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Sulfur or sulphur (pronounced /ˈsʌlfɚ/, see spelling below) is the chemical element that has the atomic number

16. It is denoted with the symbol S. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used in black gunpowder, matches, insecticides and fungicides. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. In nonscientific context it can also be referred to as brimstone.

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1 History o 1.1 Spelling and etymology 2 Characteristics o 2.1 Allotropes o 2.2 Isotopes o 2.3 Occurrence 3 Extraction and production o 3.1 Extraction from natural resources o 3.2 Production from hydrogen sulfide  3.2.1 Chemically  3.2.2 Biologically 4 Chemistry o 4.1 Inorganic compounds o 4.2 Organic compounds 5 Applications o 5.1 Specialized applications o 5.2 Historical applications o 5.3 Fungicide o 5.4 Insecticide 6 Biological role o 6.1 Traditional medical role for elemental sulfur 7 Precautions o 7.1 Environmental impact 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

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charcoal. and is referred to in the Biblical Pentateuch (Genesis). Hydrogen sulfide is the principal odor of untreated sewage and is one of several unpleasant smelling sulfur-containing components of flatulence (along with sulfur-containing mercaptans). Early alchemists gave sulfur its own alchemical symbol which was a triangle at the top of a cross. Sulfur was known in China since the 6th century BC. e. in itself. the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite. which produces sulfur dioxide. The overlying layer of earth was quicksand. English translations of the Bible commonly referred to sulfur as "brimstone". sulfur was discovered in underground deposits in Louisiana and Texas. The "smell of sulfur" usually refers to either the odor of hydrogen sulfide. giving rise to the name of 'fire and brimstone' sermons.expansion. although sulfur. therefore the Frasch process was developed. in a natural form that the Chinese had called 'brimstone'. Latin sulfur or sulpur) was known in ancient times. the smell associated with burnt matches. Rough sulfur crystal Sulfur crystal from Agrigento.g. The smell emanating from raw sulfur originates from a slow oxidation in the presence of air. It is from this part of the Bible that Hell is implied to "smell of sulfur". Sulfur (Sanskrit. or of burning sulfur. prohibiting ordinary mining operations.[1] Chinese Daoists were interested in sulfur's flammability and its reactivity with certain metals.[1] By the 3rd century. . In 1867. or shiliuhuang that was found in Hanzhong. yet its earliest practical uses were found in traditional Chinese medicine. In 1777 Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element and not a compound. and sulfur. is in fact odorless.[1] A Song Dynasty military treatise of 1044 AD described different formulas for Chinese black powder. Sicily. in which listeners are reminded of the fate of eternal damnation that await the unbelieving and unrepentant. which is a mixture of potassium nitrate (KNO3). from rotten egg. sulvari.

notable for its peculiar suffocating odor due to dissolving in the mucosa to form dilute sulfurous acid. At higher temperatures. Common oxidation states of sulfur include −2. with the f spelling becoming dominant in the medieval period. so the ph variant does not denote the Greek letter φ. and the Philippines. sulphur. Sulfur in Greek is thion (θείον). Elemental sulfur has only a faint odor. sulfur is a soft. It means brimstone. bright-yellow solid. The simplification of the Latin word's p or ph to an f appears to have taken place towards the end of the classical period. Sulfur forms stable compounds with all elements except the noble gases. IUPAC adopted the spelling “sulfur” in 1990. along with the rest of the Caribbean and Ireland. The crystallography of sulfur is complex. Depending on the specific conditions. but sulfur in the United States. Sulfur in the solid state ordinarily exists as cyclic crown-shaped S8 molecules. X-ray crystallography studies show that the amorphous form may have a helical structure with eight atoms per turn.[5][6] [edit] Characteristics At room temperature.[4] In Latin. whence comes the prefix thio-. but soluble in carbon disulfide — and to a lesser extent in other non-polar organic solvents such as benzene and toluene. Sulfur itself is insoluble in water. New Zealand. however. most of the Commonwealth including India. Canada. Malaysia. and sulfur (the Oxford Latin Dictionary lists the spellings in this order). The odor associated with rotten eggs is due to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and organic sulfur compounds rather than elemental sulfur. +4 and +6. with rhombic and monoclinic S8 best known. This form is metastable at room temperature and gradually reverts back to crystalline form. South Africa. +2. The molten sulfur assumes a dark red color above this temperature. Amorphous or "plastic" sulfur can be produced through the rapid cooling of molten sulfur. A noteworthy property of sulfur is that its viscosity in its molten state. similar to that of matches. Sulfur burns with a blue flame that emits sulfur dioxide. It is an original Latin name and not a Classical Greek loan. as did the Royal Society of Chemistry Nomenclature Committee in 1992[3] and the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority for England and Wales recommended its use in 2000. This process happens within a matter of hours to days but can be rapidly catalyzed. the sulfur allotropes form several distinct crystal structures.[edit] Spelling and etymology The element has traditionally been spelled sulphur in the United Kingdom (since the 14th Century)[2]. the viscosity is decreased as depolymerization occurs. [edit] Allotropes . unlike most other liquids. the word is variously written sulpur. while both spellings are used in Australia. increases above temperatures of 200 °C due to the formation of polymers. and Hong Kong.

sulfate is derived mostly from the atmosphere. It has a half-life of 87 days. and 36S (0. the radioactive isotopes of sulfur are all short lived. weathering of ore minerals and evaporites also contribute some sulfur. but also S7 and small amounts of S6. more than any other element. isotopic equilibration among solids and liquid may cause small differences in the δS-34 values of co-genetic minerals. Other than 35S.[7] Besides S8. The differences between minerals can be used to estimate the temperature of equilibration. Rocky Mountain lakes thought to be dominated by atmospheric sources of sulfate have been found to have different δS34 values from lakes believed to be dominated by watershed sources of sulfate. and enriched sulfur has been added as a tracer in hydrologic studies. Selenium.21%). the heavier analogue of sulfur. including S12 and S18. [edit] Occurrence . Main article: Allotropes of sulfur Sulfur forms more than 30 solid allotropes.02%). 34S (4. When sulfide minerals are precipitated. In most forest ecosystems.02%).[9] Larger rings have been prepared. S8.[10][11] By contrast. sulfur's lighter neighbor oxygen only exists in two states of allotropic significance: O2 and O3. Sulfur with a distinctive isotopic composition has been used to identify pollution sources.[8] Removing one atom from the crown gives S7. which is more deeply yellow than S8. several other rings are known. [edit] Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of sulfur Sulfur has 18 isotopes. four of which are stable: 32S (95. The δC-13 and δS-34 of coexisting carbonates and sulfides can be used to determine the pH and oxygen fugacity of the ore-bearing fluid during ore formation. can form rings but is more often found as a polymer chain. 35S is formed from cosmic ray spallation of 40argon in the atmosphere. 33S (0.75%). Differences in the natural abundances can also be used in systems where there is sufficient variation in the 34S of ecosystem components. HPLC analysis of "elemental sulfur" reveals an equilibrium mixture of mainly S8.The structure of the cyclooctasulfur molecule.

alunite (potassium aluminium sulfate). and from bacterial action on decaying sulfur-containing organic matter. New Zealand Elemental sulfur can be found near hot springs and volcanic regions in many parts of the world. Sicily is also famous for its sulfur mines. such as pyrite (iron sulfide). gas. Chile. especially gypsum. and the sulfates. and barite (barium sulfate). such as from hydrothermal vents.Sulfur crystallites at Waiotapu hot springs.C. However. Poland. The sulfur in these deposits is believed to come from the action of anaerobic bacteria on sulfate minerals. galena (lead sulfide). such as gypsum (calcium sulfate). especially along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Turkmenistan. B. and in evaporites in eastern Europe and western Asia. fossil-based sulfur deposits from salt domes are the basis for commercial production in the United States. Such volcanic deposits are currently mined in Indonesia. It occurs naturally in volcanic emissions. although apparently native sulfur may be produced by geological processes alone. stockpiled for shipment at Vancouver. without the aid of living organisms (see below). cinnabar (mercury sulfide). and Japan. sphalerite (zinc sulfide) and stibnite (antimony sulfide). and Ukraine.huge stockpiles of sulfur now exist throughout Alberta. Sulfur recovered from hydrocarbons in Alberta. Sulfur production through hydrodesulfurization of oil. Common naturally occurring sulfur compounds include the sulfide minerals. and the Athabasca Oil Sands has produced a surplus . . Significant deposits of elemental sulfur also exist in salt domes along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Canada. Russia.

was used in ancient times to get sulfur from rocks present in volcanic regions. Or the sulfide is produced by biological sulfate reduction. This solid sulfur is removed from the reactor. are from various forms of molten. the heat melts the sulfur deposits. In this method. and which needs no further purification. In this process. hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from natural gas or refinery gas is absorbed with a slight alkaline solution in a wet scrubber. The molten sulfur can then be collected in wooden buckets. This process has been built on commercial scale. solid and gaseous sulfur. In the subsequent process step. Sulfur in meteorites is normally present entirely as troilite (FeS).The distinctive colors of Jupiter's volcanic moon. The second process used to obtain sulfur is the Frasch process. There is also a dark area near the Lunar crater Aristarchus that may be a sulfur deposit. which serves to create foam and pressure. and possibly other sulfur compounds. and with airspaces between them. [edit] Biologically In the biological route. Then powdered sulfur is put on top of the sulfur deposit and ignited. which was first used in Sicily. Ordinary chondrites contain on average 2. and carbonaceous chondrites may contain as much as 6.6%. sulfates.[13] The Frasch process produces sulfur with a 99. the dissolved sulfide is biologically converted to elemental sulfur.[12] [edit] Extraction and production [edit] Extraction from natural resources Sulfur is extracted by mainly two processes: the Sicilian process and the Frasch process. and the innermost pipe is filled with hot compressed air. As the sulfur burns. The resulting sulfur foam is then expelled through the middle pipe. causing the molten sulfur to flow down the sloping hillside.1% sulfur. three concentric pipes are used: the outermost pipe contains superheated water. Io. Sulfur is present in many types of meteorites. the sulfur deposits are piled and stacked in brick kilns built on sloping hillsides. which melts the sulfur. The main advantages of this process are: . The Sicilian process. but other sulfides are found in some meteorites. [edit] Production from hydrogen sulfide [edit] Chemically The Claus process is used to extract elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide produced in hydrodesulfurization of petroleum or from natural gas.5% purity content. and carbonaceous chondrites contain free sulfur. The sulfur produced by the Sicilian process must be purified by distillation.

it is the fuel of Hell. this form is now general in the United States. Asparagus. . sulphur is known as Schwefel. Although resisted by technical users. I shall use this spelling here in the interests of tradition and universality. rubber and salt domes are prominent in the lore of sulphur Contents i. it was attracted into the form "sulphur" in late classical Latin. and in Spanish azufre." The American Chemical Society.Sulphur Molecular chains. also means "divinity" and was derived from s. ii. and in Greek. Introduction Physical Properties of Sulphur Chemical Properties of Sulphur Mineralogy of Sulphur Uses of Sulphur References Introduction Sulphur was known in antiquity. Sulphate is solfato in Italian. Bernstein. the p often changed to ph in Latin words of Greek origin. which is simply the Welsh spelling of the sound of the English word. means "amber. and sulfato in Spanish." which is the spelling that usually appears in Latin dictionaries. In Latin. it is sylffur. it was called sulpur. indeed. but was not yet the "f" sound. who is often shown with a handful of lightning bolts. In German. and is the same in all languages. as zwavel. It was considered the embodiment of fire. however. vi. with a similar etymology." "Schwefel" comes from roots expressing "slow-burning. A "p" in Latin was used to represent φ in words borrowed from Greek in the times when it was pronounced with a puff of air. decreed that "sulfur" was to be the accepted form in the United States. v. which referred to Zeus. since Spanish orthography tries to represent the spoken sound accurately. where phosphorus is fósforo. "burn. Dalton's symbol is shown in the heading. iii. it is soufre. The spelling was altered in medieval times to "sulfur. though sulphur is still occasionally seen. and related to lightning. In the rest of the world. In Welsh. The English word is taken directly from Latin. in Dutch. at a time when spelling simplification was in vogue. in fact. In French. traditionally in the form "sulphur. Although "sulpur" had no Greek roots. in Italian zolfo." The chemical symbol for sulphur is S." from the Middle English brinnen." In German." not "sulphur. when the "f" sound was used. The old name brimstone is from "burning stone. Later. In Christian mythology. should be aspharagus. The Greek name. it is still sulphur. . iv.

The Lewis diagram suggests this. It forms a crown-shaped molecule with 4 atoms on top and 4 atoms on the bottom. If one electron is transferred from one end to the other. while oxygen. schematically. the electron distribution makes one end polar and the other negative. However.1 nm. If two electrons are added to this molecule. left to their own devices. Sulphur does not form S2 with a double bond." oxygen O. its atomic weight 32. This would solve the problems of the terminal atoms. and their oxides form acidic solutions in water. but if possible can acquire two electrons for an argonic structure. In the diagram. selenium Se and tellurium Te. This shows that the size of the covalent sulphur atom is close to 0. There is a little steric interaction between nonbonded atoms. with six valence electrons outside a neon core.is stable in aqueous solution. and the bond length is 0. sulphur S.052%. The end atom is always in an awkward position. and this S2 molecule is found in the vapor at high temperatures. Sulphur naturally forms chains if left to itself. The first ionization potential of the atom is 10. each one sharing one of its electron pairs with the preceding atoms. the result is the disulphide ion. . There is also a less-stable ring of 6 atoms. thermal agitation is constantly breaking and reassembling chains.405 V. to the amount of 0.208 nm. where the polar water reduces the energy penalty of the charge. of course. and produce a stable structure. or "ore-formers.Physical Properties of Sulphur Sulphur is one of the chalcogenides. To a lesser degree. The bond angles in these structures are expected to be 90°. so the atom holds its electrons quite strongly. and form long chains. The atomic number of sulphur is 16. One result of this are the polysulfide ions Sx-. it completes the stable argonic structure. which is also stable in aqueous solution.07. Sulphur atoms can aggregate further. Lewis electron diagrams are shown for sulphur in the diagram. Selenium and tellurium are much scarcer. so combining ends would attract one another. rotated relatively by 45°. If a neutral atom gains two electrons. so they gradually assume the most stable state for the particular temperature. is very abundant. -(CH2)n-. the second 23. All are nonmetals. the ends are alike but still act like free radicals. each of these atoms prefers a 3-dimensional structure. Both these ions form salts with metals that are disposed to furnish the two electrons.that are easily made. Silicon forms chains with intermediate oxygen atoms. that occupy column VIA of the periodic table. as oxygen does. so the bond angle is stretched to 102°. It is clear that a sulphur chain could bite its own tail and become a ring. There is free rotation about a bond. since p orbitals are involved. The electronic structure of S has an important effect on the forms in which it exists. The smallest ring that has no strains consists of 8 atoms. In any sample of sulphur. It is the 15th element in order of abundance in the lithosphere. but chain-forming is one of the outstanding peculiarities of sulphur. selenium also can make chains. S2--. -Si-O-Si-O-. Two sulphur atoms can make a "coordinate covalent" single bond.357 V. The sulphur ion S-. The yellow color of sulphur is probably due to a small number of thermally-generated unterminated chains. and its electron configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p4. and carbon forms chains if hydrogen satisfies the extra valences.

40 cal/mol.97 and melts at 119°C. and 129 lb/cu. it becomes a rubbery mass of tangled chains.The S8 molecule is stable. It is not easy to measure resistivities this large. S.ft.06 Melting Point : 112. The specific heat of α-S is 5. orthorhombic α-sulphur and monoclinic β-sulphur. Each melts to a straw-yellow liquid of density 1. This was called amorphous sulphur. If the liquid is heated further. Balls of sulphur were the preferred material for static electricity generators. 0.808 called λ-sulphur. Below 96°. and especially compared with metals. needle-like monoclinic crystals form.667 degC Relative Density : 2. but is really a kind of glass. Later. There is apparently also an S12 molecule. β-S has a density of 1. The S8 rings are thermally broken. and adsorbs moisture more readily. respectively)..07 and melts at 113°C. and exists in solid.07 Although sulphur is in the same group in the periodic table as oxygen. liquid and gaseous sulphur. The coefficient of thermal expansion of α-S is 64 x 10-6 per °C. Two crystalline forms compete. however. When the temperature falls below 96°. at about 200°C it darkens to a reddish color and becomes viscous. If the liquid is cooled slowly.8 degC Boiling Point : 444. which is shown by their becoming cloudy. They were introduced by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg. is not generally best for thermal insulation. A specimen of crystalline orthorhombic sulphur is shown at the right (© Amethyst Galleries). and recombine to form long chains. On standing. I believe. with a resistivity of about 2 x 1023 μΩcm. Sulphur Sulphur. The low values are consistent with the low electrical conductivity. Sulphur. This may also be the explanation of the yellow color of sulphur. These are low figures for materials of equivalent density (122 lb/cu.277 J/m-s-K. the orthorhombic form is more stable.156 J/m-s-K. The reason for this large resistivity is probably the electron traps produced by thermal breaking of S8 rings. called μ-sulphur. α-S has a density of 2. but it is much more conductive than sulphur. which means that electronattracting terminal atoms are always present. which is called (I think) γ-sulphur. but it is a fairly narrow thing. these crystals slowly change to orthorhombic microcrystals. and of β-S.      Atomic Number : 16 Relative Atomic Mass : 32. and conversions between the two forms are slow. it eventually reverts to S8 and crystallizes. The dark color is due to the free valences at the ends of the chains. S6 molecules make rhombohedral crystals. If this dark sulphur is suddenly cooled by being poured into water. Sulphur is the best electrical insulating material known. glass was used. there are more differences in the chemical characteristics of these elements than .ft. is a yellow nonmetallic main group element belonging to the Group VIb of the periodic table. The thermal conductivity of α-S is 0.

including o gelena. sulphur displays valences of four (in sulphur dioxide. Sb2S3. and o iron pyrites. Extraction .Fe2S3. sulphur exists in polymeric forms. six (in thionyl chloride. HgS. In the elemental state. o zinc blende. Cu2S.there are similarities. socl2) and eight (in sulphur hexafluoride. The important sulphate ores include o gypsum. Occurrence     Sulphur is widely distributed as the free element and combined in compounds. Sulphur is found near volcanoes. SF8). and o heavy spar. SO2). and is described in the Bible. Sulphur has been used by the Greeks and Romans as a fumigant and disinfectant. and is present in some amino-acids. Fe2S. CaSO4. o cinnebar. o copper pyrites. ZnS. o stibnite. where it is formed by the reaction of sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide which are associated with the volcanoes. Discovery   Sulphur has been known since the beginning of history. Sulphur also occurs in many metal ores. while oxygen always displays a valency of two. BaSO4. Sulphur is an essential element for living organisms. Thus. PbS.

when long prismatic needles form on the walls of the container that can be separated from the still molten liquid by pouring off the latter.  Sulphur is separated from the minerals in its ores by heating. Sulphur is extracted from underground ore bodies in the United States using the Frasch Process. is a yellow crystalline solid. X-ray investigation shows this form to consist of eight sulphur atoms in the molecule in a ring structure. part of the sulphur in the ore is burned and the heat used to melt the remaining sulphur so that it leaches from the hot mass. Plastic Sulphur . is a yellow crystalline solid. Normally. This extraction procedure called the Gill Process. Monoclinic Sulphur Monoclinic Sulphur which is also known as Prismatic Sulphur or betaSulphur. but arranged within the crystal in a different manner to that in rhombic sulphur. when the liquid sulphur drains from the ore body. which crystallises from a solution in carbon disulphide. and it is widely used in Sicily. Several liquid forms are also known. X-ray investigation shows this form to consist of eight sulphur atoms in the molecule in a ring structure. which is obtained by allowing molten sulphur to solidify. where superheated water is pumped underground to melt the sulphur which is then forces to the surface. Rhombic Sulphur Rhombic Sulphur which is also known as Octahedral Sulphur or alphaSulphur. Preparation Properties Sulphur occurs in a large number of allotropic forms in the solid state.

Reactions               Sulphur burns readily in air forming sulphur dioxide. On standing it slowly crystallises.Plastic Sulphur which is also known as gamma-Sulphur. S + H2 ==> H2S Sulphur dissolves in caustic alkali solutions forming sulphides and thiosulphates. S + O2 ==> SO2 Sulphur reacts with hydrogen gas when the latter is bubbles through molten sulphur near its boiling point. Amorphous Sulphur Amorphous Sulphur is the insoluble white amorphous solid that remains when flowers of sulphur are extracted with carbon disulphide. Colloidal Sulphur Colloidal Sulphur which is also known as delta-Sulphur. is a tough elastic substance that is formed when molten sulphur is poured into cold water. 4 S + 6 NaOH ==> Na2S2O3 + 2 Na2S + 3 H2O Uses Sulphur is an important industrial raw material which is used  in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. is a yellow crystalline solid. .

Index Hypertext Copyright (c) 2000 Donal O'Leary.. Atomic number Atomic mass Electronegativity according to Pauling Density Melting point Boiling point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Isotopes Electronic shell Energy of first ionisation Energy of second ionisation Energy of tird ionisation 16 32. abundant.mol-1 Standard potential Discovered by . and in the manufacture of organic chemicals which contain sulphur. Depending on the specific .51 V The ancients Sulphur Sulphur is a multivalent non-metal.cm -3 at 20 °C 113 °C 445 °C 0. frequently compare to rotten eggs.mol -1 2. Elements .. In nature it occurs as the pure element or as sulfide and sulfate minerals...06 g.0. In its native form sulphur is a yellow crystalline solid. All Rights Reserved.mol -1 3357 kJ.5 2.127 nm 0..184 (-2) nm .  in the manufacture of sulphur dioxide and sodium sulphite which are used for bleaching straw and wood fibers. Start of Hypertext .. The crystallography of sulphur is complex..mol -1 2252 kJ.029 (+6) 5 [Ne] 3s23p4 999. and for removing lignin from wood pulp for the paper industry.. tasteless and and odorless. Although sulphur is infamous for its smell.3 kJ.. 0. that odor is actually characteristic of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Compounds .07 g.

one of the most important elements used as an industrial raw material. Elemental sulphur is not toxic. Sulphur occurs naturally near volcanoes. It is especially important for humans because it is part of the amino acid methionine. fungicides. Sulphur is also used in batteries. Other applications are making corrosion-resistant concrete which has great strength and is forst resistant. Health effects of sulphur All living things need sulphur. galena is lead sulphide. gun power. Conditions in the early seas were such that simple chemical reactions could have generate the range of amino acids that are the building blocks of life. mainly in the form of protein. mostly when substances . Sulphur in the environment Life on Earth may have been possible because of sulphur.conditions. sulphide ores are chalcopyrite. Many sulphide minerals are known: pyrite and marcaiste are iron sulphide . Applications The major derivative of sulphur is sulphuric acid (H2SO4). These damaging sulphur bonds are also shaped in nature during various reactions. which is an absolute dietary requirement for us. for solvents and in a host of other products of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide. as well as humans. penlandite. During several processes sulfur bonds are added to the environment that are damaging to animals. The amino acid cysteine also contains sulphur. Native sulphur occurs naturally as massive deposits in Texas and Louisiana in the USA. millerite and molybdenite. matches and fireworks. bornite. Canada is the main producer. but many simple sulphur derivates are. sulphur allotropes form several distinct crystal structures. The average person takes in around 900 mg of sulphur per day. manufacture of fertilizers. stibnite is antimony sulphide. Other. The chief source of sulphur for industry is the hydrogen sulphide of natural gas. more important. Sulfur can be found commonly in nature as sulphides. cinnabar is mercury sulphide and sphalerite is zinc sulphide. detergents.

Hearing defects . Sulfur is applied in industries widely and emitted to air. Laboratory tests with test animals have indicated that sulfur can cause serious vascular damage in veins of the brains.Damage to liver and kidney functions .Heart damage . It can cause irritations of the eyes and the throat with animals.that are not naturally present have already been added. the heart and the kidneys.Reproductive failure . Globally sulphuric substances can have the following effects on human health: .Damage to immune systems . Mothers can even carry sulfur poisoning over to their children through mother milk.Stomach and gastrointestinal disorder . .Dermatological effects .Suffocation and lung embolism Effects of sulphur on the environment Sulfur can be found in the air in many different forms. They are unwanted because of their unpleasant smells and are often highly toxic.Disturbance of blood circulation . The damaging effects of sulfur with animals are mostly brain damage. These tests have also indicated that certain forms of sulfur can cause foetal damage and congenital effects. through malfunctioning of the hypothalamus. when the uptake takes place through inhalation of sulfur in the gaseous phase. due to the limited possibilities of destruction of the sulfur bonds that are applied.Effects on eyes and eyesight . and damage to the nervous system.Neurological effects and behavioural changes .Disturbance of the hormonal metabolism .

Finally. sulfur can damage the internal enzyme systems of animals .