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Elevated Flares

DECLARATION OF THE QUALITY POLICY OF THE COMPANY


The first engagement for THERMOENGINEERING

The main principal which inspires the activity of THERMOENGINEERING is to provide the clients with
solutions, products and services which are coherent to the market maximum standards and in full respect
to all the defined characteristics and the foreseen periods.

In order to assure that our responses are aligned with the quality expectation of the customers,
THERMOENGINEERING has determined a quality management system which intend to incorporate the
quality itself in all processes which represent the base of the activity and the company life: from the
preliminary definition of the specifications up to the delivery of the products, the offered services, and
the supply control.

Throughout the measurements and the monitoring of the processes, it is intended to obtain a continuous
improvement of the own performance, following always a major quality.

Quality, for THERMOENGINEERING, means involving all the management in such a way that all are quite
engaged to reach the un-renounced targets of safety, reliability, and maintainability of the proposed
solutions.

The clients of THERMOENGINEERING will find in the Manual of the Quality Management System of the
company a reference point which, in addition to testifying our concrete involvement for providing the
required quality level through well-defined processes, confirm our target of satisfy the client as well.


Making use of methodologies validated by the market, applying controlled processes, defining formally
the responsibilities, the roles and the necessary skills, THERMOENGINEERING quality could be considered
a guarantee for whoever have the necessity to obtain for himself an advanced combustion system to get
rid of the gas of the hydrocarbons.

The Management
ADVANCED
COMBUSTION
SYSTEMS
since 1979 is a company specialized in the
combustion technology field.
Our company is capable to deliver complete package
consisting of design, fabrication, field installation
and start up of the supplied equipment.
Thermoengineering is basically an engineering
company that is capable to design combustion
systems to meet clients specific requests.
In the design of all our equipment, very special
attention is brought to matters as air pollution,
Nox, noise, safety and energy conservation.
Flares, originally used in the oil and petrochemical
industries, from initial oil and gas exploration,
through transport, storage, refining, processing and
distribution, are also applied in coal gasification
plants, steel production mills, nuclear power
plants, sewage treatment installations, chemical
plants and offshore.
Besides, computerized programs are available to
help our customers in finding out the best solutions
they are looking for, in a very short time.
The performance of our products is the most modern
and technologically advanced you can find today
on the market and our equipment are generally
realized to meet all European and American rules.
The ability to develop, test, demonstrate and prove
burners, flares, boilers and incineration systems
alleviates many customers concerns
regarding new equipment or applications.
A worldwide organization of our agents and
representatives is at our customers disposal for
the quickest and best service or assistance that
might be required.
ADVANCED
COMBUSTION
SYSTEMS
Flare supported by a derrick structure
can be the optimum arrangement for
installations within the confines of
a plant, where higher elevation is
necessary in order to reduce the
effects of radiation.
Limited ground space and clearance
distances from other equipment,
may also require a derrick type of
structure.
The height of this type of flare can
reach 200 meters or higher.
Guy wired support systems are designed for flare
applications having a height up to 150 meters.

This is necessary for large diameter emergency relief
flares, requiring extreme height because of high
radiation levels.
Investment for guy-wired flare systems is generally less
than other types of structural support, however the
installation requires a greater ground space.
has a wide range of advanced Flare Systems products.
Such products could be classified as per the following scheme
The three basic structural support systems are:
Self supporting
Guy wire
Derrick system
This system is applied for flares
with a height less than 50 meters.
The self-supporting flare
is economical and easy to erect,
and requires relatively less
installation space.
Elevated
Flares
Combined
Derrick
Guy Wired
EMERGENCY COMBUSTION SYSTEM
Self-
Supporting
Flare Tip
Flare tips are available in various versions in smokeless and non-smokeless execution.
The following tips are standardized to a large extent.
The Flare Tips main characteristics are :
Realized with high-temperature resistant materials
Equipped with high-efficiency ignition and flame detection devices
Equipped with a special flame retention ring suitable to guarantee the flame stability at very
elevated exit gas velocities (up to 1 mach)
Equipped with a connection flange for an easy substitution.
The flare tips could be classified as per the following scheme :
FLARE TIPS
Smokeless
Functioning
Principals
Kinetically
Effect
Partialization
Effect
Air
Forced
draft
Light gas
Air
Natural
draft
Steam
Water
Suitable for the low
molecular weight
flared gas
Suitable for medium and heavy
molecular weight flared gas using
the system to reduce or avoid
the smoke production
Cooling
Effect
Standard
Forced
draft
By applying this uniquely
designed fare tip, complete
combust i on of hi gh
molecular weight gases,
with a molecular weight
up to 50 is guaranteed
without the use of steam or
additional air.
Maintenance costs are
low due to the special gas
nozzle slot design.
Uti l i ty consumpti on i s
l ow and a smokel ess
combustion is achieved.
The emergency fare tip ranges in sizes from 2 to 72 with smokeless
operation on fared gases with a molecular weight up to 27 Kmoli/Kg.
Under emergency conditions this type of fare tip can handle all kind of
hydrocarbons gases.
Thermoengineering SFT fare tip, even not smokeless type, is equipped
with a special drilled windshield realized from perforated plate to avoid
the fame return, for wind effect, on the external part of shell under
wind direction.
Standard Flare Tip
SFT Type
Smokeless Flare Tip
PFT Type
ADVANCED
COMBUSTION
SYSTEMS
A method to achieve smokeless faring is the injection of steam.
The external steam ring with its injectors promotes the gas and air
mixing at the top of the tip.
For Flare tips with a size of 24 or larger it is recommended to install an
additional internal steam jet.
The central steam jet produces a turbulence and a steam and gas mixing.
This fare tip is designed to handle all kind of hydrocarbons.
lf a fare system has to be located nearby a populated area and
the fare tip should operate under smokeless conditions, this
type of fare tip is strongly indicated.
The tip is executed with an acoustical shield to reduce the noise
production.
This model includes an external and an internal steam delivery
system. The internal steam tips are designed to inject air-steam
mixture into the fare tip improving the smokeless capacity of
the tip, and the saving of steam.
Smokeless Flare Tip
SSFT Type
Smokeless Flare Tip
QSSFT Type
ADVANCED
COMBUSTION
SYSTEMS
When smokeless operation and energy
saving are required, the use of this
type of fare is recommended for the
oxidation of gases which normally need
media as steam, water or high pressure
gas for a smokeless combustion.
With this type of fare tips, smokeless
operation is guaranteed by means of
an external axial fan suitable to deliver,
through coaxial fare stacks, part of the
air necessary to the combustion.
The design of Thermoengineering Flare
Tip, through the shape of its arms,
allows a swirling motion to the fare
gas providing a high velocity mixing
and turbulence with the primary air
generated by fan and the secondary air
from atmosphere.
The new and particular confguration of this type of fare tip
improve the combustion effciency and the smokeless effect with all
hydrocarbon fared gas types in all the particular situations when it is
essential to guarantee a good faring effciency.
The primary combustion air can be addressed to the fare tip through a
concentrical air-gas riser or with a separated risers. The air distributor
gaps are strategically located to allow forced air-gas mixing. The air gas
mixing is very important for the smokeless effect and for combustion
effciency. The important factor, for the tip life, is that the air-gas mixing
point is out of the tip top
Smokeless Flare Tip
PAFT Type
Air Smokeless Flare
The fan is supplied with var i abl e
speed mot or cont r ol s t o
oper at e automatically at the
lowest possible cost.
The low operating costs of this
type of fare are evidenced by
the relative cost of power in
comparison with steam or gas
required by other smokeless
faring systems.
Ignition and continuous pilot system
The pilot burners are available in various executions,
depending on operation and weather conditions,
availability of utilities and composition of gas.

The number of pilot burners is determined by the
diameter of the fare tip.
The molecular or labyrinthic seal is
a static seal and utilizes the density
differential of the purge gas and air to
create a barrier.
Under static conditions this type of seal
does not require purge gas.
ADVANCED
COMBUSTION
SYSTEMS
Labyrintic Seal
The Spiral Venturi Seal is a dynamic seal, where air
penetration is prevented by the exit velocity of the fare
gases.
Due to the spiral construction the velocity pattern inside
the tip is fattened.
To minimize air penetration and back fow into the fare
system the exit velocity of the fare gases is increased over
the spiral venturi seal.
The allowable pressure drop in the system determines the
size of the Spiral Venturi Seal and thereby also the purge
gas consumption.
Spiral Venturi Seal
COMPARISON TABLE FOR SEAL TYPE SELECTION

MOLECULAR SEAL VENTURI SEAL SPIRAL VENTURI SEAL
Equipment Scheme
Purge gas quality
required
Needs a constant
puge gas flow rate
Combustion
efficiency
improvement
Draining line
required
Installation type
Configuration
Usuall construction
materials
Maintenance
Accessories
Fixed-Function of nominal diameter
NO
With normal atmospheric condition.
In case of the strongly wind effect,
we suggest to maintain a constant
purge gas quality in order to
guarantee the oxygen concentration
under 6% in the riser.
NO
YES
Between flare riser and flare tip.
Vessel flanged type.
Carbon steel.
The seal conformation can produces
a retaining of solid and liquid particles.
Necesary a periodical inspection
and cleaning operation.
Platform at handhole level
for maintenance operations.
Fixed-Function of nominal
diameter
YES
The seal configuration,
reduces the purge gas
quantity needed in function
of the seal restriction.
NO
NO
Inside of the tip
Welded
Stainless steel
No maintenance required
NO
Fixed - Function of nominal
diameter.
Due to the diagram of the inside
gas vel oci t y di st r i buct i on
improve the seal functionality.
YES
The seal configuration, reduces
the purge gas quantity needed
in function of the seal restriction.
An additional purge gas quantity
reduction is obtained with the
gas swirling effect inducted by
the seal.
YES
NO
Inside of the tip
Welded
Stainless steel
NO maintenance required.
NO
AR AR AR
FLARE TP FLARE TP FLARE TP
PURE GAS
PURE GAS
PURE GAS
FUNCTONNG WTHOUT SEAL FUNCTONNG WTH VENTUR SEAL FUNCTONNG WTH SPRAL VENTUR SEAL
AR
NFLTRATON
NTERNAL GAS
VELOCTY DAGRAM
NTERNAL GAS
VELOCTY DAGRAM
WND
DRECTON
WND
DRECTON
WND
DRECTON
The objectives of a fare and vent
knock-out drum are :
to separate the liquid from the gas
before it is relieved to the atmosphere
to hold the maximum amount of
liquid which can be relieved during an
emergency situation
The maximum gas relief case not
necessarily coincide with the maximum
liquid relief case.
This means that the size of the knock-
out drum shall be determined by both
the maximum gas relief case as well
as the relief case at which a maximum
amount of liquid is relieved.
Knock-out drum
Generally a knock-out
drum (vertical type) is an
integral part of a fare
system, located at the
base of the fare riser.
The equipment, can be
realized externally (vertical
or horizontal type) as a
separate pressure vessel
connected to the fare and
vent through a pipeline.
VERTCAL KNOCK-OUT DRUM
ORZONTAL KNOCK-OUT DRUM
ADVANCED
COMBUSTION
SYSTEMS
Like the knock-out drum, the liquid seal drum (vertical type) normally is
located at the base of the fare stack.
The equipment, can be realized externally (vertical or horizontal type)
as a separate pressure vessel connected to the fare and vent through
a pipeline.
The purpose of the water seal vessel is:
1) to prevent any fashback, initiated from the vent or fare tip and
propagated further upstream of the water seal vessel;
2) to prevent air ingress due to a sudden temperature change of the
fare and relief system;
3) to maintain a slight overpressure in the fare system to ensure
that air will not enter the system and also, this may be necessary
if a fare gas recovery system is in use.
The design of the water seal vessel normally, shall be based on the
maximum vapor quantity to be released.
The seal vessel shall be equipped with a anti-pulsation device to avoid
the fare intermittent operation.
Where it is possible to foreseen a cold fared gas release, we dont
suggest to install the water seal drum in order to avoid the creation of
the accidental obstruction in the fare relief system.
An usual water seal application is for two parallel fare systems or
combined Ground/ Elevated Flare Systems that use a liquid seal to
supply the fare gases to the Ground Flare up to a selected system
pressure drop.
In case the supply pressure of the fare gas exceeds the water seal level,
the gas will be directed to the elevated fare.
Water seal drum
FLAME FRONT GENERATOR CONTROL PANEL
This panel can be adapted to specific area classification requirements
and is suitable for ignition and control of one or more pilots.
The pilots are ignited through an ignition tube alongside the flare riser.
The tube is filled with a mixture of gas and air, which is spark-ignited
to generate a flame front, that rises through the ignition tube to the
pilot.
The Thermoengineering FFGCP panel can be supplied with automatic
system of ignition and re-ignition of pilots.
ADVANCED
COMBUSTION
SYSTEMS
ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEM
Elevated Flare
ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEM
Incinerator Systems
Ground Flare
Safety Systems
OUR GROUP
is an international group which deals with a wide range of advanced combustion systems
for all the applications needed in the petrochemical field.
On the basis of a turnkey concept, our supply includes the design, engineering, fabrication, and
quality control of the different systems.
Our specialization and constantly improving know-how permits us to satisfy even the most
particular request of our Clients.
Since the foundation of Thermoengineering on 1979 at Milan (Italy), our main philosophy is to
spare no efforts to satisfy Clients requirements and try continuously to achieve the Quality/Cost
magic formula for international market.
Maintaining this policy, Thermoengineering succeed to obtain the absolute confidence of the most
major petrochemical firms all over the world operating in this sector.
Aiming always for high-technology innovations and laboratory researches, we can always guarantee
the utmost degree of efficiency and reliability of our various products. Our organization includes :
main managing functions for the whole group
technical office, technical and engineering services, mechanical and structural calculations
technical and engineering office for our group where all detailed and workshop drawings to be
elaborated.
associated mechanical and steelwork workshop for the fabrication of all the special items of our group.
is the associated electrical and instrumental workshop for the supply, mounting, and assembling of
all the control panels and instrumental skids of Thermoengineering group.
associated company which is strictly specialized on all plants based on biogas concept.
burners and fittings for industrial plants
OUR MAIN PRODUCTS
Having an elevated and vast experience in designing, fabricating, and supplying a wide range of liquid and
gaseous fuel combustion systems worldwide, Thermoengineering products can be classifed as follows:
Elevated Flare Systems
Ground Flare Systems
Incinerators
Burning Pits
Burners & Combustors
Flame Arrestors
Snuffng Systems
Molecular Gas Seals
Water Seals
Knock-Out Drums
Silencers
Coal Gasifcation Units
Venting Systems
Inert Gas Generators
Fuel and utilities supply line systems
Oil pumping and heating units
Indirect Heater
ADVANCED COMBUSTI ON SYSTEM
Vi a Monte Suel l o, 19
20133 MI LANO - I TALY
PHN. +39. 02. 701. 092. 15
FAX +39. 02. 701. 098. 27
e- mai l : thermoeng@thermoeng. i t
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Vi a Monte Suel l o , 19
20133 MI LANO - I TALY
PHN. + 39. 02. 701. 092. 15
FAX + 39. 02. 701. 098. 27
e- mai l : thermoeng@thermoeng. i t
www. thermoeng. i t