You are on page 1of 18

freshhh2012 MOiL Tycoon

Game Rules
About the games
The game is a turn-based strategic game, aiming to imitate reality as much as possible. However it still contains several simplifications to make the game easier to understand and more entertaining to play.

Game concept
You are the managers of a well-established oil company with a diversified upstream and downstream portfolio continuously seeking new upstream opportunities to replace the reserves and the production, as well as to improve the efficiency of your refineries. Freshhhfield had decided to open its oil industry to international players recently, due to a lack of funds for putting into production the sizeable discoveries made by the National Oil Company of Freshhhfield. Several companies entered the First International Bidround of Freshhhfield which resulted in a significant increase of production and oil export levels of the country. Your company owns four oil fields in Freshhhfield. Thanks to the success of the international bid round, Freshhhfield’s two neighbouring countries, Freshhhia and Freshhhrock have also opened up and the three countries formed the Oil Producer Fresshian Countries – OPFC Area. Thanks to your long-lasting successful international track record and your presence in Freshhhfield you are one of the few companies invited to operate in the OPFC Area. The upstream industry has a long history in Freshhhia and Freshhhrock as well, however most discovered fields could not be developed due to the lack of funds in these closed economies in recent decades. The primary objective of OPFC countries is to find operators who commit themselves to efficiently developing and producing the already discovered hydrocarbon fields. Therefore no exploration licenses will be granted, and you can only bid for discovered fields. You are delegated exclusively to the management of the OPFC Area portfolio, and you don’t have to deal with other assets of the company. Nevertheless you have access only to the free funds of your own portfolio to acquire new opportunities here. Your aim is to prove that you are the best managers by maximizing the cash generation of your company’s Freshhhian upstream portfolio by creating value added with both upstream and downstream operations. You start the upstream game with F$ (Freshhh Dollar) 500 million of cash at hand. You will also receive 500 million F$ for downstream operations.

Timing
Contestants are going to play for 18 turns. 1 turn in the game means 24 hours in the real world, so in every 24 hours, there is going to be a turn change. (GMT 12:00 next round – financial accounting and the effects of decision-making only show when a turn change occurs)

Playing the game
In each turn you will be offered the chance to acquire oil fields in the OPFC Area (5 fields per turn until turn 10, 6 fields in turn eleven and 0 fields thereafter). Each license will be offered only once. Specific geological, fiscal and economic data and the price of the fields will also be rendered. With the help of this information you will have to evaluate the fields and purchase them if you have sufficient amount of funds and – of course – the opportunity is prospective enough. Your funds are scarce so don’t waste them on low return projects. If the IRR of a project is just a few percents, it might be better to wait for more suitable opportunities.

After the purchase your task will be to work out and fulfil a field development program on the field. Your performance and the final scoring is based on the cash generated your company’s Freshhhian portfolio. We will also take into consideration and evaluate the effects of your decisions made in the final turn. (By running a 19th turn automatically without the opportunity to make any decisions right at the end of the game.) You can see country specific information or elect the lincenses in the Locator. By selecting an active license area a list of input data will appear (for details see Inputs section) and you can also acquire or go to the selected field. When you successfully sign an agreement, you will be navigated to another screen where the map of the license area will appear. Here you will find 4 panels/ buttons: Field details shows the wells and facilities in operation and under construction and the field’s production performance

1

In the meantime you cannot use the credit to acquire new fields.Financial data indicates the main financial results relating to the given license area Development panel contains facilities that can be constructed. Selling the produced hydrocarbons Crude oil The oil quantity that leaves the license area is sold on the average international market price at the end of the year. If you exceed the 60% limit on any of your investments. Inputs & miscellaneous rules The following data will be provided for each field. they have to model the fiscal regime of the license agreements as well. (This is done automatically. The OPFC countries use simple royalty system. Tax rates Freshhhfield Freshhhia Freshhhrock 70% 75% 80% Funding You have a revolving credit facility at 10% interest rate. According to the regulations a single tax is levied on the oil revenue of the company. Note that there can be several bottlenecks of oil sales. the teams do not have to deal with gas at all. facilities and costs”. Field data Depth API° Rsi Area Average thickness Porosity Heff/H Initial water saturation Permeability Distance from main road [scf / bbl] [acre] [ft] [%] 1/1 [%] [md] [miles] [ft] reservoir depth API gravity Gas-Oil Ratio Area of the field Average thickness of the reservoir Porosity of the reservoir rock The ratio of effective and average thickness Initial water saturation in the reservoir Permeability of the reservoir rock In case a CPU is built. For detailed information about building. Abandon field button shall be used if the player wants to stop the operation of a field. (See the facilities section for details.) Natural gas The associated natural gas is used for power generation. the penalty interest will be 30%.) Fiscal regime If the teams want to plan their revenues precisely. its distance from the closest main road 2 . For the tax rates of the countries please see the table below. You can use this credit facility to finance up to 60% of your investments performed to put the fields owned by your company into production. Each country has its own tax regime but they are quite similar. according to the license agreements in force in the OPFC area. or transferred to the government for free. please see section “Field Development.

the Oil formation volume factor.Distance from main train line [miles] In case a CPU is built. These are the following: Country data Average temperature Geothermal gradient [F°] [F°/1000 ft] average atmospheric temperature average geothermal gradient OPEX and CAPEX levels are somewhat different in the countries you operate OPEX parameter CAPEX parameter Government take The % of the generated oil revenue withdrawn by the government There are some technical parameters which are constant regardless of the country or field. the recovery ratio) and the production profile are dependent on your field development scheme.the Bubble point pressure. its distance from the closest main hydrocarbon transportation pipeline Distance from main pipeline [miles] Furthermore. its distance from the closest main rail line In case a CPU is built. Following that. These are: Constants Atmospheric pressure Methane density Well diameter 14. With the above specified data set and with the use of the Vasquez and Beggs (1980) formula.) Note that the fields are developed with pressure maintenance technology and ESPs (electronic submersible pumps) are used at each production wells. you can calculate . (Please see next section for detailed information on field development. operating costs and taxes.037463 pound / cubic ft 0. These data are constant throughout the game. will also be granted. To do this. In the first period the price is F$ (Freshhh Dollar) 100 /bbl. The recoverable reserve size (i.e. information on the country in which the field is located. the recoverable reserves and finally the production profile while also considering the necessary investment.29 ft the diameter of the well sections that cross the reservoir Oil price varies throughout the game. use Beggs and Robinson (1975) for the oil viscosity calculation McCain (1991) for the water viscosity calculation For estimation of the recovery factor with pressure maintenance technology please use the correlation issued in API Bulletin D14 (1967) 3 .7 psia 0. and the Original reserve for undersaturated reservoir. you have to calculate the oil in place. OOIP – Original Oil In Place can be calculated During the Recoverable Reserve calculation. Evaluation of fields – production curve Before purchasing a development concession you will need to evaluate it.

its domain: ROOIPWlp > Np > ROOIP a. Np= ROOIP 4 . Np=ROOIPWlp 2nd point (end of potential production) WC=99%. In production with water phase For Field level Water Oil Ratio prediction use Timmermann (1971) formula. waterless production and production with water. For the calculation of the production profile you may use the following formulas: For waterless production portion (from sensitivity calculation made by numerical simulation) Wlp= waterless (till 1% of water contain) production portion of the total production Wlp=0. (Wd) Well distance interval = 2000 < distance between the injectors and producers < 10000 [ft] Reservoir total thickness interval (h) = 40 < thickness < 300 [ft] Permeability interval = 1 < k < 1000 [mD] Over (or below) the limits the maximal (minimal) limit value have to be used ROOIP in the waterless production phase =ROOIP*Wlp* Sp.02861*log(Wd)-0. where Sp= Scheme parameter. where.8 Sp can be calculated directly from the final producer-injector rate for a middle point When the produced oil amount in the waterless production phase exceeds ROOIP*Wlp* Sp. Np= cumulative oil production [bbl].6047-0.The production is separated into two phases. The total liquid (water+oil) production level of a field with a given well network is constant in the entire life of a field (without taking into consideration the bottlenecks of the surface infrastructure) but watercut of the production changes in time. the waterless phase alters to production with water phase.0067*log(k) where.06*(heff/h)-0. a correction factor depending on the injection well pattern: At five point system (producer -injector ratio = 1) Sp=1 At seven or four point system (producer -injector ratio = 2) Sp=0. b = reservoir specific constants.035*log(μo/μw)+0.9 At nine point system (producer -injector ratio = 3) Sp=0.0342*log(h)+0. can be determined from the first and last point of the curve 1st point (starting of the water production) WC=1%.

Oil processing train. All fields need to be developed with pressure maintenance technology. When you have set the desired number or capacity of all the facilities. That means that you have one opportunity in each turn to decide what facilities are to be constructed. Injector well. you will need to develop the field. you may select Accept. or the capacity (in case of other facilities). as well as the surface processing or transportation capacity can be the bottleneck in the system. Road. the model for the estimation of the production of a field should also be built using 1 year long periods. It is important to optimise the number of wells and capacity of the surface infrastructure to make the operation of the field as efficient as possible. you can see the CAPEX of the units to be construced.For well level estimations you may use the following equations Average producer productivity equation: . according to the rules of OPFC. Keep in mind that there are certain limitations for the construction of production facilities. where qf = qo+qw [bbl/d] re=drainage radius [ft] rw= wellbore radius [ft] Estimation of the average injector final productivity: . For security reasons the maximal drawdown pressure at water injector wells is 1500 psia.000 Step/interval on the slider Maximum pieces/ capacity built per concession N/A 4 trains* 1 1. In the Development panel you will find the facilities that can be constructed (Producer well. The design of the transportation capability is also your task. Note that in one turn you are only able to access the build panel once. the capacities of the equipment (bottleneck effect) and the timing of your development. Both the production and injection capacity. Also. Storage tanker. the daily oil production of a field cannot be greater than one third of its storage capacity. For this purpose. By clicking on Development credit button. where Kw= average water permeability (assumed to be equal to k) rei = middle distances between the injectors and producers As the game itself. For a well-functioning field development program you need to focus on the produced amount. producer and injector wells are needed as well as a well-designed surface facility. Field Development. facilities and costs To bring up the precious oil from the depths of the earth. Before starting the field development you have to take into account that The granted concession rights are valid for 20 years or turns.000 5 . Limits for players' inputs Maximum unit/ capacity built in period Production wells+Injector wells Oil processing train piece bbl/d 10 50. Rail and Pipeline transportation units). You can select the number of units (in case of wells).

9 * USD 0. OPEX of road has fix part due after a road is constructed and a variable part 6 .000 bbl/day. As pressure maintenance technology is used for field development. Significant part of operational costs of wells connected to the amount of liquid produced.pipeline bbl/d 500.variable OPEX .Storage tanker bbl 150.variable USD 1 mln Storage capacity constructed in period [Mbbl]^0. The OPEX of the unit is also related to the maximal capacity.000 Export route .000 bbl/day. As evident as it is the construction cost depends on the capacity of the unit. as in some cases the transportation is not possible immediately.000 100.000 Export route .000 bbl/day while the maximal capacity is 50.5 mln/Mbbl Storage tankers in operation [#] * USD 0.Facilities start the operation in the turn following the construction except for the Processing train that is in operation from the 3rd year following the start of construction.5 Production or injector wells in operation [#] * USD 0.road bbl/d 50. CAPEX of one unit depends on the depth to be drilled and geological factors.8 mln/MMbbl Storage tankers are required for temporary oil storage. CAPEX is charged when the construction order is given (except for Oil Processing train).2 mln/1000 ft * Reservoir depth [1000feet]^1.3 mln/MMbbl Oil processing train or CPU is the heart of each oil field. CAPEX emerges as follows: in the first year 30%. The construction of an oil processing train takes 3 years. Storage tanker CAPEX . Capital and operational costs for producer and injector wells for can be calculated as follows:. Road CAPEX must be paid in the first year road is constructed and only have to be paid.fix CAPEX . Below you will find a summary of the different equipment and facilities that could be developed and the cost-functions of the CAPEX and OPEX related to them. Whereas filling station CAPEX must be paid each time additional road transport capacity is constructed. Production wells are the elemental tools of oil mining.fix CAPEX .1 mln/#/year N/A Players may choose between three different means of transportation.000 1.fix CAPEX . However the operational costs are unit based.000 1. you cannot abandon a field if there are ongoing construction works within its perimeters. 1.000 6 tanks* 50. Their main task is to transform the produced raw oil into a transportable and marketable quality product. One tanker can be built in each period (until reaching 6 tanker units) of which the minimal capacity is 1.rail bbl/d 100. Production well CAPEX .variable OPEX . with significant initial investment.5 mln/train/year Processing train capacity [MMbbl/year] ^0. Oil processing train CAPEX . CAPEX of these facilities are proportional to the size and capacity of the unit.variable Production or injector wells drilled in period [#] * USD 5 mln/well Production or injector wells drilled in period [#] * USD 0. however the regular maintenance of wells requires notable financials as well.000 * Note: The number of units is maximised not the capacity.fix OPEX . pipelines connecting to the CPU (Central Processing Station) and other well site infrastructure.8 * USD 0.000 bbl/day while the maximal capacity is 150.25 mln/well/year Produced or injected liquid amount [MMbbl/year]^0.000 Export route .000 1. When the Processing train is being constructed the first part of the CAPEX is charged on the spot while the remaining parts are charged at the beginning of the following turns.000 500. For road transportation a road connecting to the main system must be built together with truck filling heads. One processing train can be built in each period (until reaching 4 trains) of which the minimal capacity is 1.9 * USD 8 mln/(Mbbl/d) Processing trains in opearation [#] * USD 0. in the second year 50%. The construction costs contain the installation of ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump).fix OPEX . One transportation system can be built in each period from all types of transportation infrastructures.8 * USD 1. injector wells must also be drilled Injector wells are fed by the water of nearby rivers and lakes.fix OPEX . in the third year 20% of total cost.variable USD 20 mln Processing train capacity built in period [Mbbl/d]^0. In this case you can abandon the field at zero charge in each period. However.000 It can happen that the revenues of a field will not cover the OPEX and the taxes payable for the given field.variable OPEX .

000 bbl/day while the maximal capacity is 100. Meanwhile the external transportation cost in case of pipeline transport is 3 USD/bbl (in excess of the CAPEX and OPEX of the facilities).fix CAPEX .8 * USD 0. OPEX is charged at the end of each turn. Note that each time a new pipeline is constructed a new filling station must also be built.1 mln/#/year Pipeline capacity in operation [MMbbl/year] * Pipeline lenght [mile] * USD 0. One pipeline transportation unit can be built in each period (until reaching the total road transportation capacity of 500.fix OPEX .variable USD 20 mln Pipeline capacity [Mbbl/d] * USD 3 mln/(Mbbl/d) Connection points in operation [#] * USD 0.000 bbl/d) of which the minimal capacity is 1.5 * USD 0. Pipeline CAPEX .variable USD 10 mln] Pipeline capacity built in period [Mbbl/d]^0. In this case a pipeline to the nearest international transportation pipeline and a connection point must also be constructed. The external transportation cost in case of road transport is 7 USD/bbl (in excess of the CAPEX and OPEX of the facilities).16 mln/(Mbbl/d) * Pipeline lenght [mile] * CAPEX variable Length parameter USD 1 mln/mile Pipelines to filling stations in operation [#] * USD 0.5 mln/mile USD 0.8 * USD 2 mln/(Mbbl/d) Rail filling stations in operation [#] * USD 2 mln/#/year The third mean of transporting the crude oil to the international market is using an pipeline.000 bbl/day while the maximal capacity is 500. 7 .1 mln/#/year Pipeline capacity in operation [MMbbl/year] * Pipeline lenght [mile] * USD 0.5 mln/(Mbbl/d) Truck filling stations in operation [#] * USD 1 mln/#/year N/A For transportation with train a pipeline to and a filling station at the nearest rail line must be constructed.variable USD 1 mln Road lenght [mile] * USD 0.000 bbl/day. If pipeline capacity has to be increased. Pipeline CAPEX has a notable large fix part and a variable part dependent of the length and the capacity of the pipe. The external transportation cost in case of rail transport is 5 USD/bbl (in excess of the CAPEX and OPEX of the facilities).5 * USD 0.5 mln/#/year N/A OPEX is incurred from the year the facility is in operation.variable OPEX . Parts of OPEX that not depend on the actual throughput of a unit are paid for all the commissioned infrastructure irrespective of their utilisation. Pipeline to rail filling station CAPEX – fix CAPEX .000 bbl/d) of which the minimal capacity is 1.variable USD 1 mln Truck filling capacity built in period [Mbbl/d]^0.depending on the length of the road.000 bbl/day.variable USD 10 mln] Pipeline capacity built in period [Mbbl/d]^0. CAPEX of filling station follows the same logic.16 mln/(Mbbl/d) * Pipeline lenght [mile] * CAPEX variable Length parameter USD 1 mln/mile Pipelines in operation [#] * USD 0. The CAPEX and OPEX functions of these facilities are quite similar to that of the railway units. Road CAPEX – fix CAPEX .002 mln/MMbbl Rail filling station CAPEX – fix CAPEX .000 bbl/d) of which the minimal capacity is 1.002 mln/MMbbl Connection point CAPEX .fix CAPEX . a new pipeline and a separate connection point has to be built.variable OPEX – fix USD 5 mln Rail filling capacity built in period [Mbbl/d]^0.000 bbl/day.variable OPEX . One road transportation unit can be built in each period (until reaching the total road transportation capacity of 50. One rail transportation unit can be built in each period (until reaching the total rail transportation capacity of 100. Fix filling station OPEX must be paid based on the number of filling stations in operation.variable OPEX – fix OPEX .variable OPEX – fix OPEX .fix OPEX . self-evidently without taking into consideration the distance.1 mln/mile/year Truck filling station CAPEX – fix CAPEX . Fix OPEX of both units is based on the number of facilities built while variable OPEX of the pipeline depends on its capacity.000 bbl/day while the maximal capacity is 50. however they have significantly higher initial costs.variable OPEX – fix OPEX .1 mln/year Road lenght [mile] * USD 0.

Due to the limitations of technical processes. The refinery will be operational from the start. Not all technologies are available from the start. there is no maximum throughput limit. adjustment and maintenance. As a simplification. The goal is to achieve maximum amount of money at the end of the defined period. The operation begins in the year following the construction year. you can construct new facilities to keep up the competitiveness of your company and to fulfill the environmental regulations and product qualities. You can: ● ● Alter the path of different refinery streams by splitters Choose catalyst for HDS/MHC Unit Along the way. this restriction does not apply for other refinery units. Some units have a maximum capacity specified. and it is your task to make it as profitable as possible. REFINERY Game concept A regional company sold its refinery construction. Facilities operate 300 days a year. the annual refinery (CDU) utilization rate can not be less than 60%. you have to make several decisions to operate and expand your refinery in an optimal way. The minimum imported crude volume is always set automatically to match the minimum utilization rate. The utilization rate can be set by adjusting the imported crude volume. The company will be able to convert the products into money at market prices. You can see your opportunities in the following table: from 2012 from 2014 from 2016 from 2018 8 . The aim of the programmers was to create a game as realistic as possible. In case more than one means of transportation is available. There will be operational decisions. Units available from the start: ● ● ● ● ● ● Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) Light Naphtha Hydrotreater Heavy Naphtha Hydrotreater Light Naphtha Isomerisation Unit CCR Reformer Unit Gasoil Hydrotreater The refinery will use crude bought from the market. Your company has bought it. Playing the game Each turn you have to make different decisions to optimize the efficiency of your refinery. where it is not specified. During the game. If the capacity is not enough the rest of the production is transported via other existing means. but it still contains several simplifications to make the game easier to understand and more entertaining to play. oil is transported via the cheapest way.It is important to note that: All costs are multiplied by a Country factor representing the price differences of different countries. Construction of facilities takes 1 year (except for Oil processing trains). taking into consideration the time spent on repair. For the other plants. Gasoline and diesel product lines have already been built.

Catalyst price is specified for each unit. than consumed. PROCESSES IN THE REFINERY Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) 9 . in which it is your task to change the catalyst every two years. but that is not sufficient for the refinery. Consumed hydrogen is not calculated in the feed. Catalyst: As a simplification. That is why hydrogen consuming units have an overall yield over 100%. the necessary amount is bought from the market. than needed for refinery processes. Hydrogen can be produced or bought from the market. Excess fuel is bought from the market as natural gas. catalyst expenses are calculated as utility. Cooling water: used in cooling processes for condensation and temperature control. than the amount necessary for operation. except the HDS/MHC unit.HDS-MHC HDS-MHC Revamp DCU HPP Claus Unit BBU available not available not available not available not available not available available available not available not available not available not available available available available not available not available available available available available available available available Plant availability for construction Utilities Fuel: the energy consumed in the process to heat up the materials to the required temperature. but starting from 2020 the hydrogen price increases dramatically to 20000 F$/t (due to the availability from a different supplier). Hydrogen: Hydrogen is used in hydrotreater units to remove contaminants (mainly sulphur) from different refinery streams. the excess of hydrogen is burnt on the refinery flares. Some units produce fuel gas. heating and stripping. Utility (UOM) Fuel (F$/GJ) Electricity (F$/MWh) Cooling water (F$/1000 m3) Steam (F$/GJ) Price 12. Electricity: mainly intended to propel the pumps and move the feed and products.4 Utility prices For all refinery units utilities are calculated proportional to the feed. Some units produce more steam. but it appears in the product. but used also for light and for supplying control systems. Steam: used for technological processes.4 106 112 10. In the first part of the game external hydrogen is purchased for 5000 F$/t. If the amount of produced steam is not sufficient. The price of the hydrogen varies in time. If more fuel is produced in the refinery units. Natural gas is also the feed of the Hydrogen Plant. This is indicated with a negative value in steam consumption. In case of more hydrogen is produced in Reformer unit. the excess fuel gas is burnt on the refinery flares. The heating value is the same for the produced fuel gas from all refinery units and the natural gas: 50 GJ/t.

or for sale as Light Fuel Oil Delayed Coker. or for sale as Heavy Fuel Oil Delayed Coker. Sulphur content has to be removed to fulfill environmental and quality regulations.36 3.81 26. Lighter compounds are separated in the predistillation and main (atmospheric) distillation columns.60 14.32 1. Heavy compounds have to be distilled in a vacuum distillation column. We would like to lay emphasis on the fact that Fuelgas is used by the refinery for heating. Capacity of the CDU is 10000 kt/year. Sulphur is removed by a catalytic process called hydrotreating or hydrodesulphurization.53 7. and it does not show in the final product summary (the final balance may lack a few kt-s of product).The first step in a refinery is the distillation of crude into different fractions.92 6.3 -23 Utility consumption of the Crude Distillation Unit Light Naphtha Hydrotreater (LN HDS) The crudes sulphur content appears in its products in different quantities.04 3.02 1.30 7.30 7. or for sale as Heavy Fuel Oil Products of the Crude Distillation Unit OPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Steam (GJ/kt) Consumption 650 7. 10 .30 0.50 Product destination Used for heating For sale Light Naphtha Hydrotreating Heavy Naphtha Hydrotreating Heavy Naphtha Hydrotreating For sale Gasoil Hydrotreating or for sale as Petchem and Heating Oil Gasoil Hydrotreating or for sale as Petchem and Heating Oil Gasoil Hydrotreating or for sale as Petchem and Heating Oil HDS/MHC.52 7.45 12 For the conversion from barrels to tons the following equation is used: Barrels of crude oil per metric ton = Product Fuelgas LPG Light naphtha Medium naphtha Heavy naphtha Kerosene Light atmospheric gasoil Heavy atmospheric gasoil Light vacuum gasoil Heavy vacuum gasoil Slop wax Vacuum residue Losses Yield (wt%) 0.16 2. The products of CDU are further processed in different refinery units.00 15. Bitumen Plant. Crude properties API gravity (°) Sulphur content (%) Watson factor 31. Bitumen Plant.

00 0.00 96. Research octane number (RON) of light naphtha is around 70.00 15. Isomerization of this constituent can improve its octane number.55 0. This fuel cut contains mostly pentanes and hexanes.2 Utility consumption of the Light Naphtha Hydrotreater Heavy Naphtha Hydrotreater (HN HDS) It is very similar to the LN HDS. reaching a good MON without olefinic and aromatics content.Product Fuelgas LPG Light Naphtha H2S Losses Yield (wt%) 0. Since heavy naphtha contains slightly more sulphur.80 3.15 0. desulphurization requires higher temperature and/or pressure and more hydrogen.20 Product destination Used for heating For sale Light Naphtha Isomerisation Unit.10 Product destination Used for heating Gasoline Blending or Base Gasoline For sale as Petchem Naphtha Products of the Light Naphtha Isomerisation Unit OPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Catalyst (F$/kt) Consumption 3000 40 25 500 11 .9 83. or for sale as Petchem Naphtha Burnt or to Claus Unit Products of the Heavy Naphtha Hydrotreater OPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Catalyst (F$/kt) Hydrogen (wt% of feed) Consumption 300 6 8 200 0.13 0. or for sale as Petchem Naphtha Burnt or to Claus Unit Products of the Light Naphtha Hydrotreater OPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Catalyst (F$/kt) Hydrogen (wt% of feed) Consumption 500 6 12 250 0.07 0.40 99. Product Fuelgas Isomerate Residue Losses Yield (wt%) 2. Product Fuelgas Heavy Naphtha H2S Losses Yield (wt%) 0.20 Product destination Used for heating CCR Reformer.3 Utility consumption of the Heavy Naphtha Hydrotreater Light Naphtha Isomerisation Unit (LNI) Desulphurized naphtha is not good enough for motor gasoline (mogas).

40 88. into high-octane liquid products called reformates which are components of high-octane motor gasoline. To produce marketable diesel fuel. The overall effect is that the product reformate contains hydrocarbons with more complex molecular shapes having higher octane values than the hydrocarbons in the naphtha feedstock.00 3.30 4. Product Fuelgas LPG Naphtha Diesel H2S Losses Yield (wt%) 1.10 0.75 Utility consumption of the Gasoil Hydrotreater Hydrodesulphurization / Mild Hydrocracker Unit (HDS/MHC) The aim of an HDS Unit is to pretreat the feed of the FCC Unit. With the proper selection on HDS/MHC catalyst moderate flexibility can be achieved in the refinery’s product slate. a gasoil hydrotreater is necessary to remove sulphur content. the process rearranges or re-structures the hydrocarbon molecules in the naphtha feedstock into aromatic components as well as breaking some of the molecules into smaller molecules.5 3.2 Product destination Used for heating For sale For sale as Petchem Naphtha For sale Burnt or to Claus Unit Products of the Gasoil Hydrotreater OPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Catalyst (F$/kt) Hydrogen (wt% of feed) Consumption 300 15 5 300 0. Product Fuelgas LPG Reformate Hydrogen Losses Yield (wt%) 4.7 94.0 0.Hydrogen (wt% of feed) 1 Utility consumption of the Light Naphtha Isomerisation Unit CCR Reformer Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas.9 0.45 0.20 Products of the CCR Reformer Product destination Used for heating For sale Gasoline Blending or Base Gasoline Used for hydrotreating processes and isomerisation OPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Catalyst (F$/kt) Consumption 3000 95 14 500 Utility consumption of the CCR Reformer Gasoil Hydrotreater Sulphur content of diesel is also regulated very strictly. In so doing. the process separates hydrogen atoms from the hydrocarbon molecules and produces very significant amounts of byproduct hydrogen gas for use in a number of the other processes involved in a modern petroleum refinery. Basically. but operates on higher pressure and temperature. It is similar to hydrotreating. Two catalyst packages are available to choose from: 12 . typically having low octane ratings.

0 1. the unit operates at the original.6 Product destination Used for heating For sale For sale as Petchem Naphtha For sale as Diesel To FCC Unit.4 1.7 0.5 12. Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCC) 13 . Product Fuelgas LPG Naphtha HDS Gasoil HDS Raffinate H2S Losses Yield in HDS Mode (wt%) 0.2 1. otherwise the unit stops operating.2 in MHC mode) Utility consumption of the HDS/MHC Unit *Both catalyst types lifetime is 2 years. Total Investment Cost: Before constructing the unit. revamp cost is fully charged in the year of ordering.7 0.7 0. you can choose among three maximum capacities.6 Yield in HDS/MHC mode (wt%) 0. Until the revamp is complete.4 21. Capacity (kt/year) 2000 2600 3300 Revamp from 2000 to 2600 Revamp from 2600 to 3300 Revamp from 2000 to 3300 CAPEX (MMF$) 200 230 270 60 80 140 Construction time: 2 years Cost distribution: 1st year: 60% 2nd year 40% Revamp of HDS/MHC unit takes one year.0 71. or for sale as Light Fuel Oil Burnt or to Claus Unit Products of the HDS/MHC Unit OPEX & CAPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Steam (GJ/kt) HDS Catalyst (MMF$/charge)* HDS-MHC Catalyst (MMF$/charge)* Hydrogen (wt% of feed) Consumption 300 36 4. the unit can be revamped to higher capacity later in the game.6 5. mainly gasoil.HDS/MHC catalyst: Removes significant amount of sulphur and converts a larger amount of heavy components into more valuable light hydrocarbons.5 250 3.3 84. after this period the catalyst has to be changed.5 0. If necessary. Catalysts have to be ordered a year prior to the change! The construction cost of the newly built HDS/MHC unit involves a HDS catalyst.6 6 1. lower capacity.0 (1. HDS-MHC Unit is built along with the FCC Unit!! ● ● HDS catalyst: Removes significant amount of sulphur with low hydrocarbon conversion. with which the unit can start its operation in the first 2 years.

3 12. therefore the DC Unit is not operable without the 14 .5 11. high boiling range products resulting from the distillation of crude oil.4 50. It is widely used to convert the high molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of crude oils to more valuable gasoline. refineries use fluid catalytic cracking to correct the imbalance between the market demand for gasoline and the excess of heavy.8 Product destination Used for heating For sale For sale Gasoline Blending or Base Gasoline For sale as Petchem and Heating Oil For sale as Light Fuel Oil For sale as Heavy Fuel Oil Products of the FCC Unit OPEX & CAPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Steam (GJ/kt) Catalyst (F$/kt) Consumption 160 50 25 -250 200 Utility consumption of the FCC Unit Total Investment Cost: 380 MMF$ Construction time: 2 years Cost distribution: 1st year: 60% 2nd year 40% Delayed Coker Unit (DCU) Delayed coking is a thermal process in which the vacuum residue from crude distillation is converted into lighter components and coke.0 0. The FCC process vaporizes and breaks the long-chain molecules of the high-boiling hydrocarbon liquids into much shorter molecules by contacting the feedstock. Product Fuelgas Propylene LPG Naphtha* DC Gasoil* Heavy Coker Gasoil (HCGO)* Coke Losses Yield (wt%) 4.5 4.Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a conversion process used in refineries.5 Product destination Used for heating For sale For sale Heavy Naphtha Hydrotreating Gasoil Hydrotreating HDS/MHC For sale Products of the DCU Unit *The marked streams can not leave the refinery without further treatment.0 4.5 36.0 2. with a fluidized powdered catalyst.0 19.5 24. In effect. Vapor is fractionated into different products.0 2.5 16. olefinic gases and other products. The feed is heated in a furnace then confined in a reaction zone or coke drum under proper operating conditions of temperature and pressure until the unvaporized portion of the furnace effluent is converted to vapor and coke.7 3. at high temperature and moderate pressure. FCC Unit is built along with the HDS-MHC Unit!! Product Fuelgas Propylene LPG FCC Gasoline LCO HCO MCB Losses Yield (wt%) 38 4.

The throughput of HPP is always determined by the demand of hydrotreaters. Product Bitumen Losses Yield (wt%) 98. OPEX & CAPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Steam (GJ/kt) Consumption 1200 25 0. but generally the quantity is insufficient to meet the requirements of the refinery. to remove sulfur. either on a batch or a continuous basis. Hydrogen is produced by the steam reforming of natural gas.5 450 Utility consumption of the DCU Unit Total Investment Cost: 550 MMF$ Construction time: 4 years Cost distribution: 1st year: 30% 2nd year 30% 3rd year 20% 4th year 20% Bitumen Blowing Unit (BBU) Asphaltic bitumen. A limited quantity of hydrogen is produced in the catalytic reforming of naphthas. If maximum capacity is reached. 15 .0 2. excess hydrogen is automatically bought from the market. This is “straight run" bitumen. nitrogen and other impurities from hydrotreater feed. The physical properties of asphalts may further be modified by 'air blowing'. which is bought from the market or consumed from the refinery fuel gas pool (simplification).0 Product destination For sale Products of the BBU Unit OPEX & CAPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Steam (GJ/kt) Consumption 100 20 2 200 Utility consumption of the BBU Unit Total Investment Cost: 50 MMF$ Construction time: 2 years Cost distribution: 1st year: 60% 2nd year 40% Hydrogen Production Plant (HPP) Hydrogen is required in refineries for hydrotreating processes. Maximum capacity of the BBU Unit is 400 kt/year. This is an oxidation process which involves the blowing of air through the asphalts. normally called "bitumen" is obtained by vacuum distillation or vacuum flashing of an atmospheric residue.HDS-MHC Unit.

You can see your options in the table below.Product Hydrogen Losses Yield (wt%) 23.2 Product destination Used for hydrotreating processes and isomerisation Products of the HPP Unit OPEX & CAPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt)* Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Steam (GJ/kt) Catalyst (F$/kt) Consumption 6000 60 10 -1800 780 Utility consumption of the HPP Unit *Specific fuel consumption does not contain the feed natural gas of HPP. After your initial choice. so choose carefully.8 76. Total Investment Cost: Before constructing the unit. there is no possibility to expand capacity. Feed capacity (kt/year) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 CAPEX (MMF$) 36 63 86 108 129 149 168 187 205 225 240 260 275 290 305 325 340 355 370 385 Construction time: 2 years Cost distribution: 1st year: 60% 2nd year 40% 16 . you can choose between different maximum capacities.

In the absence of sulfur recovery. it will also be sold as Base Gasoline. which is converted to elemental sulfur in the Claus Unit to minimize atmospheric pollution. so choose carefully. you can choose between different maximum capacities.8 15.2 Product destination For sale Products of the Claus Unit OPEX & CAPEX Utility (UOM) Fuel (GJ/kt) Electricity (MWh/kt) Cooling water (m3/t) Steam (GJ/kt) Catalyst (F$/kt) Consumption 810 100 40 -3500 1200 Utility consumption of the Claus Unit Total Investment Cost: Before constructing the unit. It is your task to blend marketable gasoline by setting up the splitters correctly. After your initial choice. Feed capacity (kt/year) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 CAPEX (MMF$) 51 69 82 92 102 110 117 124 130 136 142 147 152 157 162 166 170 175 180 185 Construction time: 2 years Cost distribution: 1st year: 60% 2nd year 40% Gasoline Blending Motor gasoline has to be blended from different streams to fulfill the environmental and quality regulations. Product Sulphur Losses Yield (wt%) 84. The throughput of the Claus Unit is always determined by the H2S production of the hydrotreaters. If the blended gasoline does not meet the requirements. Excess amount of blending components will be sold as Base Gasoline for a lower price. A new government law will come into force in 2020 imposing a serious penalty on H2S burning: 30000 F$/t. Hydrotreating various distillates from these crudes generate hydrogen sulfide (H2S). 17 . the only option would be to burn this gas in refinery furnaces. releasing huge amounts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. You can see your options in the table below.Claus Unit Most crude oil contains varying amounts of sulfur. there is no possibility to expand capacity.

Scores are calculated as follows: After the 18th turn there will be a automaticly simulated 19th turn.7 * 93.15 * 103 + 0.73 95 85 45 0. The calculation is volume based (in V/V%).77 60 18 35 Requirements for motor gasoline The properties of blended gasolines are calculated from the weighted average of the blending component properties. DS and overall preformance. 0.75 0. Maximum spec. Ten teams who scored best in the Upstream part of the game.5 103 90 MON 82.83 0.5 92 85 RVP (kPa) 56 30 80 Olefin (%) 27 0 1 Aromatics (%) 26 81 0 FCC Gasoline Reformate Isomerate Gasoline blending components and their properties Property SPG (kg/dm3) RON MON RVP (kPa) Olefin (%) Aromatics (%) Minimum spec.Gasoline Blending is not possible until all the components are available. 18 . and twenty teams with the best overall score (apart from the teams already qualified with the US or DS parts).4 Final Scoring 40 teams are going to get to the creative round. Then we rank the teams of US. Example for calculation: 70%(V/V) FCC naphtha + 15%(V/V) Reformate + 15%(V/V) Isomerate RON = 0.68 RON 93. ten teams with the best scores in the Downstream part. SPG (kg/ dm3) 0.5 + 0.15 * 90 = 94. After that we rank the teams according to how much cash they have on their account and substract the amount of credit they currently own. when the players will not be able to make any kind of decision (to allow the cashflow of the 18th turn to be completed).