APPLICATION OF D-INSAR TECHNIQUE ON GROUND MOVEMENT MONITORING Guijie WANG, Mowen XIE, Jiehui HUANG, Weilun WU University of Science

and Technology Beijing, Beijing, CHINA, 100083

KEY WORDS: D-INSAR, Landslide, Subsidence, Monitoring, Ground Movement ABSTRACT: Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (D-INSAR), which allows to analysis very small ground movement and to cover in continuity large areas, has turned out to be a very useful technique for the measurement of ground movement. D-INSAR technique has been widely used for geological hazard investigating on subsidence, landslide, earthquake and volcanic activity. In this paper, Three-Pass method of D-INSAR techniques has been used to monitor the ground movement of a landslide area of certain hydropower and the subsidence of Heyuan city of Guangdong province. Three SAR acquisitions (C-band, VV-polarized) of a landslides area are acquired from ASAR Sensor of ENVISAT satellite (2004.06.07- 2005.03.14), the derived result illustrates the position, the variation ground movement and the detailed deformation map. Three SAR acquisitions (L-band, HH-polarized) of Heyuan subsidence area are acquired from PALSAR Sensor of ALOS satellite (2007.02.182008.02.21), the analytic result shows the vivid subsidence condition .It also indicates that the deformation is littlish in urban district comparing with in other district. The analysis and comparison of the two examples of the experimental data show that the D-INSAR technology is a possible solution for landslides movement monitoring and subsidence investigating. 1. INTRODUCTION Ground movement causes various geological hazards (e.g. subsidence, landslide, earthquake, volcanic activity) has become a global concerned problem. However, the conventional geodetic technique is highly incompetent for the large-scale and serious land deformation monitoring (Yao and Mu, 2008). With the development of remote sensing, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (D-INSAR) technique has exactly latent ability to solve this problem, which allows to monitor very small movements of the ground and to cover in continuity large areas in principle. Accordingly, it has been widely applied on geological hazard investigating for scientific research and risk assessment and monitoring (Gabriel et al., 1989; Massonnet et al., 1993, 1995; Goldstein et al., 1994; Achache et al., 1995; Carnec et al., 1996; Amelung et al., 1999; Kimura and Yamaguchi, 2000; Paolo et al., 2003; Colesanti and Wasowski., 2006; Samsonov et al., 2008; Fernandez et al., 2009). In this paper we focuses on the description and analysis of the results which use Three-Pass D-INSAR technique to monitor the ground movement of a landslide area of near Wudongde hydropower and the subsidence of Heyuan city of Guangdong province. The analytic result of the landslide area illustrates the detailed displacement value and the deformation map of surrounding region. The subsidence result shows the vivid subsidence condition and detailed displacement of the city region and it also indicates that the deformation is littlish in urban district comparing with in other district. The analysis and comparison of the two examples show that the D-INSAR technology is a possible solution for landslides movement monitoring and subsidence investigating in practice. 2. THE RATIONALE OF D-INSAR AND THE PROCESS OF OBTAINED DEFORMATION 2.1 The Rationale of D-INSAR The phase difference of two complex interferometric SAR images is related to the same scene topography and to ground deformation, which one complex interferometric SAR image contain, only topographic phase term and the other complex interferometric SAR image contain, both topographic phase term and deformable phase term. The topographic phase term can be easily eliminated if orbit data and topographic information (for instance, a known Digital Elevation Map, DEM) are available. The remaining phase term is proportional to the ground deformation (projected along the SAR line of sight). The accuracy of the measurement is of the order of fractions of the employed electromagnetic wavelength: accordingly, at microwave frequencies, the accuracy can be of the order of fractions of a centimeter (Paolo et al., 2003). The complex interferometric SAR image is constructed by two Single-Look Complex (SLC) images taking precise registration and interferometry processing and the single-Look Complex (SLC) images is derived from before-and-after deformation. Conventional D-INSAR technology, including Two-Pass method, Three-Pass method, and Four-Pass method. Their

A2 . (1) illustrates that the phase difference by D-INSAR is proportional to the baseline component of the SAR line of sight ( B// ). λ represents the wavelength of microwaves. Therefore.2: Where.(2) and Eq.(4). λ λ λ θ is regarded unchangeable as the very short distance of the baseline. the phase of the interferometric fringes image which is formed by the two acquisitions of A1 . At last. According to the geometrical relation in Fig. the Δ R d can be decomposed to horizontal displacement and vertical displacement. Phase Unwrapping get absolute phase difference and then differential interferometry get the phase difference of the two interferogram.2 The Process of D-INSAR for Obtaining Deformation The flow chart of Three-Pass D-INSAR data processing is shown in Fig.(5) can be computed by the phase image of the interferometric fringes and the parameters of the obit. A2 contain only topographic phase term. 2009): Α2 Α3 Β1 B// Β 2 B⊥ Α1 ∂ ∂ 2 1 θ r2 r1 r3 ΔR d Fig. Therefore.In this paper. We hypothesize that the third acquisition from A3 is obtained behind of deformation.1 (Wang et al. which must be right selected topographic image pair and deformable image pair. Flattening enable to remove the expect Earth curvature and Filter enable to eliminate the noise and the interferometric coherence is also generated. .(3). the 3 Single Look Complex (SLC) data which is focused by the SAR RAW acquisitions generate Interferogram through precisely coregistration and computing phase difference of the same scene.Eq. A1 .. A3 is the positions of three times imaging by the satellite.(3) and Eq. Therefore.(2) . We hypothesize that the acquisition from A1 is the first image and regard it as master image. A3 contain topographic phase term and the deformable phase term. In Fig. the topographic image pair requires a shorter temporal baseline and the deformable image pair requires a shorter Perpendicular baseline and its temporal baseline is decided by the study content.1 The Geometrical Sketch of D-INSAR of Three-Pass.1. the second acquisition from A2 is obtained ahead of deformation.(4) is obtained as follow: Δφ13 = φ1 − φ3 = 2π ⑶ B // Δ φ12 = Δ φ13 B /'/ ⑷ Δ R d is the displacement along the SAR line of sight. Flattening and adaptive filter for the two Interferogram. then the equation is acquired as: π ⑴ r22 = r2 + B2 − 2rB cos( −θ +∂1) ⇒r − r2 ≅ B sin(θ −∂1) ≅ B// 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Eq. the phase difference Δϕ d of interferometric fringes which is caused by Δ R d is obtained as follow: Δ φ d ≈ Δ φ 1 3 − Δ φ 1 2 = Δ φ 1 2 (1 − ' B // 4π )= − Δ Rd λ B // ⑸ The left component of Eq. The phase difference is expressed as follow: 4π 4π ρ (r3 − r1 ) = − B2 sin(θ − ∂ 2 ) = − B'// λ λ λ According to Eq. 2. According to Eq. The phase difference is expressed as follow: 2π 4π 4π ⑵ ρ ( r2 − r1 ) = − B1 sin(θ − ∂ 1 ) = − B// Δ φ12 = φ1 − φ 2 = Where ρ is equal to 2 by repeated pass. the Eq. the phase of the interferometric fringes image which is formed by the two acquisitions of A1 . the each point's displacement along the SAR line of sight Δ R d is detained. At last acquiring the minuteness deformation of the earth's surface by geocoding and calibrating. 1 and B1 << r1 + r2 . Three-Pass method is used for analysis.geometric principle is homologous basically . The geometrical sketch of D-INSAR of three-pass will be shown as follows Fig.

APPLICATION OF D-INSAR ON THE STUDY AREAS 3. . Table 1 The ENVISAT Data Processing Parameters of D-INSAR on the Landslides.376. 3.2 Flow Chart of D-INSAR Data Processing. 3 ENVISAT acquisitions have been obtained. The image pair with the time on June 7th 2004 and the time on March 14th 2005 has been selected as the deformable image pair AD which contains both topographic phase term and deformable phase term. the wavelength of which is 0. AD) are generated (Fig. The STRM3 DEM is used as auxiliary DEM in data processing.0562356 m.4a). The image pair with the time on June 7th2004 and the time on October 25th 2004 has been selected as the topographic image pair AT which contain only topographic phase term.3a The Study Area of Near Wudongde and Fig. 2 interferograms( AT.3b The Study Area of Heyuan City. Image pair Satellite sensor ENVISAT ASAR ENVISAT ASAR Acquisition number ASA_IM_0CNPDE20040607 ASA_IM_0CNPDE20041025 ASA_IM_0CNPDE20040607 ASA_IM_0CNPDE20050314 Obtained date 2004-06-07 2004-10-25 2004-06-07 2005-03-14 Ascending orbit/ Descending orbit Descending Descending Descending Descending 280 212.3a). Through precision registration and interferometry processing. In our experiment. a b Fig. and the number of the lines is 24. After the raw data focused. the number of the image samples is 5168.SLC2 Coregistration multilooking Interferogram1 G ti Flattening and Filter Phase Unwrapping Baseline Fit SLC1 SLC3 Coregistration Baseline Estimation multilooking Interferogram2 G ti Flattening and Filter Phase Unwrapping Phase Editing Baseline Fit Coherence Map Phase Difference Geocoding Displacement Map Fig.772 Time span (day) 140 Perpendicular baseline (m) 153.14 AT AD ENVISAT ASAR ENVISAT ASAR The image with the time on June 7th 2004 has been selected as the master image. spanning a time period of 9 months from June 2004 to March 2005(Table 1).1 Application on a Landslide area of Near Wudongde Hydropower The landslide area near Wudongde Hydropower which is located in Jinshajiang river basin (Fig.

2).6a The DEM Map of Landslide Area and Fig. AT(20040607and20041025 AD(20040607and20050314 Fig. (b) (a) Fig. For eliminating the phase of the earth ellipsoid surface and phase noise.5) is generated too. The image pair with the time on January 6th 2008 and the time on February 18th 2007 has been selected as the topographic image pair BT which contain only topographic phase term.5 The Coherence Map of the Two Inteferometric Image Pair. The image with the time on January 6th 2008 has been selected as master image. In our experiment.7) . through Phase Unwrapping. the waveband of which is L-band.4b). And Coherence Map (Fig.3b). The STRM3 DEM is used as auxiliary DEM in data processing. 3 PALSAR acquisitions have been obtained. and the number of the lines is 18.AT (20040607and20041025) (a) AD(20040607and 20050314) AT(20040607and20041025)(b)AD(20040607and20050314) Fig. On the basis of section 3. the number of the image samples is 9344.6a and b). flattening and filter must be carried out (Fig.6b the Vertical Displacement Map of Landslide Area. spanning a time period of 1 year from February 2007 to February 2008(Table. in this subsection through D-INSAR processing obtained the subsidence results of Heyuan city as follows (Fig. China (Fig.4a Interferogram Originally and Fig.432. At last. Table 2 The PALSAR Data Processing Parameters of D-INSAR on the Subsidence Image pair number BD Satellite sensor ALOS PALSAR ALOS PALSAR ALOS PALSAR BT ALOS PALSAR ALPSRP056970460 ALPSRP103940460 ALPSRP103940460 ALPSRP110650460 Acquisition number Obtained date 2007-2-18 2008-1-6 2008-1-6 2008-2-21 Ascending orbit/ Descending orbit Ascending Ascending Ascending Ascending 46 607 Time span (day) 322 Perpendicular baseline (m) 964 After the raw data is focused.2 Application on the Subsidence of Heyuan City Heyuan city is located in Guangdong province. The image pair with the time on January 6th 2008 and the time on February 21th 2008 has been selected as the deformable image pair BD which contains both topographic phase term and deformable phase term. 3. Phase Difference and Geocoding obtain the DEM and displacement map which contain detailed displacement information of the study area (Fig.4b Interferogram after Flattening and Filte.1.

where smaller is better for time-baseline in principle and a repeat cycle 35 days is better for ENVISAT satellite.5928cm -6.7993cm -5. -5.3099cm -8.8a Jinpingzi Landslide Vertical Map and Fig.4607cm -9.5129cm -6.8752cm -5.4430cm -7. we know that the 3 ENVISAT acquisitions is not perfect.BT (20080106and20080221) (a) B D (20080106and20070218) BT(20080106and200802 (b) BD(20080106and200702 Fig.7d The Vertical Displacement Map of the Subsidence.7651cm and the . To describe the deformation of certain landslide in detail.3993cm -9.5602cm -5.8354cm -7.4594cm -4.7875cm Fig. the launched time is longer on March 2002 for ENVISAT satellite.0699cm -5.4505cm -7.5863cm -4.971cm -7.8964cm -7. Therefore. the 140 days time-baseline is too long for topographic image pair AT.8373cm -7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.7c The Coherence Map of the Two Inteferometric Image Pair. From interferential fringe is not very clear-cut in the obtained interforegrams. it is clear that the maximum displacement is -4.5104cm -5. Secondly.9721cm -7. The reasons perhaps have the two aspects besides the imperfection of D-INSAR technique in itself.b).6b). we use a small segment of the exaggerated image to improve clarity (Fig.5225cm -1.1.4763cm -7.8a) and Dashicheng landslide area (Fig.7867cm -8.8b Dashicheng Landslide Vertical Map.4a.8734cm -4. Fig. From the results of some typical point movement.5138cm -7.7b Interferogram after Flattening and Filter.7651cm -4.4624cm -6. BT(20080106and20080221) BD (20080106and20070218) Fig.7a Interferogram Originally and Fig.1 Results of the Landslides Area and Their Interpretation The rough results and the processing procedures are described in section 3. we get the vertical Map of Jinpingzi landslide area (Fig. 4.5289cm -5. First.9172cm -6.8b) from the whole deformation Map (Fig.

Rabaute.. 337–344. Carmona. Rundle J. Adragna. H. Application of DInSAR-GPS optimization for derivation of three-dimensional surface motion of the southern California region along the San Andreas fault. H. 4. Irigaray C. the tendency and the state of the landslide area and subsidence can be obtained. 173–199.. Luca P. Italy).A.. Application of D-INSAR technique on landslide monitoring. Y... Fernandez P.. Gabriel A K. Jimenez J. Arnaud.W. pp.. Crosetto M. ..Feigl. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 66 (3).. Earth Science Frontiers. Wasowski J. 2000.. K. J.. Esaki T... Rossi. D. Engineering Geology 88..4594cm in Jipingzi landslide area. Fruneau. the use of the D-INSAR technique on the landslides area and subsidence has been explored... G.. pp. P. 84–101. B.J. F.2009. Gallowav.. King. 2008. Massonnet.. 2009.215cm in the time period of 1 year from February 2007 to February 2008. pp. 1989.. 1994. Werner.7993cm. C... Computers & Geosciences 34. T. Reference Achache. Mario C. the many typical point movement can be derived. To overcome these problems. C. b) and the Coherence Map (Fig.5225cm around the landslide area..M. The inteferogram (Fig.. this will become an important method for detecting and preventing against the landslide disaster and subsidence. it is known that the urban subsidence is not very obvious comparing with in other district and its maximum subsidence value is -3. 2006. Amelung.5129cm and minimum value is -5.9618–9634. Yamaguchi.L. 1996. C.. 15(4).. Tiampo K. Zebker.. Proceedings of the Second ERS Applications Workshop.31-51. Gabriel.B. p. C..Use of differential SAR interferometry in monitoring and modelling large slope instability at Maratea (Basilicata.A.Engineering Geology 105. pp. 503–514. 9183-9191. pp. Xie M. 1995... its maximum value is -9. Bell. pp. R. 567–570.7c) are more vivid. Zebker H A. Vincenzo R.. 165-168. 2003..L. Geophysical Research Letters 23 (24). Qiu C. F....A. pp. Also based on the subsidence Map (Fig. some promising methods have been developed based on the integrate D-INSAR technique of Permanent Scatters PS and Global Positioning System GPS. 94(B7). M. Paolo B.. 68. Laczniak. 1999.. Rosen. in publish. 3579–3582. Antonio I.Nature 375.Two examples of the use of SAR interferometry on displacement-fields of small spatial extent. Colesanti C. Yao G.. Monserrat O. Samsonov S. On the derivation of coseismic displacement field using differential radar interferometry: The Landers earthquake. J.Journal of Geophysical Research 99. A.. It is confirmed that D-INSAR technique is a feasible and effective method for monitoring ground movement.A..2 The Subsidence Results and Their Interpretation The results and the processing procedures are described in section 3. Zebker.Mapping small elevation changes over large areas:Differential radar interferometry. Journal of Geophysical Research. Mu J.New insights on Mount Etna from 18 months of radar interferometric monitoring. First delimitation of areas affected by ground deformations in the Guadalfeo River Valley and Granada metropolitan area (Spain) using the DInSAR technique .. Chacon J..2. 2008. P.V. Peltzer.Investigating landslides with space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry. 1993. Nature364.Sensing the ups and downs of Las Vegas: InSAR reveals structural control of land subsidence and aquifer-system deformation. Rock and Soil Mechanics.minimum displacement is -4. Delacourt. Kimura H.7a. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. Wang G. Giorgio F. Carnec... In Dashicheng landslide area...Detection of landslide areas using satellite radar interferometry. Goldstein R M. D. and the displacement of certain point is up to -7..7d). Engineering Geology. 239–243.. especial for landslide area.... pp. From obtained detailed deformation map. D-INSAR technique has some well-know limitation of the decorrelation noise and the difficult Phase Unwrapping. D-InSAR Technique for land subsidence monitoring. Massonnet.The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry. pp.27(6). El Hamdouni R. C. D.. 1995. 138–142. R.F. Goldstein. pp. pp. 5. The analysis and comparison of the two examples of the experimental data show that the D-INSAR technology is a possible solution for landslides area monitoring and subsidence investigating..483–486. Massonnet. It is known that. D. pp. Geology. Briole.Applicability of SAR interferometry for operational monitoring of landslides... it can be concluded that the 3 PALSAR data is fit for this subsidence processing.

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