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1 Duns and Ros Duns and Ros defined a flow map (Figure 26) together with a series of correlations for calculating the boundaries between the flow regimes as well as the slip velocity (Vs). The Friction factor is calculated from the liquid Reynolds Number when flow is in the Bubble or Slug regions; while the gas Reynolds number is used in the Mist region. Finally, calculation of the pressure drop is completed by adding an acceleration term for flow in the Mist region only. Many well flow simulation computer programs include modifications of the original Duns and Ros correlation. These include some or all of: (i) use of a different flow map (by Gould et al) (ii) addition of the Beggs and Brill correction to modify the hold up correlation to allow for well deviation (iii) use a modified friction factor (Kleyweg et al, Gas Lift Optimisation in the Claymore Field, Offshore Europe Conference, 1983)

. 1.7.2 Hagedorn and Brown Hagedorn and Brown developed a simple flow map and a liquid hold up correction for the slug flow regime; the Griffith correlation being used for the bubble flow regime. The friction factor is calculated using a two-phase Reynolds number. This original work has been modified to include points (ii) and (iii) discussed above - viz. the Beggs and Brill correction to modify the hold up for all angles of deviation and the Kleyweg friction factor for single phase flow. The modified Hagedorn and Brown correlation is probably the most widely used

correlation for well performance calculations. 1.7.3 Beggs and Brill The Beggs and Brill method is based on a study of the flow regimes that occur in horizontal pipes. The flow regime and hold up are calculated as though the pipe was horizontal and a correction made to account for the change in hold up due to the angle of inclination when the pipe is not perfectly horizontal. (NB. The flow regime 1 36 calculated is the one that would have occurred if the pipe was horizontal). The Kleyweg single phase friction factor approach can also be used. Given the above, it is probably not surprising that this is often the preferred correlation for simulating the flow in the horizontal and highly deviated portions of wells as well as in flowlines and pipelines. The correlation is particularly suitable for simulating pipelines in hilly terrain since it can cope with both upward and downward flow. 1.7.4 Gray The Gray correlation was specifically developed for gas wells producing small amounts of liquid - either water or condensate. Experience has shown that this is normally the best correlation for these conditions.