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By Hambeh S. T. Abikoye O. E. Ogundele S. O.

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Preface

This book is written principally for student of engineering in the Polytechnics and Universities. It is aimed at proper understanding of the concepts of Mechanical Engineering Science (Dynamics) which will provide strong theoretical background for future courses in engineering and the physical sciences. The language is simple to understand and relevant to student discipline. International systems of units are employed except where stated. Its hope that this book will provide a solid foundation for the understanding of advanced courses in mechanical engineering such as: Mechanics of Machine, Strength of Materials and Design. Hambeh S. T.

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Table of Contents

Preface Chapter One 1.0 Dynamics 1.1 Linear Motion 1.2 Newton’s Laws of Motion 1.3 Angular Motion Chapter Two 2.0 Friction 2.1 Solid Friction 2.2 Determination of the Coefficient of Friction 2.3 Lubrication Chapter Three 3.0 Work, Power and Energy 3.1 Work 3.2 Power 3.3 Energy Chapter Four 4.0 Principles of Simple Machines 4.1 Machines 4.2 Mechanical Advantages, Velocity (or Movement) Ratio and Efficiency 4.3 The Lever 4.4 The Wheel and Axle 4.5 The Inclined Plane 4.6 The Screw and The Screw-Jack 4.7 Pulleys 4.8 Belt and Chain Drives 4.9 Gear Wheels Chapter Five 5.0 Stress and Strain iii ii 5 5 18 22

35 35 39 40

42 42 45 48

51 51 51 53 54 55 56 58 61 63

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8 Proof Stress References 66 66 67 69 69 71 72 73 77 iv .4 Hooke’s Law 5.1 Stress 5.6 Stress – Strain Graph for Mild Steel 5.7 Percentage Elongation 5.3 Tensile Test on a Steel Wire 5.5.2 Strain 5.5 Modulus of Elasticity (Direct) or Young’s Modulus 5.

The unit of displacement is same as that of distance. its average speed is 48km/hr. 1.1 DISPLACEMENT Displacement from elementary physics was defined as distance measured in a specified direction. the metre (m). 1. dynamics deals with motion and forces acting on a body. A body has constant speed only if it moves over equal distances in equal intervals of time how-ever short the intervals.1 LINEAR MOTION 1. the average speed. Distance is independent of the path followed and of the time taken. distance is a scalar quantity while displacement is a vector quantity.Chapter One 1.1. v metes per sec is given by v . and the unit of time can also be any convenient value such as an hour. thus.2 SPEED Speed is distance traveled per unit time. If a motor car travels a distance of 48km in one hour.1. The average speed of a body is the total distance divided by the time. if a body travels a distance x metres in t seconds. but it is extremely unlikely that the car will travel at exactly this speed during the whole hour. Its speed will be at times higher and at other times lower than this value. kilometer etc. The distance can be expressed in any convenient unit such as metre. It is different from distance in that. In this section we shall be dealing with motion of particles and the forces acting on them.0 DYNAMICS Unlike static. a minute or a second.

e. vi .1.1 GRAPHS RELATING DISTANCE. TIME AND SPEED The relationship between distance and time and between speed and time can usefully be represented by simple groups as shown below: 100 80 Distance(m) 60 40 20 0 Speed(m/s) 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 20 Time (S) (a) (b) 1. 1.3 meters/second………1.V = x (meters) = x T (seconds) t 1.1.1 (a) is a graph showing the distance traveled during a period of 20secs by a body moving at constant speed.3. The slope of this straight line graph calculated in terms of the units used for the two axes is 100m divided by 20secs i. 1.1 DISTANCE/TIME AND SPEED/TIME GRAPHS FOR CONSTANTand Speed / Time Graphs For Fig. 5m/s and therefore represent the speed at which the body is moving.1 Distance / Time SPEED Constant Speed Fig.

2. 1.2 DISTANCE/TIME AND SPEED/TIME GRAPHS FOR VARYING SPEED 100 Distance (m) 80 60 40 20 0 8 6 A C B (a) Speed (m) 4 2 (b) Fig.2 (a) is a distance/time graph for aTime (sec) body which travels a distance of 100m in 20sec at varying speeds.1 (b) = (speed in metre / second) x (time in seconds) = 5 (m/s) x 20 (sec) = 100m = distance traveled. The average 1.3. The area shaded as shown in fig. 1. The initial for final speeds are zero: consequently the slopes of the graph varying speed at the beginning and the end of the period must be zero. 1. 1.2 Distance/Time and Speed/Time Graphsand the Fig.The horizontal line AB in Fig. The vii 0 5 10 15 20 . speed is 100m/ 20 sec =5m/s.1.1 (b) is a graph representing the constant speed of 5m/s derived from fig.1 (a).

1m/s.6 m/s.3.6m/s AC (10 – 2. Slope of AB = BC = 42 (m) = 5.5) (sec) Similarly. the simplest method of determining the average speed is by means of mid-ordinates.2 (a) the speed/time graph of fig. Hence the total area enclosed by the speed /time graph of fig. 1. so that the distance traveled during that 1 second = 5.2 (b) can be derived.slope at any immediate distance is obtained by drawing a tangent to the graph at that instant: For example at 5 seconds. 1.5 sec. If the only information available about the movement of a body was the speed/time graph such as that shown in fig.5 sec to 5. by drawing tangents at various points of the distance/time graph of fig.2 (b). it is found that the slope of the graph between 7 seconds and 13 seconds is constant at about 7. During the 1 second from 4. Thus. 1. the tangent is shown by the line AB. Similarly for all the thin strips into which we might divide the area under the graph. 1. 1. viii . and is represented by the area of the shaded strip in fig.6m.2 (b) represents the total distance traveled. the average speed is practically 5.

if the base line is divided into say 6 equal lengths. 1. etc are drawn and measured. as in fig. speed is a scalar quantity. then. if a car is traveling in a northern direction at a speed of 40 ix .4 LINEAR VELOCITY The speed of a body can be stated without any reference to the direction of movement of that body. the quantity is then termed the velocity of the body.3. and the mid-ordinates V1. V. If however.3 Thus.Speed s V2 V1 V3 V4 V5 V6 Time Fig.1. 1. Average speed. Consequently. 1. the more accurate the result. = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 + V5 + V6 6 If t be the length of the base of the speed/time graph Distance traveled = area enclosed by graph = average speed X time = vt The larger the number of ordinates used. V2. we specify the direction of motion as well as the speed of the body.

kilometres / hour. then. Suppose that the velocity of a train on a straight horizontal track increases by 1. and the variation of velocity with time can be represented by the straight line OA in fig. Since the velocity has both magnitude and direction. the velocity is said to be 40km/h northwards. 1.5m/s etc until at the end of 20sec the velocity is 30m/s.1 10 EQUATIONS OF UNIFORMLY x 0 Time(s) Fig. it is a vector quantity and can be represented by a straight line drawn to scale in the direction of velocity.1. then at the end of 1 second the speed is 1.5m/s. It follows that acceleration can be defined as the rate of change of velocity: and when the rate of change remains constant.4. Retardation may be regarded as negative acceleration. from standstill until the train attains a speed of 30m/s. 1.5 ACCELERATION When the velocity of a body is increasing. at the end of the third second it is 4. as in fig.4 . the body is said to be accelerating. Velocity (m/s) 30 A 20 1.5m/s every second. If a body travels a distance x in a constant direction in time t.1. whereas if the velocity is decreasing. at the end of the next second it is 3m/s. V = x/t ……………………………….2 And the speed and velocity are numerically the same. 1.. the acceleration is said to be uniform. 1.4 Uniform Acceleration . 1.5. and if v is the average velocity. the body is said to be retarding (or decelerating).

the symbol being m/s2.. it is represented by the straight line AB in xi . 2.e. a = rate of change of velocity = Change of Velocity Time =v–u t Therefore.…………………1. Velocity B at A C u t 0 Time D Fig. metres per second squared. 1.5. v = u + at ………………. if the acceleration is represented by the symbol a.5 Uniform Accelerated Change of velocity = v – u and acceleration.3 If u and v are expressed in metre/second and t is in seconds. i. and suppose the velocity to increase at a uniform rate to v in time t: then. as shown in fig. then the acceleration is in metres per seconds every second.ACCELERATED MOTION Suppose the initial velocity of a body moving in a straight line to be u. Since the velocity is assumed to vary at a uniform rate between u and v.

fig.1.2 ACCELERATION OF A FALLING BODY When a body falls. but this difference is due to the relatively large surface of the feather so that the air resistance is comparatively large.3). namely ½ (u + v). 1. 1. 1. 1. It is well known that feather falls less rapidly than a piece of metal. (1. hence.5 It should be noted that in the above expressions. thus: v2 = (u + at)2 = u2 + 2uat + (at)2 = u2 + 2a (ut + ½at2) 2 v = u2 + 2ax ………………………………. The pull with which a body is attracted towards the earth’s centre is referred to as gravitational force. It was Sir Isaac Newton who first proved experimentally that all bodies fall with the same acceleration so long as their movement is not impeded by any resistance.5. The acceleration of a freely falling body is referred to as the acceleration due to gravity and is represented by the xii .4 We can derive an expression for v in terms of u. if x represents the distance traveled we have: x = average velocity X time = ½ (u + v) t Substituting the value v from eqn. the force of attraction between the body and the earth causes its velocity to increase. He dropped a feather and a coin in a long vertical glass tube from which practically all the air had been extracted and showed that they fall at the same rate. The average velocity is the mean of u and v. we have x = ½ (u + u + at) t x = ut + ½ at2 …………………………. a is positive when the body is accelerating and negative when it is retarding.5.3) and then substituting the value of x from eqn (1.4). a and x by squaring the two sides of eqn (1.

780m/s2 at the equator.81m/s2. the value of g is about 9. we shall limit our discussion of relative velocity to velocities in.symbol of g. the value of g is almost exactly 9. 1. If a train A is traveling. while to an observer on A. at sea level. i. say. then from equation (1. To an observer in the second train.4) x = average velocity X time = ½ vt = ½ gt2 ………………. falls freely for time t. To an observer in xiii . or parallel to a single straight line.8 1. Consequently. A would appear to be traveling at 30 km/h eastward. Similarly we sometimes speak of the velocity of one body relative to the earth. east at 80 km/h. For simplicity..5) v = √2gx ………………………. initially at rest.6 If x is the distance traveled. the first train is moving at: 80 – 50 = 30 km/h. In London.7 and from equation (1. then relative to a second train B traveling east at 50 km/h on a parallel track. we think of the rate of displacement as if the earth were at rest.e. which is itself moving at a high speed. train B would appear to be traveling westward at 30 km/h.6 RELATIVE VELOCITY When we speak of the velocity of a body.832m/s 2 at the poles and about 9.1. we generally mean its velocity relative to the earth. It follows from equation (1. If the second train B had been traveling westward at 50 km/h. the first train A would be traveling eastward relative to the second train at: 80 – (-50) = 130 km/h And would appear to be traveling eastward at 130 km/h to an observer in the second train B.3) that if a body. 1. owing to the radius of the earth being slightly smaller at the north and south poles than it is at the equator. the gravitational pull is slightly higher at the poles than it is at the equator. the final velocity v is given by V = gt……………………………… 1.

6 where vector OA represents the air velocity of 80 km/h eastern relative to the ground. 1.1. and vector AB represents the plane velocity of 500 km/h northern relative to the air. We can represent these two velocities vectorially as in Fig. Under such circumstance the plane will still be traveling at 500 km/h north ward relative to the air. train B would appear to be traveling Westward at 130 km/h. xiv .A. 1.7 RESULTANT OF TWO VELOCITIES Suppose an aero plane to be flying at a constant velocity such that in perfectly still air it would travel north ward at 500 km/h relative to the ground and suppose the air to have a constant velocity of 80 km/h in an eastern direction relative to the ground.

1.6 it will be seen that: OB = √(OA2 + AB2) = √(802 + 5002) = 506Km/h If is the angle between OB and AB.e. Consequently the vector OB gives the resultant velocity also relative to the ground i. xv . From fig. relative to the object we regard as stationary.6 Resultant of two velocities The vector sum of OA and AB is OB i.e. OB represents the velocity of the aero plane relative to the ground. It will be noted that we started from point O with the vector OA representing a velocity component relative to the ground. 1.B 500km/h O A 80km/h Fig.

however.7 and suppose to be the angle between the directions of the two velocities. 1. Let us now consider the general case of a body possessing two simultaneous velocities represented by vectors OA and AB in Fig. 1.7 Resultant of two velocities If both the magnitude and the direction of the resultant velocity is required. B O A Fig. Double arrow heads have been inserted on OB to indicate that it represents the resultant of two velocities. The resultant velocity is the vector sum of OA and AB. this can be calculated from the relationship. 1.10 East of North. namely OB in Fig. only the magnitude of the resultant is required. If. the length of OB and the value of angle . OB = √(OA2 + AB2 + 2 X OA X AB Cos) xvi .Tan = OA/AB = 80/500 = 0.7. in a direction 9. the simplest method at this stage is to draw the diagram to a large scale and measure.16 0 = 9.1 Hence the resultant velocity of the aero plane is 506 Km/h.

this velocity can be resolved into a horizontal component OA and a vertical component AB. In practice. 1. B O 900 A Fig. if vector OB in Fig.1. xvii .8 Resolution of Velocity into Rectangular Components say a. Thus. cricket ball is thrown into the air. in which case they are referred to as rectangular components.1.8 RESOLUTION OF A VELOCITY INTO TWO COMPONENT VELOCITIES A velocity can be resolved into two components. 1. the directions of the components are generally specified. and these directions are usually at right angles to each other. If be the angle between OA and the horizontal component. The procedure is similar to the resolution of forces.8 represents the magnitude and direction of the velocity with which. the only condition being that the resultant of the two vectors representing the component velocities must be the same in magnitude and direction as the vector representing the original velocity.

9 And.2. In dynamics.1 FIRST LAW OF MOTION A body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled by an external force to change that state. i. but of far greater importance is the fact that a force changes the motion of a body.e. Hence.10 NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION A force may. The three laws can be stated as follow: 1. this change in motion is used to define a force. these laws are axioms in dynamics. Momentum = mv Mass has no direction and is therefore a scalar quantity.2. we may define a force as any push or pull which changes or tends to change the state of rest of a body or its uniform motion in a straight line. momentum must also be a vector quantity. From this law.. and the change is accounted for in Newton’s three laws of motion: these laws are the foundations of classical dynamics and were first stated in Newton’s famous book Principia in 1687.……….2 1. in static be defined by the change in configuration if produces by a standard body.Horizontal Component of the Velocity = OA = OB Cos …………………. A body will not change its state of rest or of uniform in a straight line unless compelled to do so. 1. and a vector which represents the velocity xviii . but velocity has magnitude and direction and is therefore a vector quantity. it resists any change of velocity in magnitude or direction. 1. Vertical Component of the Velocity = AB = OB Sin ……………………………. 1.e. This law may be called the ‘law of inertia’. a force also produces changes in a body.3 MOMENTUM This is the name given to the product of the Mass m of a body and its Velocity v i.

2. in Kilograms.11. Initial Momentum = mv1 And final Momentum = mv2 Therefore.12 EXAMPLE A diesel engine pulling a train along a level track has its oil supply cut off when the train is traveling at 60km/h. represent the momentum of that body. It follows that if F be the force. 1. to a different scale. in Newton. a = 1m/s2 and F = 1N in expression 1. the rate of change of momentum is proportional to the force and takes place in the direction of the force.11 The SI Unit of Force is the Newton and it is defined as the force required to give a mass of 1kg an acceleration of 1m/s2. If a force F acts upon a body of Mass m for a Time t and causes its velocity in the direction of the force to increase form v1 to v2. in metres per second squared. It is xix . substituting m = 1kg. acceleration a. In order to give a value of one for the constant. 1. then.4 SECOND LAW OF MOTION When a body is acted upon by an external force. from Newton’s Second Law. F = ma……………………………………. Values of momentum can therefore be added and resolved vectorically in the same way as for velocity.. required to give a mass m. 1. average rate of change of Momentum = (mv2 – mv1)/t = m (v2 – v1)/t = ma a = average acceleration during time t Hence.of a body can also. F ma = ma x a constant ………………………. 1[N] = 1[Kg] x 1[m/s2] x a constant Hence the constant is unity. we have. This law is in effect the definition of a force in respect to its effect on a body.

2. calculate the total force resisting motion.0642m/s2 Mass of train = 80Mg = 80.000(m) / 3600(s) = 11. Assuming the retardation to be uniform.136KN 1. then B exerts on A a force of equal magnitude but in opposite direction.5 THIRD LAW OF MOTION To every force. SOLUTION 60km/h = 60.000Kg Since F = ma Retarding Force = 80. Thus. xx .the later force being referred to as the reaction of the support.67m/s 40km/h = 40. This law applies to bodies whether they are at rest or in motion.000(m) / 3600(s) = 16. The mass of the engine and carriages is 80Mg. e. If the tractor is moving at a constant velocity. A exerts a certain force on another body B. If a body. if a beam or other body exerts a certain downward force upon a support. the forward pull exerted by the tractor exactly balances the backward pull of the trailer due to friction and wind resistance.g.11m/s 2 2 From v = u + 2ax (11. there is an equal and opposite force.000[kg] X 0. This law may be stated in another way.11)2 [m/s]2 = (16.observed that the speed falls to 40km/h after the train has traveled a distance of 1200m. Let us look a little more closely at the state of affairs when a motion tractor is pulling a trailer along a level road. the support exerts an equal upward force on the beam .0642[m/s]2 = 5136N = 5. that the backward pull of a trailer on a motor vehicle is equal to the forward pull of the vehicle on the trailer.67)2 [m/s]2 + 2a x 1200[m] a = 0. The fact that this relationship is equally true in regard to two bodies in motion is not so widely realized.

Lowered. If F be the upward pull in Newton. (F – 490. the force available for upward acceleration is (F – 490.5N b. In this case.If. SOLUTION When the mass is stationary or moving at a uniform velocity.5N a.8 = 490. the pull F2 (= ma) required to give the mass m of the trailer an acceleration a. however. a. the forward pull exerted by the tractor exceeds the backward pull due to friction and wind resistance.5m/s2.5) Newton. EXAMPLE A rope supports a mass of 50Kg. in Newton. Hence. If F be the upward pull. the total forward pull exerted by the tractor on the trailer is (F1 + F2) and is exactly equal to the total backward pull exerted by the trailer on the tractor. the forward pull exerted by the tractor may be regarded as being the sum of the following two components: a. the xxi . Another example of the application of Newton’s Third Law is the recoil of a gun firing a bullet or a shell.5[m/s2] so that F = 575.5m/s2.5m/s2. acceleration occurs. Pull on rope = Weight of the mass = 50 X 9. when the mass is being raised with an acceleration of 0. Raised b. with an acceleration of 0.5)[N] = 50[Kg] X 0. the pull F1 required to haul the trailer a constant velocity b. when the mass is being lowered with an acceleration of 0. Hence. Calculate the pull on the rope when the mass is being.

as in Fig. the radius r and the angular subtended .10.5 [m/s2] so that F = 465. 1.5N 1. When the arc xxii .13 Thus.10 The Radian The relationship between the arc length x.1 ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT When a shaft rotates. 1. where One Radian is the angle suspended at the centre of a circle by an arc equal in length to the radius. when the arc length x equals the radius r. (490.force available for downward acceleration is (490. a point on the surface of the shaft moves in a circular path and a line joining the point to the centre of the rotation sweeps out an angle as in Fig. is given by x = r ………………….3 ANGULAR MOTION Angular motion implies motion described in a circular path. This angle is referred to as the ‘Angular Displacement’ of the point. we have x = r = and so is 1 Radian or 1 rad.9 Angular Displacement Fig. Hence.9.5 – F) Newton.. 1. Position Some Time lake r Centre Displacement Angular r Initial Position of point Centre r rad x Fig. 1.3. The unit of Angular Displacement is the Radian. 1.……………………… 1.5 – F)[N] = 50[Kg] X 0.

then as the circumference of a circle is 2πr we have x = 2πr = r and so = 2π rad.2 rad. As one complete revolution is a movement through 3600 we must have 2π rad = 3600 and hence. It is generally easier to remember that 2π rad equals 0 to 360 than 1 rad is 57. SOLUTION Since x = r and the distance moved by the point is the arc length.5rad. the point on the rotating shaft having moved through one complete revolution.5[rad] = 840mm a.80 b. xxiii . distance moved = r = 560[mm] X 1. Calculate the distance moved by a point on the tyre thread of a car wheel of radius 560mm if it rotates through 1. e.2 rad = 1. EXAMPLE If a point on a shaft is given an angular displacement of 1.30. what is the angular displacement in degrees? SOLUTION Since 2π rad = 3600 1 rad = 3600 2π Then 1.g.3 .length is a complete circle.2 X 3600 2π = 68. 1 rad = 3600 2π = 1 rad = 57.

1. even the average angular velocity during that time interval is Average angular velocity ω = ……………. Average angular velocity ω = angular displacement 2πn [rad] Time 1[s] ω = 2πn …………………………………………. n revolutions is an angular displacement of 2πn radians. 1. What is its angular velocity? SOLUTION: Since ω = 2πn and n = 2400 rev/min = 2400 60 xxiv = 40rev/s. since one revolution is an angular displacement of 2π radians. then.. 1. hence. If a point on a rotating shaft takes a time t to rotate through an angle . It is denoted by ω (omega) and has the unit of radian per sec (rad/s). The angular velocity is related to the frequency of rotation.14 t If there is constant angular velocity then equal angular displacements are covered in equal intervals of time – however short the interval. for example. This angular displacement occurs in 1 sec.2 ANGULAR VELOCITY When. It can be said to have an angular velocity.. Angular velocity is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement with time.15 EXAMPLE A flywheel rotates at 2400 rev/min. a shaft is rotating then a point on the shaft surface has an angular displacement which is varying with time.3. Thus if n revolutions are made per second. then .

then the average angular acceleration during that time interval is Average acceleration = (ω1 – ω0)… ………… 2. then the angular velocity is changing by equal amounts in equal intervals of time – however short the interval. what is the average angular acceleration? SOLUTION Since = (ω1 – ω0) t = = (150 – 0) [rad/s] 30[s] 5.3 ANGULAR ACCELRATION When the angular velocity of a body is changing.ω = 2π X 40 = 251 rad/s. Angular acceleration is defined as the rate of change of angular velocity with time. EXAMPLE The angular velocity of a grinding wheel changes from zero to 150 rad/s in 30s. The symbol for angular acceleration is (alpha) and the unit is radian per second square (rad/s2).16 t If there is constant angular acceleration. there is said to be an angular acceleration.3. 1. If the angular velocity of a rotating object changes from ω0 to ω1 in a time interval of t.0 rad/s2 xxv .

is given by x = r and so x = rωt The distance covered round the circular path is x in a time t.3. v= x t Hence. ω= and so = ωt t But the arc length covered in this time.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANGULAR MOTION LINEAR AND B O r x A Fig. 1.11. where.17 xxvi . v = rωt t v = rω ………………………….1. But the distance covered divided by the time taken is the linear speed v for the point on the rim of the wheel. 1. In a time t the radius OA rotates through an angle . x.. as in Fig 1.11 Consider a point on the rim of a wheel of radius r moving with a constant angular velocity ω.

What is the grinding speed at the circumference of the wheel? SOLUTION a. Now consider the motion of a point on the rim of the wheel when the angular velocity is changing and there is an angular acceleration. the average linear acceleration a is given by: a= change in linear velocity time taken a= (v1 – v0) t If ω0 is the angular velocity when the point is at A and ω1 the angular velocity when it is at B.17. then using expression. 1.The linear velocity of a point on the rim of the wheel is numerically equal to the speed but is always directed along the tangent to the rim of the wheel. The point on the rim of the wheel will then have a linear acceleration causing it to accelerate round its circular path. hence. the point on the rim has a linear velocity v0 at point A and this has change to v1 by point B. If for Fig. v0 = rω0 and v1 = rω1 Hence. a = (rω1 – rω0) t a = r (ω1 .ω0) t But the angular acceleration is (ω1 – ω0)/t. (Note that this is a linear tangential acceleration and is not the same as the radial acceleration which is referred to as the centripetal acceleration). 1. eqn. 1. xxvii .11. then as this occurs in a time t. a = r …………………………………………..18 EXAMPLE A grinding wheel has radius of 100mm and rotates at 30 rev/s.

19 During the time interval t the average angular velocity is Average angular velocity = ω0 + ω1 2 Since.525 m/s2 b. what is The average angular acceleration.Since As ω = 2πn ω = 2π X 30 [rev/s] ω = 60π rev/s v = rω v = 0.14 Average angular velocity = /t Then /t = ω0 + ω1 2 xxviii . ii. Equation 1. EQUATIONS OF ANGULAR MOTION For motion with constant angular acceleration we can write a number of equations. according to equation 1.16 can be rewritten in the form ω1 = ω0 + t ………………………………….8 m/s The angular velocity of a car wheel increases from 5 rad/s to 50 rad/s in 30s. and The average linear acceleration of a point on the rim of the wheel? SOLUTION Since = ω1 – ω0 = (50 – 5) [rad/s] t 30[s] 2 = 1.350(m) X 1. 1. If the wheel has a radius of 350mm.100[m] X 60π [rad/s] v = 18.5 rad/s Since a = r a = 0.5 [rad/s2] a = 0. ii. i. comparable to the equations for linear motion. i.

= ½(ω0 + ω1) Since ω1 = ω0 + t (eqn. 1.20) ω12 = ω02 + 2 ……………………. calculate the angular velocity attained and the number of revolution the wheel makes in that time. 1..19). 1. then xxix .. initially at rest. we have ω12 = (ω0 + t)2 ω12 = ω02 + 2ω0t + 2t2 = ω02 + 2 (ω0t + ½t2) Hence using eqn. (1. LINEAR MOTION Distance x Velocity v Acceleration a v = x/t v = u + at x = ut + ½at2 v2 = u2 +2ax ANGULAR MOTION Angle Angular Velocity ω Angular Acceleration ω = /t ω1 = ω0 + t = ω0t + ½t2 ω12 = ω02 + 2 EXAMPLE A wheel.21 The following table shows a comparison of the linear motion and the angular motion equations and quantities.0 rad/s2 for 50s.. (1. SOLUTION Since ω1 = ω0 + t And ω0 = 0...20 If we take eqn. is subjected to a constant angular acceleration of 2.19) and square it. then = ½ (ω0 + ω0 + t) t = ω0t + ½t2 ………………………….

as in Fig. 1. This is sometimes stated as torque is the product of the force and the perpendicular distance of the force from the axis of rotation.12.12.r …………………………………………. the number of revolutions n is n = 2500 [rad] 2π [rad] = 397. T about an axis is defined by T = F.9 TORQUE AND ANGULAR MOTION Torque. Rigid Body xxx . 1. Consider a rigid body which is rotating about an axis through 0. F A O O Fig. or the moment of a force.0 (rad/s2) X 50 (s) = 100 rad/s Since = 0 + ½ x 2. therefore.0 [rad/s] x 502[s]2 = 2500rad One momentum is 2πrad. 1.ω1 = 0 + 2.22 Where r is the radius of the turning circle to which the force is tangential.

Torque T = (Sum of mr2 terms) X The sum of all the mr2 terms is called the moment of inertia. Total torque = Sum of all (mr2) terms All the particles will have the same angular acceleration. each having different turning circles. then using Newton’s Second Law of Motion we have. symbol I. Thus. 1. Thus. at A. The total torque acting on the body is the sum of the torques acting on all small particles. angular acceleration is the angular equivalent of linear acceleration and moment of inertia is the angular equivalent of mass.23 This equation for angular motion can be compared with the equation F = ma for linear motion. Torque is the angular equivalent of force. then a = r and so F = mr Hence. Mass is being defined as having a quality of inertia or reluctance of change velocity. If F is the tangential force acting on this particle at A. If is the angular acceleration. of the body. xxxi . representing the inertia or reluctance to change angular velocity. Hence.A particle of that body. the torque T acting on the particle is T = Fr = mr2 The rigid body is made up of a large number of small particles. rotates through a turning circle of radius r. T = I …………………………………………. F = ma Where a is the linear acceleration in the direction of the force.. Moment of inertia is a similar concept of angular motion.

13 Moments of Inertia xxxii . to give it an angular acceleration of 0.13 shows the moments of inertia of some simple bodies. 1.5 rad/s2? SOLUTION Since T = I T = 30 [kg/m2] X 0. with a moment of inertia of 30kg/m2.24 Where r is the distance of a particle of mass m from the axis of rotation and the symbol is used to indicate that the moment of inertia is the sum of all the mr2 terms for all the particles in the body.EXAMPLE What torque has to be applied to a flywheel. r Radius r axis axis (a) For a Sphere I = 2/5mr2 (b) For a Disc I = ½mr2 l Axis Radius r (c) For a Ring I = Mr2 Axis (d) For a Slender Rod I = 1/12Ml2 Fig. I = mr2 ……………………………… 1.5 [rad/s2] = 15Nm MOMENT OF INERTIA The moment of inertia. symbol I. of a body about a particular axis is defined by the equation. 1. Fig.

25 Where M is the total mass of the body. xxxiii .13 can be considered to be composed of a number of such simple objects.e. 1. 2/3Mr2 + M (½ + r)2.……………. If the moment of inertia I0 about a particular axis is known then the theorem of parallel axes enables the moment of inertia to be calculated for any parallel axis. The moment of inertia of a sphere about an axis through its centre is 2/3Mr2. Thus for a disc of radius r and mass M. The rod has also a moment of inertia of 1/12M2. If the rod has a length . We could have. the distance between the centres of the sphere is + 2r then the distance of the axis of rotation from the centre of a sphere is ½ + r and so the moment of inertia of a sphere about this axis is. a dumb-bell. the total moment of inertia is. Hence. the moment of inertia about an axis through the centre is ½Mr2. 1. using the parallel axis theorem. As there are two spheres the total moment of inertia due to the spheres is twice this value. if I is the moment of inertia about some parallel axis a distance d from the axis considered for the moment of inertia I0. then.e. the moment of inertia of the same disc about an axis tangential to the circumference of the disc is ½Mr2 + Mr2 = 3/2Mr2. What is required is the moment of inertia of the sphere about an axis through the centre of the rod.The moment of inertia of any body depends on the position of the axis about which the moment is considered. I = I0 + Md2 …………………………. i. for instance an object considering of two spheres mounted at the ends of a slender rod. i. Some objects though more complex than the objects shown in Fig. The moment of inertia of this object about an axis through the centre of the rod can be determined by adding together the moments of inertia of the component parts.

it is always possible to represent the moment of inertia is the form I = mk2. (b) Since xxxiv . and (b) The torque necessary to give it an angular acceleration of 0.I = 2 [2/5Mr2 + M(½ + r)2] + ½M2 Whatever the form of an object and however its mass is distributed. Thus in the case of the disc where I = ½mr2 about the central axis. K is called the radius of gyration.0m. K2 = ½r2. What is (a) The moment of inertia of the flywheel.5 rad/s2? SOLUTION (a) Since I = mk2 I = 300 (kg) X 1. The significance of this radius is that we can consider the body effectively to be behaving for rotation as through it had al its mass concentrated at a point a distance k from the axis of rotation.5 (rad/s2) = 150 Nm.02 (m)2 = 300 kgm2 T = I T = 300 (kgm2) X 0. EXAMPLE A flywheel has a mass of 300kg and a radius of gyration of 1.

There must also be a reaction N normal to the surface of the table. is equal and opposite to force W as shown in Fig. This is due to the presence of a force of friction F exerted on the body by the table towards the left and just sufficient to balance force P. exerted by the table on the body. the value of N would be less than that of W and the line of action of N would not be directly opposite that of W.0 2. If a horizontal force P is applied to the body. Actually. the body will not move unless P is large enough. they are in direct opposition.2. 2. The frictional force always opposes the motion of the shoe.1 If the body were resting on a surface inclined to the horizontal. 2. Suppose a body to be resting on a horizontal table. N W Fig. pulling towards the right as in fig. where for-claritythe line of action of N is shown displaced slightly from that of W. This reaction.Chapter Two 2.1 FRICTION SOLID FRICTION When a person walks along a road. 2. In the absence of friction. It is acted upon by a downward force W due to the gravitational pull of the earth upon it (its weight). This force of friction F has the feature of adjustment so as to be exactly equal and xxxv .1. he or she is prevented from slipping by the force of friction at the ground. for example on an icy surface the person’s shoe would slip when placed on the ground.

2. i.2: Frictional Drag While the body is at rest. the value of being given by: Tan = F/N ………………………………………. 2.3(a).2. we may regard it as being in equilibrium under the action of the four forces shown in Fig. until motion occurs.1 P N N F (a) Fig. F increases by exactly the same amount.opposite to P.3(b). it is seen that these two forces can be replaced by a resultant force R acting at an angle to the left of the line of action of force N. 2. if P is increased. N vertically (equal and opposite to W) and F horizontally (equal and opposite) as shown in Fig. 3.3: xxxvi R (b) Resultant Reaction . 2. From the force diagram of Fig. The table top exerts two forces.e. N P W Fig. 2.

1 it follows that: xxxvii . The corresponding angle between R and the perpendicular or normal to the sliding surface is termed the angle of Friction and is represented by . This limit is reached when the body is on the point of motion towards the right. 2. P and R. W We may therefore regard the body as being in equilibrium under the action of three forces. when motion just begins to take place. namely W. however. when component F has reached its limiting value or what is the same thing. 2. These forces can be represented vectorially by the triangular force diagram of Fig. As the pulling force is increased. 2. when R has reached its greatest inclination to the vertical) is shown in Fig. Thus. There is.4(a).e. i. the friction operating against motion is the maximum or limiting friction. angle increases.4(b). This condition (i.e. shown in Fig. From equation 2. 2. the friction force F (equal and opposite to P) also increases and the resultant R inclines more to the left.R P R W Fig. a limit to this adjustment of F to resist a growing value of P.4: Three Forces Acting on Body.5(a).

Tan = Sliding Friction Force F Normal Reaction N The ratio of the sliding friction force to the normal reaction of the supporting surface is termed the coefficient of static friction when the object is just on the point of sliding and is represented by U. We thus have a coefficient of dynamic friction. friction still occurs when an object is sliding.2. the friction in this situation being called dynamic friction.5: Angle of Friction. i. defined in the same way as for static friction which is slightly less than the static coefficient. However. The frictional force in such a situation is generally slightly less than the limiting frictional force for the static condition. U = Sliding Friction Force = tan Normal Reaction ….R P P R W (a) W (b) Fig.2 So far. 2. xxxviii . we have referred to just the limiting frictional force that occurs when an object is just on the point of sliding.e. such friction being referred to as static friction since the object is not moving.

P and W are equal and opposite to the sliding friction force and the normal reaction respectively.2 DETERMINATION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION Fig. Just before the movement begins. (b). The force to overcome dynamic friction is slightly less than that required to overcome static friction. A spring balance S. and While B is being pulled along at a steady speed. 2. A wooding board A is supported horizontally on a table or bench. and on A rests of rectangular block B of known weigh. the horizontal pull P applied to S is increased until B begins to move.3) is not applicable if the pulling for P is inclined to the surface or if the surface is not horizontal. The test is xxxix . pulled along a horizontal surface by a horizontal force P. hence for this condition: U = P/W ……………………………………. 2.3 Equation (2.For a body of weight W.6 shows a simple apparatus by which experiments on the amount of friction between two surfaces can be performed. and the reading on S is noted: B S P A Fig. 2. calibrated in Newton is attached to B.6: W Experiment on Friction (a). 2.

greases of various degrees of viscosity. the ratio P/W. Experiments between pairs of solids with dry surface show that if the surfaces are of uniform character throughout in regard to finish and condition. c. Consequently. thereby keeping them out of direct contact with each other. It is also found from other experimental results that for dry solid surfaces the frictional force. any friction force against the motion results in loss of energy which is converted into heat. experiments on friction are difficult and the results are not simple. 2. is independent of the area of the surface in contact. i. The above must be regarded as only rough empirical rules applicable in regard to relative slow motion and moderate pressures and not necessarily correct at high speeds or high pressures or in regard to any but dry surfaces. the force P required to maintain steady slow motion is approximately proportional to the perpendicular force W between the two sliding surfaces. in the grip of a tyre in a road. or a belt on a pulley or a brake block on a drum. Oils of various kinds are the best known lubricants. But in machinery. namely the coefficient of friction. is independent of the speed of sliding.e. where one piece has sliding or turning motion on or in another. is approximately constant. depends upon the nature of the surface in contact.repeated with various values of load W by placing metal blocks of known weight on top of block B. however slight its amount may be. which can resist pressure and avoid being squeezed out. Actually. It is therefore desirable to reduce friction. but for heavy loads. it is very difficult to exclude some form of lubrication. b.3 LUBRICATION Sometimes friction force is desirable as for instance. a. and this is done by interposing a lubricant between the solid surfaces. are xl .

used. The lubricant employed depends upon many circumstances, such as the pressure in a bearing, and the speed as well as the cost. For high speeds, forced lubrication is used in which Oil is supplied to bearings under pressure from a pump, the ideal condition being that the metal surfaces shall be completely separated by a film or oil in which a rotating shaft floats. The resistance offered to lateral motion by a liquid is quite unlike that between solid surfaces. It increases with speed and with area of contact and pressure has little or no effect on it. In practice, friction resistance is often a complicated matter of forces exerted by solids and intervening fluids, in which not very much light is thrown by simple experiments on the sliding resistance between solid bodies, and even this is affected by variable amounts of films of grease, moisture or even air partially separating the surfaces. EXAMPLES: 1. A block of metal having a mass of 60kg requires a horizontal force of 140N to drag it at a constant speed along a horizontal floor. Calculate a. The coefficient of friction, and b. The angle of friction SOLUTION: Since mass of block = 60kg Therefore, Weight of block = 60 x 9.8 = 588.6N Friction Force = 140N Therefore, Coefficient of Friction = 140 N = 0.238 588.6 (N) = tan From trigonometrical tables, = 13.4o

xli

Chapter Three

3.0 3.1 WORK, POWER AND ENERGY WORK When a Force is exerted against some form of resistance through a distance in the direction of the force, work is done, and the S.I Unit of work is The Joule, namely the work done when a force of 1 Newton is exerted through a distance of 1 metre in the direction of the force. Hence, if a force F, in Newton is exerted through a distance x, in metres, in the direction of the force, Work done = F (Newton) X x (Metres = Fx joules ………………………. 3.1 3.1.1 WORK REPRESENTED BY AN AREA OR DIAGRAM OF WORK The amount of work done by a force exerted through a distance in its own direction may be represented by a rectangular area of diagram of work, one side or which represents the force of scale and the other the distance to scale. For example in fig. 3.1, is a force of 50N is represented in a scale of 1mm to 1N and moves through a distance of 12m represented on a scale of 1mm to 0.2m, then 1m2 of area represents 1[N] x 0.2[m] = 0.2J.

xlii

Force [N] 50 40 30 20 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Distance[m]

Fig. 3.1 Work Represented by an area These sides of the rectangle are 50mm by 60mm so that the total area is 3000mm2. Hence the work done is represented by an area of 3000mm2 on a scale of 1mm2 to 0.2J. Therefore, Work done = 0.2 [J/mm2] x 3000 [mm2] = 600J. For calculating the work done by a force of constant value, the diagram is of no advantage: for instance, in the case just considered, we could have calculated the work done by merely multiplying the force by the distance, thus: Work done = 50(N) x 12(m) = 600J When the force varies in some known but perhaps rather complicated manner, calculation of the area of the work diagram may be convenient way of determining the work done.

3.1.2

WORK DONE BY AN OBLIQUE FORCE xliii

3. 3.2). acting on a body. i. 3. suppose the force to be always in the direction of the motion of the point to which it is applied.2 Work done by an Oblique Force Motion Since there is no movement of the body in the direction of component FSin.e. xliv . is inclined at an angle to the direction of motion (Fig.In section 1. and the distance x through which the body moves. 200mm long. and suppose a force of 70N to be exerted at the right angles to the Crank arm.6. in order to turn the Shaft against some resistance.2. the later does not do any work. it was shown that when a force F.1. or at the circumference of the pulley of 200mm radius.3 WORK DONE IN ROTATION Let us consider the case of a Crank handle or Pulley attached to a shaft as in Fig. Hence the work done by the Oblique Force F is the product of the first component.3. namely FCos acting in the direction of motion and FSin acting at right angles to the direction of motion. FCos. Also. Work done = (FCos) X x 3. The force can be resolved into two components. F F Sin F Cos Fig.

257[m] = 88J.2 The product of a turning force and the radius of the circle at which it acts is termed the ‘torgue’ or ‘turning moment about the axis of rotation’.. 3.I Unit of Power is the Watt. Work done in Joules In n revolutions = Fr x 2πn = torque in Newton metres x angle in radius = TØ………………………….257m.2 POWER Power is the rate of doing work and the S. consequently the Kilowatt (KW) is frequently used. For still larger powers.2(m).3. 3. for a force F Newton acting at a Radius r metres: Torque (or Turning Moment) = T = Fr Newton Metres and from equation 3. 3. 3. In practice.………….200mm 200mm Fig. the Megawatt (MW) is used where: 1 MW = 1000Kw = 1 000 000 W xlv . Therefore work done in 1 revolution = 70[N] x 1. namely 1. the Watt is often found to be inconveniently small. Work done in 1 Revolution = F x 2πr Joules …………………………………………….3 Work done in Rotation The distance through which the point of application of the force travels in 1 revolution is 2π X 0. if a force F Newton acts at a Radius r metres.. the Kilowatt being 1000 Watts. In general. namely 1 Joule per second.2. Hence.

and if n be the speed. in Newton metres. then from equation (3.5 xlvi .2.4 where ω = angular velocity in radians/second = 2πn radians/second If the rotational speed by N revolutions per minute Power = 2 πTN/60 watts ……………………………… 3.Similarly.1 POWER REQUIRED FOR ROTATION If T be the torque or turning moment. it is often convenient to express the latter in Kilowatt hours. when we are dealing with large amount of work (or energy). 3.3) we have: Work done per second = Torque in Newton metres x Speed in radians per second = T (Newtons metres) x 2πn (radians/second) = 2πnT Joules/Second or Watts Power = 2πnT = ωt Watts …………………………………….6 MJ. 1Kwh = 1000Watt hours = 1000 x 3600 Watts Seconds or Joules = 3 600 000 J = 3. 3. in revolutions per second.

Suppose the brake pulley to be rotating clockwise and the tension on the belt to be adjusted to give readings of P and Q Newton on S1 and S2 respectively.3.2 DETERMINATION OF THE OUTPUT POWER OF A MACHINE BY MEANS OF A BRAKE W W B S2 P S1 r Fig. where a belt (or rope) on an air or water-cooled pulley has its ends attached to spring balances S1 and S2. and the tension on the belt can be controlled by wing-nuts W. the output power can be measured by some form of mechanical brake such as that shown in Fig. 3. calibrated in Newton.4 Brake Test In the case of comparatively small machines. The pull P exerted by S1 has to balance the pull exerted by S2 and the friction force F between the belt and the pulley. 3. The balances are supported by a rigid horizontal beam B.4.2.e. i. P=Q+F xlvii .

Thus if the Input and Output Powers are 75KW and 60KW respectively. thermal energy.e. then from equation 3.Q) rN / 60 ………….8 per unit = 0. 3. etc. Torque due to brake friction = Fr = (P .6 The output power of the machine is converted into heat at the brake.5. some of the power supplied to the machine is lost in over coming friction.3 ENERGY When a body is capable of doing work. in metres.. so that the useful power available is less than the input power.……. i. 3. Output Power = 2π(P . Efficiency = 60/75 = 0.Q)r Newton metres If n be the speed of the pulley in revolutions/minute.8 x 100 = 80 per cent. In mechanics. Efficiency = Output Power Input Power And is expressed as a ‘per unit’ value or as a percentage.2.Q) Newton If r be the effective radius of the brake. 3. it is said to possess energy which may take various forms such as mechanical energy. and the size of the machine that can be tested by this method is limited by the difficulty of dissipating this heat.F = (P . we are concerned only with xlviii .3 EFFICIENCY OF A MACHINE In all machines. The ratio of the output power to the input power is termed ‘The efficiency of the machine’. chemical energy and electrical energy.…. The Input and Output Powers must obviously be expressed in the same unit.

gives it a uniform acceleration a. This is the reason why a machine driving a fluctuating load. such as a stamping press. Work is done on the flywheel as its speed is increased. If a force is exerted on a body and there is no opposing resistance except the inertia of the body. Thus. a body raised to a height above the ground has potential energy since its weight can do work as the body returns to the ground. in metres. when the machine to which it is attached slows down. set in motion by a force doing work upon it. namely kinetic energy and potential energy. then F = ma If x is the distance traveled by the body while it accelerates from standstill to a velocity V. then x = ½V2/a Therefore. For instance. in Kilograms. the whole of the work done becomes the Kinetic Energy of the body. xlix . An important engineering application is flywheel. is usually fitted with a flywheel to maintain a more constant speed than would otherwise be the case.mechanical energy which is of two kinds. Thus a body.……………… 3. and if g is the gravitational acceleration in metres/seconds2 at that point. and later. The Kinetic Energy (K. If a body having a mass m. work done = F (Newton) X x (Metres) 2 = ma x ½V /a = ½mV2 Joules …………. acting on a mass m. POTENTIAL ENERGY (P.7 = Kinetic Energy of body. is lifted vertically through a height h. if a force F.E) of a body is the energy it possesses by virtue of its motion. some of the stored Kinetic Energy is given out b y the flywheel and helps to drive the machine. acquires Kinetic Energy. which enables it to do work against resisting forces.E) The Potential Energy of a body is the energy it possesses by virtue of its position or state of strain.

8 = Potential Energy of the body The Pendulum of a clock is an example of energy being charged backwards and forwards between the Kinetic form and the Potential form. no energy is lost.3. The small loss of energy due to friction is supplied by the impulse given regularly through the escapement mechanism from the main spring. With the aid of pipes supplying water turbines at a reservoir at a high level can be converted into Kinetic Energy and thereby used to drive the turbines which in turn drive electrical generators or machinery.Force required = Weight of the body = mg Newton and Work done = Weight of the body X height = mgh Joules ……………………… 3. a conservation of mechanical energy. its speed and therefore its Kinetic Energy being then zero. the potential energy of the pendulum is a maximum at the end of each swing. to a reasonable approximation. The sum of the potential and kinetic energies is a constant. On the other hand.1 PRINCIPLE OF THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY This important principle states that whenever energy is converted from one form to another. Thus the oscillating mass has its potential energy being then zero. l . One of the natural sources of Potential Energy is water lifted by evaporation from Sea – level to Lakes and Rivers at higher levels into which it is deposited as rain or snow. This constancy of the total energy is referred to as the principle of the conservation of energy. Thus the potential energy of the water in the reservoir is converted into useful work. Thus with the swinging pendulum of the clock potential energy at the end of each swing is converted to kinetic energy at the lowest point of it’s travel. 3. All the energy involved in the conversion can be accounted for in some form or another. In some situations we can have.

e.1 It is evident that for a given load W.e. Lifting machines are usually arranged to enable a small effort (or driving force) to raise a much larger load (or resisting force).Chapter Four 4. the effort must move through a much greater distance than that through which the load is raised. The ratio of the distance moved by the effort to that moved by the load is termed. force and energy.2 Distance Moved by Load li . 4. i. To achieve this. V.0 4. the work done by the effort being equal to the useful work in lifting the load together with the work required to overcome friction.1 PRINCIPLES OF SIMPLE MACHINES MACHINES A machine is a mechanical device for transmitting motion. i. the greater the Mechanical Advantage.2 MECHANICAL ADVANTAGES. R. = Distance Moved by Effort ……………… 4.1 that the purpose of most lifting machines is to enable a large load W to be moved by the application of a relatively small effort F. the movement ratio of more commonly the velocity ratio. the smaller the value of the effort F. 4. The ratio of the load to the effort is termed the Mechanical Advantage of the machine. This relation is known as the principle of conservation of energy. VELOCITY (OR MOVEMENT) RATIO AND EFFICIENCY It was mentioned in section 4. Mechanical Advantage = Load = W Effort f ………………….

Work done by Effort = Work done on Load + Work done to overcome friction The Work done in overcoming friction is converted into heat and is thus wasted as far as the machine is concerned.The value of the velocity ratio is dependent upon the arrangement of the machine and is constant for a given machine. i. being zero at no load. Efficiency = Useful Work done Work done by Effort ……………… 4.3 Therefore Efficiency = = = W X distance moved by Load F X distance moved by Effort W X distance moved by Load F distance moved by Effort Mechanical Advantage Velocity Ratio …………………… 4. i. Ideal Effort X distance moved by Effort = W X distance moved by Load So that. decreases as the load is reduced.e.4 For an ideal machine. Ideal Effort = W Velocity Ratio ……………… 4.5 and Ideal Mechanical Advantage = W Ideal Effort = Velocity Ratio ……………………… 4. Work done by Effort = Work done by Load. lii .6 Let us now consider some of the simplest types of machines and determine the velocity ratio of each type. whereas the value of the mechanical advantage. Therefore. a machine having no friction. the efficiency is unity ( = 100 percent). From the principle of the conservation of energy. The ratio of the Work done on the load to that done by the effort is termed the efficiency of the machine. so that.e.

If the Lever is tilted anticlockwise through an angle .1 A Lever Fig. Suppose distances AC and BC to be a and b respectively. Distance through which effort F moves in its own direction = aSin So that. 4. is suspended at B and a downward effort F is applied at A to balance weight W. 4. Velocity Ratio = asin = a bsin b liii . A mass. Work done by Load = W X bsin Hence. pivoted at C. having a weight W.4. Work done by Effort = F X asin Similarly.3 THE LEVER The lever was probably the earliest device used by man to enable him to move a large load by means of the limited physical effort he could exert. B a b A a Sin F b Sin B C W A F W Fig. and the weight of the Lever to be negligible. Distance through which load W is moved in its own direction = bsin So that.1 shows a straight lever.

A body having weight W is attached to a cord E. and a downward effort F is applied to cord D wound around the rim of Wheel A. a length 2πa. Velocity Ratio = Distance moved by Effort Distance moved by Load liv . of radius b.4 THE WHEEL AND AXLE The wheel and axle may be regarded as an adaptation of the Lever to allow continuous rotation of the device about the pivot. a length. 4. 4. At the same time. wound around Axle B.4. carried by a shaft c.2 The Wheel and Axle W F Fig.2 shows a Wheel A. of cord D is unwounded from Wheel A. 2πb. Hence. of radius a. enabling the effort to move a distance 2πa. thereby lifting the load a distance 2πb. of cord E is wound on Axle B. When the Wheel and Axle makes one revolution in an anticlockwise direction. and an Axle B. A B A B C C C E D a b D F W Fig.

3 The Inclined Plan C Hence. B F W A Fig. it has also been lifted through the vertical distance BC. Work done by Effort = F X AB While the load has been hauled a distance AB up the inclined plane. Suppose a body having weight W to be hauled up the whole of the inclined surface (Fig.5 THE INCLINED PLANE The principle of the incline plane was known at least 5000 years ago when it was employed in the construction of the pyramids. lv .= 2πa 2πb = a b 4. 4.3) by a force F acting parallel to the plane. 4. So that Work done on Load = W X BC Velocity Ration = AB = 1 BC Sin Where is the angle between the plane and the horizontal.

using the principle of the screw.6 THE SCREW AND THE SCREW-JACK The screw is really an inclined plane converted into a helical inclined path around the bolt on which the screw has been cut.15 = 105 A device. say 200mm and the lead of the thread is 1. the distance between the centres of adjacent threads for single-start thread. Hence.8mm.8 (mm) = 698 Allowing for an efficiency of. say a Spanner moves through a distance equal to (2π X radius of Effort).4. Velocity Ratio = 2π X Radius of Effort Load of Thread e. say 15 percent. that is commonly employed for lifting heavy objects is the screwjack shown in Fig. while the nut travels a distance equal to the lead of the thread. i. This means that a small effort applied tangentially at the end of.4) Mechanical Advantage = Velocity Ratio X Efficiency = 698 X 0. thereby enabling the circular motion of a nut to be converted into a linear motion along the screwed portion of the bolt.e. lvi . Velocity Ratio = 2π X 200 (mm) 1. we have from equation (4. 4.g. if the radius at which the effort is applied is.4.

For one revolution of the effort. Distance moved by Load = Therefore. Distance moved by Effort = 2πr and. Velocity Ratio = 2πr lvii . of the Screw. viewed from above the jack.4 The Screw-Jack An effort F is applied tangentially at the end of an arm of radius r. 4. (in a single-start screw. for a screw having a right-hand thread. lifts the load W through a distance equal to the load. the load is equal to the pitch f the thread). one turn of the effort in an anticlockwise direction.W r F Fig.

than the load W to allow for friction at the pulley. so that the mechanical advantage (= W/F) is less than unity. 4.4. This load can be lifted by applying an effort F to the other end of the rope. with a rope passing over the pulley and supporting at one end a body having weight W.7 PULLEYS A SINGLE-PULLEY SYSTEM F W Fig. 4.5 shows a pulley block fitted with one pulley (or sheave). when having a rope downwards. lviii . The effort F has to be greater. is able to make use of his own weight when exerting the pull and thus finds it easier than to lift the load directly. the velocity ratio is unit since the distance through which the effort is applied is exactly the same as that through which the load is raised. Fig. With this simple arrangement. The only advantage of the single-pulley system is that a person.5 A single-pulley system.

A and B. 4.A TWO-PULLEY SYSTEM A F B B Fig. The body to be lifted is attached to pulley-block B.6 there are two pulley-blocks. 4. each with one pulley.6 W The velocity ratio can be increased by using more pulleys. For example in Fig. lix . A rope has one end attached to pulley-block A and passes round the pulleys of B and A. as shown.

Hence. Three pulleys are usually on the same spindle.If the load W were raised 1m by means of effort F.7 W Fig. but for convenience lx .7 shows Pulley-block A fitted with two pulleys. Velocity Ratio = Distance moved by Effort Distance moved by Load = 2 (m) 1 (m) = 2 A THREE-PULLEY SYSTEM A F B Fig. 4. 4. then each of the length of the rope between the pulleyblocks would be shortened by 1m and the effort F would move 2m.

Velocity Ratio = n. 4. then. Fig. so that Velocity Ratio is now 3.8 shows a belt drive in which A is the driver pulley and B the driven pulley.of explanation. effort F moves a distance of 3m when the load is lifted 1m. And nA and nB = Speeds. The transfer of motion from Pulley A to the belt and again from the belt to the Pulley B is dependent upon friction at each area of contact between belt and pulley. In general. With this arrangement. F2 Slack Side A Tight Side B Driven Pulley Driver Pulley F1 Fig.8 A Belt Drive If dA and dB = Diameters of Pulleys A and B respectively. 4. linear speed of rim of Pulley A = πdAnA and linear speed of rim of Pulley B = πdBnB lxi . of A and B respectively. if n be the total number of pulleys (or sheaves) on the two Pulley-blocks.8 BELT AND CHAIN DRIVES A belt or a chain is used when a shaft has to be driven from a parallel shaft that is too far away from the use of gear wheels. they are shown one above the other. 4. in revolutions/seconds.

e. hence. Speed of driver wheel = diameter of driven wheel Speed of driven wheel diameter of driver wheel lxii . the speeds of the pulleys are inversely proportional to their diameters. with the driver pulley rotating clockwise as in fig.9 One of the main disadvantages of belt is its liability to slip. If F1 and F2 be the tensions in the tight and slack sides respectively of the belt. the side of the belt approaching the Pulley tightens and that leaving the pulley slackens. Since the number of teeth on each wheel is proportional to the diameter of the wheel. Effective force due to friction = F1 – F2 and Power Transmitted = Net force [Newton] X Speed of belt [meter/second = or (F1 – F2) X πdAnA watts ………………………… 4.If there is no slipping. This disadvantage can be avoided by the use of chain whose links engage with teeth on the driver and driven wheel one of the best known example is the use of a chain to transmit power from the pedals to the rear wheel of a bicycle. Thus. the lower side of the belt has a larger tension than the upper side. When a driving torque is applied to driver Pulley A. 4. πdAnA = πdBnB therefore.8 (F1 – F2) X πdBnB watts ………………………… 4. the linear speed of the rim of each pulley is the same as the speed of the belt.8. speed of driver Pulley A = diameter of driven Pulley B speed of driven pulley B = diameter of driver Pulley A i.

A gear wheel has a number of specially-shaped teeth around its periphery. the peripheral distance between the centres of adjacent teeth. 4. where wheel A (the driver) drives wheel B (the follower).9 GEAR WHEELS Gear wheels are used to transmit motion and power from one shaft to a parallel shaft in close proximity. In order that the teeth may mesh correctly. must be the same for the two wheels.9. e. measured on the pitch circles C and D.= number of teeth on driven wheel number of teeth on driver wheel Pitch Circles C D A B Driver Pitch Fig.e. i. the pitch of the teeth. and to enable the speed of rotation to be stepped up and down to suit specific requirements. 4. lxiii . These teeth mesh with similar teeth on a second wheel as shown in Fig. to reduce the high speed of an electric motor to the relatively low speed of a lathe.9 Follower 4.g.

Circumference of A X nA = Circumference of B X nB therefore. 4. The direction of rotation of A and B can be arranged to be the same by introducing an idle wheel C between A and B as shown in Fig.e. Peripheral speed of follower B. = Circumference of Wheel A number of teeth on Wheel B = Circumference of Wheel B If nA and nB be the speeds of wheels A and B respectively. If idler C rotates at nC revolutions per second. number of teeth on Wheel A. i. Speed of driver A = Circumference of follower Speed of follower B = Circumference of driver = number of teeth on follower number of teeth on driver ………. the peripheral speed at the pitch circles is the same for the two wheels.9 rotate in opposite directions. the number of teeth is proportional to the diameter of the pitch circle.e. in revolutions per second. measured at pitch circle = Circumference of B X nB Since there can be no slip. Therefore. Peripheral speed of driver A. It will be noted that gear wheels. nA nC = number of teeth on C number of teeth on A lxiv . A and B in Fig. measured at pitch circle = Circumference of A X nA and. for a given pitch.10.Hence. 4. 4. i. the speeds of the gear wheels are inversely proportional to the number of teeth on the wheels.10.

4.A C B Fig.10 Effect of an Idle Wheel Similarly. nC nB therefore. = number of teeth on B number of teeth on C Pitch Circles nAXnC = number of teeth onC X number of teeth on B nC nB number of teeth on A number of teeth on C hence. the gear ratio of the gear train ABC is independent on the number of teeth on the idler. nA nB = number of teeth on B number of teeth on A i. lxv .e.

expressed as a fraction of the unstretched length. If a rod is subjected to a tension. and the total stretch or elongation.0 5. the force per unit area of crosssection is termed a compressive stress.. Hence in general: Stress = Force Cross-Sectional Area ……………. it stretches. The SI Unit of stress is the Newton per square meter (Symbol: N/m2).1 Tensile and Compressive Stresses are sometimes referred to as normal stresses since they act at right angles to the cross-sectional area which is used for calculating the value of the stress. Thus. if the pull on a rod having a unstretched length of 1m produces an extension of 2.1 STRESS AND STRAIN STRESS When a material has a force exerted on it. 5. Another unit the Pascal adopted in memory of the French Philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623 – 1662) who carried out many brilliant experiments in hydrostatics and pneumatics is widely used.5mm. is termed direct Strain or merely Strain when it is obvious that the change in length is due to tension or compression.Chapter Five 5.2 STRAIN When a rod or a wire is pulled. lxvi . the material is said to be stressed or in a state of stress. If the rod is subjected to compression. 5. 1KN/m2 or 1Kpa = 103 N/m2 or 103pa and 1MN/m2 or 1 Mpa = 106 N/m2 or 106pa. the force per unit area of crosssection of the rod is referred to as tensile stress. It is often more convenient to express Stress in Kilonewton per square metre (KN/m2) or Kilopascals (Kpa) or in Meganewtons per square metre (MN/m2) or Mega Pascal (Mpa) where.

5.35 (mm) LOAD(N) 105 110 118 Extension 10. LOAD(N) 0 10 20 30 Extension 0 0. In the above expression. say metres.5/1000) (m) = 0.1 4.1 145 150 154 42. the stretch disappears and lxvii . as shown in the fig.. During this stage of the test.5 (broke) An examination of the tabulated figures shows that there are two stages in the stretching of the wire: (a). but the result would be exactly the same if they we both expressed in. The results of a test performed on a steel wire are given in the following table. THE ELASTIC STAGE: Up to a Load of about 60N.62 0.7 54 70 100 7.2 2. when stretched by gradually increasing forces. Strain is merely a ratio and possesses no units.5 (mm) (1 X 1000) (mm) 0.4 12.50 0. 5.22 0. The initial length of the wire was 907mm and the initial cross-sectional area was 0. the extension is small and is proportional to the load.75 1.0025 1.9 17.1 2.8 (mm) 40 50 60 70 80 90 0.3 TENSILE TEST ON A STEEL WIRE The behaviour of various materials.… 5. thus: Strain = (2.Strain = Extension Original Length ………………….8 136 29.34mm2. it is found that if the load is removed. they are both expressed in milimetres. may be studied experimentally in the laboratory.10 0.1 below.0 129 21.0 (m) Hence.0025 = = It will be noticed that the extension and the original length must be expressed in the same unit.

e.5 0.75mm to 54mm.2. During this plastic stage of the test.8 Extension (mm) Fig. 5. The fact that during this elastic stage the extension is proportional to the load is characteristics of the elastic straining of materials.3 0. Load(N) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0. it is found that when the load is increased from 60N to 150N.4 0. the load is increased about 2.1.2 0. THE PLASTIC STAGE: The results for Loads of 80N upwards are plotted in fig. For instance. i.6 0.2 that for loads exceeding about 60N. the extension increases from the said to have a plastic deformation or permanent set. the extension for a given increase in load is much greater than for loads below 60N. A metal that is able to undergo cold plastic lxviii . when the load is increased for 60N to 150N. 5. where the extension is shown to a much smaller scale than in fig. 5. the extension increases more than 70 times.5 times.7 0. It is evident from the table and from Fig. 5. the extension increases from 0.1 Elastic Extension of a wire (b).the wire returns to its original length.1 0.

deformation. carried out a series of experiments with springs and wires and was the first to publish. Architect and Inventor. 5. a clear statement to the effect that when a material is worked within its elastic range. a famous English Physicist. Load (N) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 Extension (mm) A Fig. 5.4 5. we have from Hooke’s law that the extension is proportional to the force: lxix . the extension is proportional to the force.5 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (DIRECT) OR YOUNG’S MODULUS For a material worked within its elastic range. in 1676. usually as the result of tension is said to be ductile or to possess ductility.2 Tensile test on a steel wire HOOKE’S LAW Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703).

The symbol for Modulus of Elasticity (Direct) or Young’s Modulus is E.1 Load at B = 10N Load at C = 55N Therefore. 5.34mm2 = 0. Increase in Stress = lxx . i. When the value of Young’s Modulus is being determined from experimental results such as those shown in fig. Let us now proceed to calculate the value of E from the graph of Fig. on a straight line drawn through the points determined experimentally. the larger the value of E.………………… 5.e. it is usually better not to use figures for load and extension at any one point on the graph but to take the difference in extension and the corresponding difference in load between two points. Increase in Load = 45N Initial Cross-sectional Area = 0..e. Strain This constant is termed Modulus of Elasticity (Direct) or Young’s Modulus. 5. the smaller is the extension or compression produced by a given stress. This is due to the difficulty in determining accurately the point representing zero load and zero extension. 5. E = Tensile or Compressive Stress Strain . Stress = a constant.1.3 = Force/Original Cross-Sectional Area Change in Length/Original Length Young’s Modulus may be regarded as a measure of the resistance which a material offers to extension or compression.1. such as B and C in Fig. after Thomas Young who was the first to determine this constant for some materials. i.e.34 X 10-6 m2 Therefore.Strain Stress i.

65 X 10-3 Hence.4 X 106(N/m2) Increase in Strain 0. E = Increase in Stress = 132.59(mm) / 907(mm) = 0. Increase in Strain = 0. 5.59mm Initial length of Wire = 907mm Therefore.6 STRESS-STRAIN GRAPH FOR MILD STEEL Stress C D B A Strain Fig. Increase in Extension = 0.4 X 106 N/m2 or pa Extension at B = 0.10 = 0.69 – 0.34X10-6) (m2) = 132.10mm and Extension at C = 0.69mm Therefore.45(N) / (0.3 Stress-Strain Graph for Mild Steel lxxi .65 X 10-3 2 = 204 X 109 N/m or pa = 204 000 MN/m2 or Mpa = 204 GigaNewton/Metre2 (or GN/m2 or Gpa) 5.

The stresses have been calculated by dividing the loads by the original CrossSectional Area the text piece. 5. The graph differs from a load-extension graph. 5. represented by C on Fig. the material returns to its original length on removal of the load. 5.2.3 is termed the tensile strength (replaces ultimate tensile stress and is obtained by dividing the maximum load applied during a tensile test by the original Cross-Sectional Area of the specimen and not by the reduced area of section after plastic extension. and the strains by dividing the extensions by the original length selected for the test. namely the stress at which. At about point C. i. the highest stress that can be applied without producing permanent deformation. This involves a measurement of the gauge length of the test piece before the tensile test and after the test is completed and the piece lxxii . the Cross-Sectional Area at some point along the length of the test specimen begins to decrease rapidly and the load required to increase the extension beyond C consequently decreases until the specimen ultimately fractures at a load corresponding to point D. For stresses up to the elastic limit. Portion B of the graph gives the yield stress. 5. and is practically the elastic limit.Fig. The maximum stress. Point A in Fig. 5. elongation of the test piece first occurs without increase of load.e. This plastic yielding is not found in all ductile materials but is marked feature of the softer irons and steels.3 marks approximately the limit of proportionality of stress to strain.7 PERCENTAGE ELONGATION A useful measure of the degree of ductility of a material is the percentage elongation.1 and Fig. only in the matter of scales. 5.3 above shows a typical graph for a tensile test on a mild-steel specimen. in a tensile test. such as that in Fig.

8 PROOF STRESS B D A Stress C 0. lxxiii .1 0.6 Fig. etc.2 0.4 is typical of the stress-strain relationship for many materials such as copper.4 Proof Stress The graph of Fig. the strain has been plotted as a percentage of the original length.… 5.broken.4 0. i. 5.3 0. Percentage Elongation = Final Length – Initial Length X 100 Initial Length ……………. The initial cross-sectional area of the test piece is measured and then the smallest crosssectional area when the test piece has been broken. In this diagram.5 0.e.4 Another quantity which is sometimes measured is the Percentage reduction in area. Percentage reduction in area = Initial Area – Final Area X 100 Initial Area 5. the two broken pieces being put into contact for the measurement. 5.

then: OE = BD If OE is. Consequently.5 per cent of the original length. then CB represents the percentage strain if the strain had remained proportional to the stress and CD represents the actual percentage strain. A test on the specimen gave the following results: Load (KN) 0 Extension (mm) 0 10 0. Draw the dotted line DE parallel to CB. OC is termed the proof stress to give a non-proportional elongation equal to 0. If we draw a horizontal line CD at a Stress OC. i. 0.Percentage Strain = Elongation X 100 Original Length Point A represents the limit of proportionality for this specimen had the strain remained proportional to the stress. BD is the non-proportional elongation of the specimen. which is OA extended beyond point A.1 per cent. the stress-strain relationship would have been represented by the dotted line OB.e.6 Determine the 0.1.38 0.075 20 30 35 38 40 0.15 0.23 0. BD represents the amount by which the percentage strain has departed from proportionality.2 and 0. say 0. then.2 percent Proof Stress in MegaNewton per square meter or MegaPascals.30 0. EXAMPLE A specimen has an initial gauge length of 55mm and a Cross-Sectional Area of 150mm2. It is usual to express the proof stress as the stress required to give a non-proportional elongation of 0.1 percent of the original length of the specimen. expressed as a percentage of the original length. lxxiv .

11mm. and from point lxxv .5 0.2 0. 5.3 0.4 0. from a point E corresponding to an extension of 0. draw ED parallel to OA.2 percent non-proportional extension.5. Actual non-proportional extension = 55(mm) X 0.1 0.11mm Hence. in Fig.2 / 100 = 0.SOLUTION The graph representing the above table is given in the figure below: Load(N) 40 C 30 A B D 20 10 E 0 0.6 Extension (mm) Fig. 5.5 Load-Extension Graph For 0.

the proof load to give 0. Then.5. draw a horizontal line to cut the vertical axis at C.D.2 percent non-proportional extension is OC. 5. OC = 38KN = 38 000N Cross-Sectional Area = 150mm2 = 150 X 10-6 m2 and Corresponding Proof Stress = = = 38 000(N) 150 X 10-6 (m2) 253 X 106 N/m2 253 MN/m2 or Mpa lxxvi . From the graph in Fig.

Khurmi and J. Fross: Dynamics of Mechanical System 2nd Edition (Horwood Engineering Science Series) R. K. Gupta: Theory of Machines (Eurasia Publishing House Ltd) lxxvii . S.References Edwards and Christopher Hughes: Engineering Science 4th Edition ( Longman Publisher) Carl T.

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