# An Introduction to the Hall Effect

The Theory of the Hall Effect
The action of the Hall effect in a semiconducting medium is adequately explained by quantum physics. However, in spite of its shortcomings, the classical approach is chosen here for its brevity. A particle with charge Q, velocity, ¯ and moving within a V ¯ magnetic field, B, will experience the Lorentz force, F=Q(¯ x ¯ The V B). force direction is mutually perpendicular to the directions of the particle velocity and the magnetic field. If a long, flat current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the moving charges will experience a net force mutually perpendicular to the direction of the current flow (longitudinal conductor axis) and the magnetic field. Under the influence of this force, the electrons will “pile up” on one edge of the conductor, and positive charges will gather on the other edge. An un-even lateral charge distribution results and gives rise to an electric field, ¯ E, which exerts a force, ¯ = Q ¯ , F E opposite in direction to the Lorentz force. At equilibrium, the resultant forces balance (Fig. 2). This field, superimposed on the E in the direction of the current flow, yields the skewed equipotential lines first noted by Hall (Fig. 1). The relation between the voltage, current, and magnetic field can be generalized as follows: VH VH
= = y = I = B =
Equipotential Lines Hall Plate

3

Figure 1 Explanation of the Hall effect This equation ignores many low level effects but will suffice for the depth of this discussion.

Equipotential Lines With No Magnetic Field

Equipotential Lines In A Magnetic Field

Note: All B fields in the article refer to the component of the external B field that is normal to the surface of the Hall plate. A more general equation for Hall voltage is VH = yIB sinØ), where Ø is the angle is between B and the normal to the Hall plate surface.

(electrons)

What Is A Hall Sensor?
A Hall sensor is a four-terminal, solid-state device capable of producing an output voltage VH, proportional to the product of the input current, lc,the magnetic flux density, B, and the sine of the angle betweeen B and the plane of the Hall sensor. A reversal in the direction of either the magnetic field or the control current will result in a polarity change of VH. A reversal in the direction of both will keep the polarity the same. By holding the control current constant, the Hall voltage may be used to measure magnetic flux density. Multiplication may be accomplish by varying both the control current and the magnetic field..

Figure 2

Hall Sensor

+

y IB Hall voltage a constant product sensitivity Hall current magnetic field perpindicular to Hall Plate surface

VH = KHOC IC B sin - Ø or if sin - Ø = (i.e., - Ø = 90°) VH = KHOC IC B or VH = γB B
where: VH = Hall ouput voltage, mV KHOC = γ IB (open circuit product sensitivity constant), mV/mA kG γB =magnetic sensitivity (loaded or unloaded) at a specified control Current, mV/kG Ic = control current, mA (ac or dc) B = magnetic flux density, kG (ac or dc)

®

Bell Technologies Inc., a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road, Orlando, Florida 32807 • www.fwbell.com

4 5 low resistance is also an important requirement for devices to be used at very low signal levels. 1970. InAs has less output than InSb.com . These factors account for its high stability. VH is proportional to the product of the two functions. 1958 toFebruary 28.fwbell. Orlando. 4.R. Also. This schematic representation illustrates both the measuring and multiplying capabilities of a Hall sensor. Weston 93. Florida 32807 • www. 1959. New York. If both lc and B are variable.Westgate (Editors). The devices listed on the following pages are standard and available from stock. but the temperature coefficient of the output voltage is about -1%/˚C. RH. and significantly low cost.” Charles Scribner’s Sons. but its temperature coefficient is less than -0. By holding l c constant. Massachusetts. 1979. “Principals and Applications of Hall-Effect Devices”. 1. p. New York. Some of the semiconductor materials used for Hall sensors are indium antimonide (InSb).5 Materials The Hall effect is basically a majority carrier mechanism depending on the bulk-material properties of the semiconductor material. These considerations make InAs the most suitable materials for many Hall effect applications. Indium Arsenide Hall sensors may also be made of deposited thin films. Vol. NOBsr-72823. juncton leakage currents a n d j u n c t i o n threshold voltages. 523. The Hall Effect and Its Applications.” Plenum Press. 51. Holding B and lc constant. 2. pp. p. 3. VH becomes a direct function of B. To obtain a high output voltage the active element must have a high Hall coefficient. since the output is proportional to the current density through the element. InSb has high output and low resistance.0. it is completely independent of surface effects. GaAs generators have high output and very high resistance making them relatively noisy and the temperature coefficient of the output voltage is less than . its resistance should be as low as practical to prevent excessive heating.12-17 See MIL-STD -793 -1 (WP) for definition ® Bell Technologies Inc. Unlike transistors and diodes.Chin and C. a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road. p. Final Engineering Report on Hall Effect Device Investigation”. indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs).. et al. reproductivity and reliability when compared to other semi-conductor devices. Proceedings of the National Electronics Conference. but they do offer advantages which may be realized in many applications. M. Contract No. 1959. Epstein. July 1. These advantages include lower current requirements for comparable output voltages. Since the noise output is essentially thermal.241. the magnetic flux density.1%˚C and its resistance is also low.15. C.1%/˚C. Charles Couleston Gillespie (Editor))..535. Ibid. Special units are available to fit your application. These units do not exhibit the same low resistance and high mobilities as their bulk-material counterparts.. Device Development Corporation. 5. “Dictionary of Scientific Bibliography. For those applications where excellent linearity and stability are required. p.L. bulkmaterial Hall sensors are recommended. VH becomes a function of the angle between B and the plane of the Hall-sensor active area.

BH-202 3 max.6 Bulk Indium Arsenide BH-200 Series Instrumentation Quality Description The BH-200 series of Hall effect magnetic field sensors consists of ten models designed to meet the requirements of most magnetic field measurement applications.VH).002 200 max.7 max.002 100 max. 2. 6.0. 2 max. t=sec. linearity error. 3. AWG 36-neutral (+lc).40°C to +105°C Notes (1) Nominal Control Current.006 8. 250 200 2 1.15 1 . Mechanical Specifications a.08 .15 1 . Tangential Ultra-mini. Hall Voltage: (VH): AWG 34-blue (+VH).Ic). transverse. 12±25% .40°C to +105°C 150 100 1.15 1 .40°C to +105°C 5.5±25% . Color Code: Control Current (lc): AWG 34-red (+lc). A=cm 2.0.08 .5 1 . yellow (. of the Hall output loop and the amplitude and the rate of change of the field. 11±25% .0.5 .40°C to +100°C . BH-207 2. BH-201 3 max. (0 to 10 kG) with R lin Reversibility error of VH (0 to 10 kG) Mean temperature coefficient of VH (-20°C to +80°C) (2)* Mean temperature coefficient of resistance (-20°C to +80°C) (2)* Temperature dependence of resistive residual voltage (-20°C to +80°C) (2)* Operating temperature range Storage temperature range UNITS ohms ohms mV/kG cm 2 ±µV/°C mA mA ±% of RDG ±% of RDG %/°C %/°C ±µV/°C °C °C BH-200 2. 15±25% . VHOC (1) Inductive null constant. Transverse 1.2 6 . 250 max.40°C to +105°C 100 max.08 . BH-203 5.40°C to +105°C 6. 3 max. green (.40°C to +100°C . VM @ B=0 (2) Max. neutral (. BH-205 7. BH-202 4.08 . BH-209 2. SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance.5 1 . is proportional to the effective area. BH-208 3. 12.5 . the positive Hall voltage will appear at the blue lead. BH-205 3 max.15 .lc) d.08 .002 9. BH-207 9. BH-209 General Purpose Transverse Ultra-thin.0.08 .40°C to +100°C .5 . A. b.40°C to +105°C 25 150 1.40°C to +100°C .40°C to +100°C . control current @ 25°C. 250 100 1 1 .15 1 0°C to +100°C 0°C to +105°C 500 max.5 1.40°C to +105°C 150 100 1. Vind (measured with Ic =0)=A dB x10 . 15±25% .5 max. I cn Max. static air Nominal control current. 150 100 1. BH-204 3 max. BH-208 10. 3 max.5 .40°C to +105°C 4. BH-203 3 max. AWG 36-red (+VH). c. Polarity: With the magnetic field vector (+B) entering the top of the Hall plate and lc entering the red lead. 3 max.08 .002 100 max.VH) Models 1. 3 max.5 1 . A Max.40°C to +100°C .003 100 max. 5 max.5 2. 2. Sensitivities range from 6 to 75 mV/kG with input and output resistance of several ohms.0.40°C to +105°C 7.02 10. Icn (2) Ic =100 mA . 250 150 1 1 .5 max.0.75±25% .003 100 max.7 max. resistive residual voltage. 250 max. 10±25% . BH-204 6. 3 max.15 1 .0. 10±25% .15 1 . and tangential magnetic field components. black (. Low-cost Transverse High Resolution. 200 max. BH-206 7 max. R out Open circuit magnetic sensitivity. 150 75 1. B=gauss.08 .5 max.0. Transverse Small Axial General Purpose. Vind. Axial Ultra-mini. 200 125 1 1 . 10±25% .8 dt Vind =volts. 150 100 1 1 .0. BH-201 3.40°C to +100°C .40°C to +100°C . BH-206 8. R in Output resistance. Axial Mini Axial Mini Transverse High Sensitivity. 45 to 75 . Models in the BH-200 Series are built in various configurations to measure axial.5 max.003 Electrical Specifications *Approximate NOTE: In a time varying field the voltage induced into the Hall output leads.40°C to +100°C .0.01 3. BH-200 2.25 .15 1 .08 .15 1 . Material: AWG 34 or AWG 36 copper with heavy polyurethane insulation. 3 max.

050" HALL PLATE 0.022" MAX. LEADS: AWG 36.070" x 0.055" HALL PLATE 0.045" MAX. Model BH-204 Midget Axial .040" X 0.020" MAX.030" X 0. 0.195" DIA. 8.040" . OVER LEADS 3 " 16 . 764" . 0.7 1.375" .062" HALL PLATE 0.019" MAX. Model BH-200: General-Purpose Transverse .500" 0. Bell Technologies Inc. Model BH-209 Ultra-Midget Transverse .060" X 0.080" MAX. Model BH-202 Small Axial .050" .130" .com .130" MAX. LEADS: AWG 36. 7.060" HALL PLATE 0.060" X 0.. Orlando. OVER LEADS HALL PLATE 0.030" X 0.130" DIA. Model BH-205 Midget Transverse .063" ±. Model BH-206 High Sensitivity Low Cost TRANSVERSE 0. 0.100" DIA.040" X 0. 10" long . Model BH-208 Ultra-Midget Axial .135" MAX.030" .022" MAX.210" HALL PLATE 0.fwbell. 0.102"±.004" DIA.060" 6.090" 10. 10" long 2.030" MAX.75" 4.090" . .093" . a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road. . MAX 9.025" .071"±.093" .020" X 0. Model BH-201 Ultra-Thin Transverse 3 .025" Max Over Leads Hall Plate 0.135" ± .210" 5. Model BH-203 General-Purpose Axial .150" .145" MAX.020" X 0.060" ® 1 2" . 64 " HALL PLATE 0.003" DIA. MAX .035" MAX. . Florida 32807 • www.015" MAX.010" MAX. MAX. 3.030" X 0. " .002" DIA.50" 7 16" .150" .010 HALL PLATE 0.040" .163"±.125" .045" MAX.375" 5 " 16 . Model BH-207 High Resolution Tangential .003" DIA. LEADS: AWG 34.015" MAX. 10" long . HALL PLATE 0.

Instrumentation Quality Low Field (ferrite-embedded). R out Magnetic sensitivity. VH vs. the open circuit Hall voltage is 8.5 max. 50 min.5 typical . B. 3. 0 to 100 mA: ± 0. 5. Polarity: With the magnetic field vector (+B) entering the top of the Hall plate and lc entering the red lead.04 +0. max.1% of reading. the positive Hall voltage will appear at the blue lead.lc) Hall Voltage (VH): Blue (+VH) Yellow (.003" maximum. Axial. BH-700 BH-701 BH-702 BH-704 BH-705 Low cost. 300 100 ** 5 max. control current @25°C.8 Bulk Indium Arsenide BH-700 Series Single Axis Description Designed to meet the requirements of a wide range of magnetic field measurement applications. b. Air gap: between concentrator and substrate.0 mV min.5 max.2 max. . max. static air Nominal control current Max. Color Code: Control Current (lc): Red (+ lc) Black (.55°C to +100°C . VH vs. Sensitivity: Basic sensitivity of Hall element .40°C to +105°C 5.40°C to +100°C . 2.40°C to +100°C . 300 200 – – .25% of reading.mV/Ampere turn min. Polarity: With the magnetic field vector as shown and Ic entering the red lead. (0 to 10 kG) with R lin Zero field thermal voltage Mean temperature coefficient of VH (-20°C to +80°C) (2)* Mean temperature coefficient of resistance (-20°C to +80°C) (2)* Temperature dependence of resistive residual voltage (-20°C to +80°C) (2)* Operating temperature range Storage temperature range Notes (1) Ic =Icn (2) Ic =100 mA (3) Loaded Sensitivity . 0 to 300 mA: ±1. 2 max. Transverse 1.40°C to +100°C .07 +0. General Purpose Rugged. VH is 3.18 0.0% of reading.2 6 typical . BH-704 2. . R in Output resistance. c.5 to 50 mV/kG and input and output resistance of several ohms.0% of reading. 2.5 max.2 1 Max .18 2.65°C to +100°C .55°C to +105°C 4. VH (1) Max. With the unit suspended in a free field of 100 oersteds and Ic=200 mA.VH) b. the BH-700 Series are small.5 max. 0. BH-702 3. max. Ic. resistive residual voltage.5±20% 75 max. Instrumentation Quality General Purpose. UNITS ohms ohms mV/kG ±µV mA mA ±% of RDG µV %/°C %/°C ±µ V/°C °C °C BH-700 5. linearity error. 300 100 ** 5 max. BH-701 BH-704 Mechanical Specifications a. Transverse. *** 250 max. Five single-axis models are available to measure axial and transverse magnetic field components with sensitivities from 7.5 max. 1500 max.0.0025" nominal and 0. Transverse. Linearity: VH vs. 7. Encapsulation: The BH-701 and the BH-704 are encapsulated in a rugged aluminum oxide ceramic and epoxy case for excellent heat transfer and strength. 7.04 +0. Models 1. BH-705 2.0.18 0. 10±25% 300 max. 5. Ic. 3. B.5±20% (3) 75 max. – 30 to +30 kG: ±1.0. Electrical Specifications BH-702 a. 2.0.0. High-Linearity.65°C to +105°C SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance. 250 200 3 – . VH vs. VM @ B=0 (1) Max.40°C to +105°C 3. the positive Hall voltage will appear at the blue lead.15 V/A-kG min. b. max. solid-state devices that provide an output voltage proportional to the product of control current and ambient flux density.3 typical . 4.5 max. Transverse Rugged. High Linearity. a. In a closed magnetic circuit with Ic =200 mA. 250 100 1 5 max.5 max.2 +0.40°C to +105°C BH-701 2 max. 2 max. . . – 10 to +10 kG: ± 0.08 +0.

023" max.) 0.200" 5. Orlando.082" ± 0.031" dia.020" max.100" 2.88mm 10" 254mm + 0.5mm 0.050" 1.20" 0. 0. a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road.120" 1.180" Hall plate 0.71mm Model BH-705 General Purpose Transverse 0.040" dia.18mm 0.fwbell.81mm 0.64mm +B 0. 6. Model BH-702 Ferrite Imbedded Transverse 0.com .010” Bell Technologies Inc.27mm 0.265" 0.03mm 10" 254mm 0.9 typical error in % of output ±30 kG linearity +1 % % +1 BH-701 BH-704 ±10 kG linearity + 1 BH-701 BH-704 4 % + 1 4% -1 % -1 % - 1 4% - 1 4 % optimum loading optimum loading -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0.080" 4.35mm 0. 1.025" 0. 0.180" 4. 0. (1.043" max.02mm) ® Notes All tolerances unless specified are .57mm x 2.0 2 4 6 8 10 magnetic field strength in kG magnetic field strength in kG Note: Note: Ω 4.200" 5.200" 5.51mm substrate side +B 7 1 2" 190.180" x 0.08mm 71 2" 190.69mm 0.200" dia.58mm 0.032" 0.08mm 0.57mm active area approx.010" Specifications may change without notice.003" 2. Model BH-700 Low Cost Transverse 0.200" 5.05mm 2. 5.52mm x 3..035" 0.91mm ferrite concentrator +B 0. Florida 32807 • www.028" max. Model BH-704 High Linearity Axial 0.08mm 10" 254mm 5.250" 6.106" 2.97mm 5 8" 15.73mm 0.235" 5.200" 5.08mm ± 0.5mm Hall plate 0.35mm 0.08mm 0.89mm 0. 0. Model BH-701 High Linerarity Transverse NOTE: All tolerances unless specified are ±0.08mm 0.075" 1.96mm ceramic substrate 0.060" x 0.5mm 3.54mm 0. 0. 0.08mm +B Active Area (Approx.09mm 0.156" 3.125" 3.08mm 0. Ω 1.250" dia.

40 to 120 .10 Bulk Indium Arsenide BH-703 Three Axis Description The BH-703 multi-axis Hall sensor consists of three individual Hall elements oriented in mutually perpendicular planes and encapsulated in a small epoxy package. δ are the angles between B and Bx. Bz respectively.750" a. By.060" X . Electrical Specifications SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance. Polarity: When the magnetic field vectors are oriented as shown. β=cos -1 B y / B. 6 to 9 200 300 100 Hall plates 1 within ±2 1 1 . 0.120" . +0.060" X .5 max.5 max. δ=cos -1 B z / B where α.0.010".120" . B. lc = lcn. Static air. b. R in Output resistance.150" flat . R out Magnetic sensitivity. approximately 20" long. Leads: #34 AWG copper with polyurethane insulation. Bz) of a magnetic flux in any direction. static air Nominal control current Angularity Sensitivity matching Max. resistive residual voltage. (-10 kG to +10 kG) with R lin Mean temperature coefficient of VH (-20°C to +80°C) Mean temperature coefficient of resistance (-20°C to +80°C) Temperature dependence of resistive residual voltage (-20°C to +80°C) Operating temperature range Storage temperature range UNITS ohms ohms mV/kG ±µV mA mA degrees ±% of RDG ±% of RDG %/°C %/°C µV/°C °C °C BH-703 3.0. 7 to 10 100 300 100 Hall plates 1 within ±2 1 1 . VM @ B=0 Max.5" Hall Plate "Z" . The magnitude of the flux vector.04 max.40 to +100 .04 max. Unless otherwise noted: B=1kG. Thus the BH-703 may be permanently mounted or arbitrarily oriented to sense fields in any direction. . control current @25°C. VH (loaded) Max.120" Hall Plate "Y" .285" dia Hall Plate "X" . Notes: All tolerances unless specified are ±0. β. Bz δ B Features • Three Axis.5 max.15 max. 3 max. can be found using the following relation: 2 B=B 2 + B 2 + B z x y Bx Bz By Bx α The flux direction may be found using the following relations: α=cos -1 B x / B. c. .40 to 120 BH-706 3 max. The BH-703 has 12 leads. T-25˚C.15 max.180" dia . 3. simultaneous measurement • Instrumentation Quality β By Mechancal Specifications . the positive Hall voltage appears at the blue leads.060" X . linearity error.40 to +100 .5 max. +0. This enables the BH-703 to produce voltages proportional to the three orthogonal components (Bx. 0. By.260" . and lc enters the read leads.

fwbell. and Ic enters the red leads. The magnetic of the flux vector. Thus the BH-706 may be permanently mounted to sense field components in its X.010". Static air.040" Hall Plate "Y" . The BH-706 has 8 leads. Bx B ® By Bell Technologies Inc. Orlando. B within the X. Florida 32807 • www.020" X .com . the positive Hall voltage appears at the blue leads.020" X .Bulk Indium BH-706 Two Axis Description The BH-706 multi-axis Hall sensor consists of two Hall elements mounted in mutually perpendicular planes and encapsulated in a small epoxy package. This enables the BH-706 to produce voltages proportional to two perpendicular components (Bx.040" Unless otherwise noted: B=1 kG. simultaneous measurement • Instrumentation Quality . T-25 C. Y planes. Note: All tolerances unless specified are ±0.. lc =lcn. approximately 20" long. 11 Mechancal Specifications Mechancal Specifications Leads: #34 AWG copper with polyurethane insulation. By) of a magnetic field. Y plane can be found using the following equation: B= – B 2 + B 2 x y The direction of B can be computed using the following equation: 0=tan -1 B y / Bz where 0 is the angle between B and Bx.5" .200" . Polarity: When the magnetic field vectors are oriented as shown. a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road. Features • Two Axis.125" dia .040" Hall Plate "X" .

Features • High Sensitivity • Rugged construction Mechanical Specifications a. VH Max. Material: AWG 34 Stranded (7x42) Silver Plated Copper. Polarity: With field direction as shown lc entering the red lead.5 max. Leads b. R out Magnetic sensitivity. VM @ B=0. control current @ 25°C. the BH-850 offers high sensitivity for very low magnetic fields at a relatively low cost.0 Typical Output Characteristic IC = 200 mA 40 20 Field direction for positive (+B) -3 -2 -1 -20 -40 1 2 3 7 3 8" B.lc) d.460" 9.250" -60 Electrical Specifications SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance.VH) e.55 to +85 . IC = ICM Max.0" . Color Code Red (+ lc) Black (. the positive Hall voltage will appear at the blue lead. Hall Voltage (VH): f.12 Bulk Indium BH-850 Ultra Low Field Description Ideal for applications such as the construction of solid state compasses.5 . static air Nominal control current.0. c. gauss . Thin Wall Teflon Insulation. R in Output resistance.5 max. 18 ±190 max. I cn Mean temperature coefficient of VH (-20°C to +80°C) Temperature dependence of resistive residual voltage (-20°C to +80°C) Operating temperature range Storage temperature range UNITS ohms ohms mV/G µV mA mA %/°C µV/°C °C °C B-850 3. resistive residual voltage. 300 200 . 3. Control Current (lc): Blue (+ VH) Yellow (.55 to +85 .18 ±2.

-269 to +100 BHA-900 1. -40 to +100 BHT-921 1. 1.Bulk Indium BH-900 Series High Linearity Description F.2 max. 13 Mechanical Specifications a. .55 to 1.1% linearity error (0-30 kG) ± .5 max.fwbell. BH 921 & 900 Wide Dynamic Range SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance. Control Current (lc): Red (+ lc) Black (. Leads b.5 max.6 max. 0. VH (1) Max. static air Nominal control current. A room temperature linearity error curve from .15 max. All units in the series are encapsulated in rugged. 1.6 max. -40 to +100 BHT-910 1. The models 900 and 921 are not calibrated above 30 kG..020" DIA. 0.55 to 1. c.5 500 -50 max. Material: AWG 34 Copper with Teflon Insulation (Model 921) or Polyurethane Insulation (Models 900 & 910).1 50 300 100 . 0.5 500 -50 max.4 max.200" MAX.5 max. epoxy.lc) Blue (+ VH) Yellow (. 0. 910 & 921 0. control current @ 25°C. indicating optimum operating conditions for each device. R in Output resistance. PHENOLIC CASE Models a. Color Code d.4 max. Orlando.4 max.55 to 1. 1. 10" MIN.4 max.1 50 300 100 1 1.55 to 1. resistive residual voltage.1 200 300 100 1 2 500 +100 max. 1. VM @ B=0 (1) Max. Florida 32807 • www.VH) Hall Voltage (VH): e.106" 0.W.2 max.15 max. 0. -269 to +100 BHA-921 1. BH-910 High Linearity b.200" DIA. 0. R out Magnetic sensitivity. 1. a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road. . the positive Hall voltage will appear at the blue leads.com ® .15 max.4 max.1 200 300 100 1 2 500 +100 max.3% reversibility error Bell Technologies Inc. Polarity: With the magnetic field vector (+B) entering the top of the Hall plate and lc entering the red lead. .2 max. 0. -269 to +100 Notes (1) Ic = Icn (2) ± . -40 to +100 BHA-910 1. Bell 900 Series Hall Sensors are high-performance units providing high linearity and broad field and temperatures ranges for a wide variety of magnetic field measurements. Axial Hall Sensors BHA-900.2 max.4 max.25 – 50 to 500 -50 max. sealed cases. 0.5 Max . I cn Max linearity error (-30 to +30 kG) (1) Max linearity error (-150 to +150 kG) (1) Typical linearity resistance R lin Mean temperature coefficient of VH (-20°C to +80°C) (1) Mean temperature coefficient of resistance (-20°C to +80°C) (1) Temperature dependence of resistive residual voltage (-20°C to +80°C) (1) Operating temperature range UNITS ohms ohms mV/kG mV mA mA ±%/to RDG ±%/to RDG ohms PPM/°C ±%/°C µV/°C °C BHT-900 1. 0.55 to 1. . .15 max. 0.2 max.1 50 300 100 1 1. 0. BH-921 Cryogenic Operation (1. +B ACTIVE AREA APPROX.2 max.1 (2) – 50 to 500 -50 max.1 50 300 100 . 0. 1.5 to 350° k) c. 0.250" DIA.5 max. 0.30 to +30 kG is supplied.5 max. 0.55 to 1.

1 max.1 max.125" 0. B+ Hall Plate 0. FH-301-020 FH-520 2. FH-301L FH-500L Low Current Lowest Cost Leaded Low Current On-Lead Strip Higher Sensitivity Higher Sensitivity High Linearity High Linearity VH(-) YELLOW IC (+) RED IC(-)BLACK VH(+)BLUE .280" 0.1 max.500" 3.000" 712 " Models 1. VH (1) Max. -55 to +100 -55 to +120 Notes (1) Ic =Icn (2) Ic =10 mA (3) mm linearity error (-20 to 20 kg) = ±1% of RDG . Note: Unless otherwise specified. The FH-500 series uses a lead strip which is composed of printed circuit leads encased in DuPont’s Kapton and terminating in contacts on .080" . the positive Hall will appear at the V (+) VH (+) terminal. Mechanical Specifications Leads: #34 AWG copper with polyurethane insulation. . .Polarity: With field direction (B+) as shown and entering terminal.020" MAX.) IC (+) 0. 6 25 10 -0. 7 max. control current @ 25°C. I cn Mean temperature coefficient of VH (-20°C to +80°C) (2) Mean temperature coefficient of resistance (-20 °C to +80 °C) (2) Temperature dependence of resistive residual voltage (-20°C to +80°C) (2) Operating temperature range Storage temperature range UNITS ohms ohms mV/kG ±mV mA mA %/°C %/°C +µV/°C °C °C 1.040" X 0. the Ic (+) terminal.125" ( -) (+) (. 10 max.1 max. resistive residual voltage.025" IC . all specifications apply at nominal b. (3) FH-301L/FH-500L 20-120 40-360 6 min. 2 50 25 -0. 0.010" NOTE: All tolerances unless specified are ± 0. Heat sinking can enhance performance in several respects. -55 to +100 -55 to +120 3. Polarity: With field direction (B+) as shown and Ic Ic entering the Ic (+) a. . R out Magnetic sensitivity. General Purpose. all specifications apply control current with T 25°C. .812" 0. . FH-301-060 FH-560 4. 10 max. -55 to +100 -55 to +120 4.1 max. The model FH-301 has conventional wire leads.1 max. R in Output resistance.010" Models SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance. FH-301-040/FH-540 40-80 56 -240 12 min.1 max. 4 30 10 -0.Note: Unless otherwise specified.14 Thin Film FH-301/FH-500 Series InAs Thin Film. the positive Hall voltage voltage will appear atHthe terminal. This flexible and tough lead strip can be made in a variety of configurations. Heat sinking can enhance performance in at nominal control severalrespects. 10 max. -55 to +100 -55 to +120 2. FH-301-060/FH-560 80-160 160-480 12 min.025" MAX B+ Electrical Specifications a.075" 0.135" Hall Plate 0.100" 0. static air Nominal control current. current with T 25ºC. b.1 max. FH-301-040 FH-540 3. VM @ B=0 Max.438" 2.075” centers.040" X 0.080" 0. Transverse Description FH-301 & FH-500 Series Hall sensors are miniature solid-state Hall effect magnetic field sensing devices. FH-301-020/FH-520 20-40 28 -120 10 min. 4 30 15 -0.

120"+. Bell HS-100 is the world’s thinnest thin film InAs Hall sensor measuring 0.55 to +190 ® Bell Technologies Inc. 10 max.3 mm thick maximum.1 max.55 to +185 . 6. Manufactured from Indium Arsenide. 15 Mechanical Specifications Leads: #34 AWG copper with polyurethane insulation.012 inch/0. is available in bulk and tape and reel formats.Thin Film HS-100 Series Description The new F. Sensor applications include current.064" . power.094" . and thickness sensors.fwbell.012" MAX.com .080" ACTIVE AREA . Model HS-100 . the positive Hall voltage will appear at the VH (+) terminal.015" b.047" . R in Output resistance.012"x. packaged in a unique flip chip configuration. frequency. and gaussmeters.073" + 1 + 2 + 3 .0 max. -0. Applications include: use in Brushless DC motors (BLDC). contact-less switches. pressure.15" + + . 6 5 .. a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road. tachometer. Electrical Specifications a. position.012" (6-PLCS) SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance. The HS-100. Florida 32807 • www. VH @ I c =10 mA Misalignment voltage. voltage.030" 4 PIN SIGNAL + + - +B 1 and 6 3 and 4 2 5 + . Orlando. .020" MAX.1 max.100"+0. all specifications apply at nominal control current and at a temperature of 25°C. Heat sinking can enhance performance in several respects. Polarity: With field direction (B+) as shown and Ic entering the Ic (+) terminal. +. VM @ I c =10 mA Mean temperature coefficient of magnetic sensitivity (-20°C to +80°C) (I c =10 mA) (B=5 kG) Mean temperature coefficient of input resistance (-20°C to +80°C) (I c =10 mA) Temperature dependence of resistive residual voltage (-20°C to +80°C) (I c =10 mA) (B=0) Operating temperature range Storage temperature range UNITS ohms ohms mA mV/kG mV %/°C %/°C µV/°C °C °C HS-100 30 to 160 60 to 360 30 8 min. magnetizers.040"x. compasses. . the HS-100 offers stable operation over a wide temperature range of -55°C to +185°C.W. tilt/level. . R out Maximum continuous control current Magnetic sensitivity. Note: Unless otherwise specified.

Ic .0.002" (0.. (2.000 65 to 170 25 10 5 2 %/°C %/°C ±µV/°C °C °C .005" TYP.3 Max 5 Typical (2) -55 to +125 -55 to +150 Notes (1) Nominal Control Current.15 Typical 1 Typical (2) -55 to +125 -55 to +150 . GH-700 450 to 900 approx.65mm) .200 max.450"±.96mm) ..05 0.62mm±0.15 Typical 1 Typical (2) -55 to +125 -55 to +125 . Icn (5 mA) (2) Control Current=1 mA (3) Temperature range +25°C to +75°C (4) ±0.025" TYP. proportional to the product of the input current. and the magnetic flux density. R out Magnetic sensitivity. 2.7 (4) 5. The lead strip is terminated with tin plated copper alloy contacts spaced 0.38mm) + 1.0. 4.15 Typical 1 Typical (2) -55 to +125 -55 to +150 .. VM @ B=0 (1) Max.) (1.51mm) ( ) IC ( + ) VH ( ) VH ( + ) IC .500" (12.7mm) . VH .156" (APPROX. B.000 22 to 31 5 15 5 2 6. GH-800 600 to 1.750" (19.700 50 to 140 14 10 5 2 2.28" (0.54mm±0.700 50 to 140 16 10 5 2 3.065" (MAX. SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance.07 0.51mm) Unless otherwise noted.43mm±0. (0.0.) (3. (1. resistive residual voltage. R in Output resistance. GH-810 400 to 700 approx.68mm±0.300"±.25mm±0. all tolarences are ±0.200 95 to 130 20 7 5 0. GH-600 GH-601 GH-700 GH-800 GH-810 GH-820 GH-830 .015" (7.7 mm) thick for placement in small air gaps. (2) 1 Typical (2) -55 to +125 -55 to +150 .0.35mm±0.2% of reading from .000 50 to 140 14 10 5 2 4.0.25) 1.5 max. GH-601 450 to 900 580 to 1. (-10 kG to +10 kG) Mean temperature coefficient of VH (-10°C to +80°C) Mean temperature coefficient of resistance (-10°C to +80°C) Temperature dependence of resistive residual voltage (-10°C to +80°C) Operating temperature range Storage temperature range UNITS ohms ohms mV/kG ±mV mA mA ±% of RDG GH-600 450 to 900 580 to 1. 40 max. 3. . The GH-600 Hall sensor uses a lead strip which is composed of DuPon’ts Kapton. It features a package 0.0. 80 to 190 20 10 5 2 7. The Model GH-601 utilizes a specially designed lead strip which allows operation up to 50 kHz.05mm) . The GH-830 is configured in a low profile package.010 (±0. 5.010"±. 6. linearity error.100" (2.13mm) . GH-830 450 to 900 approx.16 Gallium Arsenide GH Series Description The GH Series Hall sensors are four-terminal solid-state devices that produce an output voltage.07 0. 1.3) -40 to +175 -50 to +180 . The GH-800 is a leaded device designed for through hole mounting to a PCB. VH (1) Max. static air Nominal control current. control current @ 25°C.200 600 to 1. GH-820 450 to 900 3. 7.5 kG + 5 kG . The GH-700 is an ion implanted planar device encased in an epoxy surface-mount package.63mm) .05mm) +B Models 1. 1.020" (3. Model GH-600 0.15 Typical 1 Typical (2) -55 to +125 -55 to +150 .18 max. Features • • • • • • • Low Cost Gallium Arsenide Extended Frequency Range High Sensitivity Choice of Mounting Configurations Flexible Leadstrip Extended Temperature Range Mechanical Specifications Diagrams Below andRight All dimensions are in inches (millimeters).38mm) .100"±.825"±.07 0.07 0.015" (11. I cn Max. The GH-810 and GH-820 are leaded devices designed for through hole mounting to a PCB.0.05 .54 mm) on center.020" (46.145"±. 2.06 0. 3.

010" -.027" (0. (1.35mm) ® Bell Technologies Inc.004" (1.024" (0.5mm –.037" (0.037" (0. Florida 32807 • www.014" (.2mm) .com .25mm) .024" MAX.1mm) .114" -.008"±.016" (0.016" TYP.0mm–0.189" –.2mm) .1mm) .0mm±0.6mm) .004" (2.002" (.5mm) .05mm) .004" (0. (0.10mm) .1mm) (1.006" (4.472"±.15mm) .8mm–0.3mm) .1mm) Flash MAX.070" DIA. .2mm) .059" +.020" (0.1mm) .2mm) .006" .1mm) .004" (.008 (2.15mm +B +.30mm ) Model GH-700 .002 (0.033" (0.063"–.1mm) 3¡ 1 2 .1mm) HALL ELEMENT CENTER .075" (1.20mm) .040" TYP. Model GH-810 Model GH-810 . (1.81mm) 2 1 .1mm) ..6mm) .20mm ( 2.004" (4.27mm) .063" (2.050" TYP.25mm) 4 +B .032" (0.1mm) .012" .002" (1. (1.15mm -0.067" –. Model GH-700 +.004 .473" –.032"±.110 "–.3mm–0.004" (3.039" (1. (0.3mm) 4 3 .15mm) Chip Center 14 .040" TYP.5mm) .2mm–0.090"–.006" (1.004" (0.15mm ) .61mm) + C .098" –.41mm) PIN 1 2 3 4 .002 +0.30mm) (0.118" (3.1mm) .0mm) .063" (1. Model GH-820 .0mm) 2 3 PIN 1 2 3 SIGNAL + + - PIN 1 2 3 4 SIGNAL + + .05mm –0.027" (0.fwbell.05mm) .012" +0.8mm–0.008" (12mm–0.022" (0. Model GH-800 Model GH-800 Active Area .25mm ) -0.114" –. 17 5.122" –.004" .177"±.0mm) +B 3 4 PIN 1 2 3 4 SIGNAL + + - 5¡ . (3.008" (4.016"–.1mm±0.06mm 5¡ SIGNAL + + - .3mm) .008" (0.031" (0.008" (2. (0.25mm) 4.083" (2.150" TYP.047"–.006" .85mm) .8mm±0.50mm+0.004" (0.059" (1.473" MIN.012" TYP.Gallium Arsenide GH Series All dimensions are in inches (millimeters).36mm) 1 4 .083"±.008" (2.010" (0.94mm) + .006 -.008" Square (0.8mm) .33mm) .25mm) + 1 4 .11mm) .012" (0. a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road.028"-. Model GH-601 .044" +.81mm) .157"–. Orlando.1mm–0.014" (.90mm) .787mm) + 2.008" (3.15mm) (1.7mm-0.51mm) C 6.2mm) PIN 1 2 3 4 SIGNAL + + - 1 2 3 4 .95mm) .6mm–0.90mm -0.010" (0.6mm) +B 0.05mm .0mm) .90mm – 0.092" (2.10" (.020" (0.024" (.004" TYP.686mm) + . (12mm) + .5mm±0.010" (0.002 –.006" (0. (0.012" (12mm±0.4mm–0.7mm –.004" (1.0.10mm ) (0.10mm +0. (1.2mmSquare) 7.2mm) 3. Model GH-830 Model GH-830 .7mm) Model GH-820 .004" (0.006" -.55mm) + 2 3 .6mm +B .118"±.4mm) .2mm±0.

8 -1. Features • • • • • Low Cost Indium Antimonide Very High Sensitivity Low Current Requirement Choice of Mounting Configuration Models 1.1 mA . Ic. Vh. Icn =5 mA (2) Control Current=0. SH-430 240 to 550 240 to 550 290 to 1. 3. R in Output resistance.8 -40 to +110 -40 to +125 3. I cn Mean temperature coefficient of VH (0°C to +40°C) (1) Mean temperature coefficient of resistance (0°C to +40°C) (2) Operating temperature range Storage temperature range UNITS ohms ohms mV/kG mV mA mA %/°C %/°C °C °C 1. VH (1) Max. SH-420 240 to 550 240 to 550 100 to 330 16 20 5 -1.8 -40 to +110 -40 to +125 2.120 20 20 5 -1.760 20 20 5 -1. 4.760 20 20 5 -1. SH-410 240 to 550 240 to 550 290 to 1. proportional to the product of the input current.18 Indium Antimonide SH Series Description The SH series Hall effect sensors are four terminal Indium Antimonide devices that are extremely sensitive to low magnetic fields. R out Magnetic sensitivity.8 -1. and the magnetic flux density. These devices produce an output voltage.8 -1.8 -40 to +110 -40 to +125 Notes (1) Nominal Control Current. B. VM @ B=0 Max. SH-400 SH-410 SH-420 SH-430 Models SPECIFICATIONS Input resistance.8 -40 to +110 -40 to +125 4. 2. control current @ 25°C.8 -1. SH-400 240 to 550 240 to 550 292 to 1. static air Nominal control current. resistive residual voltage.

01" (.900mm–.900mm–.7mm) .004" (.004" (2. (.300mm) 5¡ ® Bell Technologies Inc.100mm) +.100mm) . Orlando.00mm) .020" (.fwbell.093" (2.35mm) .100mm) 5¡ .035" (.900mm) 2 1 .250mm 2.020" (.031" (.008" (2.043" +.38mm) .590" (15.100mm) 4 PIN 1 2 .049"–.004" (.008" -. .900mm) .012" (.100mm) .100mm +.800mm) .083"–.200mm) .004" (1.004" (1.300mm) 2 1 .004" (.027" (.040" (1.350mm) 5¡ .400mm) PIN 1 .300mm) .010" (.100mm) .004" (.100mm) PIN 1 3 4 2 3 SIGNAL + + - BLUE STRIPE .550mm) 5¡ .016" (.004" (.0mm) .010" (.100mm) .043" -.500mm) . (1.200mm ) -. Model SH-400 .106" (2.022" (.500mm) .016" MAX.010" (.100mm +.075" (1.250mm) 4 5¡ SIGNAL + + 1 2 3 4 .008" (. 1.700mm) SIGNAL + + - 3¡ .004" (2.083"–.051" (1.100mm–.031" (. Florida 32807 • www.061"–.500mm) .014" (.114"–.008" (2.200mm) 3 4 2 .com .100mm) 5¡ .00mm) + 5° .040" TYP.200mm ) -.004" (2.114"–.250mm) . Model GH-601 Model SH-410 4.19 Mechanical Specifications All dimensions are in inches (millimeters).061"–.550mm–.800mm) ..004" (1.100mm 10¡ .012" (.075" (1.008" .400mm) 3¡ 3 4 .020" (.037" (.015" (.400mm) 5¡ .012" TYP.000mm) 3 1 .300mm) .700mm) . a SYPRIS company • 6120 Hanging Moss Road.95mm) Model SH-400 BLUE STRIPE 5° 3.550mm–.114"–.004" (1.100mm 10¡ .250mm) Model SH-420 Model SH-420 .012" (. (. Model SH-430 Model SH-430 .027" (.300mm) .900mm) +B .900mm–.275" (7.100mm–.2mm) 2 3 4 .100mm) PIN 1 2 3 4 SIGNAL + + - .250mm–.010" (.100mm) 5¡ .004" (1.

003" Permanent Mount Sparingly coat the mounting surface with Eastman 910 contact cement or other similar cement. check the coefficients of thermal expansion to be certain that the slot will always have clearance for the chip. Avoid tension on the leads and avoid bending them close to the substrate. Use an epoxy such as Bacon Industries FA8 or Emerson and Cuming 2850FT to form a fillet around the plate and to secure the leads. use a light coating of Sylgard 186 or a similar soft material. Wipe off the excess contact cement. foam sylgard 186 * Post-Mounting Test After the Hall sensor has been mounted. The ceramic side of the substrate is visible as non-red or as opposite the Hall element. If an extreme temperature range is expected. 1 Slot Mounting Slot Mounting Fig. thin and very sensitive to bending stress. choose a material with a coefficient of thermal expansion no greater than a factor of three different from IN = that of the aluminum oxide substrate ~ 7x10 . Don’t get epoxy on top of the chip. ceramic. Locate the ceramic side on the clean. Tack the leads outside the slot with Sylgard 186* or a similar substance. Don’t get Sylgard 186 inside the slot. degreased surface and apply extremely light pressure with a foam pad until the bond is made (see Figure 7). and glass are examples of mounting surfaces. Do not handle the substrate. It cannot be handled the same way most other electronic components are handled. The jig should apply only light pressure.20 Hall Sensor Mounting Handling The Hall sensor is fragile. The substrate must not overhang the mounting surface.001") surface at least the size of the substrate.6 °C Slygard 186 * t t + . . W + .003 inch wider and . This procedure is not recommended for installations that will be subject to any acceleration greater than 10 g. The leads may be bent at any angle as long as the bend is a least 1/8" away from the substrate connection. Use the leads to move and locate it. Temporarily secure the leads with Sylgard 186 or a similar material. jig Side View Fig. 2 Surface mounting is acceptable when necessary. Fig. The lead-to-substrate bond strength bond strength is on the order of an ounce. . The mounting surface may be any non-flexible solid with a flat smooth (±. 1 The preferred mounting procedure is to locate the chip in a slot that is any depth. If encapsulation is absolutely necessary. ferrite. 2 contact cement surface mounting epoxy Non-Permanent Surface Mount Secure the substrate against the surface with a foam-padded mounting jig. A large misalignment voltage shift (100 µ V) is a sign of Hall sensor physical damage. check the misalignment voltage per the proper specification. The aluminum oxide substrate is brittle. For extended temperature ranges.010" W Front View Surface Mounting Fig. Steel.010 inch longer than the substrate.