born they had been married for three years.