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**GEOMETRY MODEL OF MACROPHYSICS
**

Hu Changwei

Room 54, No.2, Tian Shan Wu Cun, 200336 Shanghai China，021-

62730564，huchangwei5@yahoo.com.cn

**Abs tra ct : The derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid mechanics shows that there
**

are intrinsic contacts between the absolute and relativistic space-time theory, and the ether is

just the physical vacuum, which is the superfluid of vacuum state, thus the physical mechanism

of relativity theory is revealed. On this basis, the Smarandache geometry model of

macrophysics is constructed: the subspace where is without ether or the space-time effect of

ether can be omitted is the absolute space; the subspace where the ether is homogeneous

distribution is the Minkowski space; the subspace where the ether is non-homogeneous

distribution is the Riemann space. Among the three kinds of subspace, the absolute space is

the elementary subspace, the other two kinds of subspace are that created by the space-time

effect of ether: in the place which the ether density is bigger, the ruler is short and the clock

goes slower, and the curvature of Riemann space are corresponded with the changed rate of

standards of time and length. Also the limitations of relativity theory are revealed here.

Key words: Smarandache geometry, Elementary subspace, Ether (physical vacuum),

Duplicate time-space theory, Physical mechanism of relativity theory

**1. The question of elementary subspace in the model of Smarandache geometry
**

The Smarandache geometry[1] is the geometry that has at least one negative axiom of

Smarandache. So it is the geometry that has at least two kind of subspace on certain

significance. Is there an elementary subspace, which can derive other subspaces among these

subspaces? This question is not established in pure mathematics, but there is a positive

answer generally in concrete Smarandache geometry model.

The Euclidean space is the most simple and direct-viewing space, so it is regarded as the

elementary subspace generally when the model of the Smarandache geometry is constructed

artificially. Following is an example.

**As the picture, the rectangle ABCD and the point within it are regarded as a geometry
**

space, in this space, the points are the general points, but the line is the line segment that is

any of linking opposite sides; and the parallel line is that two line segments is without point of

1

intersection. This is a Smarandache geometry model, because, it includes three kind of

geometric subspace: the line BE is made, a point N is taken within the rectangle, then, there

are infinite line, which pass the point N and are parallel to the BE, it is the condition of

hyperboloid; the point M is taken on the AD, then only a line AD pass the point M and is

parallel to the BE, which is the condition of Euclidean plane; moreover, there has not a line

passing the point C and is parallel to the BE, which is the condition of ellipsoid.

In the Smarandache geometry of the rectangle ABCD, there are three kinds of subspace.

Obviously, the Euclidean space is the most elementary space, the other two kinds of space,

which are derivative, are obtained through the condition of boundary and modifying the

definition of line and parallel line on the basis of Euclidean space.

There are three kinds of space in macrophysics: it is absolute space in Newtonian physics;

is Minkowski space in special theory of relativity; is Riemann space in general theory of

relativity. The Minkowski space is a kind of four dimension Euclidean space, and is different

from absolute space: the former considers that the space and time are closely interconnected

and can vary with the velocity; the latter considers that the space and time are not

interconnected and can not vary with the velocity. If it is regarded that “the space and time are

not interconnected and can not vary with the velocity” as an axiom in the absolute space, then

it is possible to construct a Smarandache geometry model of macrophysics. In this model, is

there an elementary subspace among the absolute space, Minkowski space and Riemann

space? The question should be analysed in physics.

2. The derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid mechanics[2]

The physics is different from the mathematics, its logic should have two aspects: one is

the substantial logic, which points out the physical mechanism of things qualitatively to reply

why they have such nature and characteristic; the other is formal logic, it demonstrate the

quantitative (including geometric) relation among the physical quantities to define how have

they contact and transformation each other. The relativity theory has derived a series of

quantitative relations, but is without or impossible to explain the physical mechanism that

created these quantitative relations such as “why the light velocity is invariable ？” etc. Then

how done the physical mechanism of relativity theory is revealed? The derivation of Lorentz

transformation by fluid mechanics is a cutting point.

The Lorentz transformation is the core of relativistic space-time theory. Einstein derived

it from the principle of invariance of the light velocity. We will derive it by way of fluid

mechanics, making it possible to view the relativity theory at a different angle.

In fluid mechanics, the velocity vector potential φ of incompressible fluid contents the

equation: ∆φ ( x. y.z ) = 0 （1）

In other hand, if the velocity has no interaction when fluids run across, the velocity vector

potential φ of compressible fluid contents the equation:

v 2 ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ

1 − 2 2 + 2 + 2 = 0 （2）

c ∂x ∂y ∂z

**( c、v are the sound and flow speed in the fluid separately)
**

We make a substitution for (2) with the following (3):

2

x' = β x

' β = 1

y =y （3）

z' = z v2

1− 2

c

( ' ' '

)

Then the equation is identified with（1）: ∆φ x . y .z = 0 . So（3）is the transformation of

**fluid from compressible to incompressible state.
**

If there is special superfluid, which can satisfy relevant condition, that the equation (2)

can be established, then let two special superfluids make relative movement with speed v, in

the absolute time-space theory, there is Galileo transformation between them:

x2 = x1 − vt1

y2 = y1 （4）

z =z

2 1

x1 = x2 + vt2

and y1 = y2 （5）

z =z

1 2

(attention: here the t written into t1 and t2 separately)

x1

Substitute （3）into（4）and（5） [ in （4）does not change due to relative rest; same

x2

reason, does not change in（5）.], obtaining:

x2' = β ( x1' − vt1 )

y2' = y1' （6）

z2' = z1'

x1' = β ( x2' + vt2 )

and y1' = y2' （7）

z1' = z2'

**Substitute the first equation in（6）into that in（7）, obtaining:
**

1 ' x1' ( β 2 − 1)

( x1 − β x1 + β vt1 ) = β t1 − vβ 2

2

t2 = 2 ' 2

，substitute β 2 = c into it, obtaining：

vβ c2 − v2

vx '

t2 = β t1 − 21 （8）

c

**If the sound speed of special superfluid is just the light speed, then the combining
**

of（6）and（8）is just the Lorentz transformation

Above derivation is not strict, but there is no question that understand following the

relation among the physical vacuum, object and gravitational field.

3

Lorentz transformation enjoys many ways of derivation. The Lorentz’s hypothesis and

Einstein’s derivation and so on have not shown their physical essence, while the process of

above derivation demonstrates: if a special fluid can be transformed from compressible to

incompressible state, Lorentz transformation may be derived from Galileo transformation. Here

are rich physical connotations, not only demonstrated the materiality of physical vacuum, but

also showed the duality of time-space theory.

3. The physical vacuum is a kind of special medium

The derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid mechanics means existence of a special

superfluid, which velocity has no influence while running across, and its sound velocity is the

light velocity. What is the special superfluid? It can not be a common object fluid, but only

physical vacuum.

The vacuum is not void. Microscopically, the physical vacuum is the basic state of quantum

field. Macroscopically, the physical vacuum is the four dimensional space-time continuum in

the relativistic time-space; while the derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid mechanics

indicates that the physical vacuum can be seen as a compressible superfluid in the absolute

time-space theory. Owing to the physical vacuum being an “object” and not a void space, and

also the medium of light, so it is suitable comparatively that the physical vacuum is called

“ether”.

To think generally, the ether theory is negated by the theory of relativity, which is a

prejudice actually. Einstein’s thought[3] was quite contradiction to ether, he was conscious that

the ether exists, as well as did not understand its essence. In 1920, he had made a speech

about the ether and relativity theory, he said: “According to the general theory of relativity, it

is unimaginable that a space is without ether. Therefore, in such space, not only the light can

not propagate, but the ruler and clock can not exist too, thus is also without the space-time

interval on physical significance. But it can not be considered that the ether can have

characteristic quality of medium with weight and it is mad up of the particles which can be

trace along with time, and it is impossible applying the concept of movement to ether.” Here

he considered: the ether is the medium spreading the light; the standards of length and time

are decided by ether (this is very important, but he can not handle it); the ether is different

from the matter with mass(medium with weight); the ether can not be described by the space-

time theory of relativity. These opinions are rather right, but he described the ether (physical

vacuum) to turn into the four dimensional space-time continuum, while it is impossible that to

use the space-time theory of relativity describes the four dimensional space-time continuum,

just as one want to catch hold of him own hair to raise himself. So Einstein can only evade the

ether. Afterwards, he had proposed that the field as the representative of reality. But so-

called field of him is the curvature field of space-time，thus the matter had been geometrized.

The development of quantum theory shows clearly that there are the effects of vacuum

fluctuation, vacuum polarization etc. in physical vacuum, which has complicated physical

character. Then the physical vacuum is considered as the basic state of quantum of field. But

the concept of quantum field is quite numerous and miscellaneous, short of unity, such as the

photon, lepton, quark, gluon, meson, baryon etc. they can all become as the quantum of field.

Actually, the field is a state which physical quantity is distributed continuously. For

example, the field of atmospheric density is a state which the atmospheric density is

distributed continuously in space; the field of temperature is a state which the temperature is

distributed continuously in medium. So the field is not a basic existent form of matter, like that

4

the material basis of atmospheric density field is the atmosphere, the material basis of

temperature field is the medium spreading temperature etc. Then what are the material basis

of gravitational field and electric field etc.? They are the physical vacuum, a medium of

vacuum state, only it is a basic existent form of matter which is different from object. The

physical vacuum is beyond the mass, while the object is the matter with mass. The quantum

character of field is only a manifestation of interaction or interconnection between the physical

vacuum and object. In fact, the theory of quantum field had showed [4] that there are vacuum

tunneling effect, vacuum phase change, vacuum condensation, vacuum domain structure etc. so

the physical vacuum resembles the medium, which is just the ether.

The ether is a superfluid. There are two sounds in the superfluid of object: the first sound

is density wave, namely the common sound; the second sound is the temperature wave which

spreads the heat. In the vacuum, the way of thermal propagation is thermal radiation, namely

the electromagnetic wave, so the electromagnetic wave, including the light, is the second

sound in ether.

The connotation of the ether concept varies with the development of history: the

Descartes ether is different from Aristotle’s ether; the ether of the 19th century is different

from Descartes ether; our ether will discard the mechanical character of 19th century ether

and absorb the essence of modern physics including the relativity theory.

4．Duplicate time-space theory and the corresponding relation

the derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid dynamics reveals further the physical

meaning of Lorentz transformation, which is the result that transform the ether fluid from

compressible state in absolute time-space to incompressible state in four dimensional space-

time of relativity theory. Here duplicate time-space theory has arisen: the absolute time-

space theory and relativistic space-time theory. The former uses one space-time standard to

measure whole world unitedly; while the latter holds that the standard of space-time can

change along with moving velocity or gravitational field, both are independent each other, and

have relevant to the state of ether. They are theories different in nature, thus irreplaceable

reciprocally. Besides, the absolute space-time and corresponding compressibility of ether are

the primary; the relativistic space-time theory and corresponding incompressibility of ether (it

is also the homogeneity of ether and invariance of light velocity) are realized through

transition （ 3 ） , they are the secondary. These show that the description on the basis of

absolute space-time theory reflects the truth of the materialistic world and is called qualitative

description; the description on the basis of relativistic space-time theory is not necessarily to

reflect the truth of the materialistic world, but can shows the act and interactions of actual

ruler and clock, and is called quantitative description. There are big disparity and certain

corresponding relationship between two descriptions.

∂ρ r

In macroscopic system, ether should satisfy the equation of continuity: + div ρ u =0

∂t

' vu x

ρ = βρ 1 − c 2

ρ ux = β ( ρux − v ρ )

' '

Using Lorentz covariance, obtaining:

ρ 'u 'y = ρ u y

ρ 'u z' = ρ u z

5

（9）

In（9）, if the density ρ is replaced by mass m, it is identified with the transformation of

mass and momentum in relativity theory. Therefore, we can say that the ether density has

some relation with mass. Because the mass is without spatial extension and to consider the

relation between mass and gravitational field, the intrinsic relation among the ether,

gravitational field and object (the matter with mass) has appeared: the distribution of ether

density has close relevance with object in united ether ocean of the cosmic, the object is the

core of ether density wave-packet, the mass center of object is the maximum value point of

ether density; the gravitational potential corresponds with ether density; the intensity of

gravitational field corresponds with the gradient of ether density; the mass corresponds with

the changed quantity of ether density (it has close relevance with the maximum value of ether

density). In the acoustics, there is the equation P= ρ c2 ( ρ is the changed quantity of density;

P is the changed quantity of the pressure; the c is sound speed), then according to the relation

between mass m and energy E E=mc2, the energy corresponds with the changed quantity of

ether pressure (it has close relevance with the maximum value of ether pressure). When the

object is moving, its surrounding gravitational field ether also waves. Therefore, when two

objects are making relative motion, and if no bump occurs between them, the running across

accompanying their ether wave-packet would have no influence to their velocity, so the

（2）could be established.

The mass corresponds with the changed quantity of ether density of object. Therefore the

object is the matter with mass, while the ether is beyond the mass. The distribution of ether

around the object will be changed along with object moving, so the ether is not absolute frame

of reference.

Owing to the difference of time-space theory, qualitative and quantitative description will

have different reflect to the same thing. To consider qualitatively, the gravitational field is the

field of ether density; the ether is a compressible superfluid; the deflection of light in the

gravitational field is the bend toward to the direction that the ether density is bigger, which is

identical with the propagational way of general sound etc. To consider quantitatively, the

gravitational field is the field of time-space curvature; the ether is a homogeneous continuum

in four dimensional space-time; the light spreads along the geodesic in the curved space-time.

There is the disparity between the descriptions of qualitative and quantitative, which gives

a solution to the puzzle of old ether theory: The direct-viewing mechanical model of ether of

Fresnel and so on (qualitative description) can not content the quantitative relation completely;

while the ether model, which given by Lorentz, contents the quantitative relation, but it had

lost the direct-viewing character of mechanics. The various theory of vacuum, that being

explored now, will meet with similar circumstances too. Here we should to use the theory of

duplicated time-space, the qualitative and quantitative description are opposition and

interdependence.

5. The physical mechanism of relativity theory and its limitations

The relativistic phenomena can be divided into kinematic effect of special theory of

relativity and gravitational effect of general theory of relativity. Now we can incorporate the

two kinds in the effect of ether density: in the place which the ether density is bigger, the

ruler is short and the clock goes slower. The kinematic effects are caused by ether’s

compressibility, when the object moves in compressible ether, its density of ether’s wave-

packet is raised, so the ruler is shorter and the clock goes slower; the gravitational effect is

6

the reason which the ether density corresponds with the gravitational potential, in the place

which the gravitational potential is bigger, the ruler is short and the clock goes slower.

Microscopically, the ether is the basic state of quantum field, it is the assembly of the virtual

boson (we call it the “ether particles”, the meaning of “virtual” is the lowest energy state with

no independent wave-packet of ether density formed.) which is made up of the pair of positive

and negative particles, being the most elementary and universal Bose-Einstein condensation.

Then we can say, the relativistic phenomena are the space-time effect that is created by

ether, its essence is that actual standards of length and time are defined by ether: the unit

length is positively proportional to the interval of the ether particles; the unit time is positively

proportional to the time interval that the light runs through the interval of ether particle. Using

such standards to measure the ether, the ether becomes into the homogeneous and isotropic

four dimensional space-time continuum, the light velocity is constant of course. Einstein

regards this result of invariance of light velocity as hypothesis, thus he has covered up the

essence of relativity theory. Besides, both of the standards of length and time have relevance

to the interval of ether particles, thus the space and time are entangled.

Owing to the kinematic effects being caused by ether compressibility, so we must regard

the ether field of where the object is as the reference frame. On the ground surface, the

gravitational field of the earth occupies absolute superiority. So we must regard the

gravitational field ether of the earth as the reference frame. The result of experiment that the

atomic clock had flying around the earth by Hafele and Keating in 1971 [5] has proved this point.

−9

The experiment has showed: on the average, flying clock is slower by 59 ×10 second than the

−9

clock on the ground after flying towards the east; and flying clock is faster by 273 ×10 second

than the clock on the ground after flying towards the west. It demonstrates that the so-called

“moving clock is slower than still clock” held by relativity theory, does not be established.

Here we must take the coordinates system of the earth’s mass center, only in this way can we

calculate with the formulae of relativity theory, and get result that coincides roughly with

experiment. Actually this coordinates system of the earth’s mass center is just the coordinates

system that regards the gravitational field ether of the earth as the reference frame.

The ether distribution has close relevance with the object distribution. To regard the ether

field of where the moving object is as the reference frame is just to take the coordinates

system that regards the common mass center of material system in certain range as the origin

of coordinates. The motion that is relative to this reference frame is substantial motion,

otherwise, only being formal motion. For example, the motion which the plane is relative to the

mass center of earth is substantial motion, the relative motion between two planes is formal

motion; the motion which the earth is relative to the mass center of the sun is substantial

motion, the relative motion between the earth and other heavenly bodies is formal motion. The

formulae of special relativity theory are effective for the substantial motion and ineffective for

the formal motion (owing to the hugeness of light velocity, their errors are difficult to be

discovered). For instance, the movement that the high energy particles in accelerator are

relative to the earth is substantial motion, these particles can really increase mass. According

to the principle of relativity, the earth is also relative motion to these particles, but it is only

formal motion, the earth does not increase mass. The movement that the star is relative to the

earth due to the rotate of the earth is the formal motion, here the formulae of special relativity

7

theory are ineffective, otherwise, the star velocity will be over the light velocity greatly when

the star is one light-year far away the earth.

In the absolute space-time theory, the time and space, which are irrelevant to matter, are

invariable. But the actual standards of length and time, which is always made up of the object,

can change along with the ether density. The special theory of relativity regards the standard’s

change of length and time as the change of space-time itself and to describe with the

Minkowski space, thus it regards the ether as an even homogeneous four dimensional space-

time continuum unconsciously. So the space-time of relativity theory is the “matter”, and is

not the real space-time. The general theory of relativity regards further the changed rate of

standards of time and length as the curvature of space-time, and to describe with the Riemann

space. Therefore, the Minkowski space and the Riemann space are all the mathematical model

of quantitative description and not real space. It is just as the isospin space being only a

mathematical model. The objective space-time is just three dimensions space and one

dimension time in the absolute space-time.

6. The Smarandache geometry model of macrophysics

The time is regards as the fourth dimension space, then the Smarandache geometry model

of macrophysics can be established according to the physical mechanism of relativity theory.

The space of macrophysics is a kind of Smarandache geometry space: the subspace where

is without ether or the space-time effect of ether can be omitted is the absolute space; the

subspace where the ether is homogeneous distribution and the space-tine effect of ether

should be considered is the Minkowski space; the subspace where the ether is non-

homogeneous distribution and the space-tine effect of ether should be considered is the

Riemann space. Here the absolute space is the elementary and real space, the other two kinds

of space are that created by the space-time effect of ether, and are derived on the absolute

space.

In our macroscopic system, the space which is without ether is not existent, but generally,

the gravitational field is weaker, the velocity of object is lower, so the space-time effects of

ether are the nothingness, then the space can be regarded as the absolute space.

Describing the high-speed object such as the macroscopic movement of high energy

particles, the kinematic effect of ether is notable, thus the space is turned into the Minkowski

space. But the movement is not always relative, it should take the ether where the moving

object is as the frame of reference, thus can only describe with the formulae of special theory

of relativity. On the other hand, the formulae of special theory of relativity is only

approximate, when the speed of object tend towards the light velocity, whether the ether can

keep the superfluidity remains a question, the (2) is not necessarily that can be established.

Actually, Einstein has said: for very big density of field or matter, the field’s formulae and

field’s variables in it have not actual significance, those formulae can not spread into such

region. So the formulae of relativity theory are not applicable when the velocity of object is

approached or reached the light velocity, thus the ether density is quite large. The ether

theory considers that the superlight is possible as the supersound. The atmospheric density

will be a maximum in the supersound, thus the mass (the changed quantity of ether density) of

superlight object is not infinite as well.

Thinking about gravitational effect of space-time, the space is turned into the Riemann

space. Here the space is bent, but the bend is only the reflection that the distribution of ether

is non-homogeneous. On the other hand, the gravitational field is only the field of the ether

8

density, which means that the gravitation is a kind of character of ether continuity, it will

disappear when the ether density is sparse to certain degree, that is to say, the range of

gravitational interaction is finite. The modern cosmology regards the formula of gravitational

field of the general theory of relativity as the cosmic formula, thus looks on the Riemann space

as the real space and looks on the range of gravitational interaction as infinite, which is the

origin creating the cosmological knotty problems. There are the three elements inflation, dark

matter and dark energy in modern cosmology. Perhaps they are just like the epicycle and

deferent in the Ptolemaic geocentric theory, so they are not real, and are assumed only for

justify oneself.

In a word, the relativity theory, which is only a kind of the theory of macrophysics, has

certain limitations and can not describe the whole cosmos.

References

[1], Yi Yuan, Kang Xiaoyu, Research on Smarandache problems, High American Press,

2006, P106-115 (in Chinese)

[2], Hu Chang-Wei, The Theory Of Gravitational Field Ether, The Contemporary Thought

Treasure Of China, Beijing, The Publishing House Of The People’s Daily, 2005, P633 (in

Chinese)

[3], The Collected Works Of Einstein, Beijing, Commercial Press, 1977, (in Chinese)

[4], Xue Xiaozhou, The guide about the quantum vacuum physics, Beijine, Science Press

2005, P17 (in Chinese)

[5], Zhang Yuan-Zhong, The Experimental Basis Of Special Relativity Theory, Beijing,

Science Publishing House, 1979, P61-65 (in Chinese)

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