4.

2
GOAL

Working with Integer Exponents

Investigate powers that have integer or zero exponents.

LEARN ABOUT the Math
The metric system of measurement is used in most of the world. A key feature of the system is its ease of use. Since all units differ by multiples of 10, it is easy to convert from one unit to another. Consider the chart listing the prefix names and their factors for the unit of measure for length, the metre.
Multiple as a Power of 10 1012 109 106 103 102 101

Name terametre gigametre megametre kilometre hectometre decametre metre decimetre centimetre millimetre micrometre nanometre picometre femtometre attometre

Symbol Tm Gm Mm km hm dam m dm cm mm mm nm pm fm am

Multiple of the Metre 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 000 000 001

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How can powers be used to represent metric units for lengths less than 1 metre?

Chapter 4 Exponential Functions

217

10 I don’t think it mattered that the base was 10. 100 5 1. 1022 5 0. 218 4. I used a power of 10. 1021 5 0. while the multiples were divided by 10. I rewrote each decimal as a fraction and each denominator as a power of 10. I’ll get 100 5 1. Jemila’s Solution As I moved down the table.01. EXAMPLE 2 Connecting the concept of an exponent of 0 to the exponent quotient rule Use the quotient rule to show that 100 51. I noticed that 100 5 1 and 1 102n 5 n. David’s Solution 106 51 106 106 5 10626 5 100 106 I can divide any number except 0 by itself to get 1. The relationship would be true for any base. Therefore. you subtract the exponents.1. I divided the multiples and the powers by 10. etc. If I continue this pattern.EXAMPLE 1 Using reasoning to define zero and negative integer exponents Use the table to determine how multiples of the unit metre that are less than or equal to 1 can be expressed as powers of 10. I applied the rule to show that a power with zero as the exponent must be equal to 1. the powers of 10 decreased by 1.2 Working with Integer Exponents . To come up with the next row in the table. When you divide powers with the same base.

Reflecting A. 1? How is 102 related to 1022? Why do you think this relationship holds for other opposite exponents? Do you think the rules for multiplying and dividing powers change if the powers have negative exponents? Explain.” 1 53 1 125 1 (24) 2 1 16 1 34 1 81 523 is what you get if you divide 1 by 53. or as a fraction. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 3 Representing powers with integer bases in rational form Communication Tip Evaluate. 1 52 If the base of a power involving a negative exponent is a fraction. Since the negative sign is in the parentheses. Chapter 4 Exponential Functions 219 . C. What type of number results when x2n is evaluated if x is a positive integer and n . I knew that 324 5 34. so the entire power is negative. it can be evaluated in a similar manner. 5 b) (24) 22 5 (24) 22 is what you get if you divide 1 by (24) 2. B. a) 523 b) (24) 22 c) 2324 Stergios’s Solution a) 523 5 Rational numbers can be written in a variety of forms. The term rational form means “Write the number as an integer. the negative sign is not inside the parentheses. the square of the number is positive. 5 c) 2324 5 2 In this case. I evaluated the power.

3 Dividing by a fraction is the same as multiplying by its reciprocal. so I used this to evaluate the power. For help with evaluating powers on a graphing calculator. Tech Support Derek’s Solution: Using a Calculator I entered the expression into my calculator. and subtracted exponents for the final calculation. multiplied exponents for the denominator. I added exponents for the numerator. Evaluate 35 3 322 (323 ) 2 Kayleigh’s Solution: Using Exponent Rules 35 3 322 351 (22) 5 2332 (323 ) 2 3 33 5 26 3 5 332 (26) 5 39 5 19 683 I simplified the numerator and denominator separately.2 Working with Integer Exponents . Then I divided the numerator by the denominator. 3 Sadira’s Solution 2 23 a b 5 3 1 2 3 a b 3 1 5 8 a b 27 27 513 8 27 5 8 Q R 2 3 23 is what you get if you divide 3 1 by Q 2R . B-15. EXAMPLE 5 Selecting a strategy for expressions involving negative exponents .EXAMPLE 4 Representing powers with rational bases as rational numbers Evaluate ( 2 ) 23. I made sure I used parentheses around the entire numerator and denominator so that the calculator would compute those values before dividing. 220 4. see Technical Appendix.

(bm ) n 5 bmn • In simplifying numerical expressions involving powers. it is customary to present the answer with positive exponents. Write each expression as a single power with a positive exponent. a) (210) 8 (210) 28 b) 627 3 65 28 225 1123 d) 115 c) 1 e) (294 ) 21 f ) 3(723 ) 224 22 3. Chapter 4 Exponential Functions 221 . it is customary to present the answer as an integer. Which is the greater power. b0 5 1. a) b) 524 a2 1 23 b 10 c) 1 224 6 5 23 e) f) a 3 21 b 11 d) 2 a b 722 821 2. b2n 5 1 . b 2 0 • A number (or expression). subtract exponents. bm 4 bn 5 bm2n if b20 • To raise a power to a power. where bn b20 • A fractional base raised to a negative exponent is equivalent to the reciprocal of the same base raised to the opposite exponent. • In simplifying algebraic expressions involving powers. a n a a b b where a 2 0. Rewrite each expression as an equivalent expression with a positive exponent. other than 0. or a decimal. CHECK Your Understanding 1. multiply exponents. raised to the power of zero is equal to 1. a fraction. add exponents. bm 3 bn 5 bm1n • When dividing powers with the same base.In Summary Key Ideas • An integer base raised to a negative exponent is equivalent to the reciprocal of the same base raised to the opposite exponent. a 2n a b 5 b 1 b n 5a b . 225 or ( 2 ) 25? Explain. where b 2 0 Need to Know • When multiplying powers with the same base.

(0. write the given numbers in order from least to T greatest. 223 11. and n 5 21. then evaluate each expression. Evaluate each expression for x 5 22. then evaluate each expression. a) 52 (210) 24 b) 1621 (25 ) 1221 (24) 21 (29) 22 d) (321 ) 2 c) c) 2 (5) 23 d) 2 (5) 22 e) f) (821 ) a 223 b 421 (25) 3 (225) 21 (25) 22 9. Simplify.2 Working with Integer Exponents . a) b) 33 (32 ) 21 (9 3 921 ) 22 (1221 ) 3 1223 (53 ) 22 d) 526 c) e) (322 (33 ) ) 22 f ) 97 (93 ) 22 6. Evaluate. Without using your calculator. Explain your thinking. a) 10(104 (1022 ) ) b) 8(82 ) (824 ) 625 (62 ) 22 4210 d) (424 ) 3 c) d) a b e) 28 3 a f ) 1325 225 b 26 132 21 3 a 8b 13 7.1) 21. 522. then evaluate each expression. a) b) (x n 1 y n ) 22n (x 2 ) n ( y22n )x2n xn n b yn x y n 2n d) a b (xy) 2n c) a 222 4. Evaluate. 421. Evaluate. Express answers in rational form. 322. Simplify. Express answers in rational form. A Express answers in rational form. Express answers in rational form.PRACTISING 4. Express answers in rational form. a) b) c) 1621 2 222 (23) 21 1 40 2 621 2 21 2 21 a2 b 1 a b 3 5 1 5 e) 523 f ) 322 1 22 1 a2 b 2 1 1023 2 8(100021 ) 3 2 622 1 (29) 21 2 21 8. Simplify. Express answers in rational form. Express answers in rational form. y 5 3. 1021. K a) b) (24) 23 (24) 22 e) (26) 23 f ) 2 (6) 22 10. a) b) 223 (27 ) (28) 3 (28) 23 54 56 328 d) 26 3 c) e) f) (423 ) 21 (721 ) 2 5.

a) Explain where each student went wrong.01 1 625 1 f ) 12n 5 144 e) 25n 5 17. determine the value of 102y. Simplify. Evaluate using the laws of exponents. 13. Erik. Find the value of each expression for a 5 1. a) 16 x 5 1 16 c) 2 x 5 1 d) 2n 5 0. a) b) c) (x 2 ) 52r (b2m13m ) 4 (bm2n ) (b2m13n ) 4 (bm2n ) d) x 3(72r)x r e) 1 P (a102p ) a b a 1 x m f ) 3(3x4 ) 62m4 a b Chapter 4 Exponential Functions 223 . 18. Determine the exponent that makes each equation true. a) Explain the difference between evaluating (210) 3 and evaluating 1023.25 b) 10x 5 0. Kendra. a) b) c) 23 3 422 4 22 (2 3 3) 21 a 321 22 b 221 d) 421 (42 1 40 ) e) f) 25 321 22 3 3 24 (50 1 52 ) 21 322 321 422 h) 22 3 521 i) 521 g) 3 3 1 1 2 1 223 222 321 223 222 222 14. and c 5 2. shown here. b 5 3. and Vinh are studying. If 102y 5 25. 0. They wish to evaluate 322 3 3. Kendra notices errors in each of her friends’ solutions. b) Create a solution that demonstrates the correct steps. a) ac c b) a cb c C c) (ab) 2c d) (b 4 c) 2a e) f) (2a 4 b) 2c (a21b22 ) c g) (a bb a ) c h) 3(b) 2a4 2c 15. Extending 16. where y .12. b) Explain the difference between evaluating (210) 4 and evaluating 2104.

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