PAPERCLAY FOR LARGE SCALE FORMS allows more time for an artist to work

and engage directly. Modelling, carving, changes of mind, surface treatment, and so
forth, may continue at or over the bone-dry stage. Even thin-walled irregular green-ware
paperclay bone dry shapes are easier to handle. The risk of loss to the form pre-fire is
far less because the green strength of a paperclay is nearly double that of usual clay
bodies. Most fractures or accidental damage can be repaired before the first firing no
matter whether the clay is dried out or not. Opportunity to work after the bisque is a
possibility, though the chance of repair success at that stage is somewhat less than it is
over the bone-dry green version. Indeed, if you add enough paper pulp, the final fired
result is also lighter in weight. These benefits give my imagination licence to play. I put
my attention toward what matters in the artwork and the idea itself rather than struggle
with the limitation of traditional clay for projects of large scale. Some visions do not
succeed with a traditional approach or a traditional clay body no matter how much grog,
sand, chamotte or nylon one might be tempted to add instead of paperpulp.
This article win outline ideas that have proven to be the key to the assembly and firing
of large-scale porcelain paperclay sculpture whether it is formed by building up or
carving down. First, I had to be wining to give up a few stubborn habits from using
traditional clay in order to find what worked best and fastest. I wanted alternative
methods to coil building, ways to achieve large thin upright forms in paperclay that
were reliable and consistent with high fire.
With large paperclay pieces, protecting the forms with wet towels or under wraps of
plastic between work sessions hides the structural truth. This habit blinds the sculptor
from learning precisely where and what adjustments will be needed to make. Plus, the
procedure of slow drying so necessary for traditional clay takes more time. Further
ahead, I will explain how the natural shrinkage of paperclay can be the key advantage to
fired success compared with the non-shrink sculpture bodies. Assembly of parts at
leatherhard requires far more time and complication than assembly of the equivalent
parts at bone dry. Most pre-assembled large-scale leatherhard structures are not immune
from movement and warping compared with their equivalents assembled at bone dry.
Better control of movement in the final result and there are more chances to change and
test for secure joins before it is too late.
Paperclay, at bone dry, is water absorbent. Bone-dry work can be dipped in glaze and
still hold its shape long enough for evaporation and uniform glaze adhesion to occur.
Bisque fire used to be the only way to make conventional clay absorb enough water
from the glaze to cause a uniform deposit of glaze on the surface without losing its
shape. Single fire saves time and fuel cost. However, when I do bisque a high-fire
porcelain or stoneware paperclay I take it to cone 04 rather than cone 08. Just that little
difference may save a high pulp thin walled bisque paperclay from accidental crushing
in your hand after fire.
CONSTRUCTIONS WITH POPCELAIN AND FINE GRAINED CLAY.
This article reports results of my experiments to date with both additive (building up
slab construction) and subtractive (that is, carving from a solid chunk) methods with
large scale porcelain and other paperclay sculptures. The first section of this article
explains the results of building about a dozen irregular thickness yet relatively thin
walled (less than 0.2 cm in places) large-scale freestanding work 1.2 m (4 ft) tall from
paper clay pure porcelain slabs with no grog or other refractory added. In addition I
have tested a similar number of works in a ball clay /talc earthenware paperclay.
The second section of this article explains what I learnt about carving down and
modelling large solid chunks of paperclay porcelain at both soft and bone dry states.
Paperclay porcelain combines easily with the light-weight fillers - perlite and
vermiculite - to give an extra textural contrast to the smooth porcelain version. Plus this
perlite paperclay porcelain: (RuffRock) is now a favourite lightweight filler choice to
support thin slabs or weak areas of super smooth paperclay porcelain through to high
fire. For this set of texture work, I was more interested in thickness and compatibility of
Ruff Rock to Pearl bodies at high fire so I have not made made giant works of Ruff
Rock as yet. Perhaps a daring reader will examine giant Ruff Rock in more detail in the
future. New editions of my books about paperclay explain also the sand cast mould and
construction methods I have also been exploring in recent years.
HIGH FIRED PAPEPCLAY SCULPTURE
My early experiments of large-scale tests were high temperature firing of a typical low-
fire earthenware body (Rosetta Stone). I constructed a dozen or more earthenware
figures and fired them kiln by kiln. Each one was single fired. I deliberately overfired
these to cone 4 to 6 even though the ball clay/talc (50/50) casting slip body is rated at
cone 04. Without paper traditional earthenware clay structures without any refractory
such as grog, etc, start to collapse at about cone 1 and by cone 4-6 melt drown to a
useless puddle of nondescript stone-like glass. In contrast, my paperclay version of
earthenware (Rosetta Stone) stands tall. The fired result resembles a white stoneware in
hardness and feel at cone 4. At around cone 6 or so, depending on the thickness of the
walls of the form and the even temperature in the kiln, some figures started to slump or
warp. If my approach might work as well for your work, test an earthenware clay for its
suitability for high fire as a paperclay. Those of you who put red iron in earthenware
will have to bring the temperatures down at least two or three cones because the iron
may have a melting effect at temperatures in this range.
LARGE SCALE HIGH FIRE TRADITIONAL PORCELAIN BASE PAPEPCLAY
After success with the low-fire versions of large shapes, I built another dozen shoulder
height forms in my favourite porcelain for trials by high fire. Again, no grog or any
additive other than the pulp was in my base recipe. I planned to put the forms to the
maximum handling abuse and break as many rules of construction as possible to find
the edge of possibility before collapse. I had been humbled by a kiln load of warped
porcelain paperclay in forms overfired during a residency in Bechyne, Czech Republic,
in 1996. Rather than blame the overfired, I wondered what other information could be
gleaned from this loss. Was it the paper? No. Might the warping under stress have
something to do with my assembly method? Perhaps I wanted to sculpt more than I
wanted to align my intention with the natural properties of clay. Paperclay allows me to
assemble at bone dry by a variety of means.




SPECIALTY MIXTURES OF PAPERCLAYS FOR LARGE PROJECI'S
If you are not sure where to start, adapt my recipes for large-scale freestanding
and wall works given here. Test fire, I cannot be responsible for non-standard
materials, events and results clearly beyond my control. I use recycled paper
but I have indicated volumes of pulp by standard toilet roll to help the student
with a starting point for the volume measure of proportion. Uniform dispersal of
the fibre through the clay mass is the key reason wedging pulp in does not work
correctly

Rosetta Stone - Earthenware High Pulp Paper Clay for Sculpture
Cone 04 to 4 normal (maximum cone 6)
Two (2) medium buckets (use same size buckets to measure this) prepared white
earthenware base (rated cone 04-05) or buckets of standard prepared casting slip rated
for cone 06- 05.
One (1) medium bucket (same size) of wet strained bulk of pulp plus or minus handfuls
and inches. Torn paper from 10- 12 rolls of bargain-priced toilet tissue is equivalent to
about eight bulkier rolls of deluxe brands, but don't try to make this pulp in this same
bucket. Use giant barrels, not for beginners to try. Avoid lumps and clumps.
The above is my high-fire low-fire high-pulp all purpose, any kiln, any time, sculpture
recipe for many years.
Texture before firing: Smooth, putty-like. Takes underglaze, slip, engobe, stains, etc.
Texture bone dry: Absorbs water when dipped. Takes underglaze, slip, engobe, stains,
glaze, etc.
Thin walls soften a little when soaked a while. Slakes down overnight or sooner. Sinter
Fired: Carves off in fine powder.
Texture after fire: Smooth, white, the higher you fire it, the more dense and hard the
fired paperclay body feels to touch after cone 4.
Low-fire texture - Cone 03 to 04.. Too hard to carve by hand but use power tool. Can
treat surface with any and all commercial glazes, opaque or transparent underglazes,
overglazes, etc, and refire if desired. Normal slips, engobes, stains work well. At this
temperature, the result is a soft normal earthenware. Vessel will seep water without a
finish gloss glaze or other sealant.
Mid Range (Cone 4 to 6): Hard as a rock. Resembles white stoneware. Resists water but
may not be 100 per cent watertight. Suitable for outdoors in frost and thaw too, glazed
and not glazed.
Substitutions/Adaptation:
Raku: Good anytime- bisque to 04 or more, until you are experienced in fire. When one
knows the kiln, the fuel, the tools, the tongs, how the shapes heat up, and where best to
place them, bone-dry single firing works. China Paint, Gold, Silver and Metallic Lustre,
Decal Fires: cone 032. Best to apply over already fired gloss glazes in multiple Fires.
Base Clay Options: if you substitute an iron bearing red terracotta blended clay as base
for the earthenware base, it fires red to brown. Stick to the recommended lower
temperatures cone 05-02. A heavy red iron concentration acts as a melting as well as
colouring agent. Test first if you fire red iron-bearing terracotta or maiolica-type
paperclay beyond cone 1.

Porcelain Pearl - High Pulp Paper Clay for Sculpture Cone 8 plus
Two (2) medium buckets of prepared porcelain (cone 10) high-fire casting slip.
1 medium bucket of pulp, plus or minus handfuls. (use paper from 10-12 rolls of
bargain-priced toilet tissue equivalent to eight bulkier rolls of a deluxe brand.)
Thin areas become translucent at cone 8. Dare to fire to cone 10 only if walls are thick
enough and other factors mentioned, indicate the structure is stable and built well.
When mixing batches in the studio, avoid or minimise airborne dust clouds. Start with
buckets of prepared liquid casting or pouring slip rather than bags of dry-blended
powdered clay.
Texture before firing: Smooth, putty-like. Takes underglaze, slip, engobe, stains, etc.
Texture bone dry: Absorbs water when dipped. Thin walls soften a little when soaked
for a while. Slakes down overnight or sooner. Takes underglaze, slip, engobe, stains,
glaze, etc.
Texture after firing: Super smooth.
Sinter fire: Carves like soft soapstone, dense, but still easy to handle.
Biscuit fire: At cone 08 may be quite soft, handle with extreme care. Carves like a dry
cosmetic-grade sponge. At higher bisque, cone 03, it will be possible to carve. Does not
slake down in water.
High Fire (cone 8 to 10): Hard as a rock. If thin walled fire to cone 8 and play it safe.
Serious heavy duty power tools are needed to alter the surface at this stage. It would be
far easier to work surfaces before high fire.
Substitutions/Adaptation:
Base Clay Options: If you substitute stoneware throwing clay as base for the porcelain
– paperclay fires tan to brown. Reduction or oxidation atmospheres.
Raku: Good anytime. Bisque to cone 03 or more first. When one knows the kiln, the fuel,
the tools, the tongs, how the shapes heat up, and just where best to place them, bone-dry
single fire is realistic.
China Paint, Cold, Silver and Metallic Lustre, Decal Fires.. cone 032. Best to apply
over already fired gloss glazes.


Ruff-Rock - Gruff-Rock - Porcelain High Pulp
Cone 8- 10 High Fired Texture Body
Two (2) medium buckets (5 gal. / 10 litre) prepared porcelain (cone 10) high-fire
casting slip
1/2 medium bucket of pulp, plus or minus handfuls. (Torn paper from 10- 12 rolls of
bargain-priced toilet tissue equivalent to eight bulkier rolls of a deluxe brand.)
1/2 medium bucket granular perlite, plus or minus handfuls or scoops as needed. Perlite
is found at gardening suppliers and has a good affinity to high pulp porcelain paper clay
and it fires white. The more perlite you add the more crumbly and non clay-like the
body seems, and is. If a lot of perlite is added, the mass has to be packed tightly until it
sets.. Substitute vermiculite if white at high temperature not important. This is a
variation on Porcelain Pearl with perlite added so it is short and fires light too. I like it
for a lightweight ceramic putty filler and in the interiors behind super thin Porcelain
Pearl slab shells for stablilising vulnerable areas of large scale forms. Carves like frozen
chunky peanut butter.
Texture before firing: Short when moist. Takes underglaze, slip, engobe, stains, glaze,
etc.
Texture bone dry. Absorbs water when dipped or sprayed. Softens, then slakes when
soaked over time.
Takes underglaze, slip, engobe, stains, glaze, etc,
Texture after fire: Surface has openings like a coarse utility sponge, irregular granulated
pock marks, lightweight, strong, if fired to the right temperature. Sinter fire: Carves like
frozen chunky peanut butter.
Biscuit fire. At cone 08 the work may be soft; handle with extreme care. Carves more
like a dry kitchen sponge, At cone 03 it is possible to carve. Takes underglaze, slip,
engobe, stains, glaze, etc.
High Fire (cone 8 to 10): Hard as a rock. Serious power tools needed. Gloss glaze to
resist moisture.
Substitutons/Adaptation:
Base Clay Options: If you substitute stoneware throwing clay as a base for the
porcelain-fires tan to brown.
Raku: Good anytime, Bisque to cone 03 or more first. Mien one knows the kiln, the
fuel, the tools, the tongs, how the shapes heat up, and where best to place them, a bone
dry single fire is fine.
China Paint, Cold, Silver and Metallic Lustre, Decal Fires: fire to cone 032. Best to
apply over already-fired gloss glazes.


Ô¿ 몫» ¼» ´¿ Ý’®¿³·¯«» »¬ ¼« Ê»®®»ô ²• íìô ³¿·ñ¶«·² ïçèé 47
Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»®ô ¿®¬·-¬»
°»·²¬®» ¼» -±² ’¬¿¬ô ª·»²¬ ¼» ³»¬¬®»
¿« °±·²¬ ´» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» øï÷ô «²»
³¿¬·‘®» ¹’²·¿´» °¿® ´¿ ³’¬¸±¼» ¼»
º¿¾®·½¿¬·±² »¬ -«®¬±«¬ °¿® ´»- ¿°°´·½¿ó
¬·±²- ¯«· »² ®’-«´¬»²¬ò Ô¿ ²±«ª»¿«¬’
¼» ½»¬¬» ·²ª»²¬·±² »ºº»½¬«’» °¿® ´K·²ó
¬»®³’¼·¿·®» ¼» ´K¿¬»´·»® ¿²²»¨’ ˜ ´¿
Ó¿²«º¿½¬«®» ¼» Í‘ª®»- ²K¿ °¿- °»®ó
³·- ¼K»² º¿·®» ’¬¿¬ ¼¿²- ´» ¼»®²·»®
²«³’®± ¼» ´¿ 몫» ¯«· ½±²-¿½®¿·¬
°±«®¬¿²¬ °´«-·»«®- °¿¹»- øî÷ ¿«¨
¿½¬·ª·¬’- ¼» ½»¬¬» -¬®«½¬«®» ¼»
®»½¸»®½¸»ò
ÐßÐ×ÛÎ ÐÑÎÝÛÔß×ÒÛ
×ÒÊÛÒÌ×ÑÒ ÜÛ ÖÛßÒóÐ×ÛÎÎÛ Þ•ÎßÒÙÛÎ
Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® ¼¿²- -±² ¿¬»´·»® ˜ п®·-ô
®’¿´·-¿²¬ ´» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²»ò
ï ó Ô» °¿°·»® »² ³¿½’®¿¬·±² ¼¿²- ´K»¿« ´·¾‘®»
´»- º·¾®»- ¼» ½»´´«´±-»ò ÔK»²-»³¾´» ¾®±§’ ¿«
³·¨»«® ¼» ½«·-·²» ½±²-¬·¬«» ´¿ °«´°» ¼»
°¿°·»®ò Í¿²- -±«½· -½®«°«´»«¨ ¼»- °®±°±®ó
¬·±²-ô »´´» »-¬ ³’´¿²¹’» ˜ ´¿ ¾¿®¾±¬·²» ¼» °—¬»
¼«®» ¯«·ô °»²¼¿²¬ ¯«»´¯«»- ¶±«®-ô »²¬®» ¼¿²-
´»- º·¾®»- ¼» ½»´´«´±-»ò ݱ²-»®ª’» ¼¿²- «² ¾¿½
»² °´¿-¬·¯«»ô ½»¬¬» °®’°¿®¿¬·±² -»®¬ ¼» ¾¿-» ˜
´¿ º¿¾®·½¿¬·±² ¼« °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²»ò ß«
³±³»²¬ ¼» ´¿ º¿¾®·½¿¬·±²ô »´´» »-¬ ¼·´«’» »¬
¾®¿--’» »² ª«» ¼» ´¿ ®»²¼®» ¸±³±¹‘²» »¬ ¼»
³»¬¬®» ´»- º·¾®»- »² -«-°»²-·±²ò Ô» º±®³»® ó
½¸—--·- »² ¾±·- -«® ´»¯«»´ -±²¬ ¬»²¼«- ¼»- º·´-
¼» ´¿·¬±² ³¿·²¬»²«- -«® ¼»- °±²¬«-»¿«¨ ±«
¬®¿ª»®-»- ¼» ¾±·- ó ®»“±·¬ «² ½¿¼®» »² ¾±·-ò
î ó Ý» ¼·-°±-·¬·º °×±²¹’ ¼¿²- ´» ¾¿·²ô ±² »²
®»¬·®» «²» ½±«½¸» ¼» º·¾®»- »¬ ´K»¿« -K’½±«´»ò
í ó Ѳ »²´‘ª» ´» ½¿¼®» ¼» ¾±·- ¼« º±®³»®
»¬ ·´ »-¬ °±-’ »² ±¾´·¯«»å ´K»¿« ½±²¬·²«» ˜
-K’¹±«¬¬»® °»²¼¿²¬ ¯«K«² ¼»«¨·‘³» º±®ó
³»® »-¬ ³·- »² ¶»« °±«® ®»½±³³»²½»®
´K±°’®¿¬·±²ò Ѳ ½±«ª®» ´¿º»«·´´» ¿ª»½ «²
¼»«¨·‘³» ®»½¬¿²¹´» ¼» º»«¬®»ò ÔK±°’®¿¬·±²
»-¬ ®’°’¬’» °±«® ¬±«¬»- ´»- º»«·´´»- ¯«· -»
-«½½‘¼»²¬ò Í· ´» ¾¿·² ³¿²¯«» ¼» ½¸¿®¹»ô
±² ¿¶±«¬» ¼« ³’´¿²¹» °«´°» ¾¿®¾±¬·²»ò
ì ó л« ¿°®‘-ô ±² °®±½‘¼» ¿« ½±«½¸¿¹» ¼»
´¿ °®»³·‘®» º»«·´´» º±®³’»ô »² ¼’°±-¿²¬ô
¿°®‘- «²» ´’¹‘®» °®»--·±² -«® ´»- °±²¬«ó
-»¿«¨ô ´» º±®³»® -«® «² ®»½¬¿²¹´» ¼»
º»«¬®»ò Ô¿ º»«·´´» -» ¼’¬¿½¸» »¬ ®»-¬» -«® ´»
º»«¬®»ò
ë ó Ô±®-¯«» ´» ²±³¾®» ¼» º»«·´´»- »-¬ -«ºó
º·-¿²¬ô ±² °´¿½» ´K»²-»³¾´» -±«- ´¿ °®»--»ô
±² »¨°«´-» ´K»¿« °¿® °®»--¿¹»ò
ê ó Ѳ »²´‘ª» ´» °®»³·»® º»«¬®» »¬ ±²
¬®¿²-°±®¬» ´¿ °®»³·‘®» º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»®
°±®½»´¿·²» »² ¹¿®¼¿²¬ ´» ¼»«¨·‘³» º»«¬®»
½±³³» -«°°±®¬ò
é ó Ô¿ º»«·´´» »-¬ ®»¬±«®²’» ½±²¬®» «²»
°´¿²½¸» ¼» ¾±·- -«® ´» ½¸»ª¿´»¬ò
è ó Ѳ ´·¾‘®» ´¿ º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»® °±®½»ó
´¿·²» ¿ª»½ «²» °±·²¬» ¼» ½¿²·ºò Ѳ ¬®¿²-ó
°±®¬» ½»¬¬» º»«·´´» ¿ª»½ «² ±«¬·´ »² Ì »¬ ±²
´¿ ¼’°±-» -«® «²» °´¿¯«» ¼» °´—¬®»ò
ç óߪ»½ «² °·²½»¿« ½¸·²±·-ô ±² ¿°°´·¯«»
´¿ º»«·´´» ¼» º¿“±² ˜ ½» ¯«K»´´» -±·¬ ¾·»²
´·--» °±«® -’½¸»®ò Ô¿ º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»®
°±®½»´¿·²» »-¬ ¿´±®- ¬»®³·²’»ò
ïð ó Ô¿ º»«·´´» -‘½¸» °»«¬ -» ®’¸«³·¼·º·»®
»¬ ¹¿®¼» -¿ -±«°´»--» »¬ -±² ·²¬’¹®·¬’ò
ïï ó Ì®¿²-´«½·¼·¬’ ¼K«²» º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»®
°±®½»´¿·²»ò
48 Ô¿ 몫» ¼» ´¿ Ý’®¿³·¯«» »¬ ¼« Ê»®®»ô ²• íìô ³¿·ñ¶«·² ïçèé
Comment, sur ce sujet si souvent
abord’ du papier c’ramique, Jean-
Pierre B’ranger a-t-il pos’ le probl‘me
exp’rimental avec la porcelaine de
S‘vres ? Comment l`a-t-il r’solu et
quelles possibilit’s ce mat’riau Iantas-
tique permet-il d`esp’rer au regard de
la porcelaine traditionnelle?
˲ °®±¾´‘³» ¼» ®»½¸»®½¸»
D‘s ses premiers contacts avec la
p—te ˜ porcelaine de S‘vres, Jean-
Pierre B’ranger Iut Irapp’ par sa trans-
lucidit’. Il a toute de suite ressenti
qu`elle n`est pas exploit’e comme elle
le m’rite. Soucieux de connaŒtre
d`abord l`utilisation traditionnelle du
mat’riau, il a r’alis’ des lunettes en
p—te dure, substance choisie pour les
diIIicult’s de son comportement (2). Il
a ensuite d’cid’ de cerner les propri’-
t’s limites de cette mati‘re, les ph’no-
m‘nes de retrait, la d’Iormation ˜ la
pression, la Iragilit’ ˜ la cuisson. Cette
recherche exigeait des calculs rigou-
reux, une minutie exceptionnelle.
Mais comment, dans une appr’hen-
sion traditionnelle de la p—te dure, l`ar-
tiste a-t-il ’t’ conduit sur la voie de la
recherche du papier porcelaine ?
Depuis plusieurs ann’es Jean-Pierre
B’ranger s`int’resse au papier (2). Il a
constat’ que les Iibres cellulosiques et
la barbotine de porcelaine ont des pro-
pri’t’s similaires : en s’chant, elles se
r’tractent et, Iait encore plus remar-
quable, elles se r’tractent dans des pro-
portions proches. Jean-Pierre B’ranger
s`est alors demand’ selon quelle tech-
nique il pourrait joindre les deux sub-
stances et il a consid’r’ les r’cents tra-
vaux ˜ S‘vres d`une c’ramiste cor’en-
ne. Ils consistaient en d’p‡t de barboti-
ne sur du papier. Des diII’rences de
retrait, il r’sultait une Ieuille courbe,
sans tenue et par ailleurs, souill’e de
restes de papier.
Jean-Pierre B’ranger s`est imm’dia-
tement interrog’ sur les moyens d`ob-
tenir une Ieuille plate. AIin d`exp’ri-
menter dans des conditions applicables
˜ toutes les p—tes de porcelaine, il a
choisi de travailler sur la p—te dure de
S‘vres, la plus turbulente, aIin de pou-
voir, d`une certaine mani‘re, descendre
dans l`ordre des diIIicult’s et revenir
vers des p—tes plus dociles (2).
Plusieurs ’tapes, chacune analys’e,
Iurent n’cessaires pour atteindre le
r’sultat : le d’p‡t de barbotine sur du
papier ordinaire, c`est-˜-dire constitu’
Ô¿ 몫» ¼» ´¿ Ý’®¿³·¯«» »¬ ¼« Ê»®®»ô ²• íìô ³¿·ñ¶«·² ïçèé 49
de Iibres de cellulose encoll’es, s`est
encore sold’ par une Ieuille de porce-
laine tach’e; dans un deuxi‘me temps,
le trempage du papier sans colle dans
la barbotine, ˜ la cuisson, a donn’ deux
’paisseurs de porcelaine, c`est-˜-dire
une structure Ieuillet’e; en eIIet, le
papier plac’ en sandwich, en disparais-
sant ˜ haute temp’rature, laisse un
vide. A partir de l˜, Jean-Pierre
B’ranger a eu l`id’e de m’langer inti-
mement les deux mati‘res de base : les
Iibres cellulosiques du papier et la bar-
botine. Le r’sultat est saisissant : il
obtient une Ieuille de papier porcelaine
dont les propri’t’s d’passent ses esp’-
rances.
Ü»- °®±°®·’¬’- ’¬±²²¿²¬»-
Le papier porcelaine se pr’sente
sous Iorme de Ieuilles dont la minceur
’gale ˜ celle du papier surprend en
comparaison de celle obtenue par une
Iabrication traditionnelle. Cru, le
papier porcelaine est aussi souple que
le papier ; on peu l`enrouler, le plier, le
d’couper, le perIorer, le colorer. Apr‘s
humidiIication, il n`exige aucune pr’-
caution particuli‘re de manipulation;
on peut l`imprimer aux oxydes, l`es-
tamper et obtenir alors Iacilement des
Iormes impossibles ˜ imaginer avec la
porcelaine traditionnelle. Cuit, le
papier porcelaine garde une certaine
souplesse et Ilotte sur l`eau malgr’ la
porosit’ comparable ˜ celle du papier
buvard. Elle se justiIie par les lacunes
qui r’sultent de la disparition des Iibres
de cellulose au cours de la cuisson. La
porosit’ peut •tre supprim’e par une
charge de barbotine en surIace. Le
papier porcelaine restitue la trame
habituelle du papier et le grain d’pend
de celui des Iibres cellulosiques utili-
s’es comme base. Notons que tout
papier consum’ laisse des cendres. Ici,
aucune trace color’e provenant de sels
min’raux n`apparaŒt. A la blancheur
’clatante de la porcelaine s`ajoute une
translucidit’ remarquable jusque-l˜
in’gal’e dans la porcelaine. Elle tient ˜
la Iois de la minceur et de la structure
lacunaire et produit des contrastes
d`ombre et de lumi‘re dont l`exploita-
tion esth’tique n`est qu`˜ peine entre-
vue.
л®-°»½¬·ª»- »¬ °¿®¿¼±¨»
Mais quelles perspectives d`utilisa-
tions exceptionnelles peut-on envisa-
ger avec ce mat’riau? Jean-Pierre
B’ranger propose d’j˜ plusieurs direc-
tions. Tous les aspects du pliage et du
d’coupage peuvent •tre r’alis’s sans
aucun probl‘me. Sp’cialiste en ce
domaine (3) Jean-Pierre B’ranger met
au point toutes sortes de constructions
g’om’triques en relation avec les pro-
pri’t’s du papier porcelaine. Il propose
d’j˜ des abat-jour et des tasses dont la
d’licatesse de Iorme et de minceur est
sans commune mesure avec ce qui a pu
•tre Iabriqu’ jusque-l˜. La souplesse
des lignes, le naturel du grain, l`inci-
dence de la lumi‘re sugg‘rent une nou-
velle noblesse pour la porcelaine. Par
ailleurs, la coloration du m’lange
pulpe barbotine permet des eIIets poly-
chromes. Une autre utilisation consiste
˜ Iormer des tubes ˜ partir de Ieuilles.
Ces pailles ’tonnamment dures peu-
vent constituer des supports ˜ la Iois
l’gers et r’sistants, servir de mat’riel
d`enIournement, de ligatures. Le
papier porcelaine peut encore consti-
tuer des Iiltres pour substances port’es
˜ haute temp’rature. Paradoxe du
papier porcelaine : contrairement ˜ la
porcelaine traditionnelle, sa maniabili-
t’ est d`autant plus grande que la
Ieuille est mince.
Un champ de perspectives s`ouvre,
dont on ne peut pr’voir ni l`’tendue, ni
les sp’culations, aussi bien dans le
domaine des arts plastiques que dans
celui de l`industrie.
Devant la simplicit’ du proc’d’ de
Iabrication du papier porcelaine on
peut s`’tonner qu`un pays comme le
Japon particuli‘rement sensible aux
deux mat’riaux de base, ne les ait
jamais r’unis dans un m•me processus
de Iabrication. Les amateurs de c’ra-
mique doivent ˜ la perspicacit’ de
Jean-Pierre B’ranger l`oIIrande d`une
mati‘re belle, simple, claire dont le
pouvoir luminiI‘re renvoie au symbo-
lisme alchimique.
Ú®¿²“±·-» Û-°¿¹²»¬
(1) Jean-Pierre B’ranger tient ˜ employer le
nom de papier porcelaine pour d’signer sa
nouvelle mati‘re. En terme de papetiers, le
papier porcelaine correspond ˜ ce que le
public connaŒt sous le nom de carte ˜ grat-
ter ; il s`agit d`un carton recouvert d`une
couche de kaolin sur laquelle on passe une
pellicule d`encre de Chine. Avec une poin-
te, on gratte : la pellicule s`en va et une gra-
vure apparaŒt en blanc sur l`encre de Chine.
(2) La Revue, n• 33, p. 16 ˜ 25.
(3) J. -P. B’ranger donne un enseignement
sur le pliage et au Japon il s`est inIorm’ sur
l`origamie ou art du pliage.

Home | Articles | CT Update | Gallery | Contact | Search
Links A-Z
Antiques & Collectibles
Architectural Ceramics
Artists & Potters
Ceramics in the USA
Ceramic Societies
Ceramics & Women
Ceramic Supplies
Commercial Sites
Competitions
Educational Institutions
Events Calendar
Galleries
Glass Arts
Paperclay
Glaze Software
Health and Safety
History & Archaeology
Industrial Ceramics
Kilns & Firing
Magazines
Museums
Porcelain
Potteries
Raku
Repair & Restoration
Sculpture
Styles
Techniques
Teapots
Technical Info
Theory & Criticism
Tiles
Tuition & Workshops
Virtual Ceramics
Wedgwood
West Coast Funk
Woodfiring
Articles
An Investigation into the
Properties of Porcelain
Paperclay
by Gaye Stevens
Originally published in Ceramics Technical. Reprinted by permission.

In July, 2000, I began a research project with the
assistance of a Faculty Research Grant from The College
of Fine Arts,University of New South Wales to investigate
the properties and potential of porcelain paperclay.
My studio work is concerned with the vulnerability of being
human, with the dynamics of how we interact as a
community and the consequent processes of acceptance
and rejection. Hence, the juxtaposition of light and shadow
has held significance for me as a metaphor for inclusion
and exclusion. I have been searching for a medium that
will convey fragility and vulnerability but one that also has
a degree of permanence. In early 2000 I had read an
article by Steve Harrison ‘The making of paperclay
porcelain banners’ (Pottery in Australia 37/2 1998 p68-69).
In this article, Harrison describes how he makes paper-
thin porcelain banners of translucency that can be
imprinted with "tools fingers and objects".

It seemed that this medium had potential for the type of
sculpture I wanted to produce. My aims were twofold.

Página 1 de 5 Ceramics Today - Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens
23/02/2007 http://www.ceramicstoday.com/articles/porcelain_paperclay.htm
Firstly, I wanted to find a way of imprinting thin sheets of
this body with a photographic image to produce a
watermarked effect. That is, I wanted to find a way
(without using any ink), of pressing a photographic image
into the clay body, using some appropriate kind of intaglio
printing plate, in order to yield a heavily embossed image
which when backlit, would produce a photographic
watermark. Secondly, I wanted to explore the potential of
this body for producing 3D forms that would lend
themselves to illumination.
My starting point was his recipe for porcelain paperclay :
l Clay Ceram 50 %
l Nepheline Syenite 50%
Add
l Ceramic fibre (1000˚C) 8 %
l Fine paper pulp 17 %
l Water 30%
The clay body is fired to cone 8 in an electric kiln.
The ceramic fibre helps to stabilize the body after the
paper pulp has burnt out at 250ºC and stops the thin
sheets from cracking "along the stress lines created by the
decoration".
The initial process of familiarizing myself with porcelain
paperclay body proved to be not as straightforward as I
anticipated. The result of my first batch was coarse
textured and short, totally inappropriate for holding the
imprint of a recognizable photographic image.
To produce a finer
textured body I
used shredded
ceramic fibre (rather
than ceramic
blanket which I had
used initially, that
had to be
laboriously torn into
tiny pieces) and
mixed it with a
heavy-duty blunger in about four liters of water, until
satisfied with its homogeneous consistency. I mixed the
paper pulp in a similar way and with about the same
amount of water, but I used boiling water this time, to help
break down the fibres. The ceramic fibre and paper pulp
were then thoroughly mixed with the blunger and the other
dry ingredients were added.
The extra water in the mix, which allowed for easier
blending, was removed by heaping the clay on a plastic
tarpaulin and allowing the clear water to run off over a few
days. The resultant body was sticky. I found the easiest
way to work with it was to roll it into slabs between sheets
of heavy-duty plastic.
Photographic Imprints
Página 2 de 5 Ceramics Today - Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens
23/02/2007 http://www.ceramicstoday.com/articles/porcelain_paperclay.htm
Initial trials of imprinting the porcelain body with ceramic
stamps were effective. The clay held the imprint crisply
and I was encouraged to think that a photographic image
would be possible if the right type of ‘stamp’ (plate) could
be found. I had used solar etching plates to produce
photographic etchings in printmaking and thought it might
be possible to use such a plate to imprint the clay.
Unfortunately, the solar plate was unsuitable for this
process because the light sensitive emulsion on the plate
was unable to maintain the sustained contact with the clay
body necessary to imprint it. The emulsion absorbed
moisture from the clay body, expanded and separated
from the backing plate. The resilience of the high cellulose
content in the body also prevented it from being able to
hold the fine imprint to any degree that would produce an
effective image.
In a photographic exhibition of work by Jenny Pollack and
Louis Vidal, entitled ‘Passages’, (Customs House Sydney,
November 2000) I saw embossed photocopies of
photographs that had been produced to make a tactile,
readable surface for people with impaired vision. These
photocopies are produced with a special heat-sensitive
paper which when passed through a PIAF machine reacts
to raise the areas printed with ink to give a kind of Braille
photocopy. With the help of Michael Keighery at the
University of Western Sydney, Milperra, I was able to
produce a photographic 3D image. By using a printing
press, I imprinted this image into a standard clay body and
the imprint was sharp and readable. When I repeated the
process with the porcelain paperclay the resilience of the
cellulose once again reduced the clarity of the image. I
discovered that by allowing the paperclay mix to age (at
least one month), this resilience was reduced and the
readability of the image improved, but the results read
more as a silhouette than a photographic image.
An article in Ceramic Review May/June 2001 presented
research by Helen Smith at the University of the West of
England on the potential of using flexography to emboss
paperclay with a photographic image.
Further inquires within the printing industry led me to a du
Pont product named Cyrel®. This proved to be just what I
was searching for. Cyrel® is a flexible vinyl plate of
approximately 10 mm thickness to which a photographic
image can be transferred by placing a photographic
transparency on the plate and exposing it to intense UV
light. The process duplicates even the minutest detail and
the resulting stamp-like plate will effectively imprint the
porcelain paperclay.
I roll the clay to a similar thickness to the Cyrel plate,
spray the top of the slab with a fine mist of water and
smooth the surface with a plastic ruler. I then leave it to a
dry leatherhard state and use a rolling pin to imprint the
clay with the plate. By drying the imprinted slab slowly
over a few days I avoid any warping. The slab is then fired
slowly on a flat even bed of white silica sand in an electric
kiln to cone 8.
Página 3 de 5 Ceramics Today - Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens
23/02/2007 http://www.ceramicstoday.com/articles/porcelain_paperclay.htm

The fired porcelain paperclay is porous and fragile. As
Steve Harrison suggests, it can be painted with acrylic
medium to give it strength and flexibility and the medium
gives the surface an almost imperceptible luster. Early
results have been most encouraging, to my mind opening
up enormous possibilities for future development.
3D Forms
In my initial attempts to produce three-dimensional forms,
I experimented with various construction and firing
techniques and although the paperclay was effective at
the construction stage, immense care had to be taken
during drying to avoid warping. I found the most effective
construction technique was to work with leather hard or
even totally dry slabs that had been cut to the desired
shape with a sharp blade and to join them with a slightly
drier than normal paper porcelain slip. It was also possible
to roll partially dried slabs into cylindrical forms. However,
during firing, even with meticulously built supports, the
forms warped slightly and although in some cases this
was acceptable, it was too ‘organic’ for the type of form I
wished to produce at this point.
For my purposes, I overcame this weakness by
constructing the forms after firing. In the first instance
where I wanted to convey a sense of precariousness and
tension, and the fragility of sanctuary, I layered the sheets
to create the 3D form. In another piece that addresses the
effort that must go into the construction of sanctuary, I
perforated the edges of the sheets and sewed them
together. The results have been rewarding, to my mind
embodying all the fragility and vulnerability I had hoped to
convey.
Porcelain paperclay while challenging traditional methods
of production, has presented possibilities for my studio
practice. The edges possible with this body, its
translucency and affinity for light, and its seeming fragility
are qualities I intend to investigate further.
Because of the health hazards associated with ceramic
fibre and dry paper pulp, it is essential to use a facemask
and gloves while mixing this body. Mix the clay in an area
with sufficient ventilation and when touching the ceramic
fibre, cover as much of your body as possible with
protective clothing.
At the time of writing, Gaye Stevens was a M Des(Hons) candidate at the
College of Fine Arts, University of New South Wales, Australia. Supervisor:
Jacqueline Clayton.
Página 4 de 5 Ceramics Today - Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens
23/02/2007 http://www.ceramicstoday.com/articles/porcelain_paperclay.htm
Related Links:
How to make Paperclay
More on Paperclay - article by Graham Hay
Paperclay - Links
More Articles
© Ceramics Today
Página 5 de 5 Ceramics Today - Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens
23/02/2007 http://www.ceramicstoday.com/articles/porcelain_paperclay.htm
Reproduced with kind permission by the author Debra Ellery. The articule appeared in a slightly
different form in Pottery in Australia, 1995, (34), 1, 20-21

More articles on paperclay click here.
PROFILE: SOLD ON PAPERCLAY

A look at the recent work of Graham Hay from Western
Australia By DEBRA ELLERY
Paperclay is an adaptive and innovative medium for
the crafts practitioner who is willing to expand
boundaries. It was this versatility as a medium which
attracted Graham Hay initially and he uses it to full
advantage in his work. His purpose is to
communicate and comment upon social issues in a
way that aims to be intellectually and aesthetically
stimulating. Hay's interest in paperclay was
established initially from contact with ceramic
technologist Mike Kusnik during studies at Edith
Cowan University.
Paperclay is particularly useful as a medium
because paper is a constant companion in the
creation and maintenance of organisations and
institutions. Hay's contact with business,
government, education and art establishments have
formed the basis for analysis and comment on the
position of institutions and organisations within the structure of society.
Architectural elements are frequently used by Hay as metaphors for institutions and their
processes. The bell tower which is often found in classical architecture is used in the work
titled "Ancient Tribe". A classic element from a traditional aesthetic is interpreted with
almost whimsical instability. The point Hay is emphasising is that a building is not the actual
institution and it's never as completely rigid as it appears. "Buildings are not the actual
institution and it's never as completely rigid as it appears. "Buildings are not the
organisations, the people are, and they regularly change."

Within our social structure we are frequently defined by the roles
and responsibilies we perform. "Rim to the Centre" comments on
people as individuals, and as a collective, making contact with the
centre. "There is a block on the rim and a block on the tower. I was
making an analogy between the centre, which is a very hierarchical
organisational base, and then the rim outside it. The rim is like
people around us, in some ways they hold us together. It's quite a
fragile structure with tension between those outside and those
within it." This particular work was a major breakthrough for Hay in building open structures,
they are a reference to the individual or groups of people."

A desire to make a structure which had hollow interior
space visible through the external walls culminated in the
work titled "Blooming Bureaucracy". At its base it
resembles classical architecture, a metaphor for
Página 1 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/Ellery1995.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/Ellery1995.html
organisation. This structure grows upwards and inwards
leading to an apex where a lone flower blooms. This single blossom is indicative of the
vulnerability of the top position.
Tongues are a provocative metaphor which Hay uses to issue a challenge to "ivory tower"
institutions and organisations. "Argument" is based on an ivory hunting horn. The "ivory
tower" connotes untouchable institutions remote from the real problems of everyday life.
The bright red tongues which scar the outside form indicate a challenge to the language
and words spoken in these institutions.
One of the great advantages of paperclay as Hay sees it, is it allows him to work
spontaneously, or alternatively, gives him the option of leaving work for extended periods of
time, both equally effectively. In the working process Hay employs a variety of techniques.
"Ancient Tribe" was built entirely horizontally, only when it was dry enough, it was turned
upright and supported with bricks. A corrugated mould has been used in some areas of the
structure along with string multi dipped in paperclay and shapes cut from paperclay slabs.
In both "Rim to the Edge" and "Blooming Bureaucracy" he used a pottery wheel and a
scalpel to cut rings of paperclay from slip cast slabs. He further cut and joined these using
paperclay in a squeeze bottle which was diluted to a ration of 1:5. To create the ivory
hunting horn form in "Argument" Hay used a cast slab which was rolled and the surface
scoured with a wire brush. Holes were dug out with a knife to hold the string dipped in
paperclay which forms the tongues.
In discussing his firing schedule Hay emphasises that work can be fired and cooled very
rapidly in the kiln. Delicate work requires rapid firing. If firing thin slabs Hay fires at 250C
per hour to 200C, then 350C to 1100C with a soak of 30 minutes, then he cools the kiln
rapidly. He uses an earthenware slip for his paperclay base.

The influence of place and time is often shown in an unconscious way.
Hay grew up in the South Island of New Zealand and the influence of
place and culture are evident to me in many of his structures. A
resemblance to the traditional Maori food storage structure is evident in
"Ancient Tribe". Traditionally this was a small structure built high on stilts
supports to keep food safe from predators. "Blooming Bureaucracy" could
be based on the parliament buildings in Wellington, nicknamed "The
beehive". The use of the tongue as a challenge is a significant part of the
Maori challenge once known as the "haka". Hay uses the tongue as a
challenge in several of his works.
Hay is a committed professional who throws all of his energy into creating. He willing
expounds the virtues of paperclay to all who will listen. I believe as this medium becomes
more familiar and widely used, many clay practitioners will follow suit.
GRAHAM HAY'S RECIPE
1 Shredded paper soaked in plenty of hot water, blended until pulped.
2 Remove excess water with sieve and sponge.
3 Mix 1/3 pulp with 2/3 clay slip by volume.
4 Pour the porridge-like mixture onto a plaster slab.
5 Keep some paperclay slip aside in a plastic squeeze bottle for use as "glue".
6 Break or cut dry paperclay slabs into desired shapes before building. Stick together
with "glue".
7 Recycle dry scraps by placing them in warm water, leaving for one hour, pour off
Página 2 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/Ellery1995.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/Ellery1995.html
excess water.
8 A few drops of detergent helps prevent the porridge from going off.
9 When working and building with dry clay, a filter mask should be worn.

IMAGES:
Ancient Tribe (1994), Porcelain Paperclay, 55 x 22 x 19 cm.
From Rim to Centre (1994), Earthenware Paperclay, 14 x 14 x 14 cm.
Blooming Bureaucracy (1994), Earthenware Paperclay with plaster base, 59 x 46 x 46 cm.
Argument (1994), Earthenware Paperclay, 45 x 10 x 11 cm .
All photographs by Victor France.
Reproduced with kind permission by the author Debra Ellery. The articule appeared in a slightly
different form in Pottery in Australia, 1995, (34), 1, 20-21

More articles on paperclay click here.
Página 3 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/Ellery1995.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/Ellery1995.html
Reproduced from Farrow, C., (1987) Paper/Clay, Artists Newsletter, United Kingdom, April, p.20-1,
from a copy provided by and with the written permission of the Author.
Paper/Clay
by Carol Farrow
A frequent question during the
one-year Fellow in
Paperworks residency at
Oxford Polytechnic last year
was "What started you making
paper?" My reply "Through
ceramics" often caused
surprise and because I've had
many enquiries about how and
why I use paper, I've written
an article, which perhaps, will
encourage more to try these
techniques.
Although the majority of my
current work is now in
handmade paper, this is
because of a lack of
appropriate firing facilities in
my studio rather than a lack of
desire to use this technique
which I developed whilst
studying ceramics on a post
graduate course at Goldsmiths
College. I would like to take
this opportunity to thank the
Ceramics Department of
Goldsmiths for their bemused
patience in seeing me through
that period of study with the
minimum of fuss even though
they often witnessed books
being packed into their
precious new kilns instead of
pots!
At Goldsmiths, I developed my
own methods of firing paper
and, subsequently, a mixture
of paper pulp and clay which
enabled me to make and
transport very large thin
sheets of clay.
Transient Qualities
This evolved from experiments
Página 1 de 6
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/farrow1987.html
involving the firing of various
materials other than clay. One
of the materials was paper. I
found that paper containing a
high percentage of china clay
(magazine or glossy paper)
when fired to high
temperatures (1300
o
C), was
transformed to an extremely
fragile ceramic material taking
on interesting visual and
physical properties. I used
paper in the form of books or
magazine stacks, usually
bound with stainless steel
wire to restrain them from
'opening up' during firing, or
enclosed in saggars or under
the weight of kiln furniture.
This transformation of 'books'
was not only departing totally
from the utilitarian aspect of
ceramics but pushing the
limits of non-functional
ceramics, the resulting pieces
being so fragile as to make
handling from kiln to bench
traumatic. However, this
fragility appealed to me, then,
corresponding in my mind to
my preoccupation with the
transient qualities of much of
today's written matter. It gave
more importance to the look
and feel of a 'book' than to its
content.
The book had become an
object with purely visual and
tactile qualities and the
reading (handling) of it altered
and eventually destroyed it.
How often do we read or re-
read books on our shelves?
How much are they just
symbols, momentos, a visual
catalogue of past
experiences? The element of
change brought about by heat
to these books gave them
another albeit short life, their
own substance taking over
from the printed word. The
finished pieces are not, as
Página 2 de 6
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/farrow1987.html
some critics have suggested,
formed in the kiln purely by
chance, but are completely
controlled by the firing
techniques and the
knowledge of how different
papers react at various
temperatures. It is not the
element of chance but that of
change which is integral to
each piece.
Clay & Pulp
As my work progressed, I ran
out of 'books' to fire and
turned to making my own
paper, giving me another
aspect of control over my
basic materials. I tried
beating/pulping various
papers using a glaze mixer,
and forming them into sheets
in the traditional papermaking
fashion and then began to
add clay slips to the pulp
before forming.
I quickly abandoned the idea
of sheet forming in the
traditional way and opted for a
more direct method. I pulped
ordinary (non china clay)
paper or cotton linters until it
was fibrillated then mixed it
well with a clay slurry
(ordinary clay broken down
well in water), draining off the
excess water. I then spread
this mixture which had the
consistency of soft butter onto
a surface to dry. I often used
a plaster surface which aided
drying, or cast the mix directly
onto a paper or card surface. I
tested different proportions of
pulp to clay and will mention
this briefly later.
I also tried draining the pulped
paper and mixing it with
casting slip then casting in the
normal way to give a lighter
more translucent cast but I did


Book, paper/clay mix cast onto card fired to
1300
o
C, coloured with oxides.

Página 3 de 6
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/farrow1987.html
not develop this.
I filled large moulds with the
clay/pulp mix and did not
drain them. In this way, solid
casts could be made and fired
which, after firing, were
relatively porous and light.
None of these solid casts
broke in firing but I slowed
down the firing cycle slightly
and the cooling as a
precaution. With the solid
casts a mixture of 75% pulp to
25% clay gave a pitted
surface and was very light
weight. These surfaces were
very receptive to sawdust
firing techniques.
Ceramic Sheets
Using a similar 50/50 mixture,
I found that I could make very
large, thin, flat sheets of
paper/clay which in the green
state had the fibrous strength
of paper and after firing
produced light ceramic
sheets. It was this method
that I used to the greatest
extent in my own work,
casting various surfaces up to
five feet high. I am sure that
to make, transport and fire
such large sheets of clay in
studio conditions without the
fibre content would have been
extremely difficulty. All of
these paper/clay pieces were
fired to the maximum kiln
temperatures in electric or
gas kilns. I would have liked
to have made tests at higher
temperatures but did not have
access to higher firing kilns.
The finished pieces were
fragile but I believe that any
thin sheets of ceramic up to
five feet high would have
been hazardous to transport.
For the purposes of solid
casting, other additives, such


This story has no end, paper fired to 1300
o
C,
transparent raku glaze, rakud, sawdust fired
pulp/casting slip base.
Página 4 de 6
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/farrow1987.html
as sawdust, worked equally
as well. The real advantage in
the addition of pulp to the clay
was to give fibrous strength in
the forming of large sheets. I
also enjoyed the paper-like
qualities of the fired mixture
and the porosity after high
firing. Another advantage in
adding pulp to the clay was in
cutting the cost of the clay.
Mixture
75% pulp to 25% clay slurry
was the lightest and most
porous/fragile mix.
50% pulp to 50% clay slurry
was less porous but stronger
for larger pieces.
25% pulp to 75% clay slurry
was stronger, heavier but still
a little porous.
Clays that I preferred were
grogged (T Material), or
casting slip (Harrison and
Mayer), but fired higher than
the normal firing range.
Firing
The firing procedure for the
very large slabs was as
follows. The largest kiln was
5' high by 3' wide and deep.
Ideally they should have been
fired flat on a bed of alumina,
but as they had to be fired
standing, I tried several
methods. The most
successful was to build a
staggered support wall of kiln
bricks inside the kiln. The
pieces of paper/clay were
stood upright against the kiln
bricks. If several pieces were
being fired together, a thin
layer of ceramic fibre was
placed between each piece.
Finally an enclosing support
wall of kiln bricks was
constructed. Both walls were
built leaving gaps for heat to
circulate. The firing cycle was


Kiln brick support wall in 5' high kiln.
Página 5 de 6
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/farrow1987.html
Reproduced from Carol Farrow, (1987) Paper/Clay, Artists Newsletter, United Kingdom, April, p.20-1,
from a copy provided by and with the written permission of the Author.
Read more journal articles here
normal to 1300
o
C except that
at about 250
o
C smoke was
given off from the pulp. This
lasts for 10-15 minutes
depending on the quantity
being fired therefore an
extraction system is
advisable. I did not find the
smoke detrimental to the kiln
in any way or to other 'normal'
clay work in the kiln. There
was some sagging and
distortion in large sheets if
gaps between the support
system allowed movement. If
smaller pieces could be fired
flat on a thin bed of alumina,
this was least problematic and
time-consuming.
Because the pieces were still
porous after high firing it is
possible to apply washes of
oxides or glaze before
refiring. Colour can be added
to basic clay/paper mix by
adding oxides or glazes
directly to the mixture before
firing.
A touring exhibition of Carol
Farrow's Paperwork and
Paper/clay will begin at South
Hill Park Arts Centre,
Bracknell on Aust 22 until
September 27 moving on to
West Surrey College,
Farnham and Portsmouth City
Museum and Art Gallery. The
Paperworks Fellowship was
based in the Design
Department of Oxford
Polytechnic in the Paperworks
Mezzanine, an offshoot of Ivor
Robinson's 'Bookworks'
Course.


Paper/clay pieces separated by ceramic fibre
(large kiln props were removed before the final
enclosing wall was built).
Página 6 de 6
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/farrow1987.html
Reproduced with kind permission from Brian Gartside. This article appeared in a slightly different
form in New Zealand Potter, No. 3, 1993, 32-33.
More articles on paperclay click here.
BACK
... mix WHAT with CLAY?
By BRIAN GARTSIDE
Cellulose fibre is a hollow tube-like structure which is an essential part of all plants and
trees. It plays an important part in photosynthesis and osmosis. It has an amazing ability to
syphon moisture into itself, acting like a sponge. Different sources give a variety of fibres,
the length and size of which depend on the type of tree or plant producing them. An easy
source of fibre for the potter can be found in any man-made paper. This can be torn into
shreds and soaked in hot water, usually all that's necessary to break it down, but for extra
speed an electric drill fitted with a mixing blade is useful.
Shorter fibres which form the basis of tissue, blotting paper and newsprint are excellent. So
is computer and photocopier paper. All these break down easily in hot water. If you can
afford it, pure cotton and linen papers used by artists are best as they have a marked
absence of lignin, a complex polymer associated with cellulose. Being a cell wall stiffener,
lignin is water resistant and can affect the amount of water needed to soak the paper.
Cardboard is best avoided as it contains glue and also shiny papers which contain kaolin -
neither of these break down easily in water. A good test of whether a paper is suitable, is to
see how it tears - the more easily it tears, the shorter and more suitable the fibres it
contains.
Under magnification clay particles are tiny compared with cellulose fibres. When clay slip
and paper pulp are mixed together the platelets of clay are easily syphoned into the fibre
tubes. The resulting complex network of fibre and clay slip gives the mixture important and
unusual working characteristics of benefit to potters and sculptors.
Other materials such as nylon, fibreglass and sawdust have been mixed with clay, but
nothing compares to paper pulp in its effect. Paper fibres give a non-smooth slightly spiky
surface which further enhances its binding qualities. One very unfortunate disadvantage
compared to nylon or fibreglass must be admitted - after about a fortnight it begins to
SMELL! To avoid the decay of this plant matter, the pulp could be mixed as needed, or
stored in plastic bags in a deep freeze.
Any clay can be used. It needs to be mixed well until smooth and creamy. A deflocculant
can reduce the amount of water and subsequently the time needed for evaporation and
drying. A quick and convenient clay therefore, is casting slip, though personally I find this
an excellent way to use the slops and trimmings from my potter's wheel.
Can you use the material on the wheel? The answer for me is no. I can't throw this clay on
my wheel, neither can I wedge it.... but some people claim they can....
So what's all the fuss about?
• It's virtually impossible for large cracks to develop as the clay dries.
• Layering on dry slabs will not warp.
Página 1 de 3 http://ww.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1993.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1993.html
• Excellent for layering in plaster moulds.
• Works well for coiling technique.
• Joining pieces can be done at any stage - dry to wet to leatherhard all join well.
• As the material dries it develops unbelievable tensile strength.
• Fired and bisqued pieces can be embedded into the soft slip.
• Ceramic pieces can be bigger and stronger and up to 50% lighter in weight.
• Behaves exactly like clay in the firing process - it IS clay.
• Can readily be pour-moulded. Who needs a slab roller any more?
Notes on the Photographs
1. Hot water, tissue, copier paper is soaked and beaten with an electric drill mixer blade. Be
generous with the water, more than you think!
2. The pulp is poured into a sieve and then squeezed by hand to remove most of the water.

3. Pulp dropped into clay slip. Use volume ratio from l0% to 50% paper pulp. A ruler
simplifies measurement of volume.
4. Porridge consistency. Thoroughly mixed by hand, stick or mixer blade, the clay now
looks like oatmeal porridge. Poured onto a dry surface or plaster slab.
5. Paddled and plastered with a knife or flat stick to any thickness. Thin edges show the
fine fibres.
6. Poured into a frame or mould the material lends itself to any shaping method. Can dry
overnight.
7. Wet paper/clay slip can be added to dry without any problems, smoothed or textured to
taste.
8. Thin and thick can be combined in one slab.
9. Hard dry slabs can be scoured with a sharp knife and snapped over the edge of a table.
The cellulose fibres are just visible to the eye.
Acknowledgements:
I am indebted to lbrabim Wagh of London who worked with me for ten weeks at Banff
Centre for the Arts when we were resident artists in 1991. Rosette Gault of Seattle who was
also a resident artist at that time, continued researching the material and published her
booklet Paperclay for Ceramic Sculptors this year. I used her findings extensively in my
work and in this article.
BRIAN GARTSIDE Runciman Rd, Pukekohe R.D.2 New Zealand Ph: +64 9238 2393
Website: www.gartside.info
To read Part II of this topic, dealing with forming, firing and glazing, click here.
Point at images with mouse to read notes.

Página 2 de 3 http://ww.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1993.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1993.html
Reproduced with kind permission by Brian Gartside. This article appeared in a slightly different form
in New Zealand Potter, No. 3, 1993, 32-33.
More articles on paperclay click here.
BACK


Página 3 de 3 http://ww.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1993.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1993.html
More paperclay articles? click here.
SUITCASE ART
Travelling Light
Brian Gartside demonstrated the potential of paperclay when he was a guest at the
International Potters' Festival, Aberystwyth, Wales, 1993. This is Part II of his article
on paper/clay. To read Brian's first article on making paperclay click here.
Those of us involved with pottery as a living are continually on the look-out for sales
possibilities. Suitcase Art was a phrase enjoyed by English potter John Pollex and myself
in a conversation a few years ago. It refers to making high-value ceramics that would travel
easily around the world, and would of course, be in high demand.
I witnessed the ultimate in Suitcase Art when the American potter Ron Nagle brought a
very small suitcase to his slide talk, opened it and set up a miniature exhibition on a table in
front of his audience.
This concept of Suitcase Art was then further expanded by the guest demonstrator at the
International Potters' Festival in Wales, 1993. He opened a large suit case on the stage and
told the audience the four slabs of clay he pulled out, had travelled half way around the
world, surviving airline baggage handlers in Auckland, Los Angeles, Seattle and Heathrow
airports. He revealed that these slabs were unfired and proceeded to wave and jiggle them
up and down whilst holding them between fingers and thumb at the very edge of the 60cm
long slabs. They did not break, though they seemed to bend slightly as they were handled
in this way.
During the hour or two of his demonstration he assembled a rectangular box which
consisted of bone-hard, leather-hard and sloppy paperclay. Imitation straps and buckles
were modelled wet onto the dry surface. A pre-made stiff handle was then attached with
scoring and paper/clay slops - voila! A clay suitcase! To the amazement of the audience he
then lifted the suitcase by the handle after only half a minute and was able to walk around
with it totally intact!
Quite simply, paperclay has the ability to stick to itself and be really strong no matter how
dry or how wet. It is possible to join anything of any thickness, at any angle, at anytime,
using paperclay slip as a glue. It will also join easily to ordinary clay. It seems that nearly all
rules of clay making can be broken.
My preference is to make slabs on a dry plaster slab with a mixture of clay slip and 30 -
50% paper pulp. For large amounts of paper pulp a conversation with a maker of
handmade paper would be helpful. They have ways of making paper pulp and also use
linters, a readymade source of cellulose fibres. Any clay slip can be used, but I find a
readily accessible source from my wheel slops and trimmings which are easily soaked
down.
lf clay is removed as slabs from the plaster the following day, these can be rolled into tubes
of any diameter for future construction. Or it can be scraped away from the plaster while still
wet and mixed by hand into a plastic state. Coils can then be made or wheel throwing
attempted. Whilst in the slop state it can be spread or poured into moulds and left to dry
out. Objects do not have to be made hollow.
Página 1 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1994.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1994.html
I leave my slabs to go bone-dry on the plaster slab. They do not warp and I am able to
stack them on edge for storage and future use. At first it seemed that all my ideas wore
limited to straight, flat-sided forms once the slabs had been made.
Recently I decided to re-soak a paperclay slab by totally immersing it in water in a shallow
tub, leaving it for at least three hours. The clay and fibres re-absorbed water until the large
slab became flexible enough to wrap around into a shape. If a slab is left in water overnight
it becomes very sloppy at the surface, but still holds in one piece and is extremely flexible.
So it appears the material can be dried out and wetted many times without ill effect.
Hard surfaces can be plastered and modelled on with more sloppy clay. Fired or glazed
ceramic objects and bits of any kind can be pressed into thick paper/clay while it is still wet.
It all dries together without the cracking usually associated with shrinkage.
Texture is easily controlled too. If left to itself, the paper/clay dries with a characteristic
lumpy porridge surface. At any stage this can be smoothed with a very fine sponge or,
depending on the water content, with rough sandpaper or file. Imprinting works well, but
carving is definitely hindered by the cellulose fibres clinging to each other in the mix.
Firing. Special considerations are recommended if bisque firing is done in an electric kiln.
The paper fibre starts to burn away at300
O
and can fill the studio or kiln shed with
unpleasant fumes. This smoking can continue up to 500
O
C. It's important to fire slowly
during this period - between 5O
O
C and 75
O
C per hour- and to fire with vents and door open
if possible. The room should also be well ventilated. There is not the same problem when
firing with wood, oil or gas, as the fumes depart up the flue. Once the paper is burnt away
the firing can continue as normal.
After bisque firing the appearance and texture are normal in everyway. The fired clay looks
and acts as clay always does. The minute spaces formerly occupied by the cellulose fibres
cannot be seen by the naked eye and the only noticeable difference will be a lightness in
weight, especially when the mix is 50/50, paper to clay.
Glazing can proceed as it always does - the fibres are gone and play no part in the ceramic
process. Any glaze can be used and the results will be as brilliant or depressing as they
always are. Salt fire, raku, reduction or pit firing can proceed as normal.
The slab roller could become an endangered species - on the verge of extinction.
Watching people work with this material is enjoyable. Hands covered in 'sludge', they can
be so adventurous - joining and building with little or no technical skill. None of the ordinary
clay rules apply at the construction stage. lifting and moving work is less of a problem and
breakages seldom occur.
This can open up the mind to structures and forms that flow in a natural way, especially in
the sculptural area. A bold, adventurous approach with seemingly impossible assemblages
can be tried. Fragility is a thing of the past with structures remaining strong though its
pieces may be arranged and re-arranged many times.
Paper/clay offers endless possibilities. Information on this topic is only at the beginning
stage, with new methods and discoveries emerging weekly.
Página 2 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1994.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1994.html
Top row: Storing paperclay as bone-hard rolls, tubes, slabs and also crushed waste ready
for recycling.
Row two and three: The working of wet and hard, dry pieces together. Last photo
demonstrates a joint defying breakage and gravity.
Last row: The paperclay slip being roughly cast into plaster moulds, and coiling. The final
photograph shows shards and other ceramic material pressed into the clay.
Photographs by Brian Gadside.
Reproduced with kind permission by Brian Gartside. The article appeared in a slightly
different form in New Zealand Potter, No. 1, 1994 17-18.
More paperclay articles? click here.




Página 3 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1994.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/gartside1994.html
More paperclay articles? click here.
A Complete copy of the journal article.
THE MAKING OF PAPERCLAY
PORCELAIN BANNERS
By Steve Harrison
Paperclay can be used to make sonic excellent tiles. Very thin and translucent porcelain
paperclay tiles, or what I call ceramic banners, can be made up to 900 x 600 mm, by 1 mm
to 1.5 mm thick. Yes, read my type, 1.5 mm. thick! using the following recipe and technique.
The standard translucent porcelain
bodies I found to be disappointing
and did not work well. So I
developed the following body
specially for this purpose. Having
tried many different variations, this
is the most successful recipe so far;
The china day I use is 'clay ceram',
and the ceramic fibre doesn't seem
to matter, I tried all three grades
and couldn't notice any difference
between them, so I use the
cheapest which is 1000'C L T Batt.
The paper pulp is a dry shredded
material used for home insulation. I
bought this from 'Cool n Cosy'
home insulation in Sydney. There
are two types, The finished product
has poison added to deter rats etc.
for use in houses, but it is possible
to obtain untreated material before
it has gone through the final
process.
Measure the water into a plastic bucket, weigh out the ceramic fibre and dunk it into the
water. Because this is a clay making exercise, you will already be wearing your dust mask,
but rubber gloves are also advisable when handling ceramic fibre. Lift the ceramic fibre out
of the water and tear into small shreds, dropping them back into the water. Break up the
shreds of fibre into a fine liquidised pulp by vigorously mixing with a paint stirrer attached to
an electric drill. Now add the finely shredded dry paper pulp, whisk into the finely shredded
fibre liquid until all the paper is wet. Now add the clay and syenite, stir until evenly mixed
and there are no colour variations. The result should be a soft plastic paste.
Plastic White China Clay 1500 g
Nepheline Syenite 1500 g
Ceramic Fibre (100OoC) 250 g
Fine Paper Pulp (dry) 500 g
Water 4.5 litres
Página 1 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/harrison1998.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/harrison1998.html
Using a light weight cellulose/cement batt as a backing, spread a jumbo garbage bag over
the batt, held in place with paper clips. Spead a layer of paper clay mix fairly evenly over
the plastic sheet with a spatula. Place another sheet of plastic garbage bag over the top
and roll out the clay in all directions with as much pressure as you can muster until it oozes
out off the batt on all sides. Alternatively, the batt can be placed on the slab roller and
reduced in that way. Keep rolling until it is as thin as you can get it.
Impressions can be applied through
the thin plastic sheet with tools,
fingers, and objects or the top plastic
layer can be peeled off and marks
made directly into the clay surface.
The resulting tile or banner can be
left to dry slowly overnight or left in
the sun and wind in which case it
may curl a little at the edges but will
be- dry in an hour or two. it can be
picked up by its plastic sheet (it is
remarkably flexible) and laid in the
kiln upside down so that the plastic
sheet can be peeled off. It can of
course be placed in the kiln with the
plastic still attached, and it will bum
away during firing, but the gases
produced from burning plastic are
ozone damaging.
Firing is to Orton Cone 8 in 4 to 8
hours, depending on the decoration.
If the marks are many and vigorous,
a longer firing is required to stop the
tile splitting up along the incisions. This is why the ceramic fibre is added, as it doesn't bum
out like the paper but persists. The paper does a sterling job at room temperature of binding
the surface together but the tell tale waft of smoke at 250,C spells its end, and that is when
the normal paperclay tile will crack if the fibre isn't added, as the fibre remains intact until
elevated temperatures resisting any tendency in the tile to crack apart along the stress lines
created in the decoration. Eventually the ceramic fibres dissolve into the ceramic body
glass, which is created by the high proportion of nepheline syenite in the recipe.
The finished banner is quite fragile if it is only one millimetre thick, which is not
unreasonable. When removed from the kiln I strengthened and reinforced it by saturating it
with clear vinyl acrylic artists medium and coating it on either one or both sides with tissue
paper, again saturated with clear vinyl acrylic artists medium. This gives the resultant finish
a remarkable parchment like quality. The surface feel is dry with a hint of absorbency that
creates an impression that it will almost stick to your fingers, but it doesn't. A feeling of
absorbency from something that you know is vitreous, glassy and translucent, yet can be
mistaken for paper in not just look but feel, is fascinating, if not confusing. The juxtaposition
of knowledge and perception clashing. What is known to be ceramic, in fact porcelain, and
all that that entails, pitted against what is clearly perceived to be parchment or blotting
paper is intriguing. This is augmented by the fact that these posters, banners, panels, tiles
are quite flexible and can be bent 75 to 100 mm. from their original straight form This can
produce a noise that Rolf Harris would be proud of.
What appears to be a rigid and fragile gossamer of mixed messages and perceptions
Página 2 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/harrison1998.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/harrison1998.html
somewhere between porcelain and parchment, as it transpires is a quite flexible entity,
which beyond all expectations is remarkably robust. I dropped a piece two and a half
metres during hanging at one show and it bounced, luckily having landed on its edge which
carried the shock of the impact well. However, one piece was successfully vandalised by a
king-hit from a child at another show. I've had my disasters, but after all, its the combination
of the tactile and the visual that make this technique so appealing. Its perceived fragility
gives it an edgy visual presence but this is eventually tempered by the acceptance of actual
resilience. I have made a point of always installing these pieces at chest height so that it
will facilitate, even encourage exploration of their qualities.
My thanks to Jane Calthorpe of 'Paperclay Ceramics' for advice and inspiration.
Reproduced with kind permission by the author Steve Harrison (Email 7/10/2001 6:40 pm).
The article appeared in a slightly different form in Pottery in Australia, 37, (2) 68-9. 1998.
More paperclay articles? click here.
Página 3 de 3 www.grahamhay.com.au/harrison1998.html
22/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/harrison1998.html
More paperclay articles? click here.
USING PAPER FIBRE AS A SUBSTITUTE IN CERAMIC CLAYS
By Leena Juvonen, Finland.

Paperclay is combination of cellulose fibre and clay.
Compared to conventional clay bodies it has better
greenstrength and is lighter in weight after firing.
Substituting part of the clay with paper fibres creates a
new kind of material, which makes it possible to build
large, thin objects without cracking.
Essential tests in this study has been bending strength,
porosity, shrinkage and bending in firing. Material tests
have been carried out on different kind of fibres like
cellulose, waste paper and sludges from paper mills.
Along with material tests there has been also included artistic part in which has been tested
paperclay in practice. Large, thin bowls and slabs has been made by pressing on plaster
moulds and painted with ceramic pigments. The aim of this research has been to improve
handling properties of clay in green stage.
1. INTRODUCTION
In making large ceramic objects, the plastic properties and weight of the material have
traditionally limited modelling possibilities. Fragility and shrinkage in the green state have
been frequently encountered problems with conventional claybodies. Clay reinforced with
paper fibre, however, is an excellent material for large pieces, sculptures and slabs,
because of its remarkable green strength and lightweight. In paperclay, the clay particles
glue the paper fibres into a network and thus form a supporting structure for an unfired
object and prevent cracking. The paper fibres burn away from the clay in firing, leaving the
object porous.
Use of paperclay is economical. Instead of requiring new paper, all kinds of waste paper,
recycled paper and pulp are good material to be mixed with clay. Material and energy costs
are cut down as paper fibre added to clay body fills up the clay mass and contributes its
heat value to firing (1). Paperclay also lasts rapid temperature changes, which shortens the
firing time and saves energy.
The capability of cellulose fibre to absorb water is an essential advantage to claybodies in
plastic state. Being hollow, cellulose fibre is very absorbent and withstands compression
and twisting. Since clay particles are much smaller than fibres, they are absorbed to the
surface of the fibre as the clay dries. The rough surface enables the fibre to be attached to
the clay tightly enough so as not to slip from its hollow cavity.
Since the benefits of paperclay in comparison to conventional claybodies lie in its strong
green strength and light fired weight, essential research issues have been bending
strength, porosity and shrinkage and as bending in firing. The strength of paperclay is
determined by clay composition and the paper fibre type, as well as the relationship
between fibre amount and quality. Also the production method and firing temperature is
significant. The purpose of this series of experiments was to study how much the fibre type
affects the strength of the claybody and firing strength. The tests were carried out in
Página 1 de 7 www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
cooperation with Helsinki University of Technology, and Finnish paper mills contributed with
paper fibre samples.
The starting point of this study was the research on paperclay as sculpting material by
Rosette Gault, of USA (2). Beside the material study, an artistic part is included in this
study, where the practical applications of paperclay were tested. The firing temperature of
1100
o
C was focused, since the pieces were painted with ceramic pigments, some of which
are burned off at higher temperatures.
2. ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH
The objective of this study was to find a paperclay composition where the fibres would yield
strong green strength and where the porosity created by the fibres in firing would be
smooth, delicate and evenly spread. In other words, the fired clay is lighter than the
corresponding pure base claybody without sacrificing and technical properties essential.
Paper and cellulose were reduced to pulp before mixing into the claybodies. The paper was
first soaked in hot water and beaten to disintegrate the fibres. The excess water was
squeezed out by using a large mesh screen to get a pulp with approximately 20 percent
water, where the clay was added. The ratio of fibre varies from 2%, 10% and 20% of dry
fibre in relation to the dry weight of the clay.
From the test material, 22 test batches were prepared: with seven different fibre types,
three different fibre ratios and a base claybody with no fibre added. Ten test bars, each
measuring 25 mm x 25 mm x 150 mm, were made of each test batch by pressing into a
one-sided plaster mould. The clay was pressed by hand and the open surface was
smoothened with a splint. The tests were repeated five times with both unfired pieces and
pieces fired at 1100
o
C.

The tests were made at the Helsinki University of Technology at the metal laboratory with
Zwick 1385 drawing engine as three point bending fatigue test, where the test bars were
bent at a speed of 2 mm/min. The measurement method was adapted according to ISO
3327-198(E) specification. Test materials were different fibre types, selected for being
easily available: waste paper, pulp, and rejects that develop in the paper manufacturing
industry. The clay bodies were all earthenware.
Composition of clay body and paper fibre types.
Table 1 Ultimate bending strength of unfired and fired test bars N/mm2 with varied
Base clay body Ml Fibre types
25%: Ball clay Hyplas 71 A: Pulp reject
25%: Kaolin Grolleg B: Ground wood pulps reject
10%: Silica C: Fibre recovery concentrate reject
10%: Feldspar D: Fluting board
30%: Calcinated kaolin E: Bleached pine sulphate
F: Bleached birch sulphate
G: Shredded paper
H: Base claybody Ml
Página 2 de 7 www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
fibre contents.

Table 2 Bending flexure of unfired test bars in millimetres with varied fibre contents.
The bending flexure of unfired paperclay batches with resistance to breaking strain
increases manyfold with all fibre types in comparison to that of pure clay. Even with a small
ratio of 2% fibre, up to a fourfold bending flexure can be reached. A greater fibre content
(10 or 20%) will improve bending flexure with most fibre types but the effect is not any
longer remarkable with all fibre types. The best effect was achieved by adding 20 %
shredded paper. Also the green strength is improved by adding fibre almost to a double to
that of pure clay. However, a fibre ratio exceeding 2% did not generally improve, but
reduced the strength rating. The best result was obtained by adding 20% waste paper.
The strength of the fired test bars reduced with all fibre types in comparison to pure base
claybody. An increase in the fibre content further reduced the strength rating. Ultimate
bending strength fell down by 17% with a 2-percent ratio of the fibre with the best rating at
each point. With a ratio of 10% fibre, the decrease was 60% and with 20% it amounted to
73%. After pure base claybody, the best result was reached with a ratio of 2 % waste
paper.
The strength and bending flexure rates were affected by how evenly the paper fibre was
mixed into the clay, which varied among the test bars. Since the defects were related to
production technology, making the bars differ from each other, the defects influenced rather
the general strength level than that between the test pieces.
unfired fired
fibre content 2% 10% 20% 2% 10% 20%
Pulp reject 1.8 1.4 0.8 19.4 7.0 2.5
Ground wood reject 1.8 1.5 1.0 16.8 5.9 2.2
Recovery concentrate reject 1.2 1.9 1.0 15.4 7.5 1.8
Fluting board 1.4 2.1 1.2 19.3 9.0 1.7
Pine sulphate 1.8 1.5 1.0 17.8 7.6 3.2
Birch sulphate 1.6 1.5 0.9 18.4 10.0 3.2
Shredded paper 1.8 1.6 2.6 20.6 5.3 6.8
Base claybody Ml 1.0 24.8
2% 10% 20%
Pulp reject 0.8 0.6 0.7
Ground wood reject 0.7 0.8 1.1
Recovery concentrate reject 0.5 0.9 1.0
Fluting board 0.4 0.9 0.8
Pine sulphate 0.8 0.8 1.0
Birch sulphate 0.5 0.8 1.4
Shredded paper 0.8 0.8 1.4
Base claybody MI 0.2
Página 3 de 7 www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
Since the aim of adding fibre was to improve the plastic properties of the clay in green
state, the bending flexure was of great importance. A large, thin piece must endure its own
weight at all stages of production. The more the clay withstands warping in green state, the
larger and thinner the piece can be.
The test results show that a crucially better bending strength and tensile strength was
yielded with all fibre types than that of pure base claybodies. However, the fired strength in
turn decreased. It can be concluded from the results that the fibre type does not have as
essential an effect as the ratio of adding it to clay, when aiming at the best possible green
strength without reducing the fired strength. Moreover, the properties of the base claybody
and vitrification degree have a crucial effect.
3. POROSITY AND SHRINGAGE
Waste papers often contain traces of clay and filling agents, mainly kaolin. For this reason,
it must be taken into account that inorganic substances may affect the vitrification of the
voids left by the fibres. A large content of paper fibre can raise the vitrification temperature
of the clay in case it contains lots of trace minerals (3). The higher the ratio of paper fibre,
the lighter and more fragile is the fired result.
As the clay is vitrified, the piece shrinks and the voids left by the fibres are filled up.
Consequently, the vitrification level will essentially affect the-fired strength. The impact of
the fibre type to the porosity and shrinkage was studied. The test batches were prepared in
the same manner as with the bending fatigue tests. From slabs pressed on plaster bats test
pieces with the dimensions 40mrn x 70mm x 5mm were cut and fired to 1100-1250
o
C in a
gradient kiln where seven different temperatures with an interval of 25
o
C can be used
during the same firing. The porosity and shrinkage rates were studied through measuring
the water absorption of the test bars.
Pieces were made from different paperclays. The practical experiments showed that when
earthenware is mixed with paper pulp, the strength of thin objects is not sufficient in the
temperature of 1100
o
C. The claybody used in bending fatigue tests was therefore replaced
base claybody no 3 containing ball clay and talc and having a lower firing temperature
(1100
o
C). Moreover, the ratio of fibre was changed to correspond the strength level
required by green strength and fired strength. The claybodies were mixed with 7% of dry
fibre in relation to dry weight of the claybody.
Table 3 Porosity and shrinkage with base claybody 3 and a paper fibre ratio of 7% in
seven temperatures.
A B G H I J K
Water absorption
1100
o
C
28 32 26 16 27 16 29
1125
o
C
26 28 21 13 24 5 25
1150
o
C
21 23 14 8 18 47 21
1175
o
C
13 16 7 1 9 12
1200
o
C
10 11 1 0 4 11
1225
o
C
9 9 1 1 2 9
Página 4 de 7 www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
Composition of clay body and paper fibre types
4. BENDING IN FIRING
The firing temperature is significant to fired strength of a thin paperclay object. The clay
should be vitrified as thoroughly as possible without warping the object. Once the voids left
by the fibres start to fill up in firing, the form is easily warped. With the same test batches of
which the porosity and shrinkage was measured also the bending in firing was measured
with three different temperatures: 1120
o
C, 1160
o
C, and 1200
o
C.

Test pieces with the dimensions 40mm x 5mm x 150mm were prepared by cutting from
slabs pressed on plaster bats. The test bars were placed on a V-shaped base, supported at
both ends. After firing each bar, placed horizontally had bent and also shrunk in the middle.
Each bar was then removed from the base and its exact profile was drawn on scale paper,
from which the bending in firing was calculated.
Table 4 Bending in firing with base claybody No 3 and a fibre ratio of 7%

1250
o
C
8 9 1 0 2 10
Shrinkage (drying)
0 0 3 1 1 0 1
Shrinkage (firing)
1100
o
C
3 1 4 4 4 7 3
1125
o
C
4 3 6 6 4 9 4
1150
o
C
7 6 9 9 7 7 6
1175
o
C
9 9 11 13 10 9
1200
o
C
10 10 14 13 11 11
1225
o
C
11 10 13 14 13 10
1250
o
C
10 11 14 14 13 11
Base claybody 3 Fibre types
45% Ball clay Hyplas 71 A Pulp reject
35% Talc B Ground wood pulp reject
20% Calcinated kaolin G Shredded paper
H Base claybody 3 with no fibre
I De-inking reject
J Cotton linters
K Fluffed sulphate pulp
L Liner board
Bending in firing (mm) A B G H I J K
1120
o
C
2 6 9 5 3 6 6
Página 5 de 7 www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
5. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Beside the material study, objects were produced to test the properties of paperclay in
practical applications. This way information was gained on the plastic properties of the
paperclay in green state as well as its capability to maintain the form intact in firing. Since
sufficient green strength can be achieved with all paperclays, the selection of fibre type is
affected more remarkably by how easily [available the fibre can be found].
[The b]ending flexure of unfired objects is slightly stronger but the fibres tend to build [more]
easily while pressing to a plaster cast. Additionally, the thickness of the fibre [in the clay]
affects the plastic properties of the clay. Fibres from hardwood having long [fibres] with
thick walls are intertwined and build clots more easily in moulding stage [compared to]
fibres from softwood that are short and thin-walled. These short fibres are [covered] with
small fluffs to which the clay particles will be affixed well.
On the basis of the knowledge gained from the material study, several modelling [methods]
were tested. The aim was to find suitable working methods for large thin [objects].
Paperclay can be hand built as well as cast or pressed into mould. However [it differs] from
conventional claybodies: while being more un-plastic, it remains plastic [longer] in plastic
state, making it difficult to have large three-dimensioned forms [maintain] their shape
without a supplementary mould. To make compact objects from [this] material, a mould is
required.
Paperclay has a tendency to attach to a plaster mould tightly, especially with claybodies
having a high fibre ratio. Talc was applied to the surface of the mould to make it easier to
remove the object from the mould. As the drying shrinkage is smaller with paperclay than
with conventional claybodies, the clay should contain enough water and plastic substances
to make the object shrink sufficiently to be taken out of the mould. Otherwise removing thin
objects without breaking is problematic.

Leena Juvonen 1994, paperclay bowl, 65cm x 6Scm x 20cm, painted with ceramic
pigments

With paperclay, it is easy to produce large surfaces, which makes it a natural material for
paintings made with the methods of ceramics. The objects were painted with ceramic
pigments in green state. A smooth surface was attained with a plaster mould on which the
1160
o
C
13 9 19 5 9 11 10
1200
o
C
18 20 23 13 18 15 19
Página 6 de 7 www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
paintbrush ran smoothly. By pressing to mould, large thin objects bowls and slabs were
made. The light weight of the paperclay allows a rolling shape where the round bottom
touches the ground only at a couple of points. The bowls were fired on the thin brim
whereby the arched structure was able to bear the weight of the material. The slabs were
pressed on a plaster bat and their surface rolled tight.
Working with paperclay is more spontaneous than with conventional clay bodies. Paperclay
lasts quick drying and firing without cracking or warping. The objects were left to dry
overnight on the top of the kiln without a plastic cover and taken out of the moulds in the
morning when dry. Thin paperclay objects need not be bisqued. Instead, they can be fired
directly to the final temperature, since they are very fragile as the fibres have burned away,
but the clay has not yet vitrified. However, paperclay endures bisque firing, too. Unfired
paperclay absorbs glazing to itself, making the surface compact and improving the fired
strength at the same time. Raw glazing also softens the colour surfaces. Thanks to the
reinforcing fibre, a glazed, wet object can be safely transported to the kiln and firing can be
started when the object is still wet.
Paperclay questions traditional restrictions prevailing in ceramics. Use of fibre improves the
plastic properties of the claybody, and gives more creative freedom, from which novel ideas
can be brought about. One of the practical applications of paperclay could be e.g. elements
for interior decoration where fire-resistant light materials are required.
REFERENCES
(1) Zani, Tengalia, Panigada, Re-use of Paper-making sludge in brick production, ZI
1211990
(2) Rosette Gault, Paperclay for ceramic sculptors, Studio companion, Seattle WA, USA,
1993
(3) Rosette Gault, Second-generation ceramic sculpture technical and aesthetic potential of
paperclay, Interaction in Ceramics, UIAH, Helsinki, 1993
Paper presented and published at the 8th CIMTEC World Ceramics Congress, Finenze,
Italy June 1997. Reproduced here with kind permission from Leena Juvonen, Kaapakuja 16
A, 00760 Helsinki, Finland
More paperclay articles? click here.
Página 7 de 7 www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/juvonen1997.html
More paperclay articles? click here.
SLIPPING INTO PAPERCLAY
A Research Paper by Andy Miller (1994)
Introduction
Paperclay, although not new in the ceramics world, has in the past few years been
recognised as an extremely versatile medium. The growing popularity and number of artists
using paperclay has of course led to new methods of employing paperclay in the sculpture
process. I therefore considered it very fortunate timing that while doing a slip-casting course
I was introduced to the astounding qualities of paperclay compared to normal clay
materials. Slip casting is a well-understood process where a plaster mould is made from a
clay master and thereafter many copies can be made. It required no great leap of logic to
combine slip casting with paperclay and the result combines the precision of the slip cast
shape with the flexibility of paperclay.
Properties of Paperclay
Paperclay's success lies in the interaction of the clay body and fibre at a microstructural
level (figs 1 & 2) as Brian Gartside explains in New Zealand Potter, Vol 36 No, 1, "Cellulose
fibre is a hollow tube-like structure which is an essential part of plants and trees.... It has an
amazing ability to siphon moisture into itself, acting like a sponge. Under magnification clay
particles are tiny compared with cellulose fibres. When clay slip and paper pulp are mixed
together the platelets of clay are easily syphoned into the fibre tubes." The practical upshot
of this is virtual self-bonding clay. Two pieces will, through capillary action, "weld" together
by drawing particles of the other into itself, forming an almost instant bond that is much
stronger than scoring and wetting. While the shear strength is outstanding the wet join will
be firm but not strong until fully dry.

Fig 1 Normal clay slip at approximately 300X magnification. (Curtin University). Note the
rough but "sealed" surface which restricts penetration of wet clay.
Página 1 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html

Fig 2 Paperclay at the same magnification, clearly showing the cellulose fibres impregnated
with clay particles, allowing liquid clay access to the interior of the clay body.1
Paperclay has been in use by ceramicists for approximately 50 years as a means of
producing non-warp, non-crack slabs of clay of any thickness, and for a long time that's
almost all it was ever used for. There is very little history to be found concerning paperclay
as the prime material used in ceramic sculpture and only in the last few years have articles
appeared. There is only one book on the subject to my knowledge 1. In my experience,
paperclay is totally resistant to cracks developing while drying. Joining can be done at any
stage of drying such as wet to wet/ dry/ leather hard. Scoring and wetting are not necessary
as all work can be stuck together using liquid paperclay as "glue". It can be poured onto
plaster blocks to draw most of the water out and then can be rolled, coiled or even wedged
and thrown on a wheel, although some care is needed since basically you are throwing with
slip! In addition, it can be left to dry on a plaster slab to produce sheets without needing to
use a slab roller. A wooden frame and a spreader (similar to a screen printing rubber) that
sits on the top of the frame can produce sheets of precise thicknesses.

Fig 3 One method for producing sheets of paperclay. Adjusting the depth of the cut in the
former alters the thickness of the sheet
Once dry, the sheets of paperclay can be stored on edge indefinitely and used when
necessary. Simply soak them in water for 30 minutes to 2 hours depending upon their
thickness. Dry paperclay exhibits immense strength and surprising lightness as the water in
the paper dries out. When joining a wet or leather hard piece to dry paperclay the moisture
is drawn out very fast and the new piece can be handled within minutes with little chance of
damage. Unused paperclay can be stored wet, dry of even frozen in plastic bags for any
length of time. If leather hard sheets are required for future use simply lay them inside a
large garbage bag. Paperclay can also be attached to other types of smooth clays with
paperclay glue. In a recent experiment, I used paperclay glue to stick a band of
earthenware leather hard paperclay to a dry stoneware bowl. The bowl developed one
Página 2 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
small crack, which I repaired instinctively with paperclay and fired it to 1000C with no
problems. Once pieces are fired they are just as strong, if not stronger, than normal clay
while being lighter. The fired piece is no different to normal clay at this point and can be
surface treated in any way.
Production of Paperclay Slip
The production of paperclay is simple and straightforward. The few artists who have written
about paperclay recommend the use of wheel slops and trimmings, which is fine provided
only one type of clay, is used when throwing. A simple and easy alternative is to use
casting slip when wheel slops are not available or a large quantity of paperclay is required.
The paperclay is produced by adding 30-50% newspaper pulp to the clay slip. The
newspaper should be finely shredded and soaked in hot water overnight, then re-blended
until there is no print readable and partially strained, without compression, before it is
added to the slip. To avoid the resulting smell of rotting paper pulp in the slip, add a
tablespoon of disinfectant when mixing. I use an earthenware slip because it seems less
brittle and more tolerant of thermal shock when I apply an artificial patina to the finished
pieces. The recipe is given in appendix 1.
In its liquid form it can be poured over any surface that is horizontal and somewhat
absorbent. Flat, smooth or textured and patterned surfaces can be used. Graham Hay, who
is currently studying at Curtin and introduced me to paperclay, has used wools and loose-
fibred twines drawn through a bucket of paperclay, (threading it through a hole drilled in the
centre of a large lead sinker will keep it under), then hung up to dry to produce fine strands
of paperclay that can be cut to any length. He has also investigated several other additions
to the mix in order to achieve different effects, one of which is cooked spaghetti added to
the paperclay, which, after bisque firing, is chipped away to reveal what he calls a "white
ant" body!
Throwing Paperclay
As mentioned earlier it can be thrown on the wheel with some preparation. First pour the
required amount onto a plaster block and let it dry to a little less than leather hard. If it gets
too stiff it will tear and crack when wedged. Once wedged, wrap in plastic and leave for
several days and you will find the soft lump of sticky slip has become a firm piece of clay. It
can now be thrown, however it must be remembered that the paperclay will stress much
quicker than usual due to the paper particles compressing under the pressure of the hand
movements. I usually only get 2 pulls up before it becomes difficult to handle. I also keep
the wall thickness 2 to 3 times thicker than normal.
Moulding Paperclay
Slip casting is a well-known and understood process. Aside from the great production
factory using it, there are as many ways of making slip cast moulds as there are artists
doing it. Having been taught the traditional 2-piece mould with pour hole method, I could
recognise its good and bad qualities. The care taken in producing the master can be
compromised when the casting process is begun. The master is supported on a bed of clay
that is raised to the midway point of the original and carefully mated to it. At this point, great
care must be taken to obtain a smooth seam line without damaging the surface of the
original as well as having a smooth flat surface to the clay supporting bed. Once this has
been achieved a wall of clay is raised around the master and clay bed to 2-3 cm above the
highest point of the master. A plaster mixture is then poured in and allowed to set. Once
Página 3 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
set, the clay bed is removed and the master, now sitting in the plaster, is turned over and
the wall reassembled around it. The plaster is treated with a detergent so that when the
second mix of plaster is poured it can be removed when dry without too much trouble. If
there is not enough detergent or it is forgotten then not only is the mould ruined but also
some damage will be done to the master when it is extracted. This traditional method of slip
casting is a simple but time consuming process, which I always disliked. I searched for an
alternative and it came, surprisingly, from one of the above-mentioned great production
factories. On a tour of its dinnerware production line, I watched a machine produce soup
bowls at the rate of at least 30 a minute. It consisted of four moulds of the inside of the bowl
sitting on a revolving table. A pre-measured disk of porcelain clay was dropped onto each
mould. The table then rotated 1/4 of a turn and a mechanical arm pushed down. In one
movement both the inner and outer shape and foot ring was formed and the rim was
trimmed. I was amazed at how simple it was and realised how I could use the idea in a kind
of reverse way. Instead of forming clay over a mould I would pour plaster over a master but
would not need any clay bed for it to sit on. This is a one-piece mould. Placing the master,
which is usually not clay but some type of found object like a plastic container or sealed
wooden shape, on a sheet of glass coated with a little petroleum jelly so that it will stick to
the glass and not shift when the plaster is poured, the only clay required is for a small wall
to surround the piece. The master must have no under cuts that will prevent future casts
releasing from the mould. The plastic masters are easily removed when the plaster is dry
with the use of a lit match to burn and melt one point so the shape will collapse when
pulled. Don't heat the plaster too much or cracks could develop. The major advantage of
this type of mould is that the poured piece is open to the air and dries faster, which can be
accelerated by the use of a paint stripper heat gun, again taking care not to crack the
mould.
Another drawback of the slip cast mould is the hole required to pour the slip into the mould.
Once the piece is removed from the mould this leaves a hole, which requires cleaning and
filling with a smaller hole left for firing purposes. This is not a great problem except that I
found when arranging one series of fired slip cast pieces that I couldn't use them in one
particular way because of all the ugly holes in the bases. The Cocktail shaker mould was
designed to solve this problem. It consists of two one-piece moulds placed "mouth to
mouth". The first mould is made as described above and allowed to dry. It is then inverted
and a second shape is placed over the mouth of the first. Locating holes are drilled in the
first mould, the detergent coating is applied and a clay wall put in place. The plaster is then
poured and allowed to set. Once dry, the mould is opened and the masters removed. It is
now just a matter of trial and error to work out how much slip, or paperclay, is required to
coat the inside of the mould. The paperclay is poured in, (in tests usually about 1/3 to 1/2 of
the mould volume), the mould is closed and secured and, as the name suggests, shaken
until the paperclay can no longer be heard slopping about in the mould. Note that, if normal
slip is used, an arrangement for the pieces should be decided on before they are bisque
fired. This is not necessary for paperclay pieces since there is no need for the traditional air
hole. One drawback is the time it takes to dry. The mould can be cracked after 2 to 6 hours
and drying can then proceed normally. Note that paperclay takes longer to dry in any slip
casting mould that normal slip due to the paper content.
I've approached the construction of multi piece moulds in the same manner as one-piece
moulds by adjusting the way in which the casting is carried out. Any shape should be
possible simply by adjusting either the master's orientation or the steps in pouring the
plaster. For example,
Página 4 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html

an hexagonal piece with recesses cut into the six flat sides could not have a traditional two
piece mould made of it because of the undercuts created by the recesses in the surface of
the master. To solve this, the piece is placed vertically and one side only is walled off with
clay and the plaster poured. The result is a 4-sided wedge of plaster with the detail of the
master on the inner or smallest surface, (fig 4). Leaving the first section in place, the clay
wall is made into an L shape and attached from the outside corner of the plaster to the next
corner of the master with the first section of the mould forming one wall, (fig 5). This wall is
treated with the detergent release agent and the plaster poured. This method could be
carried out six times to complete the mould, which would make it a rather lengthy process.
Instead, the 1st, 3rd and 5th sides are poured, followed by the 2nd, 4th and 6th when they
are dry. One of the sections should have no locating lugs on the surface, as this would
prevent easy assembly and disassembly of the mould. Instead, two parallel surfaces of
each of the two sections of the mould should have open-ended recesses cut into then that
will fill and form lugs when the plaster is poured.
Firing
Firing presents a problem if using an electric kiln. In addition to considering the normal
problems involved with the Quartz inversion (where the chemically bonded water is driven
out of the clay body at 573ºC), the paper itself begins to burn at 300ºC and produces acrid
fumes and smoke, which exit via the bunghole. Safety precautions should therefore be
enacted. All doors and windows should be opened to provide ventilation and time spent
near the kiln kept to a minimum until it reaches 550-600ºC when all the organic material will
have burnt out and the bungs should be closed. Unfortunately this could take a
considerable time as the ramp on firing should be shallow to begin with, no more than 50-
75ºC per hour up until 300ºC, after which it can be increased to 150ºC per hour up to 600ºC
and then 350ºC per hour up to 1100ºC with a 30 minute soak. If using thin slabs, firing can
be completed extremely rapidly and crash cooled without risk.2 As firing burns out the
paper present, the clay becomes full of microscopic holes that are invisible to the naked
eye which allow the clay to "breathe" during firing. Pieces no longer have to be made
hollow, or with a pour hole to allow expanding air to escape as it uses the holes and spaces
Página 5 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
once occupied by the paper to escape. These holes also act as a ready-made anchor point
for more paperclay glue in case of breakage. The broken piece can be reattached and
refired with no danger.
Various Approaches
Paperclay's forgiving qualities and ease of use lend itself to construction type hand building.
Brian Gartside has taken advantage of paperclay's sheet forming abilities in his nautical
works like "Frigate" and "Pastel in Drydock" producing large free standing boat or ship
shapes out of semi circular sheets and spindly legs of paperclay. Looking much too heavy,
the large superstructure adds tension and excitement to the pieces. Gartside also uses
press and slip moulds to produce various shapes from free standing narrative slabs to
paperclay teacups. Any kind of found object can be pressed into wet paperclay, although
Gartside stresses that only fired or glazed ceramic objects be used if a refiring is planned.
Graham Hay approaches his work and paperclay from a different perspective. He sees
paperclay as a medium that allows him to do mark making in 3 dimensions. (G Hay, per
com August/September, 1994), hence the strings of long thin paperclay floating above
white plaster bases. Hay's work also incorporates, rather appropriately, architectural
elements and structural solutions in dealing with a series of pieces on society's perception
of institutions as the buildings and not the staff and bureaucracy within them. Some, being
tall and spindly, float on 5mm by 30mm legs, 2 to 3 feet above the ground, giving them a
"castles in the sky" feel which amply demonstrates the versatility of paperclay construction.
The advantages of using a slip casting mould, whether using paperclay or normal slip, far
outweigh the time and effort involved in producing the master mould. Once complete the
mould can be used indefinitely as long as care is taken when handled. My own work
consists of paperclay spheres with straps and rivets made out of paperclay. The straps with
rivets attached were cast in a one piece mould, while the rivets were made by casting a flat
sheet of plaster 2.5 cm thick and using a drill press to drill a series of holes to a set depth.
These were then filled with paperclay from a plastic sauce bottle and allowed to dry. The
result is hundreds of rivets that can be glued to any part of the sculpture. Having completed
my own sets of moulds I began a production line set up. I cast and recast pieces that
allowed me to assemble small pieces at the rate of one every two to four hours.
In an effort to supply the reader with as much information on paperclay construction
methods as possible I will describe the work I know best - my own. My approach to
paperclay, as the more astute reader may have noticed, is through the use of slip casting
moulds. By using several moulds I can produce a supply of "parts" for my sculptures and,
as the pieces I produce bear a strong resemblance to machines, I have set up a mini
assembly line to produce them. Using 4 different spheres, several leg and mounting moulds
as well as detail moulds like feet and rivets, a newly cast sphere is matched to a set of legs,
(anywhere from 1 to 6 so far), and basic assembly begun. As I use 2 piece moulds for the
spheres, a hole is cut out of the surface, which takes the pour hole with it. This new larger
hole can then either have a light mounted in it or it can be turned downwards to form the
base of a legless piece depending on how much care was taken when cutting the hole.
Cutting holes in a sphere of green clay may seem a bit daunting but, remembering
paperclay's amazing strength and its cardboard-like consistency when dry, I found that a
circular hole cutter, like the type used by graphic artists, is an invaluable tool. I also use
razor sharp craft knives instead of any old blunt thing that we ceramic artists are likely to
pick up and use. Remember, paperclay is full of fibres, wet or dry, so if you don't want a
rough torn edge use a sharp knife.
Página 6 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
Once the hole or holes are cut, the rough design for the placement of the paperclay straps
and found objects is pencilled onto the surface. The circular band that goes around the hole
in the sphere is cut from a leather hard sheet of paperclay using the hole's diameter as the
inside measurement and then, keeping the same centre point, enlarging the diameter by
1cm and cutting a second hole. The resulting ring of paperclay is glued onto the sphere
around the hole. If the piece has any legs these are attached simply by cutting the top off
the leg and smoothing around the opening so that all that remains is a clean ring of
paperclay that can be mated to the sphere at any angle. Straps of leather paperclay are cut
1cm wide and glued in place according to the pencil marks. Any recesses, holes or
attachment points are made at this point and then the piece is put aside to dry for several
hours. This is done because the dry sphere will draw the water out of the strap rapidly and
a small amount of shrinkage will result where the strap joins the surface. These cracks can
then be filled with thick glue, although this can be messy so I use leather paperclay that is
wedged into a soft putty-like consistency and trowelled into the cracks in the same way. A
drop of water will help smooth the join over. This may have to de done more than once. The
next stage is to apply the rivets to the straps and this is a long slow process as they are
glued on one by one using tweezers. After a final fitting of the found objects and a check for
any marks on the surface or rivets having been knocked off, the piece is ready for bisque
firing. Once the piece is fired a chemical patina is applied to the surface. This requires a
metal base coat to build up on, so I spray a saturated copper slip on to each piece that
consist of 65% copper carbonate or copper oxide, 20% Soda Feldspar and 15% ball Clay.
The pieces are then placed in the kiln and fired to the following program:
75ºC per hour to 300ºC = 4 hours
150ºC per hour to 600ºC = 2 hours
250ºC per hour to 1000ºC = 1 hour 36 min
30 min soak at 1000ºC = 30 min
Total firing time 8 hours 6 min
Once firing has concluded, the kiln is cracked and the pieces can be removed from 2 to 6
hours later. The copper carbonate has turned black and the piece is ready for patination.
First it is heated with a blowtorch. I do this on a banding wheel with a piece of broken kiln
shelf for the work to sit on. The piece is spun slowly and heated with the torch, care being
taken not to play the torch on any area too long or cracks might develop. Although, I might
add that several of the pieces I've done have cracked under the torch with no ill effect:
another advantage of paperclay? And another mystery to solve. As the flame heats the
surface, small flashes of white on the body indicate it is hot enough to apply the chemicals,
these being copper nitrate, ferric chloride and stannous chloride. These give blue/green,
red and a velvety green colour and texture respectively. They are mixed with bakers
soldering solution and applied using a plastic spray bottle. The heat is then reapplied and
this is repeated until certain indicator colours are seen. At this point the treatment is
stopped and the piece put aside. The colour gradually develops over a few days. The
pieces are then finished off by having 240-volt lamps mounted in them.
Conclusion
The real strength of paperclay is its versatility and adaptability. It can be joined to itself at
any stage and retain strength no matter how wet or dry. Half completed work can be left for
months or years uncovered and dry and be added to or broken and repositioned. Paperclay
Página 7 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
in a liquid state is used for the glue and even it can be adapted to suit requirements: thick -
as a straightforward bond former, or extremely thin where delicate work is in progress, as it
will seep into the space between the pieces and form a strong bond with no smearing to
mar the work. Liquid paperclay can be poured and cut to shape and then left to dry before
work begins. Finishing the piece is then as easy as gluing cardboard together, with the
added advantage of it being in three dimensions. By casting and storing sheets of green
clay, once work begins on a piece it can be completed in a matter of hours without the
pressures of keeping certain areas moist while having to work around external supports.
Also, because up to 50% of the clay is substituted with paper, in its pre-fired state it is light
but strong and some pieces may not even need bisque firing. "After bisque firing the
appearance and texture are normal in every way. The fired clay looks and acts as clay
always does. The minute spaces formerly occupied by the cellulose fibres cannot be seen
by the naked eye and the only noticeable difference will be a lightness in
weight..."(Gartside, 1994)
Rosette Gault's book is eagerly awaited by both Graham Hay and myself, as the subtitle "A
Studio Companion" promises not only more views of her work but perhaps some new
methods of working with paperclay. Paperclay's ability to produce perfect sheets of clay has
blinded many ceramic artists to the other possibilities it presents us with. Many new works
are being produced with paperclay but I've see few that are anything but sheets cut,
stacked, layered, glued, rolled, bent or positioned in some other manner to produce a piece
of work. While I see no problem with that approach and there are some stunning works out
there, I feel that full exploitation of paperclay's advantages is being neglected. As far as I
am aware, I am the only person working with slip casting moulds and paperclay and use
very few flat sheets or surfaces. Using slip-casting moulds with paperclay has eliminated
many problems while creating a few others.
The versatility of paperclay cannot be overstated. We have at our disposal a medium that is
simple to make and even simpler to use. No skill at all is needed except for imagination. If
you can glue two pieces of paper together then you can create art. I believe that paperclay,
once it is more widely known, is going to change the face of contemporary ceramics, as we
know it.
Appendix 1: Slip Recipe
The slip is prepared to the following recipe developed by Jenny Sullivan, the former
ceramics technician at Edith Cowan for slip casting.
FX Ball Clay 6 kgs BBR Caolin 5 kgs Silica (300 mesh) 6 kgs Fine Cullet (Glass) 3 kgs
Water 10 Lts Sodium Silicate 70 gms Dispex (Liquid) 70 gms These amounts can be
doubled or halved to get the required amount of slip.
SAFETY NOTE: Silica is TOXIC and a mask should be worn when preparing slip.
Once the slip is prepared, it is sieved through a 60-mesh screen into the mixing bucket. The
pulp is then added and mixed thoroughly. The still wet fibres draw slip in immediately and
thus the mixture can be used straight away, however it should be left to stand for 30
minutes to ensure total saturation of the fibres.
Appendix 2: Test Results
This series of tests was conducted to answer four questions:
Página 8 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
What is the optimum mix of paper pulp to add to the earthenware slip (from appendix 1)?
What are the shrinkage rates of the different mixes of paperclay, both leather hard and
Bisque?
Can fired paperclay be reglued and refired?
Can solid shapes be fired? (In this case a 60mm ball fired to 1000ºC at 200ºC per hour to
see if it could also survive such a rapid rate of temperature rise.)
Shrinkage Test
Refiring Test
Two pieces of each paper pulp mix were fired then broken. One was reglued using glue of
the same consistency as the original mix. The other was reglued using 30% paper pulp
glue. All pieces failed to rebond after refiring. This test is not conclusive since the reglueing
technique may have been at fault.
Solid Ball Test
A 60 mm diameter solid ball of wet paperclay of each % mix was fired at 150ºC/hr to 300ºC,
then 250ºC/hr to 600ºC, then 350ºC/hr to 1000ºC. Also in the firing was a control ball made
of wet slip containing no paper pulp. The control ball exploded in the kiln, balls with 10, 15,
20 and 25% paper pulp had a large flake break off during firing, interestingly the flake came
off where the percentage number was scored into the surface. This leads me to believe the
scoring created a funnel, which allowed the steam to escape a greater velocity and thus
damage the ball. The remaining balls showed no sign of damage.
Footnotes
1. "Paperclay for Ceramic Sculptors, A Studio Companion" Rosette Gault, Published 1994
2. If firing thin slabs or delicate work, the bisque firing can be programmed at 250ºC/hr to
200º then 350ºC/hr to 1100ºC with a 30-minute soak. Switch off kiln and crack the door.
Paperclay
Pulp Mix
Poured Size
(mm)
Leather hard
Size (mm)
Dried Size
(mm)
Bisque Size
(mm)
Length %
Shrinkage
10% 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 48 x 7 96 x 47 x 8 92 x 45 x 6 8
15% 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 48 x 9 93 x 46 x 9 90 x 45 x 8 10
20% 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 48 x 8.5 94 x 47 x 8 90 x 46 x 7 10
25% 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 48 x 9 92 x 47 x 8 92 x 45 x 7 8
30% 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 48 x 8.5 94 x 43 x 8 90 x 45 x 7 10
35% 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 48 x 9
92 x 46 x
7.5
90 x 46 x 7 10
40% 100 x 50 x 10 99 x 49 x 8.5 94 x 47 x 6 92 x 46 x 6 8
45% 100 x 50 x 10 98.5 x 49 x 8 93 x 45 x 7 93 x 45 x 6 7
50% 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 49 x 8 92 x 47 x 8 91 x 45 x 7.5 9
Página 9 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
Bibliography
Caplan, Jerry. (1994). Paper/Clay Again. New Zealand Potter, 36 (1), 18.
Gartside, Brian. (1993). ...Mix What with Clay? New Zealand Potter, 35 (1), 32.
Gartside, Brian. (1994). Suitcase Art. New Zealand Potter, 36, (1), 17.
Hay, Graham. (1994). Paperclay, (Handout for paperclay workshop at Edith Cowan
University)
Hay, Graham (1994) personal communication, March to September 1994
Rassell, Jennie. (1993). Paper Clay, Rosette Galt at NCECA, San Diego 1993. New
Zealand Potter, 35 (2), 20.
More paperclay articles? click here.
Página 10 de 10 www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html
23/02/2007 http://www.grahamhay.com.au/miller1994.html

paper clay pure porcelain slabs with no grog or other refractory added. In addition I have tested a similar number of works in a ball clay /talc earthenware paperclay. The second section of this article explains what I learnt about carving down and modelling large solid chunks of paperclay porcelain at both soft and bone dry states. Paperclay porcelain combines easily with the light-weight fillers - perlite and vermiculite - to give an extra textural contrast to the smooth porcelain version. Plus this perlite paperclay porcelain: (RuffRock) is now a favourite lightweight filler choice to support thin slabs or weak areas of super smooth paperclay porcelain through to high fire. For this set of texture work, I was more interested in thickness and compatibility of Ruff Rock to Pearl bodies at high fire so I have not made made giant works of Ruff Rock as yet. Perhaps a daring reader will examine giant Ruff Rock in more detail in the future. New editions of my books about paperclay explain also the sand cast mould and construction methods I have also been exploring in recent years. HIGH FIRED PAPEPCLAY SCULPTURE My early experiments of large-scale tests were high temperature firing of a typical lowfire earthenware body (Rosetta Stone). I constructed a dozen or more earthenware figures and fired them kiln by kiln. Each one was single fired. I deliberately overfired these to cone 4 to 6 even though the ball clay/talc (50/50) casting slip body is rated at cone 04. Without paper traditional earthenware clay structures without any refractory such as grog, etc, start to collapse at about cone 1 and by cone 4-6 melt drown to a useless puddle of nondescript stone-like glass. In contrast, my paperclay version of earthenware (Rosetta Stone) stands tall. The fired result resembles a white stoneware in hardness and feel at cone 4. At around cone 6 or so, depending on the thickness of the walls of the form and the even temperature in the kiln, some figures started to slump or warp. If my approach might work as well for your work, test an earthenware clay for its suitability for high fire as a paperclay. Those of you who put red iron in earthenware will have to bring the temperatures down at least two or three cones because the iron may have a melting effect at temperatures in this range. LARGE SCALE HIGH FIRE TRADITIONAL PORCELAIN BASE PAPEPCLAY After success with the low-fire versions of large shapes, I built another dozen shoulder height forms in my favourite porcelain for trials by high fire. Again, no grog or any additive other than the pulp was in my base recipe. I planned to put the forms to the maximum handling abuse and break as many rules of construction as possible to find the edge of possibility before collapse. I had been humbled by a kiln load of warped porcelain paperclay in forms overfired during a residency in Bechyne, Czech Republic, in 1996. Rather than blame the overfired, I wondered what other information could be gleaned from this loss. Was it the paper? No. Might the warping under stress have something to do with my assembly method? Perhaps I wanted to sculpt more than I wanted to align my intention with the natural properties of clay. Paperclay allows me to assemble at bone dry by a variety of means.

SPECIALTY MIXTURES OF PAPERCLAYS FOR LARGE PROJECI'S If you are not sure where to start, adapt my recipes for large-scale freestanding and wall works given here. Test fire, I cannot be responsible for non-standard materials, events and results clearly beyond my control. I use recycled paper but I have indicated volumes of pulp by standard toilet roll to help the student with a starting point for the volume measure of proportion. Uniform dispersal of

the result is a soft normal earthenware. Use giant barrels. overglazes. Texture bone dry: Absorbs water when dipped. and refire if desired. any time.the fibre through the clay mass is the key reason wedging pulp in does not work correctly Rosetta Stone . not for beginners to try. white. One (1) medium bucket (same size) of wet strained bulk of pulp plus or minus handfuls and inches. Silver and Metallic Lustre. Sinter Fired: Carves off in fine powder. the higher you fire it. Suitable for outdoors in frost and thaw too. but don't try to make this pulp in this same bucket. Test first if you fire red iron-bearing terracotta or maiolica-type paperclay beyond cone 1. the fuel. the tongs. engobes. Substitutions/Adaptation: Raku: Good anytime. Can treat surface with any and all commercial glazes. Gold.bisque to 04 or more. At this temperature. Torn paper from 10.High Pulp Paper Clay for Sculpture Cone 8 plus . slip. Base Clay Options: if you substitute an iron bearing red terracotta blended clay as base for the earthenware base. When one knows the kiln. Mid Range (Cone 4 to 6): Hard as a rock. A heavy red iron concentration acts as a melting as well as colouring agent. Stick to the recommended lower temperatures cone 05-02. etc. Resembles white stoneware. Slakes down overnight or sooner. sculpture recipe for many years. stains work well. Normal slips. China Paint.Cone 03 to 04. The above is my high-fire low-fire high-pulp all purpose. Best to apply over already fired gloss glazes in multiple Fires. the tools. Thin walls soften a little when soaked a while.Earthenware High Pulp Paper Clay for Sculpture Cone 04 to 4 normal (maximum cone 6) Two (2) medium buckets (use same size buckets to measure this) prepared white earthenware base (rated cone 04-05) or buckets of standard prepared casting slip rated for cone 06. glaze. Texture after fire: Smooth. Decal Fires: cone 032. putty-like. Takes underglaze. bone-dry single firing works. etc. stains. Porcelain Pearl . Too hard to carve by hand but use power tool. opaque or transparent underglazes. any kiln. slip. glazed and not glazed. etc. Takes underglaze. how the shapes heat up. and where best to place them. the more dense and hard the fired paperclay body feels to touch after cone 4.05. until you are experienced in fire. stains.12 rolls of bargain-priced toilet tissue is equivalent to about eight bulkier rolls of deluxe brands. engobe. Vessel will seep water without a finish gloss glaze or other sealant. engobe. it fires red to brown. Avoid lumps and clumps. Texture before firing: Smooth. Resists water but may not be 100 per cent watertight.. Low-fire texture .

Raku: Good anytime. Reduction or oxidation atmospheres. Texture before firing: Smooth. stains. glaze. Serious heavy duty power tools are needed to alter the surface at this stage. bone-dry single fire is realistic. Substitute vermiculite if white at high temperature not important. it will be possible to carve. 1 medium bucket of pulp.Two (2) medium buckets of prepared porcelain (cone 10) high-fire casting slip. Bisque to cone 03 or more first. the mass has to be packed tightly until it sets. Thin walls soften a little when soaked for a while.) Thin areas become translucent at cone 8. I like it . Best to apply over already fired gloss glazes. cone 03. Slakes down overnight or sooner.10 High Fired Texture Body Two (2) medium buckets (5 gal. (Torn paper from 10. avoid or minimise airborne dust clouds. but still easy to handle. The more perlite you add the more crumbly and non clay-like the body seems. indicate the structure is stable and built well. Dare to fire to cone 10 only if walls are thick enough and other factors mentioned. Sinter fire: Carves like soft soapstone. plus or minus handfuls. plus or minus handfuls or scoops as needed. Texture bone dry: Absorbs water when dipped. This is a variation on Porcelain Pearl with perlite added so it is short and fires light too. dense. engobe. Start with buckets of prepared liquid casting or pouring slip rather than bags of dry-blended powdered clay.Gruff-Rock .12 rolls of bargain-priced toilet tissue equivalent to eight bulkier rolls of a deluxe brand. how the shapes heat up.. China Paint. (use paper from 10-12 rolls of bargain-priced toilet tissue equivalent to eight bulkier rolls of a deluxe brand. etc. stains. cone 032. Takes underglaze. the tongs.. the fuel. Decal Fires. plus or minus handfuls. Substitutions/Adaptation: Base Clay Options: If you substitute stoneware throwing clay as base for the porcelain – paperclay fires tan to brown. handle with extreme care. Does not slake down in water. When mixing batches in the studio. Ruff-Rock . If thin walled fire to cone 8 and play it safe. engobe. Carves like a dry cosmetic-grade sponge. putty-like. It would be far easier to work surfaces before high fire. When one knows the kiln. Silver and Metallic Lustre. and just where best to place them. Biscuit fire: At cone 08 may be quite soft. Texture after firing: Super smooth. Cold. High Fire (cone 8 to 10): Hard as a rock. At higher bisque. slip. / 10 litre) prepared porcelain (cone 10) high-fire casting slip 1/2 medium bucket of pulp. the tools. slip. and is.Porcelain High Pulp Cone 8.) 1/2 medium bucket granular perlite. If a lot of perlite is added. Perlite is found at gardening suppliers and has a good affinity to high pulp porcelain paper clay and it fires white. Takes underglaze. etc.

Silver and Metallic Lustre. Gloss glaze to resist moisture. a bone dry single fire is fine. Texture bone dry. Mien one knows the kiln. Softens. strong. slip. the tools. lightweight. Takes underglaze. irregular granulated pock marks. if fired to the right temperature. Sinter fire: Carves like frozen chunky peanut butter. Bisque to cone 03 or more first. At cone 03 it is possible to carve. Takes underglaze. glaze. Raku: Good anytime. Absorbs water when dipped or sprayed. Biscuit fire. glaze. Best to apply over already-fired gloss glazes. etc. and where best to place them. Carves more like a dry kitchen sponge. At cone 08 the work may be soft. etc. etc. stains. Cold. handle with extreme care. engobe. Texture after fire: Surface has openings like a coarse utility sponge. how the shapes heat up. Substitutons/Adaptation: Base Clay Options: If you substitute stoneware throwing clay as a base for the porcelain-fires tan to brown. Decal Fires: fire to cone 032. Texture before firing: Short when moist. Serious power tools needed. Takes underglaze. China Paint. High Fire (cone 8 to 10): Hard as a rock. stains. engobe. slip. then slakes when soaked over time. engobe. the tongs. slip. stains. the fuel. . Carves like frozen chunky peanut butter.for a lightweight ceramic putty filler and in the interiors behind super thin Porcelain Pearl slab shells for stablilising vulnerable areas of large scale forms. glaze.

º·¾®».°±²¬«-»¿«¨ ±« ¬®¿ª»®-».»² -«-°»²-·±²ò Ô» º±®³»® ó ½¸—--·.¶±«®-ô »²¬®» ¼¿²´».-±² ¿¬»´·»® ˜ п®·-ô ®’¿´·-¿²¬ ´» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²»ò Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»®ô ¿®¬·-¬» °»·²¬®» ¼» -±² ’¬¿¬ô ª·»²¬ ¼» ³»¬¬®» ¿« °±·²¬ ´» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» øï÷ô «²» ³¿¬·‘®» ¹’²·¿´» °¿® ´¿ ³’¬¸±¼» ¼» º¿¾®·½¿¬·±² »¬ -«®¬±«¬ °¿® ´».¯«· »² ®’-«´¬»²¬ò Ô¿ ²±«ª»¿«¬’ ¼» ½»¬¬» ·²ª»²¬·±² »ºº»½¬«’» °¿® ´K·²ó ¬»®³’¼·¿·®» ¼» ´K¿¬»´·»® ¿²²»¨’ ˜ ´¿ Ó¿²«º¿½¬«®» ¼» Í‘ª®».¼» ¾±·.ÐßÐ×ÛÎ ÐÑÎÝÛÔß×ÒÛ ×ÒÊÛÒÌ×ÑÒ ÜÛ ÖÛßÒóÐ×ÛÎÎÛ Þ•ÎßÒÙÛÎ Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® ¼¿².¼».-±«½· -½®«°«´»«¨ ¼».-«® ´»¯«»´ -±²¬ ¬»²¼«.»² ¾±·.«² ¾¿½ »² °´¿-¬·¯«»ô ½»¬¬» °®’°¿®¿¬·±² -»®¬ ¼» ¾¿-» ˜ ´¿ º¿¾®·½¿¬·±² ¼« °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²»ò ß« ³±³»²¬ ¼» ´¿ º¿¾®·½¿¬·±²ô »´´» »-¬ ¼·´«’» »¬ ¾®¿--’» »² ª«» ¼» ´¿ ®»²¼®» ¸±³±¹‘²» »¬ ¼» ³»¬¬®» ´».°®±°±®ó ¬·±²-ô »´´» »-¬ ³’´¿²¹’» ˜ ´¿ ¾¿®¾±¬·²» ¼» °—¬» ¼«®» ¯«·ô °»²¼¿²¬ ¯«»´¯«».¼» ½»¬¬» -¬®«½¬«®» ¼» ®»½¸»®½¸»ò ï ó Ô» °¿°·»® »² ³¿½’®¿¬·±² ¼¿².´K»¿« ´·¾‘®» ´».°»®ó ³·.-«® ¼».²K¿ °¿.´» ¾¿·²ô ±² »² ®»¬·®» «²» ½±«½¸» ¼» º·¾®».¿°°´·½¿ó ¬·±².°¿¹».¼K»² º¿·®» ’¬¿¬ ¼¿².¼» ½»´´«´±-»ò ÔK»²-»³¾´» ¾®±§’ ¿« ³·¨»«® ¼» ½«·-·²» ½±²-¬·¬«» ´¿ °«´°» ¼» °¿°·»®ò Í¿².º·´¼» ´¿·¬±² ³¿·²¬»²«.ó ®»“±·¬ «² ½¿¼®» »² ¾±·-ò î ó Ý» ¼·-°±-·¬·º °×±²¹’ ¼¿².º·¾®».øî÷ ¿«¨ ¿½¬·ª·¬’.º·¾®».¼» ½»´´«´±-»ò ݱ²-»®ª’» ¼¿².´» ¼»®²·»® ²«³’®± ¼» ´¿ 몫» ¯«· ½±²-¿½®¿·¬ °±«®¬¿²¬ °´«-·»«®.»¬ ´K»¿« -K’½±«´»ò Ô¿ 몫» ¼» ´¿ Ý’®¿³·¯«» »¬ ¼« Ê»®®»ô ²• íìô ³¿·ñ¶«·² ïçèé ìé .

¼».°®±ó °±®¬·±².¼·ºº·½«´¬’.-«® ´» ½¸»ª¿´»¬ò è ó Ѳ ´·¾‘®» ´¿ º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»® °±®½»ó ´¿·²» ¿ª»½ «²» °±·²¬» ¼» ½¿²·ºò Ѳ ¬®¿²-ó °±®¬» ½»¬¬» º»«·´´» ¿ª»½ «² ±«¬·´ »² Ì »¬ ±² ´¿ ¼’°±-» -«® «²» °´¿¯«» ¼» °´—¬®»ò ç óߪ»½ «² °·²½»¿« ½¸·²±·-ô ±² ¿°°´·¯«» ´¿ º»«·´´» ¼» º¿“±² ˜ ½» ¯«K»´´» -±·¬ ¾·»² ´·--» °±«® -’½¸»®ò Ô¿ º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» »-¬ ¿´±®.´».½±²¼·¬·±².æ »² -’½¸¿²¬ô »´´».¼K±¾ó ¬»²·® «²» º»«·´´» °´¿¬»ò ߺ·² ¼K»¨°’®·ó ³»²¬»® ¼¿².´K±®¼®» ¼».¼K«²» ½’®¿³·-¬» ½±®’»²ó ²»ò ×´.°±--·¾·´·¬’.¿°°´·½¿¾´»˜ ¬±«¬».«²» ´’¹‘®» °®»--·±² -«® ´».¼·ºº’®»²½».¬»®³·²’»ò ïð ó Ô¿ º»«·´´» -‘½¸» °»«¬ -» ®’¸«³·¼·º·»® »¬ ¹¿®¼» -¿ -±«°´»--» »¬ -±² ·²¬’¹®·¬’ò ïï ó Ì®¿²-´«½·¼·¬’ ¼K«²» º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²»ò .¬«®¾«´»²¬»ô ¿º·² ¼» °±«ó ª±·®ô ¼K«²» ½»®¬¿·²» ³¿²·‘®»ô ¼»-½»²¼®» ¼¿².¼» °¿°·»®ò Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® -K»-¬ ·³³’¼·¿ó ¬»³»²¬ ·²¬»®®±¹’ -«® ´».°®±ó °®·’¬’.¿ª»½ ´¿ °—¬» ˜ °±®½»´¿·²» ¼» Í‘ª®»-ô Ö»¿²ó з»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® º«¬ º®¿°°’ °¿® -¿ ¬®¿²-ó ´«½·¼·¬’ò ×´ ¿ ¬±«¬» ¼» -«·¬» ®»--»²¬· ¯«K»´´» ²K»-¬ °¿.®»³¿®ó ¯«¿¾´»ô »´´».½¿´½«´.¼» ½»¬¬» ³¿¬·‘®»ô ´».¬®¿ó ª¿«¨ ˜ Í‘ª®».½±²-·-¬¿·»²¬ »² ¼’°‡¬ ¼» ¾¿®¾±¬·ó ²» -«® ¼« °¿°·»®ò Ü».¼±½·´».»-¬ -«ºó º·-¿²¬ô ±² °´¿½» ´K»²-»³¾´» -±«.¼» ®»¬®¿·¬ô ·´ ®’-«´¬¿·¬ «²» º»«·´´» ½±«®¾»ô -¿².°—¬».«²» ¿°°®’¸»²ó -·±² ¬®¿¼·¬·±²²»´´» ¼» ´¿ °—¬» ¼«®»ô ´K¿®ó ¬·-¬» ¿ó¬ó·´ ’¬’ ½±²¼«·¬ -«® ´¿ ª±·» ¼» ´¿ ®»½¸»®½¸» ¼« °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» á Ü»°«·.-·³·´¿·®».°±²¬«ó -»¿«¨ô ´» º±®³»® -«® «² ®»½¬¿²¹´» ¼» º»«¬®»ò Ô¿ º»«·´´» -» ¼’¬¿½¸» »¬ ®»-¬» -«® ´» º»«¬®»ò ë ó Ô±®-¯«» ´» ²±³¾®» ¼» º»«·´´».¯«· -» -«½½‘¼»²¬ò Í· ´» ¾¿·² ³¿²¯«» ¼» ½¸¿®¹»ô ±² ¿¶±«¬» ¼« ³’´¿²¹» °«´°» ¾¿®¾±¬·²»ò ˲ °®±¾´‘³» ¼» ®»½¸»®½¸» Ü‘.¼».®·¹±«ó ®»«¨ô «²» ³·²«¬·» »¨½»°¬·±²²»´´»ò Ó¿·.´».ݱ³³»²¬ô -«® ½» -«¶»¬ -· -±«ª»²¬ ¿¾±®¼’ ¼« °¿°·»® ½’®¿³·¯«»ô Ö»¿²ó з»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® ¿ó¬ó·´ °±-’ ´» °®±¾´‘³» »¨°’®·³»²¬¿´ ¿ª»½ ´¿ °±®½»´¿·²» ¼» Í‘ª®».´¿ °®»--»ô ±² »¨°«´-» ´K»¿« °¿® °®»--¿¹»ò ê ó Ѳ »²´‘ª» ´» °®»³·»® º»«¬®» »¬ ±² ¬®¿²-°±®¬» ´¿ °®»³·‘®» º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» »² ¹¿®¼¿²¬ ´» ¼»«¨·‘³» º»«¬®» ½±³³» -«°°±®¬ò é ó Ô¿ º»«·´´» »-¬ ®»¬±«®²’» ½±²¬®» «²» °´¿²½¸» ¼» ¾±·.»¬ ·´ ¿ ½±²-·¼’®’ ´».»¬ ´¿ ¾¿®¾±¬·²» ¼» °±®½»´¿·²» ±²¬ ¼».á ݱ³³»²¬ ´K¿ó¬ó·´ ®’-±´« »¬ ¯«»´´».»² °—¬» ¼«®»ô -«¾-¬¿²½» ½¸±·-·» °±«® ´»¼·ºº·½«´¬’.°±«® ¿¬¬»·²¼®» ´» ®’-«´¬¿¬ æ ´» ¼’°‡¬ ¼» ¾¿®¾±¬·²» -«® ¼« °¿°·»® ±®¼·²¿·®»ô ½K»-¬ó˜ó¼·®» ½±²-¬·¬«’ ìè Ô¿ 몫» ¼» ´¿ Ý’®¿³·¯«» »¬ ¼« Ê»®®»ô ²• íìô ³¿·ñ¶«·² ïçèé ì ó л« ¿°®‘-ô ±² °®±½‘¼» ¿« ½±«½¸¿¹» ¼» ´¿ °®»³·‘®» º»«·´´» º±®³’»ô »² ¼’°±-¿²¬ô ¿°®‘.¼» ®»¬®¿·¬ô ´¿ ¼’º±®³¿¬·±² ˜ ´¿ °®»--·±²ô ´¿ º®¿¹·´·¬’ ˜ ´¿ ½«·--±²ò Ý»¬¬» ®»½¸»®½¸» »¨·¹»¿·¬ ¼».¼« º±®³»® »¬ ·´ »-¬ °±-’ »² ±¾´·¯«» å ´K»¿« ½±²¬·²«» ˜ -K’¹±«¬¬»® °»²¼¿²¬ ¯«K«² ¼»«¨·‘³» º±®ó ³»® »-¬ ³·.°´«-·»«®.³±§»².»¬ ®»ª»²·® ª»®.-».-» ®’¬®¿½¬»²¬ »¬ô º¿·¬ »²½±®» °´«.´«²»¬¬».¼» -±² ½±³°±®¬»³»²¬ øî÷ò ×´ ¿ »²-«·¬» ¼’½·¼’ ¼» ½»®²»® ´».½» ³¿¬’®·¿« º¿²¬¿-ó ¬·¯«» °»®³»¬ó·´ ¼K»-°’®»® ¿« ®»¹¿®¼ ¼» ´¿ °±®½»´¿·²» ¬®¿¼·¬·±²²»´´» á í ó Ѳ »²´‘ª» ´» ½¿¼®» ¼» ¾±·.½±³³»²¬ô ¼¿².»¨°´±·¬’» ½±³³» »´´» ´» ³’®·¬»ò ͱ«½·»«¨ ¼» ½±²²¿Œ¬®» ¼K¿¾±®¼ ´K«¬·´·-¿¬·±² ¬®¿¼·¬·±²²»´´» ¼« ³¿¬’®·¿«ô ·´ ¿ ®’¿´·-’ ¼».°´«.´·³·¬».¼» °±®½»´¿·²»ô ·´ ¿ ½¸±·-· ¼» ¬®¿ª¿·´´»® -«® ´¿ °—¬» ¼«®» ¼» Í‘ª®»-ô ´¿ °´«.¿²²’».°—¬».½±²¬¿½¬.º·¾®».°®±°®·’ó ¬’.¼»³¿²¼’ -»´±² ¯«»´´» ¬»½¸ó ²·¯«» ·´ °±«®®¿·¬ ¶±·²¼®» ´».Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® -K·²¬’®»--» ¿« °¿°·»® øî÷ò ×´ ¿ ½±²-¬¿¬’ ¯«» ´».°®»³·»®.°¸’²±ó ³‘²».¼»«¨ -«¾ó -¬¿²½».°®±½¸»-ò Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® -K»-¬ ¿´±®.¬»²«» »¬ °¿® ¿·´´»«®-ô -±«·´´’» ¼» ®»-¬».»² ¶»« °±«® ®»½±³³»²½»® ´K±°’®¿¬·±²ò Ѳ ½±«ª®» ´¿º»«·´´» ¿ª»½ «² ¼»«¨·‘³» ®»½¬¿²¹´» ¼» º»«¬®»ò ÔK±°’®¿¬·±² »-¬ ®’°’¬’» °±«® ¬±«¬».-» ®’¬®¿½¬»²¬ ¼¿².¼».’¬¿°»-ô ½¸¿½«²» ¿²¿´§-’»ô º«®»²¬ ²’½»--¿·®».½»´´«´±-·¯«».®’½»²¬.øî÷ò д«-·»«®.º»«·´´».

»² ®»´¿¬·±² ¿ª»½ ´».¼« °´·¿¹» »¬ ¼« ¼’½±«°¿¹» °»«ª»²¬ •¬®» ®’¿´·-’.˜ ´¿ º±·´’¹»®.¼±²¬ ´¿ ³·²½»«® ’¹¿´» ˜ ½»´´» ¼« °¿°·»® -«®°®»²¼ »² ½±³°¿®¿·-±² ¼» ½»´´» ±¾¬»²«» °¿® «²» º¿¾®·½¿¬·±² ¬®¿¼·¬·±²²»´´»ò Ý®«ô ´» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» »-¬ ¿«--· -±«°´» ¯«» ´» °¿°·»® å ±² °»« ´K»²®±«´»®ô ´» °´·»®ô ´» ¼’½±«°»®ô ´» °»®º±®»®ô ´» ½±´±®»®ò ß°®‘¸«³·¼·º·½¿¬·±²ô ·´ ²K»¨·¹» ¿«½«²» °®’ó ½¿«¬·±² °¿®¬·½«´·‘®» ¼» ³¿²·°«´¿¬·±² å ±² °»«¬ ´K·³°®·³»® ¿«¨ ±¨§¼»-ô ´K»-ó ¬¿³°»® »¬ ±¾¬»²·® ¿´±®.¯«» ¬±«¬ °¿°·»® ½±²-«³’ ´¿·--» ¼».¬¿--».°®±ó °®·’¬’.«² ³•³» °®±½»--«¼» º¿¾®·½¿¬·±²ò Ô».·³°±--·¾´».º·¾®».º¿½·´»³»²¬ ¼»º±®³».½»²¼®»-ò ×½·ô ¿«½«²» ¬®¿½» ½±´±®’» °®±ª»²¿²¬ ¼» -»´³·²’®¿«¨ ²K¿°°¿®¿Œ¬ò ß ´¿ ¾´¿²½¸»«® ’½´¿¬¿²¬» ¼» ´¿ °±®½»´¿·²» -K¿¶±«¬» «²» ¬®¿²-´«½·¼·¬’ ®»³¿®¯«¿¾´» ¶«-¯«»ó´˜ ·²’¹¿´’» ¼¿².¼» º·¾®».¼» ´¿ ³·²½»«® »¬ ¼» ´¿ -¬®«½¬«®» ´¿½«²¿·®» »¬ °®±¼«·¬ ¼».’¬±²²¿²¬»Ô» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» -» °®’-»²¬» -±«.˜ °¿®¬·® ¼» º»«·´´»-ò Ý».’¬±²²¿³³»²¬ ¼«®».°±´§ó ½¸®±³»-ò ˲» ¿«¬®» «¬·´·-¿¬·±² ½±²-·-¬» ˜ º±®³»® ¼».°±«® -«¾-¬¿²½».°®±°®·’¬’.½±²¬®¿-¬»¼K±³¾®» »¬ ¼» ´«³·‘®» ¼±²¬ ´K»¨°´±·¬¿ó ¬·±² »-¬¸’¬·¯«» ²K»-¬ ¯«K˜ °»·²» »²¬®»ó ª«»ò ¬·±²-ò ̱«.-±®¬».½±³³«²» ³»-«®» ¿ª»½ ½» ¯«· ¿ °« •¬®» º¿¾®·¯«’ ¶«-¯«»ó´˜ò Ô¿ -±«°´»--» ¼».½»´´«´±-·¯«».»-°’ó ®¿²½»-ò Ü».½±³³» ´» Ö¿°±² °¿®¬·½«´·‘®»³»²¬ -»²-·¾´» ¿«¨ ¼»«¨ ³¿¬’®·¿«¨ ¼» ¾¿-»ô ²» ´».¼¿².½±³³» ¾¿-»ò Ò±¬±².°®±°®·’¬’.¼» ½±²-¬®«½¬·±²¹’±³’¬®·¯«».-¿²¿«½«² °®±¾´‘³»ò Í°’½·¿´·-¬» »² ½» ¼±³¿·²» øí÷ Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® ³»¬ ¿« °±·²¬ ¬±«¬».°±®¬’»˜ ¸¿«¬» ¬»³°’®¿¬«®»ò п®¿¼±¨» ¼« °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» æ ½±²¬®¿·®»³»²¬ ˜ ´¿ °±®½»´¿·²» ¬®¿¼·¬·±²²»´´»ô -¿ ³¿²·¿¾·´·ó ¬’ »-¬ ¼K¿«¬¿²¬ °´«.¼» ½’®¿ó ³·¯«» ¼±·ª»²¬ ˜ ´¿ °»®-°·½¿½·¬’ ¼» Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® ´K±ºº®¿²¼» ¼K«²» ³¿¬·‘®» ¾»´´»ô -·³°´»ô ½´¿·®» ¼±²¬ ´» °±«ª±·® ´«³·²·º‘®» ®»²ª±·» ¿« -§³¾±ó ´·-³» ¿´½¸·³·¯«»ò Ú®¿²“±·-» Û-°¿¹²»¬ øï÷ Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® ¬·»²¬ ˜ »³°´±§»® ´» ²±³ ¼» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» °±«® ¼’-·¹²»® -¿ ²±«ª»´´» ³¿¬·‘®»ò Û² ¬»®³» ¼» °¿°»¬·»®-ô ´» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» ½±®®»-°±²¼ ˜ ½» ¯«» ´» °«¾´·½ ½±²²¿Œ¬ -±«.´» ²±³ ¼» ½¿®¬» ˜ ¹®¿¬ó ¬»® å ·´ -K¿¹·¬ ¼K«² ½¿®¬±² ®»½±«ª»®¬ ¼K«²» ½±«½¸» ¼» µ¿±´·² -«® ´¿¯«»´´» ±² °¿--» «²» °»´´·½«´» ¼K»²½®» ¼» ݸ·²»ò ߪ»½ «²» °±·²ó ¬»ô ±² ¹®¿¬¬» æ ´¿ °»´´·½«´» -K»² ª¿ »¬ «²» ¹®¿ó ª«®» ¿°°¿®¿Œ¬ »² ¾´¿²½ -«® ´K»²½®» ¼» ݸ·²»ò øî÷ Ô¿ 몫»ô ²• ííô °ò ïê ˜ îëò øí÷ Öò óÐò Þ’®¿²¹»® ¼±²²» «² »²-»·¹²»³»²¬ -«® ´» °´·¿¹» »¬ ¿« Ö¿°±² ·´ -K»-¬ ·²º±®³’ -«® ´K±®·¹¿³·» ±« ¿®¬ ¼« °´·¿¹»ò ìç л®-°»½¬·ª».¼»«¨ ³¿¬·‘®».¹®¿²¼» ¯«» ´¿ º»«·´´» »-¬ ³·²½»ò ˲ ½¸¿³° ¼» °»®-°»½¬·ª».¼» ½»´´«´±-» »²½±´´’»-ô -K»-¬ »²½±®» -±´¼’ °¿® «²» º»«·´´» ¼» °±®½»ó ´¿·²» ¬¿½¸’» å ¼¿².°´¿-¬·¯«».¯«»´´».¼’°¿--»²¬ -».¼« °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²»ò ×´ °®±°±-» ¼’¶˜ ¼».®’«²·.»¬ °¿®¿¼±¨» Ó¿·.¼±²¬ ´¿ ¼’´·½¿¬»--» ¼» º±®³» »¬ ¼» ³·²½»«® »-¬ -¿².°¿·´´».«² ¼»«¨·‘³» ¬»³°-ô ´» ¬®»³°¿¹» ¼« °¿°·»® -¿².¿³¿¬»«®.´¿½«²»¯«· ®’-«´¬»²¬ ¼» ´¿ ¼·-°¿®·¬·±² ¼».´».½»´´«´±-·¯«».´·¹²»-ô ´» ²¿¬«®»´ ¼« ¹®¿·²ô ´K·²½·ó ¼»²½» ¼» ´¿ ´«³·‘®» -«¹¹‘®»²¬ «²» ²±«ó ª»´´» ²±¾´»--» °±«® ´¿ °±®½»´¿·²»ò п® ¿·´´»«®-ô ´¿ ½±´±®¿¬·±² ¼« ³’´¿²¹» °«´°» ¾¿®¾±¬·²» °»®³»¬ ¼».°»«ó ª»²¬ ½±²-¬·¬«»® ¼».¿®¬.¼·®»½ó Ô¿ 몫» ¼» ´¿ Ý’®¿³·¯«» »¬ ¼« Ê»®®»ô ²• íìô ³¿·ñ¶«·² ïçèé .»¨½»°¬·±²²»´´».¿¾¿¬ó¶±«® »¬ ¼».-K±«ª®»ô ¼±²¬ ±² ²» °»«¬ °®’ª±·® ²· ´K’¬»²¼«»ô ²· ´».¯«» ¼¿²½»´«· ¼» ´K·²¼«-¬®·»ò Ü»ª¿²¬ ´¿ -·³°´·½·¬’ ¼« °®±½’¼’ ¼» º¿¾®·½¿¬·±² ¼« °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» ±² °»«¬ -K’¬±²²»® ¯«K«² °¿§.°»®-°»½¬·ª».¿-°»½¬.º·¾®»¼» ½»´´«´±-» ¿« ½±«®.¼» °±®½»´¿·²»ô ½K»-¬ó˜ó¼·®» «²» -¬®«½¬«®» º»«·´´»¬’» å »² »ºº»¬ô ´» °¿°·»® °´¿½’ »² -¿²¼©·½¸ô »² ¼·-°¿®¿·-ó -¿²¬ ˜ ¸¿«¬» ¬»³°’®¿¬«®»ô ´¿·--» «² ª·¼»ò ß °¿®¬·® ¼» ´˜ô Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® ¿ »« ´K·¼’» ¼» ³’´¿²¹»® ·²¬·ó ³»³»²¬ ´».º±®³» ¼» º»«·´´».-«°°±®¬.½±´´» ¼¿²´¿ ¾¿®¾±¬·²»ô ˜ ´¿ ½«·--±²ô ¿ ¼±²²’ ¼»«¨ ’°¿·--»«®.¿·¬ ¶¿³¿·.¬«¾».»ºº»¬.-°’½«´¿¬·±²-ô ¿«--· ¾·»² ¼¿².°»«¬ó±² »²ª·-¿ó ¹»® ¿ª»½ ½» ³¿¬’®·¿« á Ö»¿²óз»®®» Þ’®¿²¹»® °®±°±-» ¼’¶˜ °´«-·»«®.´¿ °±®½»´¿·²»ò Û´´» ¬·»²¬ ˜ ´¿ º±·.¼« °¿°·»® »¬ ´¿ ¾¿®ó ¾±¬·²»ò Ô» ®’-«´¬¿¬ »-¬ -¿·-·--¿²¬ æ ·´ ±¾¬·»²¬ «²» º»«·´´» ¼» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» ¼±²¬ ´».¼K«¬·´·-¿ó ¬·±².¼» ´¿ ½«·--±²ò Ô¿ °±®±-·¬’ °»«¬ •¬®» -«°°®·³’» °¿® «²» ½¸¿®¹» ¼» ¾¿®¾±¬·²» »² -«®º¿½»ò Ô» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» ®»-¬·¬«» ´¿ ¬®¿³» ¸¿¾·¬«»´´» ¼« °¿°·»® »¬ ´» ¹®¿·² ¼’°»²¼ ¼» ½»´«· ¼».«¬·´·ó -’».»¬ ®’-·-¬¿²¬-ô -»®ª·® ¼» ³¿¬’®·»´ ¼K»²º±«®²»³»²¬ô ¼» ´·¹¿¬«®»-ò Ô» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» °»«¬ »²½±®» ½±²-¬·ó ¬«»® ¼».´» ¼±³¿·²» ¼».º·´¬®».¼» ¾¿-» æ ´»º·¾®».˜ ·³¿¹·²»® ¿ª»½ ´¿ °±®½»´¿·²» ¬®¿¼·¬·±²²»´´»ò Ý«·¬ô ´» °¿°·»® °±®½»´¿·²» ¹¿®¼» «²» ½»®¬¿·²» -±«°´»--» »¬ º´±¬¬» -«® ´K»¿« ³¿´¹®’ ´¿ °±®±-·¬’ ½±³°¿®¿¾´» ˜ ½»´´» ¼« °¿°·»® ¾«ª¿®¼ò Û´´» -» ¶«-¬·º·» °¿® ´».

ceramicstoday.University of New South Wales to investigate the properties and potential of porcelain paperclay. My studio work is concerned with the vulnerability of being human. I have been searching for a medium that will convey fragility and vulnerability but one that also has a degree of permanence. My aims were twofold. with the dynamics of how we interact as a community and the consequent processes of acceptance and rejection. Reprinted by permission. I began a research project with the assistance of a Faculty Research Grant from The College of Fine Arts.Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens Página 1 de 5 Home | Articles | CT Update | Gallery | Contact | Search Links A-Z Antiques & Collectibles Architectural Ceramics Artists & Potters Ceramics in the USA Ceramic Societies Ceramics & Women Ceramic Supplies Commercial Sites Competitions Educational Institutions Events Calendar Galleries Glass Arts Paperclay Glaze Software Health and Safety History & Archaeology Industrial Ceramics Kilns & Firing Magazines Museums Porcelain Potteries Raku Repair & Restoration Sculpture Styles Techniques Teapots Technical Info Theory & Criticism Tiles Tuition & Workshops Virtual Ceramics Wedgwood West Coast Funk Woodfiring Articles An Investigation into the Properties of Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens Originally published in Ceramics Technical. 2000. In early 2000 I had read an article by Steve Harrison ‘The making of paperclay porcelain banners’ (Pottery in Australia 37/2 1998 p68-69). It seemed that this medium had potential for the type of sculpture I wanted to produce. Harrison describes how he makes paperthin porcelain banners of translucency that can be imprinted with "tools fingers and objects". http://www. In this article.Ceramics Today .com/articles/porcelain_paperclay. Hence. In July. the juxtaposition of light and shadow has held significance for me as a metaphor for inclusion and exclusion.htm 23/02/2007 .

which allowed for easier blending.com/articles/porcelain_paperclay. I mixed the paper pulp in a similar way and with about the same amount of water. I wanted to find a way of imprinting thin sheets of this body with a photographic image to produce a watermarked effect. of pressing a photographic image into the clay body.ceramicstoday. That is.Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens Firstly. using some appropriate kind of intaglio printing plate. The ceramic fibre helps to stabilize the body after the paper pulp has burnt out at 250ºC and stops the thin sheets from cracking "along the stress lines created by the decoration". The resultant body was sticky. totally inappropriate for holding the imprint of a recognizable photographic image. Photographic Imprints http://www. Secondly. was removed by heaping the clay on a plastic tarpaulin and allowing the clear water to run off over a few days. The initial process of familiarizing myself with porcelain paperclay body proved to be not as straightforward as I anticipated. would produce a photographic watermark. I wanted to find a way (without using any ink). I wanted to explore the potential of this body for producing 3D forms that would lend themselves to illumination.htm 23/02/2007 . but I used boiling water this time. to help break down the fibres. until satisfied with its homogeneous consistency. The result of my first batch was coarse textured and short. in order to yield a heavily embossed image which when backlit. To produce a finer textured body I used shredded ceramic fibre (rather than ceramic blanket which I had used initially. The ceramic fibre and paper pulp were then thoroughly mixed with the blunger and the other dry ingredients were added. The extra water in the mix. I found the easiest way to work with it was to roll it into slabs between sheets of heavy-duty plastic.Ceramics Today . that had to be laboriously torn into tiny pieces) and mixed it with a heavy-duty blunger in about four liters of water. My starting point was his recipe for porcelain paperclay : l l Página 2 de 5 Clay Ceram 50 % Nepheline Syenite 50% Add l l l Ceramic fibre (1000˚C) 8 % Fine paper pulp 17 % Water 30% The clay body is fired to cone 8 in an electric kiln.

The clay held the imprint crisply and I was encouraged to think that a photographic image would be possible if the right type of ‘stamp’ (plate) could be found. I imprinted this image into a standard clay body and the imprint was sharp and readable.Ceramics Today . I roll the clay to a similar thickness to the Cyrel plate. spray the top of the slab with a fine mist of water and smooth the surface with a plastic ruler. With the help of Michael Keighery at the University of Western Sydney. This proved to be just what I was searching for. the solar plate was unsuitable for this process because the light sensitive emulsion on the plate was unable to maintain the sustained contact with the clay body necessary to imprint it. By drying the imprinted slab slowly over a few days I avoid any warping. The slab is then fired slowly on a flat even bed of white silica sand in an electric kiln to cone 8. An article in Ceramic Review May/June 2001 presented research by Helen Smith at the University of the West of England on the potential of using flexography to emboss paperclay with a photographic image. The emulsion absorbed moisture from the clay body. By using a printing press. this resilience was reduced and the readability of the image improved. These photocopies are produced with a special heat-sensitive paper which when passed through a PIAF machine reacts to raise the areas printed with ink to give a kind of Braille photocopy. readable surface for people with impaired vision. November 2000) I saw embossed photocopies of photographs that had been produced to make a tactile. Further inquires within the printing industry led me to a du Pont product named Cyrel®. Milperra. Unfortunately. The process duplicates even the minutest detail and the resulting stamp-like plate will effectively imprint the porcelain paperclay. The resilience of the high cellulose content in the body also prevented it from being able to hold the fine imprint to any degree that would produce an effective image.Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens Initial trials of imprinting the porcelain body with ceramic stamps were effective. I was able to produce a photographic 3D image. Página 3 de 5 http://www. When I repeated the process with the porcelain paperclay the resilience of the cellulose once again reduced the clarity of the image. I discovered that by allowing the paperclay mix to age (at least one month). I had used solar etching plates to produce photographic etchings in printmaking and thought it might be possible to use such a plate to imprint the clay. (Customs House Sydney. I then leave it to a dry leatherhard state and use a rolling pin to imprint the clay with the plate. entitled ‘Passages’. but the results read more as a silhouette than a photographic image. expanded and separated from the backing plate. Cyrel® is a flexible vinyl plate of approximately 10 mm thickness to which a photographic image can be transferred by placing a photographic transparency on the plate and exposing it to intense UV light.com/articles/porcelain_paperclay.ceramicstoday. In a photographic exhibition of work by Jenny Pollack and Louis Vidal.htm 23/02/2007 .

com/articles/porcelain_paperclay. Australia. its translucency and affinity for light. As Steve Harrison suggests. to my mind embodying all the fragility and vulnerability I had hoped to convey. Because of the health hazards associated with ceramic fibre and dry paper pulp.Ceramics Today . In the first instance where I wanted to convey a sense of precariousness and tension. At the time of writing. it can be painted with acrylic medium to give it strength and flexibility and the medium gives the surface an almost imperceptible luster. However. during firing. Early results have been most encouraging. http://www.htm 23/02/2007 . and the fragility of sanctuary. In another piece that addresses the effort that must go into the construction of sanctuary. I perforated the edges of the sheets and sewed them together. 3D Forms In my initial attempts to produce three-dimensional forms. the forms warped slightly and although in some cases this was acceptable.ceramicstoday. It was also possible to roll partially dried slabs into cylindrical forms. it was too ‘organic’ for the type of form I wished to produce at this point. Supervisor: Jacqueline Clayton. immense care had to be taken during drying to avoid warping. and its seeming fragility are qualities I intend to investigate further. cover as much of your body as possible with protective clothing. has presented possibilities for my studio practice. The results have been rewarding. I found the most effective construction technique was to work with leather hard or even totally dry slabs that had been cut to the desired shape with a sharp blade and to join them with a slightly drier than normal paper porcelain slip. The edges possible with this body. it is essential to use a facemask and gloves while mixing this body. For my purposes. Mix the clay in an area with sufficient ventilation and when touching the ceramic fibre. University of New South Wales.Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens Página 4 de 5 The fired porcelain paperclay is porous and fragile. I layered the sheets to create the 3D form. Porcelain paperclay while challenging traditional methods of production. even with meticulously built supports. I overcame this weakness by constructing the forms after firing. to my mind opening up enormous possibilities for future development. I experimented with various construction and firing techniques and although the paperclay was effective at the construction stage. Gaye Stevens was a M Des(Hons) candidate at the College of Fine Arts.

Links More Articles Página 5 de 5 © Ceramics Today http://www.com/articles/porcelain_paperclay.Porcelain Paperclay by Gaye Stevens Related Links: How to make Paperclay More on Paperclay .article by Graham Hay Paperclay .htm 23/02/2007 .ceramicstoday.Ceramics Today .

www." Within our social structure we are frequently defined by the roles and responsibilies we perform. The point Hay is emphasising is that a building is not the actual institution and it's never as completely rigid as it appears. Architectural elements are frequently used by Hay as metaphors for institutions and their processes. At its base it resembles classical architecture. It's quite a fragile structure with tension between those outside and those within it. which is a very hierarchical organisational base. "Rim to the Centre" comments on people as individuals.grahamhay.com. making contact with the centre.au/Ellery1995. government. The bell tower which is often found in classical architecture is used in the work titled "Ancient Tribe". "Buildings are not the actual institution and it's never as completely rigid as it appears.com. Hay's contact with business. the people are. A classic element from a traditional aesthetic is interpreted with almost whimsical instability.html Página 1 de 3 Reproduced with kind permission by the author Debra Ellery. "There is a block on the rim and a block on the tower. 1. and then the rim outside it. in some ways they hold us together. (34). and as a collective. and they regularly change.grahamhay. It was this versatility as a medium which attracted Graham Hay initially and he uses it to full advantage in his work. Paperclay is particularly useful as a medium because paper is a constant companion in the creation and maintenance of organisations and institutions. "Buildings are not the organisations.html 22/02/2007 . a metaphor for http://www. education and art establishments have formed the basis for analysis and comment on the position of institutions and organisations within the structure of society. Hay's interest in paperclay was established initially from contact with ceramic technologist Mike Kusnik during studies at Edith Cowan University.au/Ellery1995." This particular work was a major breakthrough for Hay in building open structures." A desire to make a structure which had hollow interior space visible through the external walls culminated in the work titled "Blooming Bureaucracy". 20-21 More articles on paperclay click here. they are a reference to the individual or groups of people. His purpose is to communicate and comment upon social issues in a way that aims to be intellectually and aesthetically stimulating. PROFILE: SOLD ON PAPERCLAY A look at the recent work of Graham Hay from Western Australia By DEBRA ELLERY Paperclay is an adaptive and innovative medium for the crafts practitioner who is willing to expand boundaries. The rim is like people around us. 1995. I was making an analogy between the centre. The articule appeared in a slightly different form in Pottery in Australia.

The use of the tongue as a challenge is a significant part of the Maori challenge once known as the "haka". He uses an earthenware slip for his paperclay base. In both "Rim to the Edge" and "Blooming Bureaucracy" he used a pottery wheel and a scalpel to cut rings of paperclay from slip cast slabs. In the working process Hay employs a variety of techniques.html Página 2 de 3 organisation. 4 Pour the porridge-like mixture onto a plaster slab. "Ancient Tribe" was built entirely horizontally. "Blooming Bureaucracy" could be based on the parliament buildings in Wellington. A resemblance to the traditional Maori food storage structure is evident in "Ancient Tribe".com.com.au/Ellery1995. A corrugated mould has been used in some areas of the structure along with string multi dipped in paperclay and shapes cut from paperclay slabs. 7 Recycle dry scraps by placing them in warm water. 6 Break or cut dry paperclay slabs into desired shapes before building. The influence of place and time is often shown in an unconscious way. The "ivory tower" connotes untouchable institutions remote from the real problems of everyday life. or alternatively. In discussing his firing schedule Hay emphasises that work can be fired and cooled very rapidly in the kiln. He further cut and joined these using paperclay in a squeeze bottle which was diluted to a ration of 1:5. Hay is a committed professional who throws all of his energy into creating.grahamhay. nicknamed "The beehive". many clay practitioners will follow suit. He willing expounds the virtues of paperclay to all who will listen. then 350C to 1100C with a soak of 30 minutes. The bright red tongues which scar the outside form indicate a challenge to the language and words spoken in these institutions.grahamhay. leaving for one hour. blended until pulped. If firing thin slabs Hay fires at 250C per hour to 200C. Holes were dug out with a knife to hold the string dipped in paperclay which forms the tongues. gives him the option of leaving work for extended periods of time. 5 Keep some paperclay slip aside in a plastic squeeze bottle for use as "glue".au/Ellery1995. is it allows him to work spontaneously. pour off http://www. only when it was dry enough.www. then he cools the kiln rapidly. Hay uses the tongue as a challenge in several of his works. To create the ivory hunting horn form in "Argument" Hay used a cast slab which was rolled and the surface scoured with a wire brush. GRAHAM HAY'S RECIPE 1 Shredded paper soaked in plenty of hot water. both equally effectively. Tongues are a provocative metaphor which Hay uses to issue a challenge to "ivory tower" institutions and organisations. This single blossom is indicative of the vulnerability of the top position. Hay grew up in the South Island of New Zealand and the influence of place and culture are evident to me in many of his structures. I believe as this medium becomes more familiar and widely used. This structure grows upwards and inwards leading to an apex where a lone flower blooms. 2 Remove excess water with sieve and sponge. 3 Mix 1/3 pulp with 2/3 clay slip by volume.html 22/02/2007 . One of the great advantages of paperclay as Hay sees it. Delicate work requires rapid firing. Traditionally this was a small structure built high on stilts supports to keep food safe from predators. it was turned upright and supported with bricks. "Argument" is based on an ivory hunting horn. Stick together with "glue".

com. 1995. 1. 45 x 10 x 11 cm .html excess water. 59 x 46 x 46 cm. (34). Earthenware Paperclay. Reproduced with kind permission by the author Debra Ellery.grahamhay.au/Ellery1995.html 22/02/2007 . The articule appeared in a slightly different form in Pottery in Australia. 9 When working and building with dry clay. Página 3 de 3 IMAGES: Ancient Tribe (1994). Porcelain Paperclay.com.grahamhay. Earthenware Paperclay. http://www.www. Blooming Bureaucracy (1994). Argument (1994).au/Ellery1995. 20-21 More articles on paperclay click here. Earthenware Paperclay with plaster base. 55 x 22 x 19 cm. a filter mask should be worn. 14 x 14 x 14 cm. 8 A few drops of detergent helps prevent the porridge from going off. All photographs by Victor France. From Rim to Centre (1994).

(1987) Paper/Clay. p. United Kingdom. I've written an article. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Ceramics Department of Goldsmiths for their bemused patience in seeing me through that period of study with the minimum of fuss even though they often witnessed books being packed into their precious new kilns instead of pots! At Goldsmiths.Página 1 de 6 Reproduced from Farrow. Transient Qualities This evolved from experiments http://www. Paper/Clay by Carol Farrow A frequent question during the one-year Fellow in Paperworks residency at Oxford Polytechnic last year was "What started you making paper?" My reply "Through ceramics" often caused surprise and because I've had many enquiries about how and why I use paper. this is because of a lack of appropriate firing facilities in my studio rather than a lack of desire to use this technique which I developed whilst studying ceramics on a post graduate course at Goldsmiths College. subsequently. a mixture of paper pulp and clay which enabled me to make and transport very large thin sheets of clay. will encourage more to try these techniques.com. I developed my own methods of firing paper and. April.html 22/02/2007 . which perhaps. Artists Newsletter. C..20-1.grahamhay. from a copy provided by and with the written permission of the Author.au/farrow1987. Although the majority of my current work is now in handmade paper.

com. This transformation of 'books' was not only departing totally from the utilitarian aspect of ceramics but pushing the limits of non-functional ceramics. corresponding in my mind to my preoccupation with the transient qualities of much of today's written matter. a visual catalogue of past experiences? The element of change brought about by heat to these books gave them another albeit short life. their own substance taking over from the printed word. usually bound with stainless steel wire to restrain them from 'opening up' during firing.Página 2 de 6 involving the firing of various materials other than clay. momentos. The finished pieces are not.au/farrow1987. I used paper in the form of books or magazine stacks. then. the resulting pieces being so fragile as to make handling from kiln to bench traumatic.grahamhay. or enclosed in saggars or under the weight of kiln furniture. this fragility appealed to me. It gave more importance to the look and feel of a 'book' than to its content. One of the materials was paper. was transformed to an extremely fragile ceramic material taking on interesting visual and physical properties. The book had become an object with purely visual and tactile qualities and the reading (handling) of it altered and eventually destroyed it. I found that paper containing a high percentage of china clay (magazine or glossy paper) when fired to high temperatures (1300oC). as http://www.html 22/02/2007 . However. How often do we read or reread books on our shelves? How much are they just symbols.

I tested different proportions of pulp to clay and will mention this briefly later. I also tried draining the pulped paper and mixing it with casting slip then casting in the normal way to give a lighter more translucent cast but I did Book. but are completely controlled by the firing techniques and the knowledge of how different papers react at various temperatures.com. formed in the kiln purely by chance. coloured with oxides. I then spread this mixture which had the consistency of soft butter onto a surface to dry. I often used a plaster surface which aided drying. I ran out of 'books' to fire and turned to making my own paper. and forming them into sheets in the traditional papermaking fashion and then began to add clay slips to the pulp before forming.grahamhay. I pulped ordinary (non china clay) paper or cotton linters until it was fibrillated then mixed it well with a clay slurry (ordinary clay broken down well in water). or cast the mix directly onto a paper or card surface. paper/clay mix cast onto card fired to 1300oC. I tried beating/pulping various papers using a glaze mixer.html . 22/02/2007 http://www. draining off the excess water. It is not the element of chance but that of change which is integral to each piece. I quickly abandoned the idea of sheet forming in the traditional way and opted for a more direct method.Página 3 de 6 some critics have suggested.au/farrow1987. Clay & Pulp As my work progressed. giving me another aspect of control over my basic materials.

paper fired to 1300oC. such http://www. Ceramic Sheets Using a similar 50/50 mixture. after firing. casting various surfaces up to five feet high. In this way. For the purposes of solid casting.grahamhay. thin.com. rakud. I would have liked to have made tests at higher temperatures but did not have access to higher firing kilns.html 22/02/2007 This story has no end. It was this method that I used to the greatest extent in my own work. These surfaces were very receptive to sawdust firing techniques. transparent raku glaze. flat sheets of paper/clay which in the green state had the fibrous strength of paper and after firing produced light ceramic sheets. None of these solid casts broke in firing but I slowed down the firing cycle slightly and the cooling as a precaution. were relatively porous and light. The finished pieces were fragile but I believe that any thin sheets of ceramic up to five feet high would have been hazardous to transport. other additives. . I filled large moulds with the clay/pulp mix and did not drain them. solid casts could be made and fired which. I am sure that to make. I found that I could make very large. With the solid casts a mixture of 75% pulp to 25% clay gave a pitted surface and was very light weight. transport and fire such large sheets of clay in studio conditions without the fibre content would have been extremely difficulty. sawdust fired pulp/casting slip base.au/farrow1987.Página 4 de 6 not develop this. All of these paper/clay pieces were fired to the maximum kiln temperatures in electric or gas kilns.

Clays that I preferred were grogged (T Material). heavier but still a little porous. Both walls were built leaving gaps for heat to circulate. Mixture 75% pulp to 25% clay slurry was the lightest and most porous/fragile mix. 50% pulp to 50% clay slurry was less porous but stronger for larger pieces. The largest kiln was 5' high by 3' wide and deep. worked equally as well. The pieces of paper/clay were stood upright against the kiln bricks. I tried several methods. Firing The firing procedure for the very large slabs was as follows. a thin layer of ceramic fibre was placed between each piece. If several pieces were being fired together.grahamhay. The most successful was to build a staggered support wall of kiln bricks inside the kiln.com. Finally an enclosing support wall of kiln bricks was constructed.au/farrow1987.Página 5 de 6 as sawdust. 25% pulp to 75% clay slurry was stronger. The firing cycle was Kiln brick support wall in 5' high kiln. Another advantage in adding pulp to the clay was in cutting the cost of the clay.html 22/02/2007 . I also enjoyed the paper-like qualities of the fired mixture and the porosity after high firing. Ideally they should have been fired flat on a bed of alumina. but fired higher than the normal firing range. http://www. or casting slip (Harrison and Mayer). but as they had to be fired standing. The real advantage in the addition of pulp to the clay was to give fibrous strength in the forming of large sheets.

Página 6 de 6 normal to 1300oC except that at about 250oC smoke was given off from the pulp.com. (1987) Paper/Clay. Read more journal articles here http://www. Farnham and Portsmouth City Museum and Art Gallery. this was least problematic and time-consuming. from a copy provided by and with the written permission of the Author. Paper/clay pieces separated by ceramic fibre (large kiln props were removed before the final enclosing wall was built). Reproduced from Carol Farrow. The Paperworks Fellowship was based in the Design Department of Oxford Polytechnic in the Paperworks Mezzanine. This lasts for 10-15 minutes depending on the quantity being fired therefore an extraction system is advisable. I did not find the smoke detrimental to the kiln in any way or to other 'normal' clay work in the kiln. an offshoot of Ivor Robinson's 'Bookworks' Course. United Kingdom.grahamhay.20-1.au/farrow1987. April.html 22/02/2007 . If smaller pieces could be fired flat on a thin bed of alumina. p. Bracknell on Aust 22 until September 27 moving on to West Surrey College. Colour can be added to basic clay/paper mix by adding oxides or glazes directly to the mixture before firing. There was some sagging and distortion in large sheets if gaps between the support system allowed movement. A touring exhibition of Carol Farrow's Paperwork and Paper/clay will begin at South Hill Park Arts Centre. Because the pieces were still porous after high firing it is possible to apply washes of oxides or glaze before refiring. Artists Newsletter.

.http://ww.after about a fortnight it begins to SMELL! To avoid the decay of this plant matter. It needs to be mixed well until smooth and creamy.. mix WHAT with CLAY? By BRIAN GARTSIDE Cellulose fibre is a hollow tube-like structure which is an essential part of all plants and trees. a complex polymer associated with cellulose.grahamhay. Under magnification clay particles are tiny compared with cellulose fibres. • Layering on dry slabs will not warp.the more easily it tears.. All these break down easily in hot water. but some people claim they can. the length and size of which depend on the type of tree or plant producing them.grahamhay. but nothing compares to paper pulp in its effect. This can be torn into shreds and soaked in hot water. A deflocculant can reduce the amount of water and subsequently the time needed for evaporation and drying. neither can I wedge it. So is computer and photocopier paper. 1993. but for extra speed an electric drill fitted with a mixing blade is useful.com. When clay slip and paper pulp are mixed together the platelets of clay are easily syphoned into the fibre tubes. the shorter and more suitable the fibres it contains. One very unfortunate disadvantage compared to nylon or fibreglass must be admitted . This article appeared in a slightly different form in New Zealand Potter. An easy source of fibre for the potter can be found in any man-made paper. pure cotton and linen papers used by artists are best as they have a marked absence of lignin. Can you use the material on the wheel? The answer for me is no. 32-33. Being a cell wall stiffener. http://www. No. though personally I find this an excellent way to use the slops and trimmings from my potter's wheel. If you can afford it.. lignin is water resistant and can affect the amount of water needed to soak the paper. It plays an important part in photosynthesis and osmosis.. is casting slip. It has an amazing ability to syphon moisture into itself.au/gartside1993. usually all that's necessary to break it down. Paper fibres give a non-smooth slightly spiky surface which further enhances its binding qualities.au/gartside1993.com. Any clay can be used. Different sources give a variety of fibres. More articles on paperclay click here. the pulp could be mixed as needed. or stored in plastic bags in a deep freeze. Cardboard is best avoided as it contains glue and also shiny papers which contain kaolin neither of these break down easily in water. is to see how it tears . I can't throw this clay on my wheel. Other materials such as nylon. BACK ...html Página 1 de 3 Reproduced with kind permission from Brian Gartside. blotting paper and newsprint are excellent. fibreglass and sawdust have been mixed with clay. A good test of whether a paper is suitable. Shorter fibres which form the basis of tissue. The resulting complex network of fibre and clay slip gives the mixture important and unusual working characteristics of benefit to potters and sculptors. A quick and convenient clay therefore.html 22/02/2007 . 3. acting like a sponge.. So what's all the fuss about? • It's virtually impossible for large cracks to develop as the clay dries.

the clay now looks like oatmeal porridge. 3.com. BRIAN GARTSIDE Runciman Rd. Hot water. • Can readily be pour-moulded. copier paper is soaked and beaten with an electric drill mixer blade. 5.http://ww. The pulp is poured into a sieve and then squeezed by hand to remove most of the water. The cellulose fibres are just visible to the eye.html Página 2 de 3 • Excellent for layering in plaster moulds. stick or mixer blade. Use volume ratio from l0% to 50% paper pulp.info To read Part II of this topic. Who needs a slab roller any more? Notes on the Photographs 1. dealing with forming.it IS clay.grahamhay.D. Pulp dropped into clay slip. • Joining pieces can be done at any stage . • Behaves exactly like clay in the firing process . more than you think! 2. http://www. 9. 8. Pukekohe R. • Fired and bisqued pieces can be embedded into the soft slip.com. Acknowledgements: I am indebted to lbrabim Wagh of London who worked with me for ten weeks at Banff Centre for the Arts when we were resident artists in 1991. Thoroughly mixed by hand. firing and glazing. 4.au/gartside1993.dry to wet to leatherhard all join well. Wet paper/clay slip can be added to dry without any problems. Poured into a frame or mould the material lends itself to any shaping method.grahamhay. click here. Be generous with the water. Point at images with mouse to read notes.au/gartside1993. Porridge consistency. Thin and thick can be combined in one slab. • As the material dries it develops unbelievable tensile strength. • Ceramic pieces can be bigger and stronger and up to 50% lighter in weight.2 New Zealand Ph: +64 9238 2393 Website: www. 6. Can dry overnight. 7. Hard dry slabs can be scoured with a sharp knife and snapped over the edge of a table.gartside. Thin edges show the fine fibres. I used her findings extensively in my work and in this article. A ruler simplifies measurement of volume. • Works well for coiling technique. Rosette Gault of Seattle who was also a resident artist at that time. Poured onto a dry surface or plaster slab. Paddled and plastered with a knife or flat stick to any thickness. smoothed or textured to taste. continued researching the material and published her booklet Paperclay for Ceramic Sculptors this year.html 22/02/2007 . tissue.

html Página 3 de 3 Reproduced with kind permission by Brian Gartside.grahamhay. 32-33.com.com. This article appeared in a slightly different form in New Zealand Potter.html 22/02/2007 . 1993.http://ww.au/gartside1993.grahamhay. More articles on paperclay click here. BACK http://www. No. 3.au/gartside1993.

My preference is to make slabs on a dry plaster slab with a mixture of clay slip and 30 50% paper pulp. It will also join easily to ordinary clay. at any angle. Seattle and Heathrow airports.voila! A clay suitcase! To the amazement of the audience he then lifted the suitcase by the handle after only half a minute and was able to walk around with it totally intact! Quite simply. Those of us involved with pottery as a living are continually on the look-out for sales possibilities.www. and would of course. using paperclay slip as a glue. 1993. leather-hard and sloppy paperclay. Aberystwyth. A pre-made stiff handle was then attached with scoring and paper/clay slops . these can be rolled into tubes of any diameter for future construction. Or it can be scraped away from the plaster while still wet and mixed by hand into a plastic state.grahamhay. This is Part II of his article on paper/clay. lf clay is removed as slabs from the plaster the following day. paperclay has the ability to stick to itself and be really strong no matter how dry or how wet.au/gartside1994. though they seemed to bend slightly as they were handled in this way. but I find a readily accessible source from my wheel slops and trimmings which are easily soaked down. It seems that nearly all rules of clay making can be broken.grahamhay.com. Los Angeles. Suitcase Art was a phrase enjoyed by English potter John Pollex and myself in a conversation a few years ago. Imitation straps and buckles were modelled wet onto the dry surface. be in high demand. He revealed that these slabs were unfired and proceeded to wave and jiggle them up and down whilst holding them between fingers and thumb at the very edge of the 60cm long slabs. During the hour or two of his demonstration he assembled a rectangular box which consisted of bone-hard.com. Coils can then be made or wheel throwing attempted.html More paperclay articles? click here. Any clay slip can be used. 1993. Página 1 de 3 SUITCASE ART Travelling Light Brian Gartside demonstrated the potential of paperclay when he was a guest at the International Potters' Festival. Objects do not have to be made hollow. Whilst in the slop state it can be spread or poured into moulds and left to dry out.html 22/02/2007 . They have ways of making paper pulp and also use linters. opened it and set up a miniature exhibition on a table in front of his audience. Wales. had travelled half way around the world. He opened a large suit case on the stage and told the audience the four slabs of clay he pulled out. They did not break. It is possible to join anything of any thickness. surviving airline baggage handlers in Auckland. at anytime. For large amounts of paper pulp a conversation with a maker of handmade paper would be helpful. a readymade source of cellulose fibres. This concept of Suitcase Art was then further expanded by the guest demonstrator at the International Potters' Festival in Wales. It refers to making high-value ceramics that would travel easily around the world.au/gartside1994. I witnessed the ultimate in Suitcase Art when the American potter Ron Nagle brought a very small suitcase to his slide talk. http://www. To read Brian's first article on making paperclay click here.

with new methods and discoveries emerging weekly. So it appears the material can be dried out and wetted many times without ill effect. Fired or glazed ceramic objects and bits of any kind can be pressed into thick paper/clay while it is still wet. but carving is definitely hindered by the cellulose fibres clinging to each other in the mix. with rough sandpaper or file.html 22/02/2007 . Information on this topic is only at the beginning stage. There is not the same problem when firing with wood. lifting and moving work is less of a problem and breakages seldom occur. The minute spaces formerly occupied by the cellulose fibres cannot be seen by the naked eye and the only noticeable difference will be a lightness in weight. The fired clay looks and acts as clay always does.the fibres are gone and play no part in the ceramic process. Recently I decided to re-soak a paperclay slab by totally immersing it in water in a shallow tub. At any stage this can be smoothed with a very fine sponge or. as the fumes depart up the flue.html Página 2 de 3 I leave my slabs to go bone-dry on the plaster slab. paper to clay. flat-sided forms once the slabs had been made. Imprinting works well.com. The paper fibre starts to burn away at300O and can fill the studio or kiln shed with unpleasant fumes.au/gartside1994. It all dries together without the cracking usually associated with shrinkage. especially when the mix is 50/50.grahamhay.joining and building with little or no technical skill. depending on the water content. Watching people work with this material is enjoyable. raku. Hard surfaces can be plastered and modelled on with more sloppy clay. Firing. Hands covered in 'sludge'. adventurous approach with seemingly impossible assemblages can be tried. reduction or pit firing can proceed as normal. Glazing can proceed as it always does . especially in the sculptural area. Texture is easily controlled too.au/gartside1994. the paper/clay dries with a characteristic lumpy porridge surface. http://www. leaving it for at least three hours. they can be so adventurous . Fragility is a thing of the past with structures remaining strong though its pieces may be arranged and re-arranged many times. Paper/clay offers endless possibilities.www. The room should also be well ventilated. A bold. but still holds in one piece and is extremely flexible. At first it seemed that all my ideas wore limited to straight.grahamhay.com. After bisque firing the appearance and texture are normal in everyway.and to fire with vents and door open if possible. Once the paper is burnt away the firing can continue as normal. It's important to fire slowly during this period . Special considerations are recommended if bisque firing is done in an electric kiln. This can open up the mind to structures and forms that flow in a natural way. The slab roller could become an endangered species .on the verge of extinction. Salt fire. Any glaze can be used and the results will be as brilliant or depressing as they always are. This smoking can continue up to 500OC. They do not warp and I am able to stack them on edge for storage and future use. If a slab is left in water overnight it becomes very sloppy at the surface. If left to itself. None of the ordinary clay rules apply at the construction stage. oil or gas.between 5OOC and 75OC per hour. The clay and fibres re-absorbed water until the large slab became flexible enough to wrap around into a shape.

No. dry pieces together. Last row: The paperclay slip being roughly cast into plaster moulds.www.html Página 3 de 3 Top row: Storing paperclay as bone-hard rolls. The article appeared in a slightly different form in New Zealand Potter. 1. http://www.com. and coiling.au/gartside1994. 1994 17-18. Photographs by Brian Gadside.au/gartside1994. Reproduced with kind permission by Brian Gartside. slabs and also crushed waste ready for recycling. More paperclay articles? click here. tubes.html 22/02/2007 . Row two and three: The working of wet and hard. Last photo demonstrates a joint defying breakage and gravity.grahamhay.com.grahamhay. The final photograph shows shards and other ceramic material pressed into the clay.

5 mm thick. Measure the water into a plastic bucket.5 mm. can be made up to 900 x 600 mm. but rubber gloves are also advisable when handling ceramic fibre. weigh out the ceramic fibre and dunk it into the water. Now add the clay and syenite. whisk into the finely shredded fibre liquid until all the paper is wet. read my type. or what I call ceramic banners.www.html More paperclay articles? click here. so I use the cheapest which is 1000'C L T Batt.html 22/02/2007 . by 1 mm to 1. Having tried many different variations. Página 1 de 3 THE MAKING OF PAPERCLAY PORCELAIN BANNERS By Steve Harrison Paperclay can be used to make sonic excellent tiles. Now add the finely shredded dry paper pulp. The result should be a soft plastic paste. http://www. The paper pulp is a dry shredded material used for home insulation.grahamhay. So I developed the following body specially for this purpose. stir until evenly mixed and there are no colour variations. but it is possible to obtain untreated material before it has gone through the final process.com. The standard translucent porcelain bodies I found to be disappointing and did not work well. Lift the ceramic fibre out of the water and tear into small shreds. 1. I bought this from 'Cool n Cosy' home insulation in Sydney. Yes.com.au/harrison1998. Plastic White China Clay 1500 g Nepheline Syenite 1500 g Ceramic Fibre (100OoC) 250 g Fine Paper Pulp (dry) 500 g Water 4. A Complete copy of the journal article. this is the most successful recipe so far. The finished product has poison added to deter rats etc. thick! using the following recipe and technique.5 litres The china day I use is 'clay ceram'. and the ceramic fibre doesn't seem to matter. you will already be wearing your dust mask. Break up the shreds of fibre into a fine liquidised pulp by vigorously mixing with a paint stirrer attached to an electric drill.au/harrison1998. There are two types. for use in houses.grahamhay. Very thin and translucent porcelain paperclay tiles. dropping them back into the water. I tried all three grades and couldn't notice any difference between them. Because this is a clay making exercise.

which is created by the high proportion of nepheline syenite in the recipe. from their original straight form This can produce a noise that Rolf Harris would be proud of. tiles are quite flexible and can be bent 75 to 100 mm. as it doesn't bum out like the paper but persists. Impressions can be applied through the thin plastic sheet with tools. The surface feel is dry with a hint of absorbency that creates an impression that it will almost stick to your fingers. but it doesn't. again saturated with clear vinyl acrylic artists medium. held in place with paper clips. glassy and translucent. It can of course be placed in the kiln with the plastic still attached. The juxtaposition of knowledge and perception clashing.html 22/02/2007 . yet can be mistaken for paper in not just look but feel. fingers. but the gases produced from burning plastic are ozone damaging.au/harrison1998. is fascinating. Alternatively. and that is when the normal paperclay tile will crack if the fibre isn't added. Keep rolling until it is as thin as you can get it. in fact porcelain. a longer firing is required to stop the tile splitting up along the incisions. The paper does a sterling job at room temperature of binding the surface together but the tell tale waft of smoke at 250. Spead a layer of paper clay mix fairly evenly over the plastic sheet with a spatula.grahamhay. If the marks are many and vigorous.com.www. depending on the decoration. Firing is to Orton Cone 8 in 4 to 8 hours. spread a jumbo garbage bag over the batt. as the fibre remains intact until elevated temperatures resisting any tendency in the tile to crack apart along the stress lines created in the decoration. This is augmented by the fact that these posters. What appears to be a rigid and fragile gossamer of mixed messages and perceptions http://www. banners.au/harrison1998.dry in an hour or two. Eventually the ceramic fibres dissolve into the ceramic body glass. panels.C spells its end. if not confusing. This gives the resultant finish a remarkable parchment like quality. and objects or the top plastic layer can be peeled off and marks made directly into the clay surface. pitted against what is clearly perceived to be parchment or blotting paper is intriguing. When removed from the kiln I strengthened and reinforced it by saturating it with clear vinyl acrylic artists medium and coating it on either one or both sides with tissue paper. it can be picked up by its plastic sheet (it is remarkably flexible) and laid in the kiln upside down so that the plastic sheet can be peeled off. the batt can be placed on the slab roller and reduced in that way.com. What is known to be ceramic. The finished banner is quite fragile if it is only one millimetre thick. which is not unreasonable. Place another sheet of plastic garbage bag over the top and roll out the clay in all directions with as much pressure as you can muster until it oozes out off the batt on all sides. This is why the ceramic fibre is added. and it will bum away during firing. The resulting tile or banner can be left to dry slowly overnight or left in the sun and wind in which case it may curl a little at the edges but will be.html Página 2 de 3 Using a light weight cellulose/cement batt as a backing. A feeling of absorbency from something that you know is vitreous.grahamhay. and all that that entails.

au/harrison1998. http://www. even encourage exploration of their qualities.grahamhay.www.grahamhay. I have made a point of always installing these pieces at chest height so that it will facilitate. The article appeared in a slightly different form in Pottery in Australia.html Página 3 de 3 somewhere between porcelain and parchment. More paperclay articles? click here. one piece was successfully vandalised by a king-hit from a child at another show.html 22/02/2007 . Reproduced with kind permission by the author Steve Harrison (Email 7/10/2001 6:40 pm). 1998.com. as it transpires is a quite flexible entity. I dropped a piece two and a half metres during hanging at one show and it bounced. (2) 68-9.au/harrison1998. However. 37. My thanks to Jane Calthorpe of 'Paperclay Ceramics' for advice and inspiration. I've had my disasters. Its perceived fragility gives it an edgy visual presence but this is eventually tempered by the acceptance of actual resilience. its the combination of the tactile and the visual that make this technique so appealing. but after all.com. which beyond all expectations is remarkably robust. luckily having landed on its edge which carried the shock of the impact well.

Material and energy costs are cut down as paper fibre added to clay body fills up the clay mass and contributes its heat value to firing (1).com. which shortens the firing time and saves energy. Material tests have been carried out on different kind of fibres like cellulose. leaving the object porous. porosity and shrinkage and as bending in firing. the clay particles glue the paper fibres into a network and thus form a supporting structure for an unfired object and prevent cracking. Large. INTRODUCTION In making large ceramic objects. waste paper and sludges from paper mills. Paperclay is combination of cellulose fibre and clay. thin bowls and slabs has been made by pressing on plaster moulds and painted with ceramic pigments. Instead of requiring new paper. which makes it possible to build large. Finland. The paper fibres burn away from the clay in firing. Since the benefits of paperclay in comparison to conventional claybodies lie in its strong green strength and light fired weight. The rough surface enables the fibre to be attached to the clay tightly enough so as not to slip from its hollow cavity. The strength of paperclay is determined by clay composition and the paper fibre type. shrinkage and bending in firing. In paperclay. cellulose fibre is very absorbent and withstands compression and twisting. Along with material tests there has been also included artistic part in which has been tested paperclay in practice. as well as the relationship between fibre amount and quality. Being hollow. Compared to conventional clay bodies it has better greenstrength and is lighter in weight after firing. porosity. the plastic properties and weight of the material have traditionally limited modelling possibilities. thin objects without cracking.www. Essential tests in this study has been bending strength. Also the production method and firing temperature is significant. essential research issues have been bending strength.au/juvonen1997. however. 1. Fragility and shrinkage in the green state have been frequently encountered problems with conventional claybodies.au/juvonen1997. Clay reinforced with paper fibre. The capability of cellulose fibre to absorb water is an essential advantage to claybodies in plastic state. Substituting part of the clay with paper fibres creates a new kind of material. The tests were carried out in http://www. because of its remarkable green strength and lightweight.grahamhay.html More paperclay articles? click here. Since clay particles are much smaller than fibres. all kinds of waste paper. recycled paper and pulp are good material to be mixed with clay.com. sculptures and slabs. The aim of this research has been to improve handling properties of clay in green stage.html 23/02/2007 . Paperclay also lasts rapid temperature changes. is an excellent material for large pieces. they are absorbed to the surface of the fibre as the clay dries. The purpose of this series of experiments was to study how much the fibre type affects the strength of the claybody and firing strength. Página 1 de 7 USING PAPER FIBRE AS A SUBSTITUTE IN CERAMIC CLAYS By Leena Juvonen. Use of paperclay is economical.grahamhay.

Composition of clay body and paper fibre types.com. were made of each test batch by pressing into a one-sided plaster mould. ULTIMATE BENDING STRENGTH The objective of this study was to find a paperclay composition where the fibres would yield strong green strength and where the porosity created by the fibres in firing would be smooth. The tests were repeated five times with both unfired pieces and pieces fired at 1100oC.grahamhay. The paper was first soaked in hot water and beaten to disintegrate the fibres. Beside the material study. In other words. The measurement method was adapted according to ISO 3327-198(E) specification. The starting point of this study was the research on paperclay as sculpting material by Rosette Gault.html Página 2 de 7 cooperation with Helsinki University of Technology.grahamhay. an artistic part is included in this study. selected for being easily available: waste paper. 10% and 20% of dry fibre in relation to the dry weight of the clay. the fired clay is lighter than the corresponding pure base claybody without sacrificing and technical properties essential. The ratio of fibre varies from 2%. From the test material. each measuring 25 mm x 25 mm x 150 mm. Ten test bars. delicate and evenly spread. Test materials were different fibre types. where the practical applications of paperclay were tested. where the test bars were bent at a speed of 2 mm/min. Paper and cellulose were reduced to pulp before mixing into the claybodies. The excess water was squeezed out by using a large mesh screen to get a pulp with approximately 20 percent water. and Finnish paper mills contributed with paper fibre samples. 2. pulp. The tests were made at the Helsinki University of Technology at the metal laboratory with Zwick 1385 drawing engine as three point bending fatigue test. The clay bodies were all earthenware. The firing temperature of 1100oC was focused.au/juvonen1997.html 23/02/2007 . of USA (2). Base clay body Ml 25%: Ball clay Hyplas 71 25%: Kaolin Grolleg 10%: Silica 10%: Feldspar 30%: Calcinated kaolin Fibre types A: Pulp reject B: Ground wood pulps reject C: Fibre recovery concentrate reject D: Fluting board E: Bleached pine sulphate F: Bleached birch sulphate G: Shredded paper H: Base claybody Ml Table 1 Ultimate bending strength of unfired and fired test bars N/mm2 with varied http://www. since the pieces were painted with ceramic pigments. where the clay was added.www. The clay was pressed by hand and the open surface was smoothened with a splint. some of which are burned off at higher temperatures. and rejects that develop in the paper manufacturing industry.au/juvonen1997. 22 test batches were prepared: with seven different fibre types.com. three different fibre ratios and a base claybody with no fibre added.

After pure base claybody. unfired fibre content Pulp reject Ground wood reject Recovery concentrate reject Fluting board Pine sulphate Birch sulphate Shredded paper Base claybody Ml 2% 1.8 0.8 1. With a ratio of 10% fibre. The strength of the fired test bars reduced with all fibre types in comparison to pure base claybody.html fibre contents.grahamhay.2 6.0 1.4 1.5 2. the defects influenced rather the general strength level than that between the test pieces.4 1.9 0.7 0.0 0.3 17.0 5.9 2.4 The bending flexure of unfired paperclay batches with resistance to breaking strain increases manyfold with all fibre types in comparison to that of pure clay. An increase in the fibre content further reduced the strength rating. making the bars differ from each other.5 0.4 20.4 16.4 0. up to a fourfold bending flexure can be reached. http://www.0 0.7 1.0 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.2 0.8 0. The best result was obtained by adding 20% waste paper.8 Página 3 de 7 fired 10% 7. The best effect was achieved by adding 20 % shredded paper.1 1.3 20% 2.0 7.8 1.2 3.8 0.0 5.1 1.8 0.8 0.grahamhay. the decrease was 60% and with 20% it amounted to 73%.8 18. but reduced the strength rating.2 1.6 1.9 7.6 0.0 10% 1.2 1.8 1.7 3.8 15.html 23/02/2007 .5 1. Ultimate bending strength fell down by 17% with a 2-percent ratio of the fibre with the best rating at each point.com.www.0 1.8 0. Since the defects were related to production technology. Also the green strength is improved by adding fibre almost to a double to that of pure clay. The strength and bending flexure rates were affected by how evenly the paper fibre was mixed into the clay.4 1.2 1. Even with a small ratio of 2% fibre. A greater fibre content (10 or 20%) will improve bending flexure with most fibre types but the effect is not any longer remarkable with all fibre types. the best result was reached with a ratio of 2 % waste paper.6 10. However.5 9. a fibre ratio exceeding 2% did not generally improve. which varied among the test bars.au/juvonen1997.9 2.com.6 2% 19.8 1. 2% 10% 20% Pulp reject Ground wood reject Recovery concentrate reject Fluting board Pine sulphate Birch sulphate Shredded paper Base claybody MI 0.5 1.8 1.8 1.5 0.8 Table 2 Bending flexure of unfired test bars in millimetres with varied fibre contents.6 24.4 19.au/juvonen1997.8 0.6 20% 0.

A large. The impact of the fibre type to the porosity and shrinkage was studied. The practical experiments showed that when earthenware is mixed with paper pulp. mainly kaolin. POROSITY AND SHRINGAGE Waste papers often contain traces of clay and filling agents. Moreover. the strength of thin objects is not sufficient in the temperature of 1100oC.html 23/02/2007 . Pieces were made from different paperclays. A B G H I J K Water absorption 1100oC 1125oC 1150oC 1175oC 1200oC 1225oC 28 26 21 13 10 9 32 28 23 16 11 9 26 21 14 7 1 1 16 13 8 1 0 1 27 24 18 9 4 2 16 5 47 29 25 21 12 11 9 http://www. The claybodies were mixed with 7% of dry fibre in relation to dry weight of the claybody. However. it must be taken into account that inorganic substances may affect the vitrification of the voids left by the fibres.au/juvonen1997.com. From slabs pressed on plaster bats test pieces with the dimensions 40mrn x 70mm x 5mm were cut and fired to 1100-1250oC in a gradient kiln where seven different temperatures with an interval of 25oC can be used during the same firing. the bending flexure was of great importance. the ratio of fibre was changed to correspond the strength level required by green strength and fired strength.au/juvonen1997. A large content of paper fibre can raise the vitrification temperature of the clay in case it contains lots of trace minerals (3). The claybody used in bending fatigue tests was therefore replaced base claybody no 3 containing ball clay and talc and having a lower firing temperature (1100oC). Moreover.www. the piece shrinks and the voids left by the fibres are filled up. The higher the ratio of paper fibre. For this reason. thin piece must endure its own weight at all stages of production. The test batches were prepared in the same manner as with the bending fatigue tests. the properties of the base claybody and vitrification degree have a crucial effect.grahamhay. The more the clay withstands warping in green state. when aiming at the best possible green strength without reducing the fired strength. the lighter and more fragile is the fired result. the larger and thinner the piece can be. the vitrification level will essentially affect the-fired strength. the fired strength in turn decreased.com. Consequently. Table 3 Porosity and shrinkage with base claybody 3 and a paper fibre ratio of 7% in seven temperatures. The test results show that a crucially better bending strength and tensile strength was yielded with all fibre types than that of pure base claybodies. 3.html Página 4 de 7 Since the aim of adding fibre was to improve the plastic properties of the clay in green state. As the clay is vitrified. It can be concluded from the results that the fibre type does not have as essential an effect as the ratio of adding it to clay.grahamhay. The porosity and shrinkage rates were studied through measuring the water absorption of the test bars.

Table 4 Bending in firing with base claybody No 3 and a fibre ratio of 7% Bending in firing (mm) 1120oC http://www. Once the voids left by the fibres start to fill up in firing.au/juvonen1997. and 1200oC. the form is easily warped. The clay should be vitrified as thoroughly as possible without warping the object.www. The test bars were placed on a V-shaped base. After firing each bar.com. With the same test batches of which the porosity and shrinkage was measured also the bending in firing was measured with three different temperatures: 1120oC.html 1250oC Shrinkage (drying) 0 Shrinkage (firing) 1100oC 1125oC 1150oC 1175oC 1200oC 1225oC 1250oC 3 4 7 9 10 11 10 1 3 6 9 10 10 11 4 6 9 11 14 13 14 4 6 9 13 13 14 14 4 4 7 10 11 13 13 7 9 7 9 0 3 1 1 0 Página 5 de 7 8 9 1 0 2 10 1 3 4 6 11 10 11 Composition of clay body and paper fibre types Base claybody 3 45% Ball clay Hyplas 71 35% Talc 20% Calcinated kaolin Fibre types A Pulp reject B Ground wood pulp reject G Shredded paper H Base claybody 3 with no fibre I De-inking reject J Cotton linters K Fluffed sulphate pulp L Liner board 4. supported at both ends.au/juvonen1997.com. placed horizontally had bent and also shrunk in the middle. Each bar was then removed from the base and its exact profile was drawn on scale paper. from which the bending in firing was calculated. Test pieces with the dimensions 40mm x 5mm x 150mm were prepared by cutting from slabs pressed on plaster bats. 1160oC. BENDING IN FIRING The firing temperature is significant to fired strength of a thin paperclay object.grahamhay.html A 2 B 6 G 9 H 5 I 3 J 6 K 6 23/02/2007 .grahamhay.

com. which makes it a natural material for paintings made with the methods of ceramics. several modelling [methods] were tested. a mould is required. Additionally. [The b]ending flexure of unfired objects is slightly stronger but the fibres tend to build [more] easily while pressing to a plaster cast. 65cm x 6Scm x 20cm.html 1160oC 1200oC 5.au/juvonen1997. The aim was to find suitable working methods for large thin [objects].grahamhay. it remains plastic [longer] in plastic state. A smooth surface was attained with a plaster mould on which the http://www.grahamhay. These short fibres are [covered] with small fluffs to which the clay particles will be affixed well. Paperclay has a tendency to attach to a plaster mould tightly. it is easy to produce large surfaces. the selection of fibre type is affected more remarkably by how easily [available the fibre can be found].com. As the drying shrinkage is smaller with paperclay than with conventional claybodies. On the basis of the knowledge gained from the material study. Talc was applied to the surface of the mould to make it easier to remove the object from the mould.html 23/02/2007 . To make compact objects from [this] material. painted with ceramic pigments With paperclay. However [it differs] from conventional claybodies: while being more un-plastic. paperclay bowl. Leena Juvonen 1994. making it difficult to have large three-dimensioned forms [maintain] their shape without a supplementary mould.www. objects were produced to test the properties of paperclay in practical applications. especially with claybodies having a high fibre ratio. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Página 6 de 7 13 18 9 20 19 23 5 13 9 18 11 15 10 19 Beside the material study. the clay should contain enough water and plastic substances to make the object shrink sufficiently to be taken out of the mould. The objects were painted with ceramic pigments in green state. Fibres from hardwood having long [fibres] with thick walls are intertwined and build clots more easily in moulding stage [compared to] fibres from softwood that are short and thin-walled. Otherwise removing thin objects without breaking is problematic. This way information was gained on the plastic properties of the paperclay in green state as well as its capability to maintain the form intact in firing. the thickness of the fibre [in the clay] affects the plastic properties of the clay. Since sufficient green strength can be achieved with all paperclays. Paperclay can be hand built as well as cast or pressed into mould.au/juvonen1997.

Kaapakuja 16 A. wet object can be safely transported to the kiln and firing can be started when the object is still wet. The objects were left to dry overnight on the top of the kiln without a plastic cover and taken out of the moulds in the morning when dry. Thanks to the reinforcing fibre. large thin objects bowls and slabs were made. Instead. since they are very fragile as the fibres have burned away. By pressing to mould. Raw glazing also softens the colour surfaces. Seattle WA. Thin paperclay objects need not be bisqued. Italy June 1997. Re-use of Paper-making sludge in brick production. http://www. Unfired paperclay absorbs glazing to itself. The bowls were fired on the thin brim whereby the arched structure was able to bear the weight of the material. Helsinki. elements for interior decoration where fire-resistant light materials are required. Second-generation ceramic sculpture technical and aesthetic potential of paperclay. 1993 (3) Rosette Gault. Panigada. Tengalia. Reproduced here with kind permission from Leena Juvonen.com. Paperclay questions traditional restrictions prevailing in ceramics. The light weight of the paperclay allows a rolling shape where the round bottom touches the ground only at a couple of points. but the clay has not yet vitrified. paperclay endures bisque firing.com. Studio companion. USA. making the surface compact and improving the fired strength at the same time. Finland More paperclay articles? click here. Finenze.grahamhay.www. REFERENCES (1) Zani. Working with paperclay is more spontaneous than with conventional clay bodies. ZI 1211990 (2) Rosette Gault.au/juvonen1997. Paperclay lasts quick drying and firing without cracking or warping. they can be fired directly to the final temperature. from which novel ideas can be brought about. a glazed.g. However. Paperclay for ceramic sculptors. too. One of the practical applications of paperclay could be e. UIAH.au/juvonen1997. Use of fibre improves the plastic properties of the claybody. 00760 Helsinki.grahamhay. 1993 Paper presented and published at the 8th CIMTEC World Ceramics Congress.html 23/02/2007 . Interaction in Ceramics.html Página 7 de 7 paintbrush ran smoothly. and gives more creative freedom. The slabs were pressed on a plaster bat and their surface rolled tight.

grahamhay.. Properties of Paperclay Paperclay's success lies in the interaction of the clay body and fibre at a microstructural level (figs 1 & 2) as Brian Gartside explains in New Zealand Potter. Página 1 de 10 SLIPPING INTO PAPERCLAY A Research Paper by Andy Miller (1994) Introduction Paperclay.com.au/miller1994. I therefore considered it very fortunate timing that while doing a slip-casting course I was introduced to the astounding qualities of paperclay compared to normal clay materials. has in the past few years been recognised as an extremely versatile medium. While the shear strength is outstanding the wet join will be firm but not strong until fully dry. although not new in the ceramics world. 1.. Under magnification clay particles are tiny compared with cellulose fibres. Note the rough but "sealed" surface which restricts penetration of wet clay. (Curtin University). It has an amazing ability to siphon moisture into itself. It required no great leap of logic to combine slip casting with paperclay and the result combines the precision of the slip cast shape with the flexibility of paperclay. Fig 1 Normal clay slip at approximately 300X magnification.grahamhay. http://www. Vol 36 No. through capillary action. When clay slip and paper pulp are mixed together the platelets of clay are easily syphoned into the fibre tubes. acting like a sponge. forming an almost instant bond that is much stronger than scoring and wetting." The practical upshot of this is virtual self-bonding clay. "Cellulose fibre is a hollow tube-like structure which is an essential part of plants and trees. The growing popularity and number of artists using paperclay has of course led to new methods of employing paperclay in the sculpture process.html 23/02/2007 .au/miller1994.www. "weld" together by drawing particles of the other into itself. Two pieces will. Slip casting is a well-understood process where a plaster mould is made from a clay master and thereafter many copies can be made..html More paperclay articles? click here.com.

com.au/miller1994. paperclay is totally resistant to cracks developing while drying. Simply soak them in water for 30 minutes to 2 hours depending upon their thickness. non-crack slabs of clay of any thickness. allowing liquid clay access to the interior of the clay body. Paperclay can also be attached to other types of smooth clays with paperclay glue. There is only one book on the subject to my knowledge 1. The bowl developed one http://www.1 Paperclay has been in use by ceramicists for approximately 50 years as a means of producing non-warp. although some care is needed since basically you are throwing with slip! In addition.html 23/02/2007 . Scoring and wetting are not necessary as all work can be stuck together using liquid paperclay as "glue". clearly showing the cellulose fibres impregnated with clay particles.com. Fig 3 One method for producing sheets of paperclay. dry of even frozen in plastic bags for any length of time. Dry paperclay exhibits immense strength and surprising lightness as the water in the paper dries out. I used paperclay glue to stick a band of earthenware leather hard paperclay to a dry stoneware bowl. it can be left to dry on a plaster slab to produce sheets without needing to use a slab roller. the sheets of paperclay can be stored on edge indefinitely and used when necessary. It can be poured onto plaster blocks to draw most of the water out and then can be rolled.grahamhay. and for a long time that's almost all it was ever used for.html Página 2 de 10 Fig 2 Paperclay at the same magnification. Unused paperclay can be stored wet.grahamhay.au/miller1994.www. If leather hard sheets are required for future use simply lay them inside a large garbage bag. A wooden frame and a spreader (similar to a screen printing rubber) that sits on the top of the frame can produce sheets of precise thicknesses. In my experience. There is very little history to be found concerning paperclay as the prime material used in ceramic sculpture and only in the last few years have articles appeared. When joining a wet or leather hard piece to dry paperclay the moisture is drawn out very fast and the new piece can be handled within minutes with little chance of damage. coiled or even wedged and thrown on a wheel. In a recent experiment. Joining can be done at any stage of drying such as wet to wet/ dry/ leather hard. Adjusting the depth of the cut in the former alters the thickness of the sheet Once dry.

If it gets too stiff it will tear and crack when wedged.au/miller1994. The recipe is given in appendix 1. then re-blended until there is no print readable and partially strained. I use an earthenware slip because it seems less brittle and more tolerant of thermal shock when I apply an artificial patina to the finished pieces. then hung up to dry to produce fine strands of paperclay that can be cut to any length. is chipped away to reveal what he calls a "white ant" body! Throwing Paperclay As mentioned earlier it can be thrown on the wheel with some preparation. To avoid the resulting smell of rotting paper pulp in the slip. Moulding Paperclay Slip casting is a well-known and understood process.html Página 3 de 10 small crack.www. add a tablespoon of disinfectant when mixing. before it is added to the slip. than normal clay while being lighter. Once http://www.grahamhay. is used when throwing. (threading it through a hole drilled in the centre of a large lead sinker will keep it under). who is currently studying at Curtin and introduced me to paperclay.html 23/02/2007 . which I repaired instinctively with paperclay and fired it to 1000C with no problems. Once pieces are fired they are just as strong. however it must be remembered that the paperclay will stress much quicker than usual due to the paper particles compressing under the pressure of the hand movements. I usually only get 2 pulls up before it becomes difficult to handle. which is fine provided only one type of clay. First pour the required amount onto a plaster block and let it dry to a little less than leather hard. Flat.com. smooth or textured and patterned surfaces can be used. The master is supported on a bed of clay that is raised to the midway point of the original and carefully mated to it. A plaster mixture is then poured in and allowed to set. At this point. The few artists who have written about paperclay recommend the use of wheel slops and trimmings. In its liquid form it can be poured over any surface that is horizontal and somewhat absorbent.au/miller1994. great care must be taken to obtain a smooth seam line without damaging the surface of the original as well as having a smooth flat surface to the clay supporting bed. A simple and easy alternative is to use casting slip when wheel slops are not available or a large quantity of paperclay is required. if not stronger. I could recognise its good and bad qualities. The newspaper should be finely shredded and soaked in hot water overnight.grahamhay. It can now be thrown. Production of Paperclay Slip The production of paperclay is simple and straightforward. Once wedged. I also keep the wall thickness 2 to 3 times thicker than normal. has used wools and loosefibred twines drawn through a bucket of paperclay.com. The fired piece is no different to normal clay at this point and can be surface treated in any way. Graham Hay. wrap in plastic and leave for several days and you will find the soft lump of sticky slip has become a firm piece of clay. He has also investigated several other additions to the mix in order to achieve different effects. Aside from the great production factory using it. Having been taught the traditional 2-piece mould with pour hole method. which. Once this has been achieved a wall of clay is raised around the master and clay bed to 2-3 cm above the highest point of the master. The paperclay is produced by adding 30-50% newspaper pulp to the clay slip. after bisque firing. one of which is cooked spaghetti added to the paperclay. The care taken in producing the master can be compromised when the casting process is begun. there are as many ways of making slip cast moulds as there are artists doing it. without compression.

html Página 4 de 10 set. The Cocktail shaker mould was designed to solve this problem. shaken until the paperclay can no longer be heard slopping about in the mould. the mould is opened and the masters removed. It consisted of four moulds of the inside of the bowl sitting on a revolving table. which can be accelerated by the use of a paint stripper heat gun. A pre-measured disk of porcelain clay was dropped onto each mould. Another drawback of the slip cast mould is the hole required to pour the slip into the mould. The first mould is made as described above and allowed to dry. which is usually not clay but some type of found object like a plastic container or sealed wooden shape. The mould can be cracked after 2 to 6 hours and drying can then proceed normally. (in tests usually about 1/3 to 1/2 of the mould volume). as the name suggests. is turned over and the wall reassembled around it. which I always disliked. Once the piece is removed from the mould this leaves a hole. which requires cleaning and filling with a smaller hole left for firing purposes. is required to coat the inside of the mould. One drawback is the time it takes to dry. The paperclay is poured in. if normal slip is used. It is now just a matter of trial and error to work out how much slip. an arrangement for the pieces should be decided on before they are bisque fired.com. The plaster is treated with a detergent so that when the second mix of plaster is poured it can be removed when dry without too much trouble.www. http://www. I've approached the construction of multi piece moulds in the same manner as one-piece moulds by adjusting the way in which the casting is carried out. It consists of two one-piece moulds placed "mouth to mouth". on a sheet of glass coated with a little petroleum jelly so that it will stick to the glass and not shift when the plaster is poured. Any shape should be possible simply by adjusting either the master's orientation or the steps in pouring the plaster. now sitting in the plaster. If there is not enough detergent or it is forgotten then not only is the mould ruined but also some damage will be done to the master when it is extracted. The table then rotated 1/4 of a turn and a mechanical arm pushed down. This is not necessary for paperclay pieces since there is no need for the traditional air hole. Instead of forming clay over a mould I would pour plaster over a master but would not need any clay bed for it to sit on. For example. Note that. again taking care not to crack the mould. I was amazed at how simple it was and realised how I could use the idea in a kind of reverse way. the only clay required is for a small wall to surround the piece. This traditional method of slip casting is a simple but time consuming process. from one of the above-mentioned great production factories. the detergent coating is applied and a clay wall put in place. This is a one-piece mould. In one movement both the inner and outer shape and foot ring was formed and the rim was trimmed. Note that paperclay takes longer to dry in any slip casting mould that normal slip due to the paper content. the mould is closed and secured and. The plastic masters are easily removed when the plaster is dry with the use of a lit match to burn and melt one point so the shape will collapse when pulled. surprisingly. It is then inverted and a second shape is placed over the mouth of the first.au/miller1994. On a tour of its dinnerware production line. I watched a machine produce soup bowls at the rate of at least 30 a minute. The master must have no under cuts that will prevent future casts releasing from the mould.grahamhay. The major advantage of this type of mould is that the poured piece is open to the air and dries faster. Locating holes are drilled in the first mould. This is not a great problem except that I found when arranging one series of fired slip cast pieces that I couldn't use them in one particular way because of all the ugly holes in the bases.au/miller1994. Don't heat the plaster too much or cracks could develop. the clay bed is removed and the master. Once dry. or paperclay.html 23/02/2007 .grahamhay. The plaster is then poured and allowed to set. Placing the master.com. I searched for an alternative and it came.

Unfortunately this could take a considerable time as the ramp on firing should be shallow to begin with. 3rd and 5th sides are poured.grahamhay. after which it can be increased to 150ºC per hour up to 600ºC and then 350ºC per hour up to 1100ºC with a 30 minute soak. the clay becomes full of microscopic holes that are invisible to the naked eye which allow the clay to "breathe" during firing. Firing Firing presents a problem if using an electric kiln. the 1st. Pieces no longer have to be made hollow. followed by the 2nd. or with a pour hole to allow expanding air to escape as it uses the holes and spaces http://www.au/miller1994. (fig 5). The result is a 4-sided wedge of plaster with the detail of the master on the inner or smallest surface. One of the sections should have no locating lugs on the surface. as this would prevent easy assembly and disassembly of the mould.html 23/02/2007 . Instead. no more than 5075ºC per hour up until 300ºC. which exit via the bunghole. In addition to considering the normal problems involved with the Quartz inversion (where the chemically bonded water is driven out of the clay body at 573ºC). the clay wall is made into an L shape and attached from the outside corner of the plaster to the next corner of the master with the first section of the mould forming one wall. Instead.grahamhay. To solve this. the piece is placed vertically and one side only is walled off with clay and the plaster poured.2 As firing burns out the paper present. This method could be carried out six times to complete the mould. Leaving the first section in place. the paper itself begins to burn at 300ºC and produces acrid fumes and smoke. If using thin slabs. 4th and 6th when they are dry. Safety precautions should therefore be enacted. This wall is treated with the detergent release agent and the plaster poured. two parallel surfaces of each of the two sections of the mould should have open-ended recesses cut into then that will fill and form lugs when the plaster is poured. which would make it a rather lengthy process.html Página 5 de 10 an hexagonal piece with recesses cut into the six flat sides could not have a traditional two piece mould made of it because of the undercuts created by the recesses in the surface of the master.au/miller1994. All doors and windows should be opened to provide ventilation and time spent near the kiln kept to a minimum until it reaches 550-600ºC when all the organic material will have burnt out and the bungs should be closed. firing can be completed extremely rapidly and crash cooled without risk. (fig 4).com.com.www.

the large superstructure adds tension and excitement to the pieces. 1994). per com August/September. Using 4 different spheres.grahamhay. a hole is cut out of the surface.au/miller1994. (G Hay. Some. I also use razor sharp craft knives instead of any old blunt thing that we ceramic artists are likely to pick up and use. The result is hundreds of rivets that can be glued to any part of the sculpture. 2 to 3 feet above the ground. He sees paperclay as a medium that allows him to do mark making in 3 dimensions.au/miller1994. and basic assembly begun. whether using paperclay or normal slip. Graham Hay approaches his work and paperclay from a different perspective. is through the use of slip casting moulds. architectural elements and structural solutions in dealing with a series of pieces on society's perception of institutions as the buildings and not the staff and bureaucracy within them.com. a newly cast sphere is matched to a set of legs. This new larger hole can then either have a light mounted in it or it can be turned downwards to form the base of a legless piece depending on how much care was taken when cutting the hole. Various Approaches Paperclay's forgiving qualities and ease of use lend itself to construction type hand building. These were then filled with paperclay from a plastic sauce bottle and allowed to dry. as the pieces I produce bear a strong resemblance to machines. several leg and mounting moulds as well as detail moulds like feet and rivets. Cutting holes in a sphere of green clay may seem a bit daunting but. Gartside also uses press and slip moulds to produce various shapes from free standing narrative slabs to paperclay teacups. I have set up a mini assembly line to produce them. My own work consists of paperclay spheres with straps and rivets made out of paperclay.my own. giving them a "castles in the sky" feel which amply demonstrates the versatility of paperclay construction. like the type used by graphic artists. Hay's work also incorporates. The advantages of using a slip casting mould. wet or dry. although Gartside stresses that only fired or glazed ceramic objects be used if a refiring is planned. By using several moulds I can produce a supply of "parts" for my sculptures and. Having completed my own sets of moulds I began a production line set up. My approach to paperclay. I found that a circular hole cutter. which takes the pour hole with it. is an invaluable tool. paperclay is full of fibres. far outweigh the time and effort involved in producing the master mould. hence the strings of long thin paperclay floating above white plaster bases.5 cm thick and using a drill press to drill a series of holes to a set depth. being tall and spindly. Brian Gartside has taken advantage of paperclay's sheet forming abilities in his nautical works like "Frigate" and "Pastel in Drydock" producing large free standing boat or ship shapes out of semi circular sheets and spindly legs of paperclay.www. float on 5mm by 30mm legs. rather appropriately. I cast and recast pieces that allowed me to assemble small pieces at the rate of one every two to four hours. The broken piece can be reattached and refired with no danger.com.html 23/02/2007 . In an effort to supply the reader with as much information on paperclay construction methods as possible I will describe the work I know best . These holes also act as a ready-made anchor point for more paperclay glue in case of breakage. As I use 2 piece moulds for the spheres. remembering paperclay's amazing strength and its cardboard-like consistency when dry. Once complete the mould can be used indefinitely as long as care is taken when handled. The straps with rivets attached were cast in a one piece mould. Any kind of found object can be pressed into wet paperclay. so if you don't want a rough torn edge use a sharp knife. (anywhere from 1 to 6 so far). Looking much too heavy. as the more astute reader may have noticed. http://www.grahamhay. Remember. while the rivets were made by casting a flat sheet of plaster 2.html Página 6 de 10 once occupied by the paper to escape.

The piece is spun slowly and heated with the torch. Conclusion The real strength of paperclay is its versatility and adaptability. The heat is then reapplied and this is repeated until certain indicator colours are seen. Paperclay http://www. A drop of water will help smooth the join over. The resulting ring of paperclay is glued onto the sphere around the hole. the rough design for the placement of the paperclay straps and found objects is pencilled onto the surface. Once the piece is fired a chemical patina is applied to the surface. enlarging the diameter by 1cm and cutting a second hole. I might add that several of the pieces I've done have cracked under the torch with no ill effect: another advantage of paperclay? And another mystery to solve. The copper carbonate has turned black and the piece is ready for patination. keeping the same centre point. I do this on a banding wheel with a piece of broken kiln shelf for the work to sit on. First it is heated with a blowtorch. holes or attachment points are made at this point and then the piece is put aside to dry for several hours.grahamhay. The pieces are then finished off by having 240-volt lamps mounted in them. It can be joined to itself at any stage and retain strength no matter how wet or dry. After a final fitting of the found objects and a check for any marks on the surface or rivets having been knocked off. Straps of leather paperclay are cut 1cm wide and glued in place according to the pencil marks. At this point the treatment is stopped and the piece put aside. Half completed work can be left for months or years uncovered and dry and be added to or broken and repositioned. so I spray a saturated copper slip on to each piece that consist of 65% copper carbonate or copper oxide. The colour gradually develops over a few days. They are mixed with bakers soldering solution and applied using a plastic spray bottle. care being taken not to play the torch on any area too long or cracks might develop.www. small flashes of white on the body indicate it is hot enough to apply the chemicals. Any recesses. If the piece has any legs these are attached simply by cutting the top off the leg and smoothing around the opening so that all that remains is a clean ring of paperclay that can be mated to the sphere at any angle. 20% Soda Feldspar and 15% ball Clay. these being copper nitrate. These give blue/green. The next stage is to apply the rivets to the straps and this is a long slow process as they are glued on one by one using tweezers.au/miller1994. As the flame heats the surface.html Página 7 de 10 Once the hole or holes are cut.html 23/02/2007 .grahamhay. This requires a metal base coat to build up on. The pieces are then placed in the kiln and fired to the following program: 75ºC per hour to 300ºC = 4 hours 150ºC per hour to 600ºC = 2 hours 250ºC per hour to 1000ºC = 1 hour 36 min 30 min soak at 1000ºC = 30 min Total firing time 8 hours 6 min Once firing has concluded. the piece is ready for bisque firing. Although.com. The circular band that goes around the hole in the sphere is cut from a leather hard sheet of paperclay using the hole's diameter as the inside measurement and then. These cracks can then be filled with thick glue.au/miller1994.com. This may have to de done more than once. although this can be messy so I use leather paperclay that is wedged into a soft putty-like consistency and trowelled into the cracks in the same way. the kiln is cracked and the pieces can be removed from 2 to 6 hours later. This is done because the dry sphere will draw the water out of the strap rapidly and a small amount of shrinkage will result where the strap joins the surface. red and a velvety green colour and texture respectively. ferric chloride and stannous chloride.

The still wet fibres draw slip in immediately and thus the mixture can be used straight away. is going to change the face of contemporary ceramics. once work begins on a piece it can be completed in a matter of hours without the pressures of keeping certain areas moist while having to work around external supports. it is sieved through a 60-mesh screen into the mixing bucket. 1994) Rosette Gault's book is eagerly awaited by both Graham Hay and myself. We have at our disposal a medium that is simple to make and even simpler to use. By casting and storing sheets of green clay. however it should be left to stand for 30 minutes to ensure total saturation of the fibres. SAFETY NOTE: Silica is TOXIC and a mask should be worn when preparing slip. While I see no problem with that approach and there are some stunning works out there. as the subtitle "A Studio Companion" promises not only more views of her work but perhaps some new methods of working with paperclay. bent or positioned in some other manner to produce a piece of work. or extremely thin where delicate work is in progress. stacked. I am the only person working with slip casting moulds and paperclay and use very few flat sheets or surfaces. As far as I am aware. layered.html 23/02/2007 .. Once the slip is prepared. The fired clay looks and acts as clay always does. with the added advantage of it being in three dimensions. in its pre-fired state it is light but strong and some pieces may not even need bisque firing."(Gartside. Appendix 1: Slip Recipe The slip is prepared to the following recipe developed by Jenny Sullivan. Finishing the piece is then as easy as gluing cardboard together. Also. "After bisque firing the appearance and texture are normal in every way. The pulp is then added and mixed thoroughly. Many new works are being produced with paperclay but I've see few that are anything but sheets cut. I believe that paperclay. The minute spaces formerly occupied by the cellulose fibres cannot be seen by the naked eye and the only noticeable difference will be a lightness in weight. glued. Using slip-casting moulds with paperclay has eliminated many problems while creating a few others.com.au/miller1994.grahamhay. I feel that full exploitation of paperclay's advantages is being neglected. The versatility of paperclay cannot be overstated. the former ceramics technician at Edith Cowan for slip casting..grahamhay. Paperclay's ability to produce perfect sheets of clay has blinded many ceramic artists to the other possibilities it presents us with. No skill at all is needed except for imagination. once it is more widely known. because up to 50% of the clay is substituted with paper. Liquid paperclay can be poured and cut to shape and then left to dry before work begins. FX Ball Clay 6 kgs BBR Caolin 5 kgs Silica (300 mesh) 6 kgs Fine Cullet (Glass) 3 kgs Water 10 Lts Sodium Silicate 70 gms Dispex (Liquid) 70 gms These amounts can be doubled or halved to get the required amount of slip.www.au/miller1994. as it will seep into the space between the pieces and form a strong bond with no smearing to mar the work.html Página 8 de 10 in a liquid state is used for the glue and even it can be adapted to suit requirements: thick as a straightforward bond former. If you can glue two pieces of paper together then you can create art. Appendix 2: Test Results This series of tests was conducted to answer four questions: http://www. as we know it.com. rolled.

Footnotes 1.au/miller1994. Solid Ball Test A 60 mm diameter solid ball of wet paperclay of each % mix was fired at 150ºC/hr to 300ºC. both leather hard and Bisque? Can fired paperclay be reglued and refired? Can solid shapes be fired? (In this case a 60mm ball fired to 1000ºC at 200ºC per hour to see if it could also survive such a rapid rate of temperature rise. 15. The other was reglued using 30% paper pulp glue. This leads me to believe the scoring created a funnel. then 250ºC/hr to 600ºC.5 100 x 50 x 10 98.grahamhay.com. Also in the firing was a control ball made of wet slip containing no paper pulp.au/miller1994.grahamhay. balls with 10. The control ball exploded in the kiln.5 Dried Size (mm) 96 x 47 x 8 93 x 46 x 9 94 x 47 x 8 92 x 47 x 8 94 x 43 x 8 92 x 46 x 7. This test is not conclusive since the reglueing technique may have been at fault. then 350ºC/hr to 1000ºC.html 23/02/2007 .5 94 x 47 x 6 93 x 45 x 7 92 x 47 x 8 Bisque Size (mm) 92 x 45 x 6 90 x 45 x 8 90 x 46 x 7 92 x 45 x 7 90 x 45 x 7 90 x 46 x 7 Length % Shrinkage 8 10 10 8 10 10 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 48 x 9 100 x 50 x 10 99 x 49 x 8. If firing thin slabs or delicate work.com. All pieces failed to rebond after refiring.www.5 x 49 x 8 100 x 50 x 10 98 x 49 x 8 92 x 46 x 6 8 93 x 45 x 6 7 91 x 45 x 7. 20 and 25% paper pulp had a large flake break off during firing. The remaining balls showed no sign of damage.html Página 9 de 10 What is the optimum mix of paper pulp to add to the earthenware slip (from appendix 1)? What are the shrinkage rates of the different mixes of paperclay. http://www. A Studio Companion" Rosette Gault. interestingly the flake came off where the percentage number was scored into the surface. One was reglued using glue of the same consistency as the original mix. the bisque firing can be programmed at 250ºC/hr to 200º then 350ºC/hr to 1100ºC with a 30-minute soak.) Shrinkage Test Paperclay Pulp Mix 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Poured Size (mm) 100 x 50 x 10 100 x 50 x 10 100 x 50 x 10 100 x 50 x 10 100 x 50 x 10 Leather hard Size (mm) 98 x 48 x 7 98 x 48 x 9 98 x 48 x 8.5 98 x 48 x 9 98 x 48 x 8. Switch off kiln and crack the door. Published 1994 2.5 9 Refiring Test Two pieces of each paper pulp mix were fired then broken. "Paperclay for Ceramic Sculptors. which allowed the steam to escape a greater velocity and thus damage the ball.

. (1993). http://www. . Paper Clay. Graham (1994) personal communication. (1994).Mix What with Clay? New Zealand Potter. 35 (2). March to September 1994 Rassell. (1994).grahamhay.au/miller1994.grahamhay. 36. Gartside. Graham. Jerry. Suitcase Art. Rosette Galt at NCECA.com. New Zealand Potter. 35 (1).html 23/02/2007 .html Bibliography Página 10 de 10 Caplan. Brian. Gartside. (1994). Jennie. More paperclay articles? click here. 20. 17. (Handout for paperclay workshop at Edith Cowan University) Hay. Hay.au/miller1994. Paperclay. (1). 18. Paper/Clay Again. 36 (1). New Zealand Potter. (1993).www. New Zealand Potter. 32.com. San Diego 1993.. Brian.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful