VII 1

Transmission Lines
(a) Parallel-plate transmission line
(b) Two-wire
transmission line
(c) Coaxial
transmission line
Metal strip
Grounded
conducting plane
Dielectric subtrate
Grounded
conducting plane
Metal strip
Grounded
conducting plane
Dielectric subtrate
Two types of microstrip lines
VII 2
TEM-Waves along a Parallel-Plate Transmission Line
d
x
y
z
w
Lossless case:

( ) terme always omitted
j t ω

r
r r
r
r r
E E e E e e
H H e
E
e e
j
y y
z
y
x x
z
x
· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅
· ⋅ · − ⋅ ⋅
· ·


0
0
γ
γ
γ ω µε
µ
ε
Γ
Γ
in order to find the charge density and the current density we use:

D D D e E E e
n n y y
z
2 1 0
− · → ⋅ · → · ⋅ · ⋅

σ σ σ ε ε
γ
r
r
σ: free surface charge

H H J e H J J e H e
E
e
t t s y s s z x z
z
2 1
0
− · → × · → · − ⋅ · ⋅

r
r r r
r r
Γ
γ
J
s
:

free surface current
d
ds
Ι
VII 3
Fields, Charge and Current Distribution along a Coaxial Transmission Line
B
E
x x
x x
x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
x
x x
λ
Current
Displacement Current
B E B E
x
+ +++ + - --- -
+
+++
+
+ +++ +
+ +++ +
- --- -
+ +++ +
- --- -
- --- -
- --- -
+ +++ + - --- -
VII 4
Parallel-Plate Transmission Line in Terms of L and C

Lossless case terme always omitted
j t ω
( )

∇ × · −
·
·
∫ ∫
r r
E j H
dE
dz
j H
d
dz
E dy j H dy
y
x
y
d
x
d
ωµ
ωµ
ωµ
0 0

+
( )
·
( )

·
|
.

`
,

( )

( )
· ⋅
( )
· ⋅
[ ]
dV z
dz
j J z d
j
d
w
J z w
j L z
L
d
w
H m
sz
sz
ωµ
ω µ
ω
µ
Ι

∇ × ·
·
·
∫ ∫
r r
H j E
dH
dz
j E
d
dz
H dx j E dx
x
y
x
w
y
w
ωε
ωε
ωε
0 0


( )
· − ( ) ⋅
·
|
.
`
,
− ( ) ⋅
( )
· ( )
·
[ ]
d z
dz
j E z w
j
w
d
E z d
j CV z
C
w
d
F m
y
y
Ι
ωε
ω ε
ω
ε
VII 5

d V z
dz
LCV z
2
2
2
( )
· − ( ) ω

d z
dz
LC z
2
2
2
Ι
Ι
( )
· −
( )
ω

V z V e V e
j LC z j z
( ) · ⋅ · ⋅
− −
0 0
ω ω µε

Ι Ι Ι z e e
j LC z j z
( ) · ⋅ · ⋅
− −
0 0
ω ω µε
Phase velocity:

u
LC
p
· · ·
ω
ω µε µε
1 1
Characteristic
impedance:

Z
V z
z
L
C
0
·
( )
( )
·
Ι
VII 6
Lossy Parallel-Plate Transmission Line
Conductance between the two conductors:
Compare with the analogy of resistance and capacitance


ε
κ
c
R · ⋅
case a case b

⇒ · · · ⋅ · ⋅ G
R
C
w
d
w
d
1 κ
ε
κ
ε
ε κ

G
w
d
S m · ⋅
[ ]
κ
VII 7
Ohmic power dissipated in the plates

r
r r
S e E e H
Loss z z x x
· × ⋅ *
Power flux density flowing into the plates

( )
r
e
y
Def. Surface impedance

Z
E
J
s
t
s
·

J free surface current
d
dx
s
z
·
Ι

Z R j X
s s s
· + ⋅

R
length
cross tion w d
s
c
· ⋅ ·

1 1
κ κ sec
l

· ⋅ ⋅ ·
1
2 2 κ
κ µ ω µ ω
κ
c
c c c
c
w w
l l
effective series resistance per unit length

R
w w
f
m
c
c
c
c
· ·

[ ]
2
2
2 µ ω
κ
µ π
κ
Ω /

d penetration depth
c c
· ·
2
κ µ ω
VII 8
Equivalent Circuit of a Differential Length ∆∆∆ ∆ z
of a Two-Conductor Transmission Line
G ∆z

R ∆z

L ∆z

C ∆z

VII 9
Distributed Parameters of Transmission Lines
Parameter Parallel Plate Two-Wire Line Coaxial Line Unit
R
L
G
C

2
w
f
c
c
π µ
κ

µ
d
w

κ
w
d

ε
w
d
w=width
d=separation

R
a
s
π

µ
π
cosh
− |
.
`
,
1
2
D
a

πκ
cosh /

( )
1
2 D a

πε
cosh /

( )
1
2 D a

R
f
s
c
c
·
π µ
κ
a=radius
D=distance

cosh /
ln /
/

( )
≈ ( )
( ) >>
1
2
2
2 1
D a
D a
if D a

R
a b
s
2
1 1
π
+
|
.
`
,

µ
π 2
ln
b
a

2πκ
ln / b a ( )

2πε
ln / b a ( )

R
f
s
c
c
·
π µ
κ
a=radius
center cond.
b=radius
outer cond.

Ω / m

H m /

S m /

F m /
VII 10
Wave Equation for Lossy Transmission Lines


( )
· + ( ) ( )

( )
· + ( ) ( )
( )
· ( )
( )
· ( )
dV z
dz
R j L z
d z
dz
G j C V z
d V z
dz
V z
d z
dz
z
ω
ω
γ
γ
Ι
Ι
Ι
Ι
2
2
2
2
2
2

γ α β ω ω · + · + + j R j L G j C ( )( )
VII 11
Waveguides
x
y
z
A uniform waveguide with an arbitrary cross section
Time-harmonic waves in lossless media:


r r
E E + · ω µε
2
0

r r
E x y z t E x y e
j t k z
z
, , , , ( ) · ( ) ⋅
− ⋅ ( )
0
ω

∇ + ∇
( )
· ∇ −
xy z xy z
E E k E
2 2 2 2
r r r


∇ + −
( )
·
xy z
E k E
2 2 2
0
r r
ω µε


∇ + −
( )
·
xy z
H k H
2 2 2
0
r r
ω µε
VII 12

From x E j H we get ∇ · −
r r
ωµ :

From xH j E we get ∇ ·
r r
ωε :



+ · −
− −


· −





· −
E
y
jk E j H
jk E
E
x
j H
E
x
E
y
j H
z
z y x
z x
z
y
y
x
z
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ωµ
ωµ
ωµ



+ ·
− −


·





·
H
y
jk H j E
jk H
H
x
j E
H
x
H
y
j E
z
z y x
z x
z
y
y
x
z
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ωε
ωε
ωε

H
h
jk
H
x
j
E
y
H
h
jk
H
y
j
E
x
E
h
jk
E
x
j
H
y
E
h
jk
E
y
j
H
x z
z z
y z
z z
x z
z z
y z
z z
0
2
0 0
0
2
0 0
0
2
0 0
0
2
0 0
1
1
1
1
· −





|
.

`
,

· −


+


|
.

`
,

· −


+


|
.

`
,

· −





ωε
ωε
ωµ
ωµ
xx
|
.

`
,

h k
z
2 2 2
· − ω µε
VII 13
Three Types of Propagating Waves
Transverse electromagnetic waves TEM : E
Z
= 0 & H
Z
= 0
Transverse magnetic waves TM : E
Z
- 0 & H
Z
= 0
Transverse electric waves TE : E
Z
= 0 & H
Z
- 0
VII 14
TEM - Waves

H E k k
z z z
TEM
z TEM
· · → − + · → · 0 0 0
2 2
& ω µε ω µε

Phase velocity u
k
Wave impedance Z
E
H k
pTEM
z
TEM
x
y z
TEM
· ·
· · ·
ω
µε
ωµ µ
ε
1
0
0
for hollow single-conductor
waveguides:

H there is only H andH
div H H fields must formclosed loops
E
D
t
rot H J TEMwaves cannot exist in
gle conductor hollow waveguides
z x y
z
z
· →
· → −
· →


·
· →

0
0
0 0
r
r r
sin
VII 15
TM-Waves

E
jk
k
E
x
E
jk
k
E
y
H
j
k
E
y
H
j
k
E
x
x
z
z
z
y
z
z
z
x
z
z
y
z
z
·




·




·



·




ω µε
ω µε
ωε
ω µε
ωε
ω µε
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
Wave equation



+


+ −
( )
·
2
2
2
2
2 2
0
E
x
E
y
k E
z z
z z
ω µε
VII 16
TM-Modes in Rectangular Waveguides
a
x
y
b
z
boundary conditions

E y and E a y in the x direction
E x and E x b in the y direction
z z
z z
0 0 0
0 0 0
, ,
, ,
( ) · ( ) ·
( ) · ( ) ·
separation of variables

E x y E k x k y
z x y
, sin sin ( ) ·
( )
( )
0

k
m
a
and k
n
b
m nare egers
x y
· ·
π π
( , int )
VII 17
Solution

E x y
jk
k
E
m
a
m
a
x
n
b
y
E x y
jk
k
E
n
b
m
a
x
n
b
y
H x y
j
k
E
n
b
m
a
x
n
x
z
z
y
z
z
x
z
, cos sin
, sin cos
, sin cos
( ) ·


|
.
`
,
|
.
`
,
( ) ·


|
.
`
,
|
.
`
,
( ) ·

|
.
`
,
ω µε
π π π
ω µε
π π π
ωε
ω µε
π π π
2 2
0
2 2
0
2 2
0
bb
y
H x y
j
k
E
m
a
m
a
x
n
b
y
z
z
|
.
`
,
( ) ·


|
.
`
,
|
.
`
,
, cos sin
ωε
ω µε
π π π
2 2
0
TM
13
mode means m=1, n=3
(if m=0 or n=0 then E=H=0)


k
m
a
n
b
z
2 2
2 2
· −
|
.
`
,

|
.
`
,
ω µε
π π

ω µε
π π
π µε
π π
c
c
m
a
n
b
f
m
a
n
b
cut off frequency
2
2 2
2 2
0
1
2

|
.
`
,
+
|
.
`
,

]
]
]
·
·
|
.
`
,
+
|
.
`
,
if f < f
c
then jk
z
is real no wave propagation
VII 18
Field Lines for TM
11
Mode in Rectangular Waveguide
1,0
0,5
0
0
π/2
βz π

3π/2
y/b
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Magnetic field lines
x/a
y/b
O
Electric field lines
VII 19
TE-Waves

E
j
k
H
y
E
j
k
H
x
H
jk
k
H
x
H
jk
k
H
y
x
z
z
y
z
z
x
z
z
z
y
z
z
z
·




·



·




·




ωµ
ω µε
ωµ
ω µε
ω µε
ω µε
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
wave equation



+


+ −
( )
·
2
2
2
2
2 2
0
H
x
H
y
k H
z z
z z
ω µε
VII 20
TE-Modes in Rectangular Waveguides
boundary condition



( )
·


( )
·
( )
·


( )
·


( )
·
( )
·
H
x
y and
H
x
a y in the x direction E
H
y
x and
H
y
x b in the y direction E
z z
y
z z
x
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
, ,
, ,
separation of variables

H x y H
m
a
x
n
b
y
z
, cos cos ( ) ·
|
.
`
,
|
.
`
,
0
π π
VII 21
Solution:

E x y
j
k
H
n
b
m
a
x
n
b
y
E x y
j
k
H
m
a
m
a
x
n
b
y
x
z
y
z
, cos sin
, sin cos
( ) ·

|
.
`
,
|
.
`
,
( ) ·


|
.
`
,
|
.
`
,
ωµ
ω µε
π π π
ωµ
ω µε
π π π
2 2
0
2 2
0

H x y
jk
k
H
m
a
m
a
x
n
b
y
H x y
jk
k
H
n
b
m
a
x
n
b
y
x
z
z
y
z
z
, sin cos
, cos sin
( ) ·

|
.
`
,
|
.
`
,
( ) ·

|
.
`
,
|
.
`
,
ω µε
π π π
ω µε
π π π
2 2
0
2 2
0
TE
01
mode means m = 0, n = 1


k
m
a
n
b
z
2 2
2 2
· −
|
.
`
,

|
.
`
,
ω µε
π π

f
m
a
n
b
c
·
|
.
`
,
+
|
.
`
,
1
2
2 2
π µε
π π
cut off frequency
if f < f
c
then jk
z
is real no wave propagation
VII 22
Field Lines for TE
10
Mode in Rectangular Waveguide
π/2
βz π

3π/2
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1,0
0,5
0
0
y/b
1,0
0
0
x/a
x/a
y/b
O
x
Electric field lines
Magnetic field lines
π/2
βz π

3π/2
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

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