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DATE: 2/17/2012

the salinity gradient forms a density gradient that increases with depth and this counteracts the temperature gradient.  The bottom layer. such as process heating. thus preventing heat in the lower layers from moving upward by convection and leaving the pond. its temperature increases causing thermal expansion and reduced density.  This approach is good for rural areas in developing countries. the best example of solar pond is solar lake in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. The layers of salt solutions increase in concentration with depth. There are three layers of water in pond:  The top layer.  Very large area collectors can be set up for just the cost of the clay or plastic pond liner. A solar pond can be used for various applications.  An intermediate insulating layer with a salt gradient. drying and solar power generation. AKHIL DABRAL Page 2 . The temperature at bottom layer is around 90 °C and the temperature at the top layer is around 30 °C.  Maintenance expenses.SOLAR POND ABOUT SOLAR POND: A solar pond is a pool of saltwater which acts as a large-scale solar thermal energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. which has a high salt content. The temperature gradient alone causes a density gradient that decreases with depth. which has low salt content. When solar energy is absorbed in the water. refrigeration.  DISADVANTAGES:  The evaporated surface water need to be replenished. Solar pond collects and stores solar thermal energy. However. desalination.  ADVANTAGES:  No need of a separate collector for this thermal storage system.

Most likely. and then shake the bottle of water to fully oxygenate the water. most commonly the roof of a residence.5 cm of space in order to permit enough oxygen for the process.SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION OR DESALINATION (SODIS) ABOUT SODIS: Water disinfection means the removal. If water temperature goes above 50 °C. polio. SODIS kills many water borne pathogens including bacteria. viruses etc. Because the UVA-rays play such a vital role in disinfection. but this is still in question. The size of the bottles should be 2 liters or less. After this time period. and fever. There are various techniques for water disinfection. and the water is filled in the bottles to leave 2. the water is disinfected in 6 hours of exposure and if it is 100% cloudy then the bottles need to be exposed for 2 days. hepatitis. diarrhea. typhus. the AKHIL DABRAL Page 3 . the disinfection process is complete in 1 hour. If it is sunny or up to 50% cloudy. These simple calculations of sunlight and temperature make this method of water purification very accessible. stomach cramps. simple process of purifying water using the power of the sun’s ultraviolet rays and solar radiation. When microorganisms are not removed from drinking water then it will cause people to fall ill. The process involves exposure to the UV-rays and temperature. SODIS technology was first introduced in 1980. UVA-rays kill these pathogens most by damaging the respiratory system through radiation. These pathogens are related to many health issues including cholera. One of the most popular technique is solar water disinfection (SODIS). Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-technology. the water is disinfected and ready to drink. Microorganisms are destroyed or deactivated resulting in termination of growth and reproduction. the higher the temperature the faster will be the disinfection process. The method for SODIS involves clear PET (polyethyleneteraphtalate) bottles and a location that is exposed to the sun. deactivation or killing of pathogenic microorganisms.

process happens even when the temperature is cool. How does it work?  ADVANTAGES:  Easy to use. Required maintenance. The process is ineffective during periods of heavy rainfall and many recommend rainwater harvest and filtration.  DISADVANTAGES:     Need supply of bottles. Waters of higher turbidity must be filtered before SODIS treatment to ensure proper purification. Not effective in rainy seasons.  Inexpensive  Good bacterial and viral disinfection  No dangerous chemical. This process is very complex. It is important that the water is relatively clear in order for the rays to penetrate and disable the functions of the pathogens. AKHIL DABRAL Page 4 .

Temperatures can reach around 300 degrees Fahrenheit. (1) Parabolic Cooker: The sun’s rays are captured in a reflector which focuses them at a point under a pot. braise. hot enough to fry food. this sunshine turns to heat which is trapped in the box. box and panel cookers. (This is ample because cooking begins at around 180 degrees Fahrenheit. The effect is similar to the oven in your kitchen. and convenient way to cook without consuming fuel.SOLAR COOKER ABOUT SOLAR COOKER : A solar cooker. It is a simple. stew and fry food. The effect is like a stove top burner or a campfire. Solar cookers can bake. safe. Solar cooking can help alleviate the burden on more than 3 billion people who must walk for miles to collect wood or spend their meager income on fuel. (2) Box Cooker: The sun’s rays are received in an insulated black box with a transparent lid which lets in the sun’s rays.) AKHIL DABRAL Page 5 . Inside the box. or solar oven. is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it. Solar cooking is using the sun to cook food. Temperatures can reach above 400 degrees Fahrenheit. The 3 most common solar cooker designs are parabolic. Temperatures can reach around 250 degrees Fahrenheit. (3) Panel Cooker: A combination of the two systems which is portable and less expensive.

 Many solar cookers take longer time to cook food than a fuel-based oven. Using these solar cookers therefore requires that food preparation be started several hours before the meal. children cannot be burned by touching many types of solar cookers. gas. cool the food. these solar cookers are not fire hazards. which means that their users do not need to fetch or pay for firewood.  Some solar cooker designs are affected by strong winds.  Unlike cooking over an open fire.  Solar box cookers attain temperatures of up to about 165 deg. ADVANTAGES:  Solar cookers use no fuel. so they can be used to sterilize water or prepare most foods that can be made in a conventional oven or stove.  DISADVANTAGES:  Solar cookers are less usable in cloudy weather and at high latitudes. so some fuel-based backup heat source must still be available in these conditions. or other fuels. C (325 deg. AKHIL DABRAL Page 6 . from baked bread to steamed vegetables to roasted meat.  Solar cookers do not produce any smoke as a product of combustion. which are made from cardboard or plastic and do not get hot. and disturb the reflector. electricity. which can slow the cooking process. F). Unlike all fuel-based cooking arrangements.