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# THE PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF RELATIVITY THEORY AND THE SMARANDACHE

GEOMETRY MODEL OF MACROPHYSICS
Hu Changwei
Room 54, No.2, Tian Shan Wu Cun, 200336 Shanghai China，021-
62730564，huchangwei5@yahoo.com.cn

Abs tra ct : The derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid mechanics shows that there
are intrinsic contacts between the absolute and relativistic space-time theory, and the ether is
just the physical vacuum, which is the superfluid of vacuum state, thus the physical mechanism
of relativity theory is revealed. On this basis, the Smarandache geometry model of
macrophysics is constructed: the subspace where is without ether or the space-time effect of
ether can be omitted is the absolute space; the subspace where the ether is homogeneous
distribution is the Minkowski space; the subspace where the ether is non-homogeneous
distribution is the Riemann space. Among the three kinds of subspace, the absolute space is
the elementary subspace, the other two kinds of subspace are that created by the space-time
effect of ether: in the place which the ether density is bigger, the ruler is short and the clock
goes slower, and the curvature of Riemann space are corresponded with the changed rate of
standards of time and length. Also the limitations of relativity theory are revealed here.
Key words: Smarandache geometry, Elementary subspace, Ether (physical vacuum),
Duplicate time-space theory, Physical mechanism of relativity theory

1. The question of elementary subspace in the model of Smarandache geometry
The Smarandache geometry[1] is the geometry that has at least one negative axiom of
Smarandache. So it is the geometry that has at least two kind of subspace on certain
significance. Is there an elementary subspace, which can derive other subspaces among these
subspaces? This question is not established in pure mathematics, but there is a positive
answer generally in concrete Smarandache geometry model.
The Euclidean space is the most simple and direct-viewing space, so it is regarded as the
elementary subspace generally when the model of the Smarandache geometry is constructed
artificially. Following is an example.

As the picture, the rectangle ABCD and the point within it are regarded as a geometry
space, in this space, the points are the general points, but the line is the line segment that is
any of linking opposite sides; and the parallel line is that two line segments is without point of
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intersection. This is a Smarandache geometry model, because, it includes three kind of
geometric subspace: the line BE is made, a point N is taken within the rectangle, then, there
are infinite line, which pass the point N and are parallel to the BE, it is the condition of
hyperboloid; the point M is taken on the AD, then only a line AD pass the point M and is
parallel to the BE, which is the condition of Euclidean plane; moreover, there has not a line
passing the point C and is parallel to the BE, which is the condition of ellipsoid.
In the Smarandache geometry of the rectangle ABCD, there are three kinds of subspace.
Obviously, the Euclidean space is the most elementary space, the other two kinds of space,
which are derivative, are obtained through the condition of boundary and modifying the
definition of line and parallel line on the basis of Euclidean space.
There are three kinds of space in macrophysics: it is absolute space in Newtonian physics;
is Minkowski space in special theory of relativity; is Riemann space in general theory of
relativity. The Minkowski space is a kind of four dimension Euclidean space, and is different
from absolute space: the former considers that the space and time are closely interconnected
and can vary with the velocity; the latter considers that the space and time are not
interconnected and can not vary with the velocity. If it is regarded that “the space and time are
not interconnected and can not vary with the velocity” as an axiom in the absolute space, then
it is possible to construct a Smarandache geometry model of macrophysics. In this model, is
there an elementary subspace among the absolute space, Minkowski space and Riemann
space? The question should be analysed in physics.
2. The derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid mechanics[2]
The physics is different from the mathematics, its logic should have two aspects: one is
the substantial logic, which points out the physical mechanism of things qualitatively to reply
why they have such nature and characteristic; the other is formal logic, it demonstrate the
quantitative (including geometric) relation among the physical quantities to define how have
they contact and transformation each other. The relativity theory has derived a series of
quantitative relations, but is without or impossible to explain the physical mechanism that
created these quantitative relations such as “why the light velocity is invariable ？” etc. Then
how done the physical mechanism of relativity theory is revealed? The derivation of Lorentz
transformation by fluid mechanics is a cutting point.
The Lorentz transformation is the core of relativistic space-time theory. Einstein derived
it from the principle of invariance of the light velocity. We will derive it by way of fluid
mechanics, making it possible to view the relativity theory at a different angle.

In fluid mechanics, the velocity vector potential φ of incompressible fluid contents the

equation: ∆φ ( x. y.z ) = 0 （1）

In other hand, if the velocity has no interaction when fluids run across, the velocity vector

potential φ of compressible fluid contents the equation:

 v 2  ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ
1 − 2  2 + 2 + 2 = 0 （2）
 c  ∂x ∂y ∂z

( c、v are the sound and flow speed in the fluid separately)
We make a substitution for (2) with the following (3):
2
 
 x' = β x  
 ' β = 1 
 y =y （3）
 z' = z  v2 
  1− 2 
 c 

( ' ' '
)
Then the equation is identified with（1）: ∆φ x . y .z = 0 . So（3）is the transformation of

fluid from compressible to incompressible state.
If there is special superfluid, which can satisfy relevant condition, that the equation (2)
can be established, then let two special superfluids make relative movement with speed v, in
the absolute time-space theory, there is Galileo transformation between them:
 x2 = x1 − vt1

 y2 = y1 （4）
 z =z
 2 1

 x1 = x2 + vt2

and  y1 = y2 （5）
 z =z
 1 2

(attention: here the t written into t1 and t2 separately)

x1
Substitute （3）into（4）and（5） [ in （4）does not change due to relative rest; same

x2
reason, does not change in（5）.], obtaining:

 x2' = β ( x1' − vt1 )

 y2' = y1' （6）
 z2' = z1'


 x1' = β ( x2' + vt2 )

and  y1' = y2' （7）
 z1' = z2'

Substitute the first equation in（6）into that in（7）, obtaining:
1 '  x1' ( β 2 − 1) 
( x1 − β x1 + β vt1 ) = β  t1 − vβ 2
2
t2 = 2 ' 2
 ，substitute β 2 = c into it, obtaining：
vβ  c2 − v2
 
 vx ' 
t2 = β  t1 − 21  （8）
 c 

If the sound speed of special superfluid is just the light speed, then the combining
of（6）and（8）is just the Lorentz transformation
Above derivation is not strict, but there is no question that understand following the
relation among the physical vacuum, object and gravitational field.
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Lorentz transformation enjoys many ways of derivation. The Lorentz’s hypothesis and
Einstein’s derivation and so on have not shown their physical essence, while the process of
above derivation demonstrates: if a special fluid can be transformed from compressible to
incompressible state, Lorentz transformation may be derived from Galileo transformation. Here
are rich physical connotations, not only demonstrated the materiality of physical vacuum, but
also showed the duality of time-space theory.
3. The physical vacuum is a kind of special medium
The derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid mechanics means existence of a special
superfluid, which velocity has no influence while running across, and its sound velocity is the
light velocity. What is the special superfluid? It can not be a common object fluid, but only
physical vacuum.
The vacuum is not void. Microscopically, the physical vacuum is the basic state of quantum
field. Macroscopically, the physical vacuum is the four dimensional space-time continuum in
the relativistic time-space; while the derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid mechanics
indicates that the physical vacuum can be seen as a compressible superfluid in the absolute
time-space theory. Owing to the physical vacuum being an “object” and not a void space, and
also the medium of light, so it is suitable comparatively that the physical vacuum is called
“ether”.
To think generally, the ether theory is negated by the theory of relativity, which is a
prejudice actually. Einstein’s thought[3] was quite contradiction to ether, he was conscious that
the ether exists, as well as did not understand its essence. In 1920, he had made a speech
about the ether and relativity theory, he said: “According to the general theory of relativity, it
is unimaginable that a space is without ether. Therefore, in such space, not only the light can
not propagate, but the ruler and clock can not exist too, thus is also without the space-time
interval on physical significance. But it can not be considered that the ether can have
characteristic quality of medium with weight and it is mad up of the particles which can be
trace along with time, and it is impossible applying the concept of movement to ether.” Here
he considered: the ether is the medium spreading the light; the standards of length and time
are decided by ether (this is very important, but he can not handle it); the ether is different
from the matter with mass(medium with weight); the ether can not be described by the space-
time theory of relativity. These opinions are rather right, but he described the ether (physical
vacuum) to turn into the four dimensional space-time continuum, while it is impossible that to
use the space-time theory of relativity describes the four dimensional space-time continuum,
just as one want to catch hold of him own hair to raise himself. So Einstein can only evade the
ether. Afterwards, he had proposed that the field as the representative of reality. But so-
called field of him is the curvature field of space-time，thus the matter had been geometrized.
The development of quantum theory shows clearly that there are the effects of vacuum
fluctuation, vacuum polarization etc. in physical vacuum, which has complicated physical
character. Then the physical vacuum is considered as the basic state of quantum of field. But
the concept of quantum field is quite numerous and miscellaneous, short of unity, such as the
photon, lepton, quark, gluon, meson, baryon etc. they can all become as the quantum of field.
Actually, the field is a state which physical quantity is distributed continuously. For
example, the field of atmospheric density is a state which the atmospheric density is
distributed continuously in space; the field of temperature is a state which the temperature is
distributed continuously in medium. So the field is not a basic existent form of matter, like that
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the material basis of atmospheric density field is the atmosphere, the material basis of
temperature field is the medium spreading temperature etc. Then what are the material basis
of gravitational field and electric field etc.? They are the physical vacuum, a medium of
vacuum state, only it is a basic existent form of matter which is different from object. The
physical vacuum is beyond the mass, while the object is the matter with mass. The quantum
character of field is only a manifestation of interaction or interconnection between the physical
vacuum and object. In fact, the theory of quantum field had showed [4] that there are vacuum
tunneling effect, vacuum phase change, vacuum condensation, vacuum domain structure etc. so
the physical vacuum resembles the medium, which is just the ether.
The ether is a superfluid. There are two sounds in the superfluid of object: the first sound
is density wave, namely the common sound; the second sound is the temperature wave which
spreads the heat. In the vacuum, the way of thermal propagation is thermal radiation, namely
the electromagnetic wave, so the electromagnetic wave, including the light, is the second
sound in ether.
The connotation of the ether concept varies with the development of history: the
Descartes ether is different from Aristotle’s ether; the ether of the 19th century is different
from Descartes ether; our ether will discard the mechanical character of 19th century ether
and absorb the essence of modern physics including the relativity theory.
4．Duplicate time-space theory and the corresponding relation
the derivation of Lorentz transformation by fluid dynamics reveals further the physical
meaning of Lorentz transformation, which is the result that transform the ether fluid from
compressible state in absolute time-space to incompressible state in four dimensional space-
time of relativity theory. Here duplicate time-space theory has arisen: the absolute time-
space theory and relativistic space-time theory. The former uses one space-time standard to
measure whole world unitedly; while the latter holds that the standard of space-time can
change along with moving velocity or gravitational field, both are independent each other, and
have relevant to the state of ether. They are theories different in nature, thus irreplaceable
reciprocally. Besides, the absolute space-time and corresponding compressibility of ether are
the primary; the relativistic space-time theory and corresponding incompressibility of ether (it
is also the homogeneity of ether and invariance of light velocity) are realized through
transition （ 3 ） , they are the secondary. These show that the description on the basis of
absolute space-time theory reflects the truth of the materialistic world and is called qualitative
description; the description on the basis of relativistic space-time theory is not necessarily to
reflect the truth of the materialistic world, but can shows the act and interactions of actual
ruler and clock, and is called quantitative description. There are big disparity and certain
corresponding relationship between two descriptions.

∂ρ r
In macroscopic system, ether should satisfy the equation of continuity: + div ρ u =0
∂t
 '  vu x 
 ρ = βρ  1 − c 2 
  
 ρ ux = β ( ρux − v ρ )
' '
Using Lorentz covariance, obtaining:
 ρ 'u 'y = ρ u y

 ρ 'u z' = ρ u z

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（9）
In（9）, if the density ρ is replaced by mass m, it is identified with the transformation of
mass and momentum in relativity theory. Therefore, we can say that the ether density has
some relation with mass. Because the mass is without spatial extension and to consider the
relation between mass and gravitational field, the intrinsic relation among the ether,
gravitational field and object (the matter with mass) has appeared: the distribution of ether
density has close relevance with object in united ether ocean of the cosmic, the object is the
core of ether density wave-packet, the mass center of object is the maximum value point of
ether density; the gravitational potential corresponds with ether density; the intensity of
gravitational field corresponds with the gradient of ether density; the mass corresponds with
the changed quantity of ether density (it has close relevance with the maximum value of ether
density). In the acoustics, there is the equation P= ρ c2 ( ρ is the changed quantity of density;
P is the changed quantity of the pressure; the c is sound speed), then according to the relation
between mass m and energy E E=mc2, the energy corresponds with the changed quantity of
ether pressure (it has close relevance with the maximum value of ether pressure). When the
object is moving, its surrounding gravitational field ether also waves. Therefore, when two
objects are making relative motion, and if no bump occurs between them, the running across
accompanying their ether wave-packet would have no influence to their velocity, so the
（2）could be established.
The mass corresponds with the changed quantity of ether density of object. Therefore the
object is the matter with mass, while the ether is beyond the mass. The distribution of ether
around the object will be changed along with object moving, so the ether is not absolute frame
of reference.
Owing to the difference of time-space theory, qualitative and quantitative description will
have different reflect to the same thing. To consider qualitatively, the gravitational field is the
field of ether density; the ether is a compressible superfluid; the deflection of light in the
gravitational field is the bend toward to the direction that the ether density is bigger, which is
identical with the propagational way of general sound etc. To consider quantitatively, the
gravitational field is the field of time-space curvature; the ether is a homogeneous continuum
in four dimensional space-time; the light spreads along the geodesic in the curved space-time.
There is the disparity between the descriptions of qualitative and quantitative, which gives
a solution to the puzzle of old ether theory: The direct-viewing mechanical model of ether of
Fresnel and so on (qualitative description) can not content the quantitative relation completely;
while the ether model, which given by Lorentz, contents the quantitative relation, but it had
lost the direct-viewing character of mechanics. The various theory of vacuum, that being
explored now, will meet with similar circumstances too. Here we should to use the theory of
duplicated time-space, the qualitative and quantitative description are opposition and
interdependence.
5. The physical mechanism of relativity theory and its limitations
The relativistic phenomena can be divided into kinematic effect of special theory of
relativity and gravitational effect of general theory of relativity. Now we can incorporate the
two kinds in the effect of ether density: in the place which the ether density is bigger, the
ruler is short and the clock goes slower. The kinematic effects are caused by ether’s
compressibility, when the object moves in compressible ether, its density of ether’s wave-
packet is raised, so the ruler is shorter and the clock goes slower; the gravitational effect is
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the reason which the ether density corresponds with the gravitational potential, in the place
which the gravitational potential is bigger, the ruler is short and the clock goes slower.
Microscopically, the ether is the basic state of quantum field, it is the assembly of the virtual
boson (we call it the “ether particles”, the meaning of “virtual” is the lowest energy state with
no independent wave-packet of ether density formed.) which is made up of the pair of positive
and negative particles, being the most elementary and universal Bose-Einstein condensation.
Then we can say, the relativistic phenomena are the space-time effect that is created by
ether, its essence is that actual standards of length and time are defined by ether: the unit
length is positively proportional to the interval of the ether particles; the unit time is positively
proportional to the time interval that the light runs through the interval of ether particle. Using
such standards to measure the ether, the ether becomes into the homogeneous and isotropic
four dimensional space-time continuum, the light velocity is constant of course. Einstein
regards this result of invariance of light velocity as hypothesis, thus he has covered up the
essence of relativity theory. Besides, both of the standards of length and time have relevance
to the interval of ether particles, thus the space and time are entangled.
Owing to the kinematic effects being caused by ether compressibility, so we must regard
the ether field of where the object is as the reference frame. On the ground surface, the
gravitational field of the earth occupies absolute superiority. So we must regard the
gravitational field ether of the earth as the reference frame. The result of experiment that the
atomic clock had flying around the earth by Hafele and Keating in 1971 [5] has proved this point.
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The experiment has showed: on the average, flying clock is slower by 59 ×10 second than the

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clock on the ground after flying towards the east; and flying clock is faster by 273 ×10 second

than the clock on the ground after flying towards the west. It demonstrates that the so-called
“moving clock is slower than still clock” held by relativity theory, does not be established.
Here we must take the coordinates system of the earth’s mass center, only in this way can we
calculate with the formulae of relativity theory, and get result that coincides roughly with
experiment. Actually this coordinates system of the earth’s mass center is just the coordinates
system that regards the gravitational field ether of the earth as the reference frame.
The ether distribution has close relevance with the object distribution. To regard the ether
field of where the moving object is as the reference frame is just to take the coordinates
system that regards the common mass center of material system in certain range as the origin
of coordinates. The motion that is relative to this reference frame is substantial motion,
otherwise, only being formal motion. For example, the motion which the plane is relative to the
mass center of earth is substantial motion, the relative motion between two planes is formal
motion; the motion which the earth is relative to the mass center of the sun is substantial
motion, the relative motion between the earth and other heavenly bodies is formal motion. The
formulae of special relativity theory are effective for the substantial motion and ineffective for
the formal motion (owing to the hugeness of light velocity, their errors are difficult to be
discovered). For instance, the movement that the high energy particles in accelerator are
relative to the earth is substantial motion, these particles can really increase mass. According
to the principle of relativity, the earth is also relative motion to these particles, but it is only
formal motion, the earth does not increase mass. The movement that the star is relative to the
earth due to the rotate of the earth is the formal motion, here the formulae of special relativity
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theory are ineffective, otherwise, the star velocity will be over the light velocity greatly when
the star is one light-year far away the earth.
In the absolute space-time theory, the time and space, which are irrelevant to matter, are
invariable. But the actual standards of length and time, which is always made up of the object,
can change along with the ether density. The special theory of relativity regards the standard’s
change of length and time as the change of space-time itself and to describe with the
Minkowski space, thus it regards the ether as an even homogeneous four dimensional space-
time continuum unconsciously. So the space-time of relativity theory is the “matter”, and is
not the real space-time. The general theory of relativity regards further the changed rate of
standards of time and length as the curvature of space-time, and to describe with the Riemann
space. Therefore, the Minkowski space and the Riemann space are all the mathematical model
of quantitative description and not real space. It is just as the isospin space being only a
mathematical model. The objective space-time is just three dimensions space and one
dimension time in the absolute space-time.
6. The Smarandache geometry model of macrophysics
The time is regards as the fourth dimension space, then the Smarandache geometry model
of macrophysics can be established according to the physical mechanism of relativity theory.
The space of macrophysics is a kind of Smarandache geometry space: the subspace where
is without ether or the space-time effect of ether can be omitted is the absolute space; the
subspace where the ether is homogeneous distribution and the space-tine effect of ether
should be considered is the Minkowski space; the subspace where the ether is non-
homogeneous distribution and the space-tine effect of ether should be considered is the
Riemann space. Here the absolute space is the elementary and real space, the other two kinds
of space are that created by the space-time effect of ether, and are derived on the absolute
space.
In our macroscopic system, the space which is without ether is not existent, but generally,
the gravitational field is weaker, the velocity of object is lower, so the space-time effects of
ether are the nothingness, then the space can be regarded as the absolute space.
Describing the high-speed object such as the macroscopic movement of high energy
particles, the kinematic effect of ether is notable, thus the space is turned into the Minkowski
space. But the movement is not always relative, it should take the ether where the moving
object is as the frame of reference, thus can only describe with the formulae of special theory
of relativity. On the other hand, the formulae of special theory of relativity is only
approximate, when the speed of object tend towards the light velocity, whether the ether can
keep the superfluidity remains a question, the (2) is not necessarily that can be established.
Actually, Einstein has said: for very big density of field or matter, the field’s formulae and
field’s variables in it have not actual significance, those formulae can not spread into such
region. So the formulae of relativity theory are not applicable when the velocity of object is
approached or reached the light velocity, thus the ether density is quite large. The ether
theory considers that the superlight is possible as the supersound. The atmospheric density
will be a maximum in the supersound, thus the mass (the changed quantity of ether density) of
superlight object is not infinite as well.
Thinking about gravitational effect of space-time, the space is turned into the Riemann
space. Here the space is bent, but the bend is only the reflection that the distribution of ether
is non-homogeneous. On the other hand, the gravitational field is only the field of the ether
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density, which means that the gravitation is a kind of character of ether continuity, it will
disappear when the ether density is sparse to certain degree, that is to say, the range of
gravitational interaction is finite. The modern cosmology regards the formula of gravitational
field of the general theory of relativity as the cosmic formula, thus looks on the Riemann space
as the real space and looks on the range of gravitational interaction as infinite, which is the
origin creating the cosmological knotty problems. There are the three elements inflation, dark
matter and dark energy in modern cosmology. Perhaps they are just like the epicycle and
deferent in the Ptolemaic geocentric theory, so they are not real, and are assumed only for
justify oneself.
In a word, the relativity theory, which is only a kind of the theory of macrophysics, has
certain limitations and can not describe the whole cosmos.

References
[1], Yi Yuan, Kang Xiaoyu, Research on Smarandache problems, High American Press,
2006, P106-115 (in Chinese)
[2], Hu Chang-Wei, The Theory Of Gravitational Field Ether, The Contemporary Thought
Treasure Of China, Beijing, The Publishing House Of The People’s Daily, 2005, P633 (in
Chinese)
[3], The Collected Works Of Einstein, Beijing, Commercial Press, 1977, (in Chinese)
[4], Xue Xiaozhou, The guide about the quantum vacuum physics, Beijine, Science Press
2005, P17 (in Chinese)
[5], Zhang Yuan-Zhong, The Experimental Basis Of Special Relativity Theory, Beijing,
Science Publishing House, 1979, P61-65 (in Chinese)

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