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PREFACE

The wide availability of essential precursors and chemicals, their free trafficking through international trade channels, and the many legitimate ways in which they can be used, particularly in the case of essential chemicals of cocaine, make it difficult to control the diversion of these chemicals into illicit drug production. Traffickers often direct shipments of chemicals through several countries to foil attempts by authorities to track them down. The problem is compounded by the fact that no universally accepted code for the identification of these substances yet exists. Consequently, even shipments identified with counterfeit documents can easily escape detention by customs authorities. Governments of the countries of the hemisphere are concerned over the serious problems caused by drugs in our societies and recognize that the widespread availability of precursors and specific chemicals for preparing psychotropic substances, particularly in the Americas, exacerbates the situation. It is therefore critical to establish legal mechanisms that will permit an uninterrupted supply of chemicals to firms that have a legitimate need for them, and that will at the same time prevent precursors and chemicals from falling into the hands of producers of illicit drugs. Accordingly, the Executive Secretariat of CICAD is pleased to present this Manual on Chemicals Used in the Illicit Production of Drugs, as a contribution to national involvement in the difficult task of controlling precursors and substances.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE..2 INTRODUCTION.5 EXPLANATORY NOTES7 TECHNICAL DEFINITIONS...8 COCAINE PRODUCTION.10 HEROIN PRODUCTION14 CLANDESTINE MANUFACTURE OF AMPHETAMINES AND METHAMPHETAMINES..18 REGULATED CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES23 Acetic Anhydride Acetone N-Acetylanthranilic Acid Acetyl Chloride Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Formate Ammonium Hydroxide Anthranilic Acid Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzyl Chloride Benzyl Cyanide N-Butyl Acetate N-Butyl Alcohol Sec-Butyl Alcohol Calcium Carbonate Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Oxide Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone Diacetone Alcohol Diethylamine Ephedrine Ergonovine Ergotamine Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Alcohol Ethylamine N-Ethylephedrine Ethyl Ether Ethylidene Diacetate N-Ethyl-pseudoephedrine Formamide Formic Acid Hexane Hydriodic Acid Hydrochloric Acid Hydrogen Peroxide Iodine Isobutyl Alcohol Isopropyl Acetate Isopropyl Alcohol Isosafrole Kerosene Lysergic Acid Methyl Alcohol Methylamine Methylene Chloride 3,4-Methylene Dioxyphenyl-2-Propanone N-Methylephedrine Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Isobutyl Ketone N-Methylpseudoephedrine Nitroethane Norpseudoephedrine Petroleum Ether Phenylacetic Acid Phenylpropanolamine Phenyl-2-Propanone Piperidine Piperonal Potassium Carbonate Potassium Cyanide Potassium Dichromate Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Permanganate

Propionic Anhydride Pseudoephedrine Red Phosphorus Safrole Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Carbonate Sodium Cyanide Sodium Dichromate Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Hypoclorite Sodium Sulfate Sodium Thiosulfate Sulfuric Acid Tartaric Acid Thionyl Chloride

Toluene O-Toluidine Trichloroethylene Urea Xylenes REFERENCES79 APPENDIX I: Model Regulations to Control Chemical Precursors and Chemical Substances, Machines and Materials APPENDIX II: Clandestine Chemical Laboratories

INTRODUCTION
The illicit trafficking in and use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances is one of the most serious problems affecting many countries today. None of these drugs except marijuana can be produced without the aid of chemical substances. In most cases such substances have legitimate industrial uses, and so can be freely acquired in the market. Two types of chemicals are used to manufacture narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Precursor chemicals are defined as substances that can be used in the production, manufacture, and/or preparation of narcotics, psychotropic substances, or substances with a similar effect, and that incorporate their molecular structure to the final product, and so are fundamental to those processes. Essential chemicals are defined as substances other than precursor chemicals that may be used in the production, manufacture, extraction, and/or preparation of narcotics, psychotropic substances, and substances with a similar effect, as a solvent, reagent, or catalyst. Many rules and verification mechanisms are in place with respect to the acquisition of such precursors, but it was not until the late 1980s that emphasis was placed on national and international control of the production, manufacture, preparation, import, export, and distribution, of precursor chemicals and other specific chemical products for the production and manufacture of narcotics, psychotropic substances, or other substances with a similar effect. There has been a significant increase in the amounts of chemicals required to manufacture cocaine shipped in recent years to the Caribbean Basin. It has not been possible to determine whether these shipments were earmarked for legitimate uses, but the notable increase suggests that something more is going on, especially because there are no indications of a proportional increase in the legitimate needs of the countries of that region. It is necessary that the supplier countries, the transshipment countries, and the countries to which the shipments are sent establish legal mechanisms that allow for the uninterrupted supply of chemicals to persons and businesses that have a legitimate need for them, and that simultaneously prevent the chemicals from falling into the hands of the drug traffickers. The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, adopted in Vienna in December 1988, was a major first step towards establishing controls on the distribution of precursor chemicals and essential chemicals. In 1988, the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) of the Organization of American States (OAS) authorized a consultation with the member states on whether to create a Group of Experts on precursor and essential chemicals. That group was entrusted with drawing up regulations that the governments could adopt or

amend with a view to establishing genuinely uniform laws to control chemicals in the nations of the hemisphere. The draft model regulations prepared by the working group were submitted to the representatives of the member states of CICAD during its meeting held in March 1990 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where it was recommended that they be adopted. Finally, the regulations were submitted to the General Assembly OAS in April 1990, which approve the Model Regulations for the Control of Precursors and Chemical Substances, Materials, and Equipment.

EXPLANATORY NOTES
1. ABBREVIATIONS USED: CSA: Controlled Substances Act of the United States OAS: Organization of American States UN: United Nations US: United States MT: metric ton kg: kilograms gr: grams lt: liters ml: milliliters BMK: Benzyl Methyl Ketone LSD: Lisergic Acid Diethylamide MDA: 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine MDE: 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine MDMA: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine MEK: Methyl Ethyl Ketone MIBK: Methyl Isobutyl Ketone PCC: 1-Piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile PCP: Phencyclidene P2P: Phenyl-2-Propanol WCO: World Custom Organization 2. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: The information on chemical products was obtained from the publication Chemicals Used in the Clandestine Production of Drugs, United States Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control, Drug and Chemical Evaluation Section, 1995. The information on chemical laboratories was obtained from the publication Hazards of Chemical Laboratories, Wayne K. Jeffery I/c Toxicology Section, Forensic Laboratory, Royal Canadian Mounted Police. For the purposes of this publication, such information has been edited by CICADs Executive Secretariat.

TECHNICAL DEFINITIONS
DENSITY: Mass per unit of volume, generally expressed in grams per cubic centimeter or kilograms per cubic meter or per liter. Apparent density is weight per unit of volume in powder, and is generally expressed in grams per cubic centimeter, determined by a specific method. Overall density is an alternative term for apparent density. CHEMICAL FORMULA: A written expression, using symbols, of a chemical entity or a relationship. There are several types of formulas: (1) Empirical formula: expresses in simple terms the relative number and type of atoms that form a molecule; it indicates only the composition, not the structure. (2) Molecular formula: shows the real number and the type of atoms of a chemical entity (i.e., molecule, radical, or ion). (3) Structural formula: indicates the location of the atoms, radicals, or ions in relation to one another, as well as the number and location of the chemical bonds. (4) Generic formula: expresses a general type of organic compound, in which the variables are the number of atoms or the class of radicals in a homologous series. (5) Electrical formula: a structural form in which the bonds are replaced by points that indicate the electrical pairs, with a simple bond being a pair of electrons shared by two atoms. ATOMIC WEIGHT: The mass of an atom of an element compared to the mass of the carbon 12 isotope, which is used as the standard, with a value of 12. MOLECULAR WEIGHT: The molecular weight of a chemical compound is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms that constitute it. By agreement, all the atomic weights, and thus all the molecules as well, are expressed with respect to the arbitrary value 16, which is assigned to the oxygen atom. The value of the molecular weight is naturally expressed in arbitrary units, but it may be expressed in grams, in which case it is defined as gram molecular weight, or mole. PRECURSOR CHEMICAL: A substance that may be used in the production, manufacture, and/or preparation of narcotics, psychotropic substances, or substances with similar effect, and whose molecular structure is incorporated into the final product. BOILING POINT: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is slightly higher than the external pressure. For water, at sea level it is 100 C (212F).

MELTING POINT The melting of a pure substance is the temperature at which its crystals are in equilibrium with the liquid phase at atmospheric pressure. Normally it is called melting point when the equilibrium temperature is reached by heating the solid. Consequently, in ordinary circumstances melting points refer to temperatures greater than 0 C, the melting point of ice. SUBLIMATION POINT The sublimation point is the point at which a substance changes from solid to gas directly, and returns to the solid form, without it ever assuming liquid form.

CHEMICALS USED IN THE ILLICIT PRODUCTION OF COCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE


Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid obtained from the coca plant of the Genus Erythroxylon by the extraction of the leaves followed by a number of purification steps. The coca plant used in the illicit production of cocaine is principally grown in Bolivia and Peru. The alkaloid content of the leaves of the South American coca plant is between 0.5 and 1.5 percent with cocaine being the principal alkaloid. The production of cocaine hydrochloride from coca leaves is generally performed in three steps. They are: (1) the extraction of cocaine and other alkaloids from coca leaves to produce coca paste. (2) the purification of coca paste to cocaine base, and (3) the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. These processes may be performed at three different locations or two or more of the steps may be performed at the same location. Each of the steps requires chemicals with specific properties to reach the desired end point. The stage of processing can be determined by the type of chemicals identified at the laboratory site. The chemicals required for each of the steps are as follows: (1) production of coca paste - kerosene, gasoline or other organic solvents with similar properties, alkaline material such as sodium, Calcium or potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, calcium oxide and an acid such as sulfuric acid. (2) production of cocaine base - oxidizing agent such as potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and alkaline material such as ammonia water. (3) production of cocaine hydrochloride - organic solvent such as ethyl ether, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone or toluene and hydrochloric acid. It is important to note that these processes require only modest equipment and relatively few chemicals. The most critical of these chemicals are used in the final steps of the production of cocaine hydrochloride and are the oxidizing agent, potassium permanganate, and the organic solvents ethyl ether, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene. These chemicals have legitimate uses worldwide and are involved in international commerce. By controlling the diversion and trafficking of these chemicals by cocaine producers, the production and availability of cocaine hydrochloride can be effectively curtailed. The following is a description of the procedures and chemicals used in the clandestine production of cocaine hydrochloride:

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Step 1. (Production of Coca Paste) Production of Coca Paste In the initial extraction procedure, dried coca leaves are moistened with an alkaline solution to convert the cocaine to a water insoluble form. Alkaline materials that can be and have been used in this initial extraction procedure are sodium, potassium or calcium carbonate (limestone), sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) calcium oxide (lime) and ammonia water. The moistened leaves are soaked and the cocaine extracted using kerosene, or other organic liquids in which cocaine is soluble. Gasoline has been used in place of kerosene; however its physical properties (flammability and high volatility) make it less desirable. Kerosene extracts other alkaloids in addition to cocaine from the coca leaves. The kerosene solution is mixed with dilute sulfuric acid; the cocaine and other alkaloids are converted to sulfate salts which are soluble in the aqueous acid solution, which is retained. This extraction procedure separates the waxes and fats extracted from the coca leaves from the cocaine and other alkaloids. Other acids which can be used in place of sulfuric acid are hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and phosphoric acid. Sulfuric acid is commonly used, however, because of its availability and physical characteristics. Its low volatility and acid strength make it safer, easier to handle and a more efficient acid than the others. Ammonia water is added to the sulfuric acid solution containing the cocaine sulfate; this converts the cocaine sulfate to cocaine base which is water insoluble. The cocaine and other alkaloids are filtered out of aqueous solution. This product is termed coca paste or sulfate. The product obtained is approximately fifty percent cocaine base. None of the chemicals used in this first step is regulated under the United States Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act. They are readily and widely available throughout the world including in the countries in which cocaine is produced and there are practical substitutes for each of the chemicals. Step 2. (Production of Cocaine Base) In order to refine the cocaine, the coca paste is purified to cocaine base and then converted to cocaine hydrochloride. The coca paste is dissolved in a dilute sulfuric acid solution which converts the cocaine base and other alkaloids in the paste to water soluble sulfate salts. A dilute solution of an oxidizing agent, most often potassium permanganate, is added to the acid solution. Hydrogen peroxide can also be used as an oxidizing agent and has occasionally been identified in clandestine cocaine laboratories. Oxidizing agents are used to convert (oxidize) cinnamoylcocaine and other unwanted alkaloids to water insoluble forms, which can be removed from the cocaine containing acid solution by filtering. The removal of these impurities aids in the crystallization of cocaine hydrochloride in the final step and promotes the formation of the clean white product sought after by cocaine distributors and users. Potassium permanganate is the preferred oxidizing agent and the one most frequently used by clandestine laboratory operators. Its violet pink color in solution makes it useful as an indicator to determine when the alkaloidal impurities have been completely oxidized. Potassium permanganate, because of

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its importance to the production of a high quality cocaine hydrochloride product, is regulated under the United States Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act. The impurities are filtered from the sulfuric acid solution which is then made alkaline with ammonia water or other previously mentioned alkaline material. This converts the cocaine to its base form, which is insoluble in water. The solution is filtered and the water insoluble cocaine is separated and dried. This product is cocaine base. Step 3. (Production of Cocaine HydroChloride ) The third and final step in the production of cocaine hydrochloride converts cocaine base into crystalline cocaine hydrochloride. The chemicals used in this procedure are organic solvents which dissolve cocaine base and hydrochloric acid which provides a source of chloride ions for the formation of the hydrochloride salt of cocaine. The solvents most commonly used and those which are regulated under the United States Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act are ethyl ether, acetone,2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone) and toluene. Hydrochloric acid is not a regulated chemical because of the small quantities used, its readily availability and the number of easily obtainable substitutes. In this process, the dried cocaine base is dissolved in a minimal amount of organic solvent such as ethyl ether or acetone and the mixture is filtered to remove any undissolved material (impurities). A solution of hydrochloric acid in a water miscible organic solvent such as acetone is added to the liquid. The cocaine base is converted to cocaine hydrochloride which is insoluble in the organic solvent. The solution is filtered and the crystalline cocaine hydrochloride is retained and dried. The product from this step is usually 90-98 percent pure cocaine hydrochloride. Although there are a large number of organic solvents there are several critical factors that must be considered and that limit the selection of an appropriate solvent in this process. A suitable organic solvent is: (a) one in which cocaine base is soluble; (b) one in which cocaine hydrochloride is insoluble or only slightly soluble; (c) one which is miscible with water and the other organic solvent used; (d) volatile; and (e) readily available Substitutes for the regulated solvents which meet some but not all of these criteria include benzene, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, chloroform, isopropyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone. For example, cocaine base is soluble in methylene chloride and chloroform but so is cocaine hydrochloride. Analysis of powder cocaine hydrochloride samples by Drug Enforcement Administration laboratories since 1986 show that the solvents most commonly used are acetone, ethyl ether, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene. Seizures of chemicals at South American clandestine cocaine hydrochloride laboratories substantiate the almost exclusive use of these solvents. Thus, although there are a number of alternatives to the regulated solvents, the limitations described above make them less practical and desirable.

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CHEMICALS USED IN THE ILLICIT PRODUCTION OF HEROIN


Heroin is a semi-synthetic narcotic analgesic prepared by the chemical reaction of morphine with an acetylating agent such as acetic anhydride. Morphine, itself a narcotic analgesic, is one of the alkaloids found in and obtained from opium. Opium is the dried latex obtained from the unripe capsules of the poppy plant (Papaver somniferum L). Opium contains about 20 alkaloids, with morphine (10-16 percent) being the most important and most abundant. Other alkaloids (10-15 percent) found in opium include codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine. Considerable quantities of the opium poppy are grown commercially for the medicinal value of the alkaloids, for the seed-extractable oil, and for foodstuffs. It is also grown illicitly for the production of heroin. Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia, Central and South America are the major source areas for opium used in the production of heroin. Heroin is generally produced in clandestine laboratories outside of the United States. The preferred form in the United States is heroin hydrochloride, which is watersoluble and can be injected intravenously and snorted. Smaller quantities of heroin base are also smoked in the United States. Heroin is generally converted to its hydrochloride salt before shipment to the United States. The clandestine processing of heroin from opium can be divided into three basic stages: (1) Extraction of morphine from opium and purification of morphine base. (2) Synthesis of heroin base from morphine. (3) Conversion of heroin base to heroin hydrochloride. The entire process is usually, but not always, performed at one location. Processes vary somewhat from area to area, particularly in the extent of purification of morphine. The process can be performed by individuals with little or no chemical education using a few chemicals and simple equipment. Common chemicals used in the production of heroin hydrochloride from morphine and opium are the following: alkaline material such as calcium oxide (lime), calcium hydroxide (slaked lime), ammonium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate (limestone); acids such as tartaric acid, hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride; an acetylating agent such as acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride; solvents such as acetone, ethyl ether, ethyl alcohol and methyl ethyl ketone; and an adsorptive agent such as activated charcoal for filtering and decolorizing. The most critical of these chemicals is acetic anhydride which is reacted with morphine to produce heroin. Other important chemicals are the solvents acetone, ethyl ether, methyl ethyl ketone, and hydrochloric acid, which are used primarily in the conversion of heroin to heroin hydrochloride, the sought after street product. These chemicals have legitimate uses worldwide and are in international commerce. Nevertheless, their regulation provides an effective means of curtailing the production and availability of heroin hydrochloride. The other chemicals, which include the alkaline and acidic materials, are very common and readily available in the countries in which the heroin process occurs. Further,

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their use in the heroin process requires no properties unique to any one of them and thus there are many practical substitutes for them. For these reasons they are not regulated under the CDTA or the 1988 Vienna Convention. The following is a description of the procedures and chemicals used in the production of morphine from opium, its purification, and ultimate conversion to heroin hydrochloride: Step 1. (Extraction and Purification of Morphine) A. Extraction from Opium: Opium is dispersed in water, and the mixture is heated and made alkaline with calcium oxide (lime) or calcium hydroxide (slaked lime). This forms the calcium salt of morphine which is soluble in the aqueous solution and precipitates other major alkaloids of opium. The aqueous solution is filtered to remove the precipitated alkaloids and ammonium chloride is added to the solution. This converts the calcium salt of morphine to morphine base. The solution is allowed to stand for several hours and the morphine base precipitates out of solution. The solution is then filtered and the morphine base is dried. The crude dried morphine base, which is dark brown, is usually about 50-70 percent pure. B. Purification of Morphine Base: Crude morphine base is first washed with small amounts of acetone to remove unwanted alkaloids. The morphine base is then dissolved in a solution of tartaric acid (heated to 80-90C) which converts the morphine base to its bitartrate salt. The solution is treated with activated charcoal and is filtered. The activated charcoal is used as a decolorizing agent and removes the brown color. This aqueous acidic solution is made alkaline with ammonia which converts the morphine bitartrate to morphine base. The morphine base precipitates out of solution, is recovered by filtration and dried. Purified morphine base is usually 85-95 percent pure. In the extraction and purification of morphine from opium, only acetone is regulated by the CDTA and the 1988 Vienna Convention. The other chemicals which include general acids and alkaline materials are readily available worldwide. Any number of substances can be and have been used in this first step. Step 2. (Synthesis of Heroin Base from Morphine) This step involves the chemical reaction of morphine with an acetylating agent to form heroin (diacetylmorphine). Dried morphine base is mixed with acetic anhydride (excess quantities) and heated until the morphine base is completely dissolved. The solution is further heated to a near boil and retained at that temperature for approximately 1 hour. A chemical reaction takes place between morphine and acetic anhydride which converts morphine base to heroin base. Acetic anhydride is an essential chemical regulated by the CDTA and the 1988 Vienna Convention. It is a readily available industrial chemical involved in international commerce. Acetic anhydrides main application is in the chemical process industry in the manufacture of plastics and synthetic fibers (cellulose acetate). Acetic morphine and acetic anhydride which converts morphine base to heroin base.

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Acetic anhydride is an essential chemical regulated by the CDTA and the 1988 Vienna Convention. It is a readily available industrial chemical involved in international commerce. Acetic anhydrides main application is in the chemical process industry in the manufacture of plastics and synthetic fibers (cellulose acetate). Acetic anhydride is the reagent of choice in the conversion of morphine to heroin. Acetyl chloride is another acetylating agent which is readily available, however, it is extremely corrosive, more volatile and difficult to handle. For these reasons, it is seldom substituted for acetic anhydride. The solution is cooled and water is added to rid the solution of unreacted acetic anhydride. With the addition of water, the heroin base is converted to heroin acetate which is soluble in the aqueous solution. The solution is filtered and made alkaline with sodium carbonate. Other alkaline material such as sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate or ammonium hydroxide may be substituted for the sodium carbonate. The dissolved heroin acetate is converted to heroin base, a water insoluble form. The contents are filtered and the heroin base is retained and dried. The purity of the heroin base depends on the purity of the morphine base and on the completeness of the acetylation process. Step 3. (Conversion of Heroin Base to Heroin Hydrochloride) Heroin base is dissolved in hot acetone and activated charcoal is added. The activated charcoal again is used as a decoloring agent. The solution is mixed and filtered. The liquid portion is retained and contains heroin base. Hydrochloric acid (concentrated) is added to the acetone solution which is mixed and allowed to sit. This converts the heroin base to heroin hydrochloride. The solution is filtered and the heroin hydrochloride is retained and dried. This product can have a range of purity of 80-95 percent. Some of the major impurities may be monoacetylmorphine and acetylcodeine. The ultimate purity of heroin hydrochloride is dependent on the effort put forth to purify morphine base. The solvents acetone, ethyl ether, methyl ethyl ketone, and hydrochloric acid have been used in the heroin hydrochloride process and are regulated under the CDTA and the 1988 Vienna Convention. The critical property of these solvents is their ability to dissolve heroin base but not heroin hydrochloride.

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CLANDESTINE MANUFACTURE OF AMPHETAMINES AND METHAMPHETAMINES


Amphetamines and methamphetamines are sympathomimetic amines whose illicit use is widespread due to their stimulant effects on the central nervous system. Nowadays, there is a certain amount of lawful production of these drugs for medical use in the treatment of obesity, attention disorders, and narcolepsy. While some of these pharmaceutical products are diverted to illicit trafficking, most amphetamine and methamphetamine found in the illicit traffic are produced in clandestine laboratories. In contrast to cocaine and heroin, amphetamine and methamphetamine are produced only by means of chemical syntheses. A wide variety and large number of syntheses are useful for the manufacture of amphetamine and methamphetamine. Nonetheless, the clandestine laboratories use only a few of these. It would appear that the synthesis for amphetamine generally uses 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) as the principal raw material. The main raw materials used in the synthesis of methamphetamine are ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and 1-phenyl-2-propanone. While 1-phenyl-2-propanone can be acquired commercially, it is often prepared in the clandestine laboratories from phenylacetic acid, benzyl cyanide or benzoic aldehyde, and nitroethane. These syntheses are relatively simple and do not require very complex equipment, or exotic chemicals. Each procedure takes a few steps, is carried out in one or two days, and has relatively abundant yields. These syntheses occur through one or more reactions to produce amphetamine and basic methamphetamine, which are oily liquids. These bases are purified and then become salts, usually hydrochloride for methamphetamines and sulfate for amphetamine, which are crystalline substances. Purification and conversion require only organic solvents (for example, ethyl ether, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, etc.), alkaline substances (for example, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, etc.), and the corresponding acid (for example, hydrochloric acid or gaseous hydrogen chloride for hydrochloride or sulfuric acid for sulfate). There are two optical isomers and one racemic sample (mixture of equal parts of the two optical isomers) of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The dextrorotary isomers (d) are more powerful stimulants of the central nervous system than the levorotary ones (l) or than the racemic mixtures (d,l). In most cases, the initial raw material determines the isomer of the final product. The syntheses that begin with 1-ephedrine or dpseudoephedrine (the isomers that are commonly found) produce d-methamphetamine. The reduction of ephedrine to synthesize methamphetamine is a simple onestep reaction that produces methamphetamine oil (base) that is purified and converted to hydrochloride. The normal yield of this process is 50% to 75%. One can use pseudoephedrine instead of ephedrine, with similar results. Ephedrine is used in bulk or in tablets (with or without extraction). Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine may be heated with reflux in acid and red phosphorus for 16 hours or more. It would appear that even if it is not heated small amounts of methamphetamines can be produced. Although other reducing agents can also be used, rarely have they been found in the clandestine laboratories. Some

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laboratories produce their own hydriodic acid from iodine, red phosphorus, and a strong acid. The Leuckart reaction is used to produce amphetamines or methamphetamines from 1- phenyl-2-propanone using a somewhat more complicated procedure. The 1-phenyl-2- propanone is refluxed in ammonium formide or formamide (for amphetamine) or N- methylformamide (for methamphetamine) for several hours. Then hydrochloric acid is added to the mixture (which contains the formate derivative) and this is refluxed for several more hours to produce amphetamine or methamphetamine; it is then purified and converted into amphetamine sulfate or methamphetamine hydrochloride. The reductive amination of 1-phenyl-2-propanone is another relatively simple method that is used in clandestine laboratories to produce amphetamines and methamphetamines. 1- phenyl-2-propanone is reacted with ammonium (to produce amphetamine), or with methylamine (to produce methamphetamines) in the presence of mercuric chloride and aluminum foil for a few hours. Then the base is purified and converted to amphetamine sulfate or methamphetamine hydrochloride. A common method to synthesize 1-phenyl-2-propanone is using phenylacetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate as starting materials. These three ingredients are refluxed together for 18 hours, cooled, and basified. The resulting 1phenyl-2-propanone is purified by distillation or extraction. Distillation of phenylacetic acid and lead acetate also produces 1- phenyl-2-propanone. Sometimes, phenylacetic acid is synthesized in clandestine laboratories from benzoic chloride and sodium cyanide or benzyl cyanide. If certain modifications are introduced into these syntheses, a variety of stimulant and hallucinogenic analogs of amphetamine and methamphetamine can be produced. For example, the substitution of ethylamine for methylamine during reductive amination of 1-phenyl-2-propanone produces ethamphetamine (ethylamphetamine), a central nervous system stimulant. If, in place of 1-phenyl-2-propanone, 3,4methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone is used in the synthesis, MDA, MDMA, or MDE may be obtained; all are controlled substances with stimulant and hallucinogenic properties.

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CHEMICALS PRODUCTION
ACETIC ACID

USED

IN

ILLICIT

DRUG

Other names: Ethanoic acid, methanecarboxylic acid; glacial acetic acid. Molecular formula: CH3COOH Molecular weight: 60,05 (C2H4O2) Harmonized code: 2915.21.0000 Density: 1,05 Boiling point: 118C Freezing point: 16,6C Description: Colorless, corrosive liquid with a pungent odor. A 5-6% solution in water is vinegar. Glacial acetic acid refers to a solution which is at least 99.5% concentrated. Hazards: Flammable; vapor irritating to respiratory system, eyes and skin; can cause severe burns to eyes and skin; ingestion causes irritation and damage. Illicit use: Clandestine manufacture of P-2-P for amphetamine and methamphetamine synthesis; possibly used to produce acetic anhydride for heroin production. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS) Legitimate uses: Manufacture of vinyl acetate (45%), cellulose acetate (20%), acetic anhydride, acetate rayon, plastics and rubber, in tanning; printing calico and dyeing silk; food preservative; solvent for gums, resins, volatile oils and many other substances; used in other organic synthesis. Manufacturing process: Carbonylation of methanol; direct oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons; oxidation of acetaldehyde. Shipping and storage: Containers lined with stainless steel, glass or polyethylene. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Austria, Finland, France, Belgium, Italy, Norway, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland. Asia: South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela. Central America: Mexico. Remarks: The reaction of acetic acid and phenylacetic acid to yield P2P has not been frequently encountered in U.S. clandestine labs. The majority of the companies manufacturing acetic acid in the U.S. convert it to either vinyl acetate or cellulose acetate. Reports from SE Asian countries indicates that acetic acid has been used in the past to produce acetic anhydride through a reaction with ketene. Acetic acid alone will not acetylate morphine to heroin. It can be used as a substitute for ammonium chloride in the extraction of morphine from opium. ACETIC ANHYDRIDE Other names: Acetic oxide, acetyl oxide. Molecular formulas: (CH3CO)2O Molecular weight: 102,09 (C4H6O3) CSA code: 8519 Harmonized code: 2915.24.0000
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Density: 1,08 Boiling point: 139C Description: Colorless liquid with a penetrating, strong acetic odor. Fumes in moist air. Hazards: Flammable; vapors are irritating to respiratory system and eyes; liquid may burn eyes and skin severely; ingestion causes irritation, pain and vomiting. Illicit use: Acetylating agent in the production of heroin, P2P and N-acetylanthranilic acid. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Acetylating and dehydrating agent; acetylation of cellulose (80%); production of polymethylacrylamide (Hard Foam); acetylated plastic auxiliaries; explosives; production of certain types of brake and drilling fluids; production of coldbleaching activators; dyeing, chiefly with nitric acid; preparation of organic intermediates; productions of pharmaceuticals, e.g., aspirin, acetanilide, phenacetin, theophylline; acetylation of animal and plant fats; production of flavors, fragrances and herbicides. Manufacturing process: Dehydration of acetic acid and carbonylation of methylacetate. Shipping and storage: Containers lined with stainless steel or polyethylene. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, France, United Kingdom, Switzerland. Asia: Japan. Central America: Mexico. South America: Brazil. Remarks: Acetic Anhydride reacts with morphine to yield heroin. It also reacts with anthranilic acid to form N-acetyl-anthranilic acid, the immediate precursor of methaqualone and mecloqualone. It reacts with phenylacetic acid to give P2P, a precursor of amphetamine and methamphetamine. ACETIC ANHYDRIDE Other names: Acetic oxide, acetyl oxide. Molecular formulas: (CH3CO)2O Molecular weight: 102,09 (C4H6O3) CSA code: 8519. Harmonized code: 2915.24.0000 Density: 1,08. Boiling point: 139C Description: Colorless liquid with a penetrating, strong acetic odor. Fumes in moist air. Hazards: Flammable; vapors are irritating to respiratory system and eyes; liquid may burn eyes and skin severely; ingestion causes irritation, pain and vomiting. Illicit use: Acetylating agent in the production of heroin, P2P and N-acetylanthranilic acid. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Acetylating and dehydrating agent; acetylation of cellulose (80%); production of polymethylacrylamide (Hard Foam); acetylated plastic auxiliaries; explosives; production of certain types of brake and drilling fluids; production of coldbleaching activators; dyeing, chiefly with nitric acid; preparation of organic intermediates; productions of pharmaceuticals, e.g., aspirin, acetanilide, phenacetin, theophylline; acetylation of animal and plant fats; production of flavors, fragrances and herbicides. Manufacturing process: Dehydration of acetic acid and carbonylation of methylacetate. Shipping and storage: Containers lined with stainless steel or polyethylene.

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Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, France, United Kingdom, Switzerland. Asia: Japan. Central America: Mexico. South America: Brazil. Remarks: Acetic Anhydride reacts with morphine to yield heroin. It also reacts with anthranilic acid to form N-acetyl-anthranilic acid, the immediate precursor of methaqualone and mecloqualone. It reacts with phenylacetic acid to give P2P, a precursor of amphetamine and methamphetamine. ACETONE Other names: Dimethyl ketone, -ketopropane; pyroacetic ether; 2-propanone. Molecular formula: (CH3)2CO Molecular weight: 58,08 (C3H6O) Harmonized code: 2914.11.1000 Density: 0,79 Boiling point: 56,5 C Description: Colorless, mobile, flammable liquid with a mildly pungent and somewhat aromatic odor. Hazards: Highly flammable; vapor is irritating to eyes and nose in high concentrations; inhalation of vapor may cause dizziness, narcosis and coma; liquid is irritating to eyes and may cause severe damage; ingestion of liquid may cause gastric irritation, narcosis and coma. Illicit use: Solvent in purification of morphine base leading to the manufacture of heroin; conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: CSA; United Nations; Organization of American States. Legitimate uses: Solvent and chemical intermediary for a variety of substances including plastics, paints, lubricants, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agricultural products, fats, oils, waxes, resins, rubber, lacquers, varnishes and rubber cements; used in the extraction of various principals from animal and plant substances; in varnish removers, purifying paraffin; hardening and dehydrating tissue; manufacture of methyl isobutyl ketone, mesityloxide, acetic acid, diacetone alcohol, chloroform, iodoform, bromoform, explosives, rayon, photographic films and isoprene. Manufacturing process: Fermentation of cornstarch and molasses; chemical synthesis from isopropanol; from cumene or a by-product in phenol manufacture; oxidation of propane. Shipping and storage: Shipped in steel drums, tank trucks, and rail cars; stored in closed containers in well ventilated area away from heat, sparks and flames. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, The Netherlands,United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Taiwan. Central America: Mexico. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela. Australia. Remarks: It is a solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride and in the purification of morphine base in the production of heroin. It can be produced by a reaction of diacetone alcohol with an alkaline material such as sodium hydroxide or in the presence of a catalyst such as zinc or aluminum oxide. It may also be produced from isopropyl alcohol at cocaine laboratory sites. N-ACETYLANTHRANILIC ACID

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Other names: Orto-acetaminobenzoic acid; 2-acetamidobenzoic acid. Molecular formula: (CH3CONH)C6H4(COOH) Molecular weight: 179,18 (C9H9O3) Harmonized code: 2924.29.4700 Melting point: 184-186C. Description: Fine white or off-white crystalline powder with a sweetish taste. Hazards: Harmful if swallowed. Illicit use: Production of methaqualone and mecloqualone. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS); United Nations. Legitimate uses: Chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, plastic and fine chemicals. Manufacturing process: From anthranilic acid and acetic anhydride. Shipping and storage: Shipped in 100 lb (45.5 kg) fiber drums; stored in tightly closed containers in cool dry area. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, Switzerland. Asia: Unknown. Remarks: N-acetylanthranilic acid is the immediate precursor used in the synthesis of methaqualone and mecloqualone. It is often synthesized from anthranilic acid. Esters of NAcetylanthranilic Acid such as Ajacine are now included under the CSA. ACETYL CHLORIDE Other names: Ethanoyl chloride. Molecular formula: CH3COCl Molecular weight: 78,5 (C2H3ClO. Harmonized code: 2903.29.0000 Density: 1,104 Boiling point: 52C Description: Colorless fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Hazards: Highly flammable; vapor is irritating to the respiratory system and eyes; liquid may burn eyes and skin; ingestion of the liquid causes severe internal irritation and damage; its vapor forms explosive mixtures with air and it reacts violently with water. Illicit use: Acetylating agent used for converting morphine to heroin. Where controlled or regulated: Hong Kong; Thailand. Legitimate uses: Synthesis of pharmaceuticals and dyes; determination of water in organic liquids; manufacturing lubricating grease and rubber; in polymerization processes. Manufacturing process: Reaction of acetic anhydride and hydrogen chloride; reaction of acetic acid and phosphorus trichloride or 1,1,2-trichloroethylene or 1,1,1-trichloroethane or sulfur mono-chloride or thionyl chloride. Shipping and storage: Polyethylene lined drums in cool dry area with adequate ventilation. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, United Kingdom, Switzerland. Asia: India, Japan. Remarks: This chemical can be substituted for acetic anhydride which is the most widely used acetylating agent in converting morphine to heroin. Acetyl chloride however is more hazardous to use in this procedure than acetic anhydride and has rarely been encountered.

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AMMONIUM CHLORIDE Other names: Sal ammoniac, ammonium muriate; salmiac; Darammon; Amchlor. Molecular formula: NH4Cl Molecular weight: 53,5 Harmonized code: 2827.10.0000 Density: 1,53 Melting point: At 340C it goes from a solid to a gas and then back to a solid again without going through the liquid phase. Description: Colorless, odorless crystals or white granular powder, saline taste; absorbs moisture from the air giving it a tendency to cake. Illicit use: Extraction of morphine from opium for conversion to heroin. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Flux for coating iron with zinc; tinning; in dry cell batteries; dyeing; freezing mixtures; electroplating; to clean soldering irons; lustering cotton; tanning; in washing powders; for snow treatment (slows melting on ski slopes). Manufacturing process: Direct reaction between hydrochloric acid and ammonia; reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous sodium chloride. Shipping and storage: Shipped in sacks or bags of paper or polyethylene; stored in vessels or tanks which have internal coatings of epoxide or phenoxy resins. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, United Kingdom. Asia: Philippines, Indonesia, Japan. Remarks: It is used to adjust the pH in the extraction of morphine from opium. It is not a critical chemical in this extraction process and other acid substitutes, such as acetic acid, can be used. AMMONIUM FORMATE Other names: Formic acid ammonium salt. Molecular formula: HCOONH4 Molecular weight: 63,06 (CH5NO2) Harmonized code: 2915.12.0000 Density: 1,27 Melting point: 119-121C Description: Crystals have a tendency to become a liquid by absorbing moisture from the air. Illicit use: Production of amphetamine and MDA. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown Legitimate uses: Chemical analysis, especially to precipitate base metals from salts of the noble metals (gold, platinum, etc.). Manufacturing process: Prepared from formic acid and ammonia; from methyl formate and ammonia. Shipping and storage: Tightly closed containers. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Italy, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. North America: United States.

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Remarks: It is a precursor in the clandestine production of amphetamine and MDA from P2P and 3,4-MDP2P respectively. Formic acid and ammonia are sometimes substituted for ammonium formate. AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE Other names: Ammonia solution; ammonium hydrate; aqua ammonia; Spirit of Hartshorn. Molecular formula: NH4OH Molecular weight: 35,0 (NH5O) Harmonized code: 2814.20.0000 Density: 0,91 Description: Colorless liquid with a pungent, suffocating odor. Ammonium hydroxide is a 25-30% solution of ammonia gas in water. Hazards: Severely irritating to eyes; poisonous if ingested and possibly if inhaled. Illicit use: Alkaline material used in the production of coca paste and cocaine base; reagent for producing alkaline solutions in chemical syntheses. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS) Legitimate uses: Detergent, removing stains, bleaching calico printing, extracting plant colors and alkaloids, manufacturing ammonium salts and aniline dyes. Manufacturing process: Reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen under pressure with a catalyst produces ammonia gas; ammonium hydroxide is produced by bubbling ammonia gas into water. Shipping and storage: Shipped in steel (sometimes stainless) vessels and polyethylene canisters for ammonium hydroxide; stored and distributed as a liquefied gas in spherical or cylindrical pressure vessels and insulated cylindrical tanks. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: United Kingdom, Estonia. Asia: Singapore, Thailand. Central America: Mexico. South America: Brazil. Africa: Nigeria. Middle East: Syria. Remarks: This chemical has been frequently found at cocaine production sites. There are many other liquid and solid alkaline substances which can be substituted for ammonium hydroxide in cocaine production. Approximately 80% of the ammonia gas produced in the U.S. is used in the production of fertilizers. ANTHRANILIC ACID Other names: Ortho-aminobenzoic, 1-amino-2-carboxybenzene, vitamin L1; aminobenzoic acid; ortho-carboxyaniline. Molecular formula: NH2C6H4COOH Molecular weight: 137,13 (C7H7NO2) CSA Code: 8530 Harmonized code: 2922.49.3700 Density: 1,41 Melting point: 144-146C Description: White to pale yellow crystalline powder with sweetish taste. Hazards: Harmful is swallowed. 2-

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Illicit use: Production of methaqualone and mecloqualone by forming N-acetylanthranilic. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations. Legitimate uses: Chemical intermediate in the manufacture of dyes (indigo), pharmaceuticals and perfumes; in general organic syntheses. Manufacturing process: Reaction of isatoic anhydride and alkalis; reduction of orthonitrobenzoic acid. Shipping and storage: Shipped in 150 lb. (68.2 kg) fiber drums and as bulk powder; stored in tightly closed containers in cool dry areas. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Denmark. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Anthranilic acid along with acetic acid is used to synthesize N-acetylanthranilic acid which is used in the clandestine production of methaqualone and mecloqualone. Esters of anthranilic acid such as pindocaine are now controlled under the CSA. BENZALDEHYDE Other names: Benzoic aldehide; artificial essential oil of almond; benzenecarbonal. Molecular formula: C6H5CHO Molecular weight: 106,12 (C7H6O) CSA Code: 8526 Harmonized code: 2912.21.0000 Density: 1,05 Boiling point: 179C Description: Strongly refractive liquid, becoming yellowish on storage; oil of almond odor; burning aromatic taste. Illicit use: Production of P2P and amphetamine. Where controlled or regulated: CSA. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of dyes, perfumes, cinnamic and mandelic acids, pharmaceutical, agricultural and other organic chemicals; solvent; ingredient in flavors. Manufacturing process: Hydrolysis of benzal chloride; partial oxidation of toluene. Shipping and storage: Keep tightly closed and protected from heat. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Oxidizes in air to form benzoic acid. It can be used to clandestinely manufacture a nitropropene intermediate by a reaction with nitroethane and butylamine. This intermediate can then be converted into P2P or amphetamine. This reaction has been encountered in clandestine P2P and amphetamine labs. BENZENE Other names: Benzol; cyclohexatriene, phenyl hydride. Molecular formula: C6H6 Molecular weight: 78.11 Harmonized Codes: 2902.20.0000 (>90%) / 2707.10.0120 (<90%) Density: 0,88

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Boiling point: 80,1C Description: Clear, colorless, highly flammable liquid. Hazards:Vapors may cause dizziness, headache, excitement, and unconsciousness in high concentrations; vapor is irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes; liquid may be poisonous if absorbed through the skin or ingested; repeated inhalation of low concentrations may cause severe or fatal blood diseases such as leukemia or a plastic anemia; suspected carcinogen. Illicit use:Solvent used during the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride and in PCP production. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Solvent for waxes, resins, oils; manufacture of ethylbenzene, cumene and cyclohexane; manufacture of varnishes and lacquers and as a motor fuel component. Manufacturing process: Decomposition of naphtha using heat, pressure and a platinum catalyst; hydrogenation and desulfurization of pyrolysis gasoline (ethylene production byproduct); hydrodealkylation and disproportionation of toluene; and to a small extent, the coking of coal. Shipping and storage: Steel drums or tanks with adequate ventilation. Manufacturers:North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan. Central America: Mexico. Remarks: This chemical can be used to initially extract cocaine alkaloids from the coca leaf but its high flammability and acute toxic properties make it a poor choice for this process. Although it can be used as a solvent in the conversion of cocaine base to hydrochloride; its presence in a sample could possibly result from it being an impurity in another solvent which was used in the cocaine production process. BENZYL CHLORIDE Other names: Chloromethylbenzene; -chlorotoluene. Molecular formula: C6H5CH2Cl Molecular weight: 126,58 (C7H7Cl) Harmonized code: 2903.69.2000 Density: 1,10 Boiling point: 179C Description: Colorless liquid which fumes in moist air; pungent odor; powerful lachrymatory effect. Hazards: Vapor is irritating to respiratory system, mucous membranes, eyes and skin; liquid can cause burns; ingestion causes severe internal irritation and damage. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Manufacture of plasticizers, benzyl alcohol and phenylacetic acid; production of quaternary ammonium salts for disinfectants and catalysts; benzyl ester for the flavor and perfume industry; dyes of the triphenylmethane series; dibenzyl disulfide (antioxidant) for lubricants; benzylphenol and benzylamines. Manufacturing process: Chlorination of toluene. Manufacturers:North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan.

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Remarks: It is used in one of the methods to manufacture P2P, a precursor of amphetamine and methamphetamine. This method is not the primary method used to produce P2P. BENZYL CYANIDE Other names: Benzeneacetonitrile; phenylacetonitrile,-tolunitrile; cyanotoluene; 2phenylacetonitrile. Molecular formula: C6H5CH2CN Molecular weight: 117,14 (C8H7N) Harmonized code: 2926.90.4700 Density: 1,02 Boiling point: 233,5C Description: Colorless oily liquid with an aromatic odor; rapidly absorbed through the skin; toxicity due to presence of cyanide; insoluble in water. Hazards: Vapor may cause faintness; headache and vomiting; liquid is irritating to eye and skin; ingestion may cause irritation and poisoning. Illicit use: Production of P2P. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Synthesis of phenylacetic acid used in the production of penicillin; in general organic synthesis. Manufacturing process: Reaction of benzyl chloride and sodium or potassium cyanide. Manufacturers:North America: United States. Europe: Denmark, France, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. Remarks:Benzyl cyanide is used in a several step synthesis to produce P2P. This method is not frequently used. n-BUTYL ACETATE Other names: Acetic acid butyl ester. Molecular formula: CH3COO(CH2)3CH3 Molecular weight:116,16 (C6H12O2) Harmonized code: 2915.33.0000 Density: 0,88 Boiling point: 125-126C Description: Colorless liquid with a pleasant odor. Hazards: Vapors may irritate respiratory system and cause headache and nausea; liquid irritates the eyes and may cause conjunctivitis; liquid irritates the skin and causes dermatitis; if ingested may act as a central nervous system depressant. Illicit use: Solvent used during the conversion of cocaine to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of lacquer, artificial leather, photographic film, plastics and safety glass. Manufacturing process: Reaction of acetic acid and n-butyl alcohol. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, United Kingdom, Switzerland. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States.

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Remarks:This chemical has been identified in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the U.S. Its solvent properties are similar to ethyl ether except that it is less volatile. n-BUTYL ALCOHOL Other names: Butyl alcohol; 1-butanol; n-butanol; butyl hydroxide; 1-hydroxybutane;npropylcarbinol. Molecular formula: CH3(CH2)3OH Molecular weight: 74,12 (C4H10O) Harmonized code: 2905.13.0000 Density: 0,81 Boiling point: 117-118C Description: Colorless liquid with irritating vapors. Hazards: Toxic by skin contact, ingestion and subcutaneous routes; severely irritating to eyes and skin. Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Legitimate uses: Solvent for fats, waxes, resins, shellac, varnish, gums; manufacture of lacquers, rayon and detergents. Manufacturing process: Hydrogenation of n-butyraldehyde with sodium borohydride. Shipping and storage: Untreated mild steel or enameled steel drums; also stainless steel. Manufacturers: North America: United States Europe: Germany, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Sweden. Asia: South Korea, Japan. Remarks: This chemical has not been identified in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the U.S. but a closely related chemical, isobutyl alcohol, has been frequently identified in these samples. 0sec- BUTYL ALCOHOL Other names: 2-butanol; 2-hydroxybutane; methyl ethyl carbinol, butylene hydrate. Molecular formula: CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3 Molecular weight: 74,12 (C4H10O) Harmonized code: 2905.13.0000 Density: 0,80 Boiling point: 98-99,5C Description: Colorless liquid with irritating vapors. Hazards: Flammable; vapor may irritate the respiratory system and eyes , liquid irritate eyes and may irritate the skin; if ingested may cause headache, dizziness, drowsiness and narcosis. Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Synthesis of MEK, flotation agents, flavors, perfumes dyestuffs, wetting agents; production of industrial cleaners, paint removers, solvent for natural resins, linseed and castors oils. Manufacturing process: Hydration of 2-butene.

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Shipping and storage: Untreated mild steel or enameled steel drums; stainless steel may also be used. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, France, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. Remarks: Approximately 95% of U.S. produced sec-butyl alcohol is used to manufacture methyl ethyl ketone by dehydrogenation and 5% is used for solvents and chemical intermediates. This chemical has been identified in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the United States. CALCIUM CARBONATE Other names: Carbonic acid calcium salt; Calcichew; Calcidia; Ligth Carbonate. Molecular formula: CaCO3 Molecular weight: 100,09 Harmonized code: 2836.50.0000 Melting point: 825C (decomposes) Description: Odorless, tasteless powder or crystals. Practically insoluble in water but soluble in dilute acids. Hazards: Severely irritating to eyes and moderately irritating to skin. Illicit use: Alkaline material in the processing of cocaine base. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Antacid; calcium supplement; manufacture of paint, rubber, plastic, paper; insecticides; inks; filler in the production of adhesives, matches, pencils, crayons, linoleum, insulating compounds and welding rods; cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics and for removing acidity of wines. Manufacturing process: Commercial calcium carbonate is produced from limestone. Native mineral is purified by elutriation. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden. Asia: South Korea, Malaysia, Japan, Thailand, Taiwan. Remarks: Calcium carbonate is one of a number of alkaline substances such as potassium or sodium carbonate which may be used in the production of cocaine and other substances. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE Other names: Calcium hydrate; Slaked lime; custic lime, hydrated lime. Molecular formula: Ca(OH)2 Molecular weight:74,1 Harmonized code: 2825.90.9000 Density: 2,34 Melting point: Decomposes Description: Crystals or soft, odorless granules or powder with bitter alkaline taste; slightly soluble in water; readily absorbs carbon dioxide forming calcium carbonate. Hazards: Mildly toxic by ingestion; severely irritating to eyes, skin, mucous membranes and respiratory system; causes dermatitis.

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Illicit use: Alkaline material in the production of coca paste, cocaine base, morphine and other substances. Where controlled or regulated: Bolivia. Legitimate uses: In mortar, plaster, cement and other building and paving materials; lubricants, drilling fluids, pesticides, fireproof coatings, water based paints; water treatment; manufacture of paper pulp. Manufacturing process: Hydration of lime ( calcium oxide). Shipping and storage: Tightly closed and dry containers. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Ireland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden. Asia: Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia. North America: United States. Remarks: This chemical has been found at cocaine laboratory sites in South America. Although it is used in the production of cocaine, many other alkaline materials can be substituted in its place. CALCIUM OXIDE Other names: Lime; burnt lime; calx; quicklime. Molecular formula: CaO Molecular weight: 56,08 Harmonized code: 2825.90.9000 Density: 3.32 Melting point: 2614 C Description: White or grayish-white granular powder or crystals; commercial grade sometimes has yellowish or brownish tint. Hazards: Dust irritates the skin, eyes and respiratory system; it is a strong caustic which may cause severe irritation to skin and mucous membranes. Illicit use: Alkaline material in the production of coca paste, cocaine base, morphine and other substances. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown Legitimate uses: Building and construction materials; industrial chemicals; steel, aluminum and magnesium production; glass manufacture; fungicides, insecticides; drilling fluids and lubricants; water and sewage treatment. Manufacturing process: Produced by heating limestone (natural calcium carbonate). Shipping and storage: Tightly closed and dry containers. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom, Switzerland. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: This material has been found at cocaine laboratory sites in South America. It is an alkaline material which has been used in the production of cocaine. Many other alkaline materials can be substituted in its place. CHLOROFORM Other names: Trichloromethane. Molecular formula: CHCl3

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Molecular weight: 119,39 Harmonized code: 2903.13.0000 Density: 1,48 Boiling point: 61-62C Description: Colorless, nonflammable, very volatile liquid with a characteristic sweet odor. Hazards: Vapor has anesthetic properties causing drowsiness, giddiness, headache, nausea, vomiting and unconsciousness; vapor and liquid irritate the eyes causing conjunctivitis; liquid is poisonous if ingested; suspected carcinogen. Illicit use: Solvent used in the production of cocaine, heroin and other clandestine drug syntheses. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Production of Fluorocarbon-22; solvent for fats, oils, rubber,alkaloids, waxes, resins; cleasing agent. Manufacturing process: Reaction of methanol and hydrochloric acid to make methyl chloride which is then reacted with chlorine to yield methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Shipping and storage:Vessels constructed of iron or steel, stainless steel for very high purity products. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Asia: South Korea, Japan. Europe: Germany, Spain, France, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Remarks: This chemical has been identified in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the U.S. It is not well suited for use by itself in cocaine manufacture because both cocaine base and cocaine hydrochloride are soluble in it. Chloroform is very widely used for purification and clean-up procedures in chemical processes. Approximately 93% of the chloroform produced in the U.S. is used to make the refrigerant Flourocarbon-22. CYCLOHEXANE Other names: Hexahydrobenzene, hexamethylene, hexanaphthene. Molecular formula: (CH2)6 Molecular weight: 84,16 (C6H12) Harmonized code: 2902.11.0000 Density: 0,77 Boiling point: 80,7C Description: Flammable liquid with a solvent odor. Hazards: May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory system; inhalation of high concentrations may cause narcosis; assumed to be an irritant and narcosis if ingested. Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Manufacturing process: Hydrogenation of benzene. Shipping and storage: Glass carboys, metal barrels or drums, tank cars, cargo tanks with pressure relief valves. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Taiwan. Central America: Mexico. South America: Brazil.

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Remarks: This chemical has been identified in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the United States. It has solvent properties similar to toluene for use in the cocaine production process. CYCLOHEXANONE Other names: Ketohexamethylene; pimelic ketone; Anone; Nadone; Hytrol O. Molecular formula: (CH2)5CO Molecular weight: 98,14 (C6H10O) Harmonized code: 2914.22.1000 Density: 0,95 Boiling point: 155,6C Description: Oily liquid with odor reminiscent o peppermint and acetone. Hazards: Vapor is harmful. Illicit use: Clandestine manufacture of PCP. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Solvent for cellulose acetate, nitrocellulose, natural resins, vinyl resins, crude rubber, waxes, fats , shellac, and DDT; production of adipic acid for nylon. Manufacturing process: Catalytic dehydrogenation or oxidation of cyclohexanol; oxidation of cyclohexane. Shipping and storage: Keep in tightly closed containers. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Cyclohexanone is used along with sodium cyanide, piperidine, and sodium metabisulfate to produce the PCP intermediate (PCC) which is then reacted with a Grinard reagent (phenylmagnesium bromide) to synthesize PCP. DIACETONE ALCOHOL Other names: Pyranton; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone; diacetonalcohol;4-hydroxy-2keto-4-methylpentane. Molecular Formulas: CH3COCH2C(OH)(CH3)2 Molecular weight: 116,16 (C6H12O2) Harmonized code: 2914.41.0000 Density: 0,94 Boiling point: 164-169C Description: Colorless liquid with a mild odor. Hazards: Highly flammable; vapor irritates eyes and respiratory system; liquid irritates eyes and mucous membranes and is absorbed by the skin; liquid if ingested has a narcotic effect. Illicit use: Solvent used to produce acetone for cocaine production. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Legitimate uses: Solvent for cellulose acetate, nitrocellulose, fats, oils, waxes, resins; preservative in pharmaceutical preparations; antifreeze solutions and hydraulic fluids; intermediate for making mesityl oxide, methyl isobutyl ketone and hexylene glycol.

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Manufacturing process: Condensation of acetone in the presence of a basic catalysts such as barium hydroxide of calcium hydroxide. Shipping and storage: Tank car or truck. Manufacturers: North America: United States Europe: Germany, France, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. South America: Brazil. Remarks: There is substantial evidence that diacetone alcohol has been used to produce acetone. This can be accomplished by the reaction of diacetone alcohol with an alkaline material or with a catalyst such as aluminum or zinc oxide. DIETHYLAMINE Other names: N-ethylethanamine. Molecular formula: (C2H5)2NH Molecular weight: 73,14 (C4H11N) Harmonized code: 2921.12.0000 Density: 0,71 Boiling point: 55,5C Description: Strong alkaline liquid. Hazards: Flammable; vapor irritates eyes and respiratory system; liquid irritates skin and eyes; may be poisonous if ingested. Illicit use: Manufacture of diethyltryptamine (DET) and LSD. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Production of vulcanization accelerators; in flotation agents, resins, dyes and pharmaceuticals. Manufacturing process: Produced from ethanol and ammonia or ethyl iodide and ammonia. Shipping and storage: Stored in carbon steel or stainless steel containers; small amounts stored in glass or ceramic vessels. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: France, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. Remarks: This precursor is frequently encountered because there has been very few seizures of clandestine diethyltryptamine laboratories in the U.S. and virtually no seizures of clandestine laboratories producing LSD. The LSD operations in the U.S. have made dosage forms (tablets, blotter paper, etc).

EPHEDRINE Other names: 2-methylamino-1-phenyl-1-propanol; 1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-2methylaminopropane; 1-phenyl-2-methylaminopropanol. Molecular formula: (C6H5)CH(OH)CH(NHCH3)CH3 Molecular weight: 165,23 (C10H15NO) CSA code: 8113 Harmonized code: 2939.40.0050

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Melting point: 40-42C (I-ephedrine) Boiling point: 255C (I-ephedrine) Description: Racemic ephedrine and its hydrochloride and sulfate salts are white crystals; I-ephedrine is a waxy hygroscopic solid, crystals or granules with a soapy feel; I-ephedrine hydrochloride and sulfate are ortho-rhombic needles which are affected by light. Hazards: Harmful is swallowed in large quantities; do not breathe dust; avoid contact with skin and eyes. Illicit use: Production of methamphetamine/N-methylcathinone. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: I-ephedrina is used in medicinal preparations as a bronchodilator. Manufacturing process: I-ephedrine can be extracted from several species of the plant genus EPHEDRA; I-ephedrine is produced synthetically by fermentation of a mixture of benzaldehyde and molasses, followed by dehydrogenation in a methylamine solution (Meubery Process). I can also be synthesized by the cataylic hydrogenation of (-)-1-phenyl2-methylaminopropanone. Shipping and storage: Keep tightly closed in cool, dry place and out of light. Manufacturers:Europe: Germany, Czech Republic. Asia: CIS States, India, Japan, China. Remarks: Ephedrine is the primary precursor used in the clandestine synthesis of methamphetamine in the U.S. The process involves the reduction of ephedrine with hydroidic acid in the presence of red phosphorus. The reaction is relatively simple and the yield is high. Ephedrine is an ingredient in over-the-counter medications and look-alike preparations. There are no manufacturers of ephedrine in the U.S. ERGONOVINE Other names: Ergometrine; dextrolysergic acid levo-2-propanolamide. Molecular formula: C19H23N3O2 Molecular weight: 325,39 Harmonized code: 2939.60.0000; 2939.61 (WCO proposal) Melting point: 162C Description: White crystalline material which darkens and decomposes on exposure to light; hydrochloride, maleate and tartrate salts are also crystalline. Hazards: In large quantities it is highly toxic and may cause vomiting,diarrhea, unquenchable thirst, confusion, and unconsciousness; chronic poisoning from ingestion of grain contaminated with fungus, ergot. Illicit use: Production of LSD. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations, Organization of American States Legitimate uses: An oxytocic for obstetrical use and as a vasoconstrictors particularly in the treatment of migraine headaches. Manufacturing process: Extraction from ergot (fungus that grows on grain); synthesis from dextrolysergic acid and levo (+)-2-amino-1-propanol. Shipping and storage: In tightly closed ambar colored containers in cool dry area. Manufacturers: Europe: Switzerland. Asia: India. Remarks: Ergonovine can be used to produce lysergic acid which in turn is used to synthesize LSD or it can be used in a direct synthesis of LSD. Small amounts (less than

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100 micrograms) of LSD produce significant hallucinogenic activity therefore very little ergonovine is needed to yield a substantial number of dosage units of LSD. ERGOTAMINE Other names: 12-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-alpha-(phenylmethyl)-ergotaman-3,6,18-trione. Molecular formula: C33H35N5O5 Molecular weight: 581.65 Harmonized code: 2939.60.0000; 2939.62 (WCO Proposal) Melting point: 212-214C Description: White hygroscopic crystalline material which darkens and decomposes on exposure to air and light. Hydrochloride, succinate and tartrate salts are also crystalline. Hazards: In high concentration it is highly toxic and may cause vomiting, diarrhea, unquenchable thirst, confusion and unconsciousness; chronic poisoning from ingestion of grain contaminated with the fungus, ergot. Illicit use: Production of LSD. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: An oxytocic in obstetric and as a vasoconstrictor, particularly in the treatment of migraine headaches. Manufacturing process: Extraction from ergot. Shipping and storage: Shipped as a bulk powder: stored in tightly closed amber-colored containers in cool dry areas. Manufacturers:Europe: Switzerland. Asia: India. Remarks: Ergotamine can be used to produce lysergic acid, which in turn is used to synthesize LSD or it can be used in a direct synthesis of LSD. Small amounts (less than 100 micrograms)of LSD produce significant hallucinogenic activity therefore very little ergotamine is needed to yield a substantial number of dosage units of LSD. ETHYL ACETATE Other names: Acetic ether; acetic acid ethyl ester; vinegar naptha; ethyl acetic ester; ethyl ethanoate; acetidin. Molecular formula: CH3COOCH2CH3 Molecular weight: 88,1 (C4H8O2) Harmonized code: 2915.31.0000 Density: 0,90 Boiling point:77C Description: Clear, volatile, liquid with a fruity pleasant odor. Hazards: Highly flammable; vapor may irritate the eyes and respiratory system; liquid irritates the eyes and mucous surfaces; prolonged inhalation may cause kidney and liver damage. Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia Legitimate uses: Solvent for nitrocellulose, varnishes and lacquers; artificial fruit essences; manufacture of smokeless powder, artificial leather, artificial silk, perfumes.

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Manufacturing process: Oxidation/reduction reaction of acetaldehyde in the presence of aluminum or sodium alkoxide; by-product in oxidation of butane or formation of polyvinylbutral (PVB); direct esterification of acetic acid. Shipping and storage: Glass carboys, metal barrels or drums, tank cars, cargo tanks with pressure relief devices. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland. Asia: South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan. Central America: Mexico. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru. Remarks: From 1989 to 1993, this chemical has been found in a significant number of cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the United States. It is usually found in combination with other solvents. It has properties similar to ethyl ether for use in the cocaine production process. Ethyl acetate can easily be produced by a combination of acetic acid, ethyl alcohol and sulfuric acid. ETHYL ALCOHOL Other names: Ethanol; anhydrous alcohol ; ethyl hidroxide, methyl carbinol. Molecular formulas: CH3CH2OH; C2H5OH Molecular weight: 46,07 (C2H6O) Harmonized code: 2207.10.6000 / 2207.20.0000 Density: 0,79 Boiling point: 78,5C Description: Highly flammable; in high concentrations causes impaired perception and in coordination. Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Hazards: Highly flammable; in high concentrations causes impaired perception and incoordination. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Alcoholic beverages; industrial solvent; gasoline octane booster; perfumery, organic syntheses and pharmaceuticals. Manufacturing process: Fermentation of starch, sugar and other carbohydrates; hydration of ethylene. Shipping and storage: Railroad tank cars, tank trucks, drums and smaller glass or metal containers; some drums may be lined with phenolic resin. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, France, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan, South Korea. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile. Remarks: This chemical has been identified in the cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the U.S. This solvent is not essential to the cocaine hydrochloride since other alcohols such a methyl isopropyl, etc. can be used. This solvent is used in combination with water insoluble solvents. Ethanol can be used in a process with sulfuric acid to produce ethyl ether. ETHYLAMINE Other names: Monoethylamine; aminoethane; ethanamine. Molecular formula: CH3CH2NH2

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Molecular weight: 45,08 (C2H7N) Harmonized code: 2921.19.1000 Density: 0,706 (at 0C) Description: At room temperature ethylamine is a gas with an ammonia-like odor; below 16C it is a highly flammable and corrosive liquid; the hydrochloride and hydriodide salts are hygroscopic crystals. Hazards: Vapor irritates the mucous membranes, respiratory system and eyes; in high concentrations it may effect the central nervous system; liquid may irritate eyes and skin; if ingested may be irritating and poisonous. Illicit use: Used with P2P, to synthesize N-ethylanphetamine and with the 3,4methylendioxyphenyl-2-propanone to synthesize MDE; also used to make diethyltryptamine (DET). Where controlled or regulated: CSA. Legitimate uses: Production of herbicides, dyes and pharmaceuticals; also used as a stabilizer for rubber latex; in resin chemistry. Manufacturing process: Produced from ethanol and ammonia or ethyl iodide and ammonia. Shipping and storage: Stored and shipped in carbon steel containers; small amounts can be kept in glass or ceramic; since ethylamine is a vapor at room temperature it is stored under pressure; often produced in 50% or 70% solutions to facilitate storage and shipping; shelf life very long but should be stored under nitrogen to prevent contact with carbon dioxide and atmospheric moisture; keep out of light. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Belgium, France, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Ethylamine is not to be confused with diethylamine used in the synthesis of LSD, or triethylamine. N-ETHYLEPHEDRINE Other names: Etafedrine; 1-ethylephedrine. Molecular formula: (C6H5)CH(OH)CH (N[CH3] [C2H5])CH3 Molecular weight: 193,28 (C12H19NO) Harmonized code: 2939.40.0050 Melting point: 183-184C Illicit use: Production of N-ethyl-N-methylamphetamine. Where controlled or regulated: Removed from CSA 04/16/1994. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany. Remarks: There have been no documented purchases or seizures of this precursor or seizures of this precursor or its potential illicit product, N-ethyl-N-methylamphetamine, in the U.S. There were also no manufacturers or suppliers of this precursor located in the U.S. ETHYL ETHER Other names: 1,1-Oxybisethane; ethyl oxide; diethyl oxide; ethoxyethane; sulfuric ether; diethyl ether. Molecular formula: (C2H5)2O

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Molecular weight: 74,12 (C4H10O) Harmonized code: 2909.11.0000 Density: 0,71 Boiling point: 34,6C Description: Colorless, very volatile liquid with a sweet pungent odor and burning taste. Ether vapors are heavier than air. Hazards: Highly flammable; vapor may cause drowsiness, dizziness, mental confusion, faintness, and in high concentrations, unconsciousness; ingestion may also produce these effects; continued inhalation of low concentrations may cause loss of appetite; dizziness, fatigue and nausea; repeated inhalation or swallowing may lead to ether habit with symptoms resembling chronic alcoholism. Illicit use: Processing of heroin base to heroin hydrochloride and cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Solvent or extractant for fats, waxes, oils, perfumes, resins, dyes, gums and alkaloids; manufacture of munitions and plastics; denaturant in several denatured. Manufacturing process: Dehydration of ethanol; hydration of ethylene; both processes are carried out in the presence of sulfuric acid. Shipping and storage: Shipped in metal containers, drums, tank cars and boxcars; stored in cool, dark, well ventilated areas in tightly closed inert containers for limited time periods. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Spain, France, Norway. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. Remarks: Commonly referred to as ether. Ethyl ether is a solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride and in other clandestine processes where hydrochloride salts are produced. It may be used in conjunction with a water miscible solvent such as acetone. Its presence has markedly decreased in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the United States. It can be synthesized from sulfuric acid and ethanol. ETHYLIDENE DIACETATE Other names: 1,1-Ethanediol diacetate; 1,1-diacetoxyethane. Molecular formula: (CH3COO)2CHCH3 Molecular weight: 146,14 (C6H10O4) Harmonized code: 2915.39.9000 Density: 1,06 Boiling point: 167-169C Freezing point: 18,9C Description: Liquid with a sharp, fruity odor. Illicit use: Acetylation of morphine to produce heroin. Where controlled or regulated: Some Southeast Asian countries. Legitimate uses: Agricultural fungicide; intermediate in the production of vinyl acetate. Manufacturing process: Addition of acetic acid to acetylene in the presence of mercury salts; heating acetaldehyde and acetic anhydride. Manufacturers:Europe: United Kingdom. Asia: India.

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Remarks: Ethylidene diacetate is used in the acetylation of morphine to produce diacetylmorphine (heroin). It is not the acetylating agent but is decomposed to acetic anhydride when heated with sulfuric acid. Acetic anhydride is the acetylating agent. Ethylidene diacetate has been found at clandestine heroin production sites. N-ETHYLPSEUDOEPHEDRINE Molecular formula: (C6H5)C(OH)HCH(N[CH3][C2H5])CH3 Molecular weight: 193,28 (C12H19NO) Harmonized code: 2939.40.0050 Illicit use: Production of N-ethyl,N-methylamphetamine. Where controlled or regulated: Removed from CSA effective 04/16/ 1994. Manufacturers: Unknown. Remarks: There have been no documented purchases or seizures of this precursor or its potential illicit product, N-ethyl,N-methylamphetamine, in the U.S. There are no known manufacturers or suppliers of this precursor located in the U.S. FORMAMIDE Other names: Methanamide, Carbamaldehyde. Molecular formula: HCONH2 Molecular weight: 45,04 (CH3NO) Harmonized code: 2924.10.1050 Density: 1,13 Boiling point: 210,5C Freezing point: 2,5C Description: Slightly viscous, odorless, colorless liquid. Industrial grades may have a slight ammonia odor. Hazards: Poisonous by skin contact and or if injected; moderately toxic by ingestion; irritating to skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Illicit use: Precursor in the production of amphetamine and MDA. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Ionizing solvent; manufacture of formic esters; as softener for paper; used in animal glues and water soluble gums. Manufacturing process: Produced from carbon monoxide and ammonia at high temperature and pressure. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany. Asia: Japan. Remarks: It is used with ammonia in place of formic acid in a reaction with P2P or 3,4MD P2P to form amphetamine of MDA. FORMIC ACID Other names: Aminic acid, Methanoic acid. Molecular formula: HCOOH Molecular weight: 46,02 (CH2O2) Harmonized code: 2915.11.0000

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Density: 1,22 Boiling point: 100,5C Freezing point: 8,3C Description: Colorless liquid with a pungent odor. It is a strong reducing agent. Hazards: Vapor is irritating to respiratory system and eyes; liquid causes burns to eyes; ingestion produces severe internal irritation and damage; dangerously caustic to skin; chronic absorption causes albuminuria/hematuria. Illicit use: Production amphetamine and MDA. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Decalcifier; reducer in dyeing wool fast colors; dehairing and plumping hides; tanning; electroplating; coagulating rubber latex; aid in regenerating old rubber; in chemical analysis. Manufacturing process: Produced by heating carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide under pressure and decomposing the sodium formate with sulfuric acid. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Finland, Italy, Norway, United Kingdom, Asia: Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan. Remarks: It is used with ammonia in place of formamide in a reaction with P2P or 3,4methylenodioxyphenyl-2-propanone to form amphetamine or MDA. HEXANE Other names: n-hexane, caproyl hydride, hexyl hydride. Molecular formula: CH3(CH2)4CH3 Molecular weight:86,17 (C6H14) Harmonized code: 2901.10.4000 Density: 0.66 Boiling point:69C Description: Colorless, very volatile liquid with faint peculiar odor. Hazards: Flammable; vapors may irritate respiratory system and in high concentrations have a narcotic effect; may cause chronic effects; such as loss of sensation in hands and feet. Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Legitimate uses: Determining refractive indices of minerals; filling for thermometers; quick drying adhesives and rubber cement; vegetable oil extraction. Manufacturing process: Refined from petroleum. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Portugal. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: This chemical has been identified in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the U.S, and has been reported by authorities in Latin American countries. It has solvent properties similar to toluene in the cocaine production process except that it is more volatile. Hexane must be used in conjunction with water miscible solvent such as acetone. HYDRIODIC ACID Other names: Hydrogen iodide (aqueous solution).

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Molecular formula: HI Molecular weight: 127,91 Harmonized code: 2811.19.6050 Density: 1,5 (47%) / 1,7 (57%) Boiling point: 127C (57%) Description: Corrosive acid which is colorless when freshly prepared. However, upon exposure to light and air it turn yellow to brown. It is a solution of hydrogen iodide gas in water. Hazards: Vapor is irritating to respiratory system, skin and eyes; liquid causes severe burns to eyes and skin; if ingested, may cause severe internal irritation and damage. Illicit use: Reducing agent in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine from ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Where controlled or regulated: CSA. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of organic and inorganic iodo compounds; removal of iodine from iodo compounds; disinfectant; chemical reagent; pharmaceutical application in adding iodine to iodine-deficient human diets. (Hydriodic Acid Syrup). Manufacturing process: Hydrogen iodide gas in water, iodine in the presence of hydrogen sulfide; iodine with red phosphorus and water. Shipping and storage: Keep protected from air and light and at temperatures below 30C. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Main reducing agent in methamphetamine synthesis, however, other reducing agents can be used. There has been increasing production of hydriodic acid in clandestine laboratories from iodine, red phosphorus and water. Produced in various concentrations (e.g. 47% HI, 57% HI). HYDROCHLORIC ACID Other names: Muriatic acid, hydrogen chloride Molecular formula: HCl Molecular weight: 36,46 Harmonized code: 2806.10.0000 Density: 1,20 (39,1% solution) Boiling point: 108,6 C (20,2% solution) Description: A solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water. Corrosive, colorless to light yellow liquid from traces of iron, chlorine and organic matter. Fumes in air. Reagent grade contains 36.5%-38% hydrochloric acid. Hydrogen chloride gas is also available. Hazards: Inhalation may cause coughing or choking, inflammation and ulceration of the respiratory tract; concentrated solutions cause severe burns; strongly corrosive, irritant to the mucous membranes, eyes and respiratory tract; exposure to vapors may result in pulmonary edema and possibly death. Illicit use: Manufacture of hydrochloride salts of clandestinely produced controlled substances, including cocaine. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS), CSA, United Nations. Legitimate use: Production of chlorides and hydrochlorides; neutralization of basic systems; catalyst and solvent in organic syntheses.

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Manufacturing process: Produced industrially by the interaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid; from sodium chloride, sulfur dioxide, air and water vapor; as a by-product of the synthesis of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Shipping and storage: Carboys in boxes, steel portable tanks, lined with a polyethylene, for hydrochloric acid not over 20%; tank cars for acid not over 30%; cargo tanks lined with rubber or equally acid-resistant material, glass bottles, polyethylene containers, metal drums (lined); store below 30C in airtight containers of glass or other inert material. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland. Asia: South Korea, Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan. Central America: Mexico. South America: Bolivia, Colombia. Remarks: An acid is essential in the production of water-soluble salts of controlled substances. However, other acids such as sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, etc. can be used for this purpose. Cocaine hydrochloride is the most commonly encountered salt of cocaine. A small percentage of the hydrochloric acid produced in the U.S. is exported. It is easily obtainable in retail outlets as muriatic acid. Hydrochloric acid can be produced in clandestine laboratories by the reaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid. Hydrochloride gas can be bubbled into an organic solvent containing the base form of the drug to form the hydrochloride salt. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Other names: Hydrogen dioxide; hydroperoxide; Albone; Hioxyl. Molecular formula: H2O2 Molecular weight: 34.02 Harmonized code: 2847.00.0000 Density: 1.11 (30% solution) Boiling point: 152 C Freezing point:-0.4C Description: Colorless, bitter tasting and rather unstable liquid. Marketed as a solution in water in concentrations of 3-90% by weight. Strong oxidizing agent. Hazards: Irritating and caustic in high concentrations to mucous membranes, eyes and skin; ingestion may cause acute distension of the stomach, nausea, vomiting and internal bleeding; may cause burns to skin and mucous membranes. Illicit use: Oxidizing agent in the production of cocaine. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown Legitimate uses: 90% solution is used in rocket propulsion; bleaching agent in food; strong oxidizer; topical antiseptic and cleansing agent (dilute solution); in pharmaceutical preparations; mouthwashes, sanitary lotions (dilute solutions). Manufacturing process: Catalytic reduction of 2-ethylanthraquinone. Shipping and storage: Preserve in partially-filled containers having a vent in the closure and store in a cool place; glass bottles, aluminum drums with vented closure in the top head, not over 30 gallons; polyethylene containers with vent closures; tank cars and cargo tanks fabricated of aluminum.

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Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden. Asia: South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: Hydrogen peroxide is commonly referred to as peroxide. It can be used as a substitute for potassium permanganate to oxidize cinnamoylcocaine in the illicit cocaine process. It is harder to use due to lack of color change as with potassium permanganate. It has been found at cocaine laboratory sites. IODINE Molecular formula: I2 Molecular weight: 253,82 Harmonized code: 2801.20.0000 Density: 4,93 Melting point: 113.6C Description: Bluish-black scales or plates. It has a characteristic odor, a sharp acrid taste and produces a violet corrosive vapor. Hazards: Vapor is irritating to respiratory system and eyes, solid irritates the eyes and may burn the skin; if ingested there may be severe internal irritation and damage. Illicit use: Production of methamphetamine and PCP. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of iodine solutions; germicides, fungicides and antiseptics; reduces friction of hard surfaces including stainless steel and glass; reagent in analytical chemistry; manufacture of iodide salts. Manufacturing process: Extracted from Cholean nitrate-bearing earth (Caliche) and from seaweed. Manufacturers: Europe: The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan, Indonesia. North America: United States. Remarks: Iodine and water can be mixed with hydrogen sulfide to produce hydriodic acid which, in turn, is the primary reducing agent for methamphetamine synthesis. This is a hazardous procedure. Iodine is also mixed with red phosphorus and water to make hydriodic acid. In a clandestine laboratory setting, a little acid may be added to this reaction mixture ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL Other names: Isobutanol; 2-methyl-1-propanol; isopropylcarbinol; 1hydroxymethylpropane. Molecular formulas: (CH3)2CHCH2OH(C4H9OH) Molecular weight: 74,12 (C4H10O) Density: 0,81 Boiling point: 108C Harmonized code: 2905.14.5010 Description: Colorless liquid. Hazards: Flammable; vapor irritates respiratory system, and in high concentrations produces narcotic-like effects; liquid irritates eyes and is harmful if ingested.

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Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of esters for fruit flavoring essences; solvent in paint and varnish removers. Manufacturing process: Extracted from fusel oil; fermentation carbohydrates; hydrogenation of isobutyraldehyde; single stage reaction from propylene. Shipping and storage: Polyethylene bottles and drums, metal tanks. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Spain, France, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan. Remarks: Isobutyl alcohol can be used to dissolve hydrochloric acid for use in the production of cocaine hydrochloride. This solvent is not essential in the cocaine hydrochloric production, since other alcohols such ethyl, isopropyl and methyl can be used. It has been found in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the United States. ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL Other names: 2-propanol; isopropanol; dimethylcarbinol; petrohol; IPA. Molecular formulas: (CH3)2CHOH / C3H7OH Molecular weight: 60,09 (C3H8O) Harmonized code: 2905.12.0050 Density: 0,78 Boiling point: 82,5C Description: Colorless, liquid with a slightly bitter taste. Hazards: Flammable; inhalation of the vapor in high concentrations and ingestion of the liquid may result in headache, dizziness, mental depression, nausea, vomiting, narcosis, anesthesia, and coma; liquid may damage eyes severely. Illicit use: Recrystallization of hydrochloride salts of some clandestinely produced controlled substances; solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Legitimate uses: Solvent, extractant, dehydration, and defrosting agent; disinfectant; feed stock for manufacture of acetone and other compounds; premium grade IPA is formulated into skin lotions, hair care products, nail polish and other personal care products. Manufacturing process: Sulfuric acid oxidation of propylene; hydrogenation of acetone. Shipping and storage: Polyethylene bottles and drums, metal tanks. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Spain, France, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan. Central America: Mexico. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela. Remarks: Isopropyl alcohol can be used to incorporate hydrochloric acid into the solvents used in the production of cocaine hydrochloride. IPA is not essential in cocaine hydrochloride production, since other alcohols (ethyl, isobutyl, and methyl) can be used. Isopropyl alcohol has been found in combination with other solvents in liquid samples obtained from South America and in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the United States. It can be used as a starting material in the production of acetone.

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ISOPROPYL ACETATE Other names: 2-Propylacetate; acetic acid isopropyl ester. Molecular formula: CH3COOO.CH(CH3)2 Molecular weight: 102,13 (C5H10O2) Harmonized code:2915.39.4550 Density: 0,87 Boiling point: 89C Description: Colorless liquid with mild fruity smell. Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Manufacturing process: Esterification of acetic acid with isopropyl alcohol and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Shipping and storage: Store and transport in steel or aluminum containers, or tank cars under nitrogen. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: France, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Isopropyl acetate has been found in a few cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the U.S. ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL Other names: 2-propanol; isopropanol; dimethylcarbinol; petrohol; IPA. Molecular formulas: (CH3)2CHOH / C3H7OH Molecular weight: 60,09 (C3H8O) Harmonized code: 2905.12.0050 Density: 0,78 Boiling point: 82,5C Description: Colorless, liquid with a slightly bitter taste. Hazards: Flammable; inhalation of the vapor in high concentrations and ingestion of the liquid may result in headache, dizziness, mental depression, nausea, vomiting, narcosis, anesthesia, and coma; liquid may damage eyes severely. Illicit use: Recrystallization of hydrochloride salts of some clandestinely produced controlled substances; solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Legitimate uses: Solvent, extractant, dehydration, and defrosting agent; disinfectant; feed stock for manufacture of acetone and other compounds; premium grade IPA is formulated into skin lotions, hair care products, nail polish and other personal care products. Manufacturing process: Sulfuric acid oxidation of propylene; hydrogenation of acetone. Shipping and storage: Polyethylene bottles and drums, metal tanks. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Spain, France, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan. Central America: Mexico. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela. Remarks: Isopropyl alcohol can be used to incorporate hydrochloric acid into the solvents used in the production of cocaine hydrochloride. IPA is not essential in cocaine

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hydrochloride production, since other alcohols (ethyl, isobutyl, and methyl) can be used. Isopropyl alcohol has been found in combination with other solvents in liquid samples obtained from South America and in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the United States. It can be used as a starting material in the production of acetone. ISOSAFROLE Other names: 1,2-(methylenodioxy)-4-propenylbenzene; 5-(1-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole. Molecular formula: (CH2OO)C6H3(CH=CHCH3) Molecular weight:162,18 (C10H10O2) Harmonized code: 2932.90.6000 Density: 1,12 Boiling point:253C (trans) Melting point:8C (trans) Description: Liquid with the odor of anise. Isosafrole may exist in cis or trans isomeric forms. The trans form is more stable. Generally, a mixture of both forms is found. Hazards: Poison by intravenous routes; moderately toxic by ingestion and subcutaneous routes; suspected carcinogen; irritates skin; when heated to decomposition, it emits acrid smoke and fumes. Illicit use: Clandestine production of MDA, MDMA, MDE or N-hydroxy-MDA. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations (UN). Legitimate uses: Production of perfumes and fragrances, root beer and sarsaparillas flavors and general organic syntheses. Manufacturing process: Reaction of safrole with alcoholic potassium hydroxide . Manufacturers: Unknown. Remarks: Isosafrole is used either to synthesize 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone or piperonal, both of which are intermediates in the synthesis of MDA, MDMA, MDE and Nhydroxy-MDA. Isosafrole has been identified in U.S. clandestine laboratories producing MDA or MDMA. It is available from U.S. chemical suppliers such as Aldrich. KEROSENE Other names: Deobase; Kerosine. Harmonized code: 2710.00.2000 Density: about 0,8 Description: Clear, colorless to pale yellow, mobile, oily liquid. A mixture of hydrocarbons, chiefly of methane series. Hazards: Flammable; inhalation of high concentrations causes headache, drowsiness and coma; ingestion causes irritation with vomiting and diarrhea; induction of vomiting following ingestion is contraindicated. Illicit use: Extraction of cocaine from coca leaves. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Fuel (stoves and lamps), degreaser and cleaner. Solvent in cosmetics and insecticides. Manufacturing process: Fractionation of petroleum. Manufacturers: Petroleum processors.

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Remarks: Kerosene is used to extract cocaine from coca leaves. It is the most widely used organic liquid in cocaine extraction. Other organic liquids, such as gasoline, can be used, however, the physical properties (flammability and high volatility) make some of these alternative organic compounds less desirable to use. LYSERGIC ACID Other names: 9,10-didehydro-6-methylergoline-8-carboxylic acid. Molecular formula: C16H16N2O2 Molecular weight: 268,32 Harmonized code: 2939.60.0000 Melting point: 240C (decomposition) Description: Crystalline material which is only sparingly soluble in water and neutral organic solvents. Illicit use: Production of LSD . Where controlled or regulated: Schedule III controlled substance under the US CSA; Organization of American States (OAS); United Nations. Removed as a listed chemical from CSA effective 04/16/94. Legitimate uses: In general organic syntheses; medical investigations. Manufacturing process: Alkaline hydrolysis of ergot alkaloids such as ergotamine or ergonovine; fermentation of cultures of Claviceps purpurea o de Aspergillus clavatus. Shipping and storage: Keep in tightly closed containers in a cool place, protected from light. Manufacturers: Unknown. Remarks: Lysergic acid is the main precursor in at least two methods of synthesizing LSD; often it is synthesized or obtained from ergot or ergot alkaloids. Lysergic acid can be found in U.S. and Japanese chemical supply catalogues. There was no identified U.S. production, importation or exportation of lysergic acid during 1992 or 1993. METHYL ALCOHOL Other names: Methanol; carbinol, wood spirit, wood alcohol, methyl hydroxide. Molecular formula: CH3OH Molecular weight: 32,04 (CH4O) Harmonized code: 2905.11.1000 / 2905.11.2000 Density: 0,79 Boiling point: 64,7C Description: Clear, colorless, mobile liquid; burns with a bluish flame. Hazards: Flammable, inhalation of high concentrations of vapor may cause dizziness, stupor, cramps and digestive disturbances; lower concentrations may cause headache, nausea, vomiting, and irritation of the mucous membranes; vapor and liquid are very dangerous to the eyes; ingestion damages the central nervous system especially the optic nerve causing temporary or permanent blindness; ingestion also injures kidneys, liver, heart and other organs; unconsciousness may develop after some hours and may be followed by death.

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Illicit use: Recrystallization of hydrochloride salts of some clandestinely produced controlled substances; solvent in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Legitimate uses: Industrial solvent; antifreeze; octane booster; to denature ethanol; raw material for making formaldehyde and methyl esters of inorganic and organic acids; solvent used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Manufacturing process: Destructive distillation of wood; from hydrogen and carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide; oxidation of hydrocarbons. By-product in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate when dimethyl terephthalate is used. Shipping and storage: Preserve in tight containers, remote from heat, sparks and open flames. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Russia. Asia: Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Venezuela. Central America: Mexico. Remarks: Methanol can be used to dissolve hydrochloric acid in the manufacture of cocaine hydrochloride. This solvent is not essential to cocaine hydrochloride production, since other alcohols such as ethyl, isopropyl, etc. can be used. This solvent is used in combination with water insoluble solvents. It has been identified in cocaine hydrochloride samples. METHYLAMINE Other names: Monomethylamine; aminomethane; methanamine. Molecular formula: CH3NH2 Molecular weight:31,06 (CH5N) Harmonized code: 2921.11.0000 Description: Gas at ordinary temperature and pressure, corrosive liquid when liquefied by cooling in ice and salt mixture; commonly sold as 33-40% aqueous solutions. The hydrochloride exist as deliquescent tetragonal crystals. Hazards: Gas and liquid are flammable; gas irritates the skin, eyes and respiratory system; sustained contact may cause burns; highly corrosive to the skin, mucous membranes and respiratory tract. Illicit use: Used with P2P to produce methamphetamine and with 3,4methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone to produce MDMA. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, covers mono-methylamine. Dimethylamine and trimethylamine are not included. Legitimate uses: Production of bactericides, insecticides (36%), explosives (31%) and Nmethylpyrrolidine (lube oil additive) (15%). Manufacturing process: Produced from methanol and ammonia; by heating methanol, ammonium chloride and zinc chloride; by heating ammonium chloride and formaldehyde. Shipping and storage: Stored in carbon steel or stainless steel containers; small amounts are stored in glass or ceramic vessels. Methylamine must be stored under pressure at room temperature. It should be kept under nitrogen to avoid contact with carbon dioxide (forms carbonates) and moisture.

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Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan. North America: United States. Remarks: The P2P/methylamine process to manufacture methamphetamine is used in less than one third of the clandestine laboratories seized in the U.S. Methylamine is a necessary chemical in these processes. It is also a necessary chemical for the production of MDMA. Is readily available from U.S. chemical supply houses. METHYLENE CHLORIDE Other names: Dichloromethane, methylene dichloride; methylene bichloride. Molecular formula: CH2Cl2 Molecular weight: 84,94 Harmonized code: 2903.12.0000 Density: 1,36 Boiling point: 39,7C Description: Clear, colorless liquid. Hazards: Vapor irritates the eyes and respiratory system and may cause headache and nausea, high concentrations may result in cyanosis and unconsciousness, liquid irritates the eyes; vapor is not flammable and not explosive. Illicit use: Solvent is used in the production of cocaine hydrochloride and other substances. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Solvent for cellulose acetate; degreasing and cleaning fluid; solvent in food processing (coffee); solvent in paint and varnish removers. Manufacturing process: Chlorination of methane and methyl chloride. Shipping and storage: Preserve in tightly sealed glass, metal or plastic containers; or metal drums. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Spain, France, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan. Remarks: Methylene chloride is found in combination with other solvents in cocaine samples. Due to its properties, this solvent does not appear to be usable by itself in the manufacture of cocaine because cocaine hydrochloride is soluble in methylene chloride. It could probably be used in a mixture of solvents. Methylene chloride can also be used in the separation and purification of other controlled substances. 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYPHENYL-2-PROPANONE Other names: 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetone; piperonylmethylketone; 3,4methylenedioxybenzyl methyl ketone. Molecular formula: (CH2OO)C6H3(CH2COCH3) Molecular weight:178,19 (C10H10O3) Harmonized code: 2932.90.6000 Density: 1,20 Boiling point:120-122C Description: Colorless to pale yellow liquid. Hazards: Irritating to the skin and eyes.

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Illicit use: Production of MDA, MDMA, MDE and N-hydroxy-MDA. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organizations of Americans States (OAS), United Nations. Legitimate uses: Organic syntheses. Manufacturing process: From isosafrole and formic acid; hydrogen peroxide sulfuric acid. Shipping and storage: Carbon steel containers for short-term storage and transportation; stainless steel or containers with a thin lining for long-term storage. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany. Remarks: 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone is the primary precursor in a one-step synthesis of MDA and its analogues. It has also been synthesized from safrole and isosafrole and then used to produce MDA and its analogues. N-METHYLEPHEDRINE Other names: Alpha-[1 (dimethylamino)ethyl] benzenemethanol; methylephedrine; 2dimethylamino-1-phenylpropanol; N,N-dimethylnorephedrine. Molecular formula: (C6H5)CH(OH)CH(N[CH3]2)CH3 Molecular weight: 179,25 (C11H17NO) Harmonized code: 2939.40.0050 Melting point: 86-87C Hazards: Moderately toxic if ingested. Illicit use: Used with hydriodic acid to produce N,N-dimethylamphetamine. Where controlled or regulated:CSA. Legitimate uses: Organic syntheses. Manufacturing process: Levo isomer of this chemical occurs naturally in several species of the plant genus Ephedra. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany. Remarks: This chemical is available from many specialty chemical suppliers in the United States. METHYL ETHYL KETONE Other names: 2-butanone; ethylmethyl ketone; MEK; 2-oxobutane; methyl acetone. Molecular formula: CH3COCH2CH3 Molecular weight: 72,1 (C4H8O) Harmonized code: 2914.12.0000 Density: 0,81 Boiling point: 79,6C Description: Clear liquid with an acetone-like odor. Hazards: Flammable, inhalation of vapor may cause dizziness, headache and nausea; liquid irritates the eyes and may cause severe damage; if ingested may cause gastric irritation and narcosis; weak teratogen. Illicit use: Solvent used in cocaine hydrochloride production. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations.

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Legitimate uses: Production of coatings solvents (60%); adhesives (15%); magnetic tapes (10%);lube oil de-waxing (5%), printing inks (5%), synthetic leather; transparent paper, printing inks; aluminum foil; lacquers; degreasing agents; extraction of fats, oils, waxes, natural and synthetic resins; and manufacture of smokeless powder. Manufacturing process: Dehydrogenation of sec-butyl alcohol; catalytic oxidation of Nbutenes. Shipping and storage: Carbon steel containers for short-term storage and transportation; stainless steel or containers with tin linings are for long-term storage. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, France, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: MEK is a List II chemical under the CSA. It is a solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. In recent years it has been the most frequently identified solvent in cocaine hydrochloride samples (approximately 90% in 1993). MEK can be used alone. METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE Other names: Isopropylacetone; hexone; 4-methyl-2-pentanone; MIBK Molecular formula: (CH3)2CHCH2COCH3 Molecular weight:100,16 (C6H12O) Harmonized code: 2914.13.0000 Density: 0,80 Boiling point: 117-118C. Description: Colorless liquid, faint ketonic and camphor odor. Hazards: Flammable; inhalation of vapors may cause dizziness, headache and nausea; liquid irritates the eyes and may cause severe damage; if ingested may cause gastric irritation and narcosis. Illicit use: Solvent used in the production of cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Colombia. Legitimate uses: Solvent for gums, resins, nitrocelullose, etc. Manufacturing process: Controlled catalytic reduction of mesityl oxide. Shipping and storage: Carbon steel containers for short term storage and transportation; stainless steel or tin lined containers for long term storage. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, France, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: Found in combination with other solvents in cocaine samples. It has solvent properties suitable for use in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. N-METHYLPSEUDOEPHEDRINE Molecular formula: (C6H5)C(OH) HCN (N(CH3)2)CH3 Molecular weight: 179,25 (C11H17NO) Harmonized code: 2939.40.0050 Illicit use: Used with hydriodic acid to produce N, N-dimethylamphetamine. Where controlled or regulated: CSA Manufacturers: Unknown

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Remarks: Although this chemical could be used in place of N-methylephedrine to synthesize N-methylpseudoephedrine, N,N-dimethylamphetamine has not been identifies at clandestine laboratories. NITROETHANE Molecular formula: CH3CH2NO2 Molecular weight: 75,07 (C2H5NO2) Harmonized code: 2904.20.5000 Density: 1,05 Boiling point: 114C-115C Description: Oily liquid with a pleasant odor. Miscible with methanol, ethanol, ether. Hazards: Vapor irritates eyes and respiratory system; liquid irritates eyes and mucous membranes; absorption by skin contact or ingestion may cause liver and kidney damage. Illicit use: Synthesis of P2P, amphetamine, MDA and its analogues. Where controlled or regulated: CSA Legitimate uses: Solvent in organic syntheses and experimentally as a liquid propellant. Manufacturing process: Nitration of ethane with nitric acid. Manufacturers:North America: United States. Remarks: Nitroethane, in combination with benzaldehyde and butylamine, has been used to clandestinely manufacture a nitropropane intermediate which can be converted to P2P and/or amphetamine. This reaction is being encountered more frequently in clandestine P2P/amphetamine labs. Nitroethane can also be reacted with piperonal to produce MDA/MDMA or reacted with benzaldehyde derivatives to produce other amphetamine analogues. NORPSEUDOEPHEDRINE Other names: Cathine (d-norpseudoephedrine); pseudonorephedrine; threo-1-phenyl-1hydroxy-2-aminopropane; threo-2-amino-1-hydroxy-1-phenylpropane. Molecular formula: (C6H5)CH(OH)CH(NH2)CH3 Molecular weight: 151,20 (C9H13NO) Harmonized code: 2939.40.0050 Melting point: 78 C (base) Description: Crystalline material; base i in the form of plates; hydrochloride salt is in the form of prisms. Illicit use: Production of amphetamine and 4-methylaminorex. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations. Legitimate uses: Laboratory analytical purposes and therapeutically as an anorectic agent. Manufacturing process: The d-isomer is isolated from Catha edulis (Khat) leaves. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Switzerland. Remarks: Norpseudoephedrine and its isomer, phenylpropanolamine, can be used in the synthesis of amphetamine. This synthetic route is not commonly used. PETROLEUM ETHER

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Other names: Naphta; petroleum naphta; petroleum benzini; benzin. Molecular formulas: Mixture of low boiling fractions of petroleum; chiefly pentanes (C5H12) and hexanes (C6H14). Harmonized code: 2710.00.0000 Density: 0,62-0,66 Boiling point: 35-80C Description: Clear, colorless, non-fluorescent, highly flammable, volatile liquid. Hazards: Highly flammable; toxicity similar to hexane. Illicit use: Solvent to hash oil from marijuana; also used in cocaine production. Where controlled or regulated: Peru. Legitimate uses: Pharmaceutical aid (solvent). Manufacturing process: Distillation of petroleum. Shipping and storage: Keep tightly closed in a cool place and away from fire. Manufacturers: Petroleum manufacturers. Remarks: Petroleum ether could be used to extract cocaine from coca leaves, however, the physical properties (flammability and volatility) make it less desirable than kerosene. It can also be used in the conversion process of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. PHENYLACETIC ACID Other names: Benzeneacetic acid; alpha-toluic acid. Molecular formula: C6H5(CH2COOH) Molecular weight: 136,14 (C8H8O2) Harmonized code: 2916.33.1000 Density: 1,09 Melting point: 76-77C Boiling point: 265,5C Description: White powder with a very disagreeable pungent odor; salts usually sold as 50% aqueous solutions; available as sodium or potassium salts. Hazards:Moderately toxic by ingestion; teratogen in experimental animals; when heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. Illicit use: Production of amphetamine, methamphetamine and P2P. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States(OAS), United Nations. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of perfumes, phenylacetic acid esters, herbicides, penicillin and other pharmaceutical products; flavoring agent for beverages and sweetened foods. Manufacturing process: Hydrolysis of benzyl cyanide using dilute sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. Shipping and storage: Solutions sold in 4000 gallons lots, shipped by bulk tank car or truck; also sold in 55 gallon (208.2 liter) drums as the potassium or sodium salts in carbon steel tanks; sodium salt requires heating since it freezes at 10C; non-salt form should be stored in dark bottles in a cool dry area. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Denmark, Spain, France, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan.

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Remarks: Phenylacetic acid is used in the two most frequently employed methods to synthesize P2P in clandestine laboratories. P2P is then used in the clandestine production of amphetamine and methamphetamine. Esters of phenylacetic acid (e.g. phenylacetic acid ethyl esters) can be easily converted to the parent compound by heating with an aqueous acid or base and now are regulated under the CSA. PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Other names: Alpha-(1-aminoethyl)benzenemethanol; dl-norephedrine; alpha-(1aminoethyl)benzyl alcohol; alpha-hydroxy--aminopropylbenzene. Molecular formula: (C6H5)CH(OH)CH(NH2)CH3 Molecular weight: 151,18 (C9H13NO) Harmonized code: 2939.40.0050 Melting point: 194C (hydrochloride salt) Description: Crystalline material with an odor resembling that of benzoic acid; available as the hydrochloride salt. Hazards: A poison by ingestion causing sleep, increased pulse rate and pulmonary edema or congestion. Illicit use: Production of amphetamine and 4-methylaminorex. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Preparations containing the hydrochloride salt are used as vasoconstrictors to decongest mucous membranes; over-the-counter anorectic agent. Manufacturing process: Reaction of propiophenone with an alkyl nitrite, followed by catalytic (palladium or platinum) hydrogenation. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. Remarks: Phenylpropanolamine is the main precursor in an infrequently used synthesis for amphetamine; it is also the primary precursor in the synthesis of 4-methylaminorex, an amphetamine-like central nervous system stimulant. PHENYL-2-PROPANONE Other names: 1-phenyl-2-propanone; phenylacetone; benzyl methyl ketone; P-2-P; methyl benzyl ketone; BMK. Molecular formula: CH3COCH2(C6H5) Molecular weight: 134,18 (C9H10O) Harmonized code: 2914.30.0050 Density: 1,02 Boiling point: 214C Description: Clear, moderately viscous liquid. Hazards: Irritating to skin and eyes. Illicit use: Production of amphetamine and methamphetamine. Where controlled or regulated: Controlled as an immediate precursor in Schedule II of the US CSA, United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Production of amphetamine, methamphetamine and propylhexedrine; in organic syntheses.

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Manufacturing process: From phenylacetic and acetic acids; from benzyl cyanide through alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile; from benzaldehyde and nitroethane through a nitropropene intermediate. Shipping and storage: Tightly closed containers in cool dry areas; 55 gallon drums (208.2 liters) containing 460 pounds (209.1 kg) net. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: France. Remarks: P2P was the most widely used precursor in the synthesis of amphetamine/ methamphetamine in the U.S. until its control in Schedule II of the CSA in 1980. It has been replaced by ephedrine as the most widely used precursor. P2P continues to be used in less than one-third of the amphetamine / methamphetamine clandestine labs but most often it is synthesized in these laboratories. PIPERIDINE Other names: Hexahydropyridine, pentamethyleneimine, hexazane. Molecular formula: (CH2)5NH Molecular weight:85.15 (C5H11N) Harmonized code: 2933.39.9000 Density: 0.86 Boiling point: 106C Melting point: -9 C Description: Colorless, combustible liquid with the odor of pepper and a soapy feel; salts (hydrochloride, nitrate, bitartrate, phosphate) are crystalline materials. Hazards: Toxic by inhalation; may cause burns to skin; keep away from sources of ignition; strong irritant. Illicit use: Synthesis of PCP. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, OAS, UN Legitimate uses: Manufacture of local anesthetics, analgesics and other pharmaceutical products, wetting agents and germicides; intermediate for rubber vulcanization accelerators; hardening agent for epoxy resins; solvent; catalyst and complexing agent. Manufacturing process: Electrolytic reduction of pyridine; heating piperine with alcoholic potassium hydroxide; small amounts in black pepper. Shipping and storage: Shipped in drums and stored in tightly closed containers in cool dry area. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, France y United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. North America: United States Remarks: Piperidine is used along with sodium cyanide, cyclohexanone and sodium metabisulfite in the first step of the most widely used method to make PCP. It can be replaced by other chemicals (morpholine, pyrrolidine)to produce pharmacologically similar analogues such as PCM or PCPy. PIPERONAL Other names: Heliotropin; 3,4-(methylenodioxy)benzaldehyde; piperonylaldehyde. Molecular formula: (CH2OO)C6H3(CHO) Molecular weight:150,13 (C8H6O3)

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Harmonized code: 2939.90.3000 Melting point: 37C Boiling point:263C Description: Colorless, lustrous needle-shaped crystals with a characteristic fragrance. Hazards: Moderately toxic by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes; irritating to skin; may cause central nervous system depression; combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. Illicit use: Production of MDMA, MDE, MDA or N-hydroxy-MDA. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations. Legitimate uses: Fragrance in perfumes; flavoring agent in cherry and vanilla flavors; organic syntheses. Manufacturing process: Reaction of isosafrole with sodium dichromate and sulfuric acid; from vanillin, aluminum chloride and methylene chloride or dibromomethane in dimethylformamide or dimethylsulfoxide. Shipping and storage: Keep in cool place protected from light. Manufacturers: Europe: Austria, France, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: Piperonal is used to produce MDA or its analogues, MDMA, MDE and Nhydroxy-MDA using a method which proceeds through a nitrostyrene intermediate. This process has been used in clandestine MDA and MDMA laboratories in the U.S. and is a good alternative to the process using 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone. Other chemicals used in the synthesis are nitroethane and a strong reducing agent such as lithium aluminum hydride. Piperonal is available from United States suppliers. The U.S. imports substantial quantities from China and other countries. POTASSIUM CARBONATE Other names: Pearl ash; salt of tartar. Molecular formula: K2CO3 Molecular weight: 138,2 Harmonized code: 2836.40.1000 Melting point: 891C Density: 2,29 Description: Hygroscopic, odorless granules or granular powder that is insoluble in alcohol. Its aqueous solution is strongly alkaline. Hazards: Poisonous if ingested; strong caustic. Illicit use: Alkaline material that can be used in the production of coca paste, cocaine base and other clandestinely produced substances. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Manufacture of soaps, liquid shampoos, glass, pottery, and potassium salts; engraving and lithography; tanning and finishing leather; removal of water from organic liquids; alkalizer. Manufacturing process: Obtained by treating potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; heating potassium chloride under pressure with magnesium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide.

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Shipping and storage: Glass containers, polyethylene containers, fiber drums. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Taiwan. Remarks: An alkaline material is essential for the production of cocaine. Potassium carbonate is one of a number of alkaline substances such as sodium or calcium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide, which may be used in the production of cocaine and other substances. POTASSIUM CYANIDE Molecular formula: KCN. Molecular weight: 65,11 Harmonized code: 2837.19.0010 Density: 1,52 Melting point: 634C Description: White, granular, hygroscopic; powder with a slight odor of hydrogen cyanide (odor of bitter almond). Hazards: Highly poisonous; poisoning may occur by ingestion, absorption through injured skin or inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas, liberated by action of carbon dioxide or other acids; strong solutions are corrosive to skin; when mixed with acids will produce hydrogen cyanide gas which can be lethal if exposures of 300 ppm exceed a few minutes. Illicit use: Production of PCP and its analogues. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Similar to sodium cyanide; electroplating; metal surface hardening; organic and inorganic synthesis; extracting gold and silver from ores; fumigating citrus and other fruit trees. Manufacturing process: Reaction of a solution of potassium hydroxide with liquid or gaseous hydrogen cyanide (Costner Process). Shipping and storage: Steel drum stored in a dry place and protected from corrosion; solutions must be stored in steel/stainless steel containers. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Italy, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Potassium cyanide is used along with piperidine, cyclohexanone and sodium metabisulfite to produce the PCP intermediate (PCC) which is reacted with a Grignard reagent (phenylmagnesium bromide) to synthesize PCP. Sodium cyanide is more commonly used. POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Other names: Potassium bichromate. Molecular formula: K2Cr2O7 Molecular weight: 294,21 Harmonized code: 2841. 40.0000 Density: 2,68 Melting point: 398C Description: Bright orange-red crystals.

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Hazards: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin; may cause sensitization by skin contact; internally a corrosive poison; contact produces caustic effect. Illicit use: Oxidizing agent in the manufacture of methcathinone. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Oxidizer in the manufacture of organic chemicals; tanning leather, dyeing, painting, decorating porcelain, printing, photo lithography, pigment-prints, staining wood, pyrotechnics, and safety matches; for bleaching palm oil, wax and sponges; waterproofing fabrics; in electric batteries as depolarizer for dry cells. Manufacturing process: Reaction of potassium chloride on sodium dichromate. Shipping and storage:Keep in tightly closed containers and away from heat. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. Remarks: Potassium dichromate is used to oxidize ephedrine in the synthesis of methcathinone. Sodium dichromate is a stronger oxidizing agent and is most often used in this synthesis. POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE Other names: Potassium hidrate, caustic potash, potassa. Molecular formula: KOH Molecular weight: 56,1 Harmonized code: 2815.20.0000 Density: 2,04 Melting point: 360C; 380C, when anhydrous Description: White or slightly yellow lumps, rods or pellets which rapidly absorb moisture and carbon dioxide when exposed to air. Hazards: Extremely corrosive to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes; poisonous by ingestion; eye irritant and severe skin irritant. Illicit use: Alkaline material used in the production of coca paste, cocaine base and other controlled substances. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS) Legitimate uses: Manufacture of liquid soap, printing inks, paint and varnish removers; in electroplating, photo engraving; as a pharmaceutical aid (alkalizer), carbon dioxide absorbent, mordant for wood. Manufacturing process: Electrolysis potassium chloride. Shipping and storage: Containers of glass, metal, plastic or fiber board, fiberboard boxes with inside paper bags not over 50 pounds, fiberboard with plastic bags, metal drums, fiber drums, plastic drums, fiberglass or rubber tanks, metal sift-proof cargo tank or tank car, or hopper type bulk vehicle. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, United Kingdom, Sweden. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: Potassium hydroxide has been found at clandestine cocaine production sites. An alkaline material is essential for the production of cocaine. Potassium hydroxide is one of a number of alkaline substances such as sodium, calcium or potassium carbonate, which may be used in the production of cocaine.

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POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE Other names: Permanganic acid potassium salt; chamaleon mineral. Molecular formula: KMnO4 Molecular weight: 158.03 Harmonized code: 2841.60.0010 Density: 2.70 Melting point: 240 C (decomposition) Description: Dark purple crystals with blue metallic sheen. Sweetish astringent taste, odorless. Soluble in water and acetone; decomposed by alcohol. Hazards: Great caution must be exercised in handling, as explosions may occur if it is brought in contact with organic or other readily oxidizable substances. Harmful if swallowed; dilute solutions are mildly irritating and high concentrations are caustic; explosive if it comes in contact with acid. Illicit use: Oxidizing agent to remove impurities in coca paste. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, OAS, UN Legitimate uses: Bleaching resins, waxes, fats, oils, straw, cotton, silk and other fibers; dyeing wood brown; printing fabrics; washing carbon dioxide in manufacturing mineral waters; photography; insecticide; tanning leathers; purifying water; disinfectant; as an important reagent in analytical and synthetic organic chemistry. Medicinal applications include use as an antibacterial and anti-fungal agent in treating eczema and poison ivy and in treatment of poisoning after oral ingestion of barbiturates, chloral hydrate and many alkaloids. Manufacturing process: Electrolytic oxidation of manganese ore. Shipping and storage: Bottles and drums; preserved in well closed containers at ambient temperature with open vents. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Spain. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: It is used to remove cinnamoylcocaine and other oxidizable alkaloids from cocaine. Potassium permanganate is still the most commonly used oxidizing agent due to its violet pink color in solution which is used as an indicator. It can be used to oxidize ephedrine to ephedrone (N-methylcathinone), a central nervous system stimulant. Other permanganate salts such as calcium and sodium, are strong oxidizing agents which can be substituted for potassium permanganate. PROPIONIC ANHYDRIDE Other names: Propionic acid anhydride, propanoic anhydride, methylacetic anhydride. Molecular formula: (CH3CH2CO)2O Molecular weight: 130,14 (C6H10O3) Harmonized code: 2915.90.5000 Density: 1,01 Boiling point: 167C Description: Colorless liquid with a pungent odor.

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Hazards: Moderately toxic if ingested; mildly toxic through skin contact; corrosive irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Illicit use: Production of fentanyl and its analogues. Where controlled or regulated: CSA. Legitimate uses: Esterifying agent for certain perfume oils, fats, and especially cellulose; production of alkyd resins, dyes and drugs; dehydrating agent in sulfonation and nitration processes. Manufacturing process: Dehydration of propionic acid; carbonylation of esters of propionic acid; catalyzed oxidation of propionaldehyde; from carbon monoxide and ethanol. Shipping and storage: Dark, dry and tightly closed containers to prevent decomposition due to moisture; tank cars. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Propionic anhydride is a precursor used in one of the syntheses of fentanyl, meperidine and their analogues. PSEUDOEFEDRINE Other names: 2-methylamino-1-phenyl-1-propanol; 1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-2methylaminopropane, alpha-[1-(methylamino)ethyl] benzyl alcohol. Molecular formulas: (C6H5)C(OH)HCH(NHCH3)CH3 Molecular weight: 165,23 (C10H15NO) Harmonized code: 2939.40.0010 Melting point: 117-119C Description: Base and salts (hydrochloride and sulfate) are crystalline materials. Hazards: Harmful if swallowed in large quantities; do not breathe dust; avoid contact with skin and eyes. Illicit use: Production of methamphetamine and methcathinone. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations. Legitimate uses: Pharmaceutical preparations as nasal decongestants (d-form) and bronchodilators (l-form). Manufacturing process: Extracted from several species of the plant genus ephedra; produced from ephedrine. Shipping and storage: Keep in well-closed container and protected from light. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany. North America: United States. Remarks: Pseudoephedrine is used in the same way as ephedrine in the clandestine synthesis of methamphetamine. It is not seen as often as ephedrine. It is produced in the U.S. from ephedrine which is imported into the U.S. Pseudoephedrine is an ingredient in over-the-counter preparations such as Sudafed and is sold by generic firms. DPseudoephedrine is the preferred form since this is converted to d-methamphetamine. RED PHOSPHORUS Atomic symbol: P Atomic weight: 30,97

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Harmonized code: 2804.70.0000 Density: 2,34 Description: Red to violet powder. Insoluble in organic solvents. Hazards: Vapor from ignited phosphorous irritates the nose, throat, lungs and eyes. Illicit use: Manufacture of methamphetamine. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Pyrotechnics; manufacture of safety matches; organic synthesis; manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphine, phosphoric anhydride and phosphorous hydrochloride; manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides, incendiary shells, smoke bombs and tracer bullets. Manufacturing process: Purified from mineral phosphates: chlorapatite, vivianite and phosphorite. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, France, Italy, The Netherlands. Asia: Japan. North America: United States. Remarks: Phosphorus exists in three allotropic forms: white, black and red. Only the red form is used. It is a catalyst in the Hl reduction of ephedrine to methamphetamine. It also catalyzes the formation of Hl from iodine and water. SAFROLE Other names: 5-(2-Propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole; 4-allyl-1,2-methylenedioxybenzene; allylcatechol methylene ether. Molecular formula: (CH2OO)C6H3(CH2CH=CH2) Molecular weight: 162,18 (C10H10O2) Harmonized code: 2932.90.37000 Density: 1,10 Boiling point: 232-234C Freezing point: 11C Description: Colorless or slightly yellow liquid with sassafras odor. Hazards: Poisonous by intraperitoneal and intravenous routes; moderately toxic by oral ingestion and subcutaneous routes; produces carcinogenic and adverse effects on the reproductive system in experimental animals; a skin irritant; combustible when exposed to heat or flame; when heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. Illicit use: Production of MDA, MDMA, MDE or N-hydroxy-MDA. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, United Nations, Organization of American States. Legitimate uses: Flavoring and fragrance industry; soap manufacturing; production of piperonal. Manufacturing process: Extraction of several essential oils, notably sassafras (75%); from 3,4-methylenedioxybenzene through a 1-bromo-intermediate. Shipping and storage: Keep in cool place and protected from light. Manufacturers: Asia: Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: Safrole can be used to synthesize 3,4-metilenodioxifenil-2-propanona, isoafrole or piperonal, each of which can be converted to MDA, MDMA, MDE y N-hydroxy-MDA. Safrole has been identified in clandestine laboratories producing MDA or its analogues in the U.S. Its also obtained from sassafras oil which contains greater than 70% safrole and is considered regulated.

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SODIUM BICARBONATE Other names: Baking soda, Sodium hydrogen carbonate; sodium acid carbonate. Molecular formulas: NaHCO3 Molecular weight: 84,00 Harmonized code: 2836.30.0000 Melting point: Begins to lose carbon dioxide at 50C and is converted to sodium carbonate at 100C. Description: White crystalline powder or granules; commercial U.S.P. product is 99,9% pure. Illicit use: Alkaline material used in the production of coca paste, cocaine base and other substances. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of sodium salts; source of carbon dioxide; ingredient in baking powder, effervescent salts and beverage; in fire extinguishers and cleaning materials; antacid, urinary and systematic alkalizer in humans and animals; used locally on burns and to dissolve mucus, exudates and scabs in animals. Manufacturing process: Prepared from sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide. Shipping and storage: Non-hazardous material available in 50 and 100 pound bags; 25 and 50 kilogram drums; bulk sold in hopper cars. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Austria, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom Asia: South Korea, Japan, Taiwan. Remarks: Sodium bicarbonate has been identified at some cocaine processing laboratories. An alkaline material is essential for the production of cocaine. Sodium bicarbonate is one of a number of alkaline substances such as sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide, which may be used in the illicit production of cocaine and other substances. SODIUM CYANIDE Other names: Cyanogran. Molecular formula: NaCN Molecular weight: 49,02 Harmonized code: 2837.11.0000 Melting point: 563C Description: Colorless, hygroscopic granules with a slight odor of bitter almond from hydrogen cyanide gas. Hazards: Serious risk of poisoning by ingestion, absorption through skin or inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas liberated on contact with acids; may cause weakness and heaviness of the arms and legs, increased difficulty in breathing, headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, possibly followed by pallor, unconsciousness, cessation of breathing an death; when mixed with acids will produce hydrogen cyanide gas which can be lethal if exposure to 300 PPM exceeds a few minutes. Illicit use: Production of PCP and its analogues. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown.

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Legitimate uses: Extracting gold or silver from ores, electroplating; fumigating citrus and other fruit trees; manufacturing hydrocyanic acids and many others cyanides; inorganic synthesis. Manufacturing process: Reaction of a solution of odium hydroxide with liquid or gaseous hydrogen cyanide (Costner Process); heating sodium carbonate, powdered coal and nitrogen in the presence of an iron catalyst; fusion of calcium cyanide with sodium carbonate and carbon. Shipping and storage: Steel drums stored in a dry place and protected from corrosion ; solutions must be stores in steel/stainless steel containers. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Taiwan. Remarks: Sodium cyanide is used along with piperidine, cyclohexanone and sodium metabisulfate to produce the PCP intermediate (PCC) which is then reacted with a Grinard reagent (phenylmagnesium bromide) to synthesize PCP. SODIUM DICHROMATE Other names: Sodium bichromate; bichromate of soda. Molecular formula: Na2Cr2O7 Molecular weight: 291,96 Harmonized code: 2841.30.0000 Density: 2,35 Melting point: 357C Description: Reddish to bright orange, somewhat deliquescent crystals; becomes anhydrous with prolonged exposure to heat. Hazards: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Illicit use: Oxidizing agent in the manufacture of methcathinone. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Oxidizing agent in the manufacture of dyes, synthetic organic chemicals and inks; in chrome-tanning of hides; electric batteries; bleaching fats, oils, sponges and resins; refining petroleum; manufacture of chromic acid, other chromates and chrome pigments; corrosion inhibitors and corrosive inhibiting paints; metal treatments; electroengraving of copper; mordant in dyeing; for hardening gelatin; for defoliation of cotton plants and other plants and shrubs. Manufacturing process: From sodium chromates and sulfuric acid. Shipping and sorage: Keep in tightly closed containers and away from heat. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Italy, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Sodium dichromate is a strong oxidizing agent in acid and is stronger than potassium dichromate. It is used to oxidize ephedrine to methcathinone. SODIUM HYDROXIDE Other names: Caustic soda; soda lye; sodium hydrate. Molecular formula: NaOH Molecular weight: 40,01

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Harmonized code: 2815.11.0000 Density: 2,13 Melting point: 318C Description: White hygroscopic powder or white flakes, plates, pellets or sticks; rapidly absorbs water from the air; available as commercial solutions of 15%, 27%, 31%, and 50% or 97-98% solid. Hazards: Concentrated material is very corrosive to human tissue; generates considerable heat when dissolved in water or when mixed with acid; solids and strong solutions cause severe burns of the eyes and skin; ingestion may cause severe internal irritation and damage. Illicit use: Alkaline material used in the production of coca paste, cocaine base and other substances. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS) Legitimate uses: Solutions are used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts, e.g., in petroleum refining to remove sulfuric and organic acids; to treat cellulose in making viscose rayon and cellophane; in reclaiming rubber to dissolve out the fabric; in making precipitate alkaloids (bases such as cocaine) and most metals (as hydroxides) from water solutions of their salts; in the preparation of glycerin suppositories. Manufacturing process: Electrolysis of sodium chloride; reaction of calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate; from sodium metal and water vapor at low temperature. Shipping and storage: Solid is hygroscopic and must be kept in tightly sealed containers made of glass, metal, plastic or fiber board; sold in 50 pound bags, 100, 450, 500 y 750 pound drums; bulk sold as 50% solutions in 15 and 55 gallon drums, tank cars and tank trucks. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland. Asia: Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: An alkaline material is essential for the production of cocaine. Sodium hydroxide has been found in clandestine cocaine laboratories. Sodium hydroxide is one of a number of alkaline substances such as sodium, calcium or potassium carbonate or calcium oxide, which may be used in the production of cocaine and other substances. SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE Other names: Antifomin. Molecular formula: NaClO Molecular weight: 74,44 Harmonized code: 2828.90.0000 Melting point:18C (Pentahydrate crystals) Description: Pentahydrate crystals are highly unstable alone, but stable in solution; alkaline solution is yellow, clear with an odor of hypochlorites. Hazards: Bleaches and many burn skin; will cause internal irritation and damage if ingested; contact with acids liberates toxic gas; irritating to eyes and skin. Illicit use: Potential oxidizing agent for cocaine. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown.

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Legitimate uses: Bleach, germicide, disinfectant, deodorizer. Manufacturing process: Prepared from sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas in the presence of water. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Sweden. Asia: South Korea, Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: Exclusively marketed as a 5-16% solution as a laundry bleach under such names as Clorox, Purex, and Dazzle. Sodium hypochlorite may be used as an oxidizing agent in the purification of cocaine, but current intelligence indicates that it is not being utilized at this time. SODIUM SULFATE Other names: Occurs in nature as the minerals mirabilite, thenardite. Salt cake (anhydrous); Glaubers salt (decahydrate). Molecular formula: NaSO4 (anhydrous); Na2SO410H2O (decahydrate) Molecular weight: 142,06 Harmonized code: 2832.30.0000 Density: 2,7 Melting point: 800C Description: The anhydrous form is a white powder or ortho-rhombic bipyramidal crystals; the decahydrate is odorless, efflorescent crystals or granules. Hazards: Moderately toxic by intravenous routes; mildly toxic by ingestion. Illicit use: Used in clandestine operations to remove water during recycling of organic solvents. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Drying and printing textiles; standardizing dyes; freezing mixtures; laboratory use; manufacture of glass and paper pulp; anhydrous form used to dry organic liquids. Manufacturing process: Naturally occurring; by-product of hydrochloric acid production; sodium dichromate by-product; rayon by-product. Shipping and storage: Glass containers, polyethylene containers, fiber drums. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden. Asia: South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: Sodium sulfate is occasionally found in clandestine cocaine laboratories in South America. It is not a critical chemical in the cocaine manufacturing process. It could be used to remove water from solvents (ether, acetone, etc.) in one form of recycling. SODIUM THIOSULFATE Other names: Sodium hyposulfite; hypo; antichlor; sodothiol; sulfothiorine; ametox. Molecular formula: Na2S2O3 Molecular weight:158,13 Harmonized code: 2807.00.0000

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Density: 1,69 Melting point:48C Description: Powder; odorless crystals or granules which melt at 48 degrees when rapidly heated. Hazards: Moderately toxic by subcutaneous routes. Illicit use: Clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Removes chlorine from solutions; antichlor in bleaching of paper pulp; fixer in photography; extraction of silver from ores; mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, reducer in chrome dyeing; manufacturing leather; bleaching bone, straw and ivory. Shipping and storage: Keep in cool, dry place. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Spain, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan, Taiwan. North America: United States. Remarks: Sodium thiosulfate is used in some clandestine methamphetamine laboratories which use the ephedrine-Hl reduction method. It removes the remaining iodine from solution which makes the product less colored. SULFURIC ACID Other names: Oil of vitriol, hydrogen sulfate. Molecular formula: H2SO4 Molecular weight: 98,08 Harmonized code: 2807.00.0000 Boiling point: 330C (Concentrated solution 98%) Freezing point: 3C (Concentrated solution 98%) Density: 1,84 (Concentrated solution 98%) Description: Clear, colorless, odorless, oily liquid; considerably more viscous than water; concentrated sulfuric acid is 93-98% hydrogen sulfate in water. Hazards: Concentrated acid is extremely corrosive to skin; causes severe burns; when mixed with other liquids it should be added slowly, stirring constantly; when diluting always add acid to water, never add water to acid; reacts with water or steam to produce heat. Illicit use: Dilute solutions (5-10%) are used in the extraction of cocaine from coca leaves and in the conversion of the paste to the base; production of sulfate salts of controlled substances. Where controlled or regulated: CSA; Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, dye stuffs, other acids, paper and glue; purification of petroleum; oxidation of metals and other materials; drying agent; component of toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, metal cleaners and antirust compounds and automobile battery fluids. Manufacturing process: Catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide which is converted to sulfuric acid by the Contact Process, reaction of sulfur dioxide, oxygen, water vapor and nitrogen oxides in a lead-lined chamber (lead-chamber process).

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Shipping and storage: Corrosive substance; shipped in glass carboys in boxed, steel portable tanks, lined tank cars and trucks and metal barrels and drums, depending on the concentration of the sulfuric acid; stored in airtight containers of glass or other inert material. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland. Asia: South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, Taiwan. South America: Colombia, Bolivia, Peru. Middle East: Syria. Remarks: More sulfuric acid is produced in the U.S. and the world than any other chemical. U.S. exports are relatively low compared to production; sulfuric acid is produced and available throughout the world. An acid such as sulfuric acid is essential to the production of coca paste and cocaine base. Although other acids such as nitric, hydrochloric or phosphoric may be used, sulfuric acid is most commonly used when available. A procedure for the extraction of cocaine alkaloids from coca leaves using less organic solvent (kerosene) is being seen in South America. Dilute sulfuric acid is added to the leaves to convert the cocaine alkaloids into water soluble sulfate salts which are dissolved in the acid solution, made alkaline and extracted with kerosene. TARTARIC ACID Other names: Dihydroxysuccinic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid; occurs as d-tartaric acid, l-tartaric acid, meso-tartaric acid and racemic tartaric acid. Molecular formula: (COOH)(OH)HCCH(OH)(COOH) Molecular weight: 150,09 (C4H6O6) Harmonized code: 2918.12.0000 Melting point: 167-169C (d- and l-tartaric) / 206C (racemic); 140C (meso-tartaric). Description: Colorless crystals or white granular to fine crystalline powder with strong acidic taste. Hazards: Moderately toxic by intravenous routes; mildly toxic by oral ingestion. Illicit use: Purification of morphine base prior to its conversion to heroin; preparation of tartrate salts of heroin and other substances. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Soft drink industry, confectionery products, bakery products, gelatin desserts; photographic, tanning and ceramic industries; manufacture of tartrate salts and in pharmaceutical products as a buffering agent. Manufacturing process: Levo-tartaric acid occurs naturally in many fruits; it is found as the potassium salt deposited as a fine crystalline crust during fermentation of grape juice; prepared from this material by neutralization with calcium carbonate followed by addition of sulfuric acid. Shipping and storage: Non-hazardous substance sold in 50 or 100 pounds bags and drums. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Tartaric acid is found in some heroin laboratories. The use of tartaric acid is not critical to the production of heroin but its uses increases the purity of heroin obtained.

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THIONYL CHLORIDE Other names: Sulfurous oxychloride. Molecular formula: SOCl2 Molecular weight: 118,98 Harmonized code: 2827.90.0000 Density: 1,64 Boiling point: 76C Description: Colorless to pale yellow or reddish, fuming, refractive liquid. Hazards: Reacts violently with water; contact causes burns; irritating to respiratory system if inhaled; may ignite other combustible material. Illicit use: Manufacture of methamphetamine. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Making acyl chlorides, to replace -OH or -SH groups with chlorine atoms; reacts with Grinard reagents to form sulfoxides. Manufacturing process: Oxidation of sulfur dichloride with sulfur trioxide. Shipping and storage: Keep away from temperatures greater than 140C, hydrolyzed by water. Manufacturers: North America: United States. Europe: Germany, Switzerland. Asia: Japan. Remarks: Thionyl chloride is used in a two step synthesis of methamphetamine occasionally seen at clandestine laboratories. Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine is reacted with thionyl chloride to form an intermediate which is reduced with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst (palladium or platinum) to yield methamphetamine. Phosphorus pentachloride can be substituted for thionyl chloride in this synthesis. TOLUENE Other names: Methylbenzene; toluol; phenylmethane; Methacide. Molecular formula: C6H5(HC3) Molecular weight: 92,13 (C7H8) Harmonized code: 2902.30.0000 / 2707.20.0000 Density: 0,87 Boiling point: 110,6C Description: Refractive liquid with a benzene-like odor. Hazards: Flammable; avoid inhalation; may burn or irritate mucous membranes, eyes and respiratory tract; severe exposure may result in pulmonary edema; incompatible with strong oxidants; vapors may cause dizziness. Illicit use: Solvent used in the production of cocaine hydrochloride and other controlled substances. Where controlled or regulated: CSA, Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, explosives, dyes, and many other organic substances; solvent for paints, lacquers, gums, resins; extraction of various plant principals; gasoline additive; substitute for benzene in chemical laboratories;

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production of toluene diisocyanate which is used to make polyurethane foams and other elastomers; about 45% of toluene in the United States is converted to benzene. Manufacturing process: Obtained from tar oil and petroleum. Shipping and storage: Shipped in glass carboys, metal barrels and drums, fiberboard boxes lined with glass or earthware; tank cars, tank trucks, barges, tankers and ocean vessels; store in airtight containers. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan. North America: United States. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile. Remarks: Toluene is a solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. It is identified in cocaine hydrochloride samples seized in the United States. It is also found in fuels. ORTHO-TOLUIDINE Other names: O-toluidine; ortho-methylaniline; 2-aminotoluene. Molecular formula: (CH3)C6H4(NH2) Molecular weight: 107,15 (C7H9N) Harmonized code: 2921.43.8000 Density: 1,01 Boiling point: 200-202C Description: Light yellow liquid becoming reddish-brown when exposed to air and light. Hazards: Excessive breathing of vapor, ingestion or absorption through the skin may cause headaches, drowsiness, cyanosis, mental confusion and in severe cases, convulsions; vapor is dangerous to the eyes; it is a suspected carcinogen. Illicit use: Clandestine manufacture of methaqualone. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Manufacture of various dyes; printing textiles blue-black; making color fast to acids. Manufacturing process: Amination of toluene with methylhydroxylamine or hydroxylammonium salts in the presence of aluminum trichloride. Shipping and storage: Keep well closed and protected from light or air. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, France, Italy, United Kingdom. Asia: Japan. North America: United States. Remarks: Ortho-toluidine is reacted with N-acetylanthranilic acid in the presence of a catalyst to produce methaqualone. TRICHLOROETHYLENE Other names: Trichloroethene; ethinyl trichloride, Trilene; triclene. Molecular formula: ClHC=CCl2 Molecular weight: 131,40 (C2HCl3) Harmonized code: 2903.33.0000 Density: 1,47 Boiling point: 86,7C

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Description: Colorless, non-flammable liquid with a chloroform-like odor; industrial grades contain stabilizers (triethanolamine stearate and cresol). Hazards: Inhalation of vapor may cause headache, dizziness and nausea; high concentrations may cause unconsciousness; ingestion produces similar effects; vapor and liquid irritate the eyes; moderate exposure can cause intoxication; high concentrations produce central nervous system depressant effects. High acute doses may cause hepatic and renal failure, coma and death. Sudden death may occur possibly due to the induction of ventricular fibrillation. Possible human carcinogen; must be use with adequate ventilation. Avoid prolonged exposure to light or heat to prevent decomposition. Illicit use: Solvent used alone or with other solvents in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Organization of American States (OAS). Legitimate uses: Solvent for fats, waxes, resins, oils, rubber, paints, varnishes, cellulose esters and ethers; solvent extraction in many industries (coffee, spices); degreasing and dry cleaning; manufacture of organic chemicals and pharmaceutical products. Manufacturing process: Prepared from tetrachloroethane by boiling with lime; passing tetrachloroethane vapor over heated calcium chloride catalyst. Shipping and storage: Stored in sealed, light-resistant ampoules or glass tubes; avoid prolonged exposure to excessive heat; shipped in 55 gallon drums, tank cars, trucks, barges and ships. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, France. Asia: Japan. North America: United States. Remarks: There have been no documented reports of the use of trichloroethylene in cocaine hydrochloride laboratories. Its general solvent characteristics indicate that it could be used, either alone or in combination with other solvents, in cocaine hydrochloride laboratories. It is being replaced by less toxic substances (trichloroethane, methylene chloride) in industrial and household applications. UREA Other names: Carbamide, carbonyldiamide. Molecular formula: CO(NH2)2 Molecular weight: 60,06 (CH4N2O) Harmonized code: 3102.10.0000 Density: 1,32 Melting point: 132,7C Description: Colorless tetragonal crystals with the odor of ammonia. Hazards: Moderately toxic by ingestion, intravenous and subcutaneous routes; irritating to skin. Illicit use: Alkaline material used in the production of coca paste and cocaine base; synthesis of barbituric acid. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: High nitrogen content fertilizer (73%); animal feeds (6,5%); manufacture of resins (urea-formaldehyde) ( 5%) and plastics (melamine) (2,5%); paper industry to soften cellulose; diuretic . Manufacturing process: Reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide at high temperature followed by dehydration to urea; hydrolysis of cyanamide; product of protein metabolism.

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Shipping and storage: Non-hazardous substance; available in 50 and 100 pound bags, 200 pound drums, tank cars, tank trucks and hopper cars; also available as 50% and 73% aqueous solutions. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, Ireland, The Netherlands, Portugal, Estonia. Asia: South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan. North America: United States. South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Peru, Venezuela. Middle East: Syria. Remarks: Urea has been identified at cocaine processing laboratories. An alkaline material is essential for the production of cocaine. Urea is one of a number of alkaline substances such as sodium, calcium or potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide, which may be used in the production of cocaine and other substances. U.S. exports are relatively low. Urea is available wherever farm fertilizers are used. XYLENES Other names: Dimethylbenzene; xylol; mixed xylenes. Ortho-xylene; o-xylene; (1,2dimethylbenzene);meta-xylene; m-xylene; (1,3-dimethylbenzene);para-xylene; p-xylene; (1,4-dimethylbenzene). Molecular formula: C6H4(CH3)2 Molecular weight: 106,16 (C8H10) Harmonized code: Ortho 2902.41.000 / 2707.30.0020meta 2902.42.0000 / 2707.30.0010para 2902.43.0000 /2707.30.0030 Density: Ortho: 0,880 / Meta: 0,868 / Para: 0,861 Boiling point: Ortho: 144C / Meta: 139C / Para: 138C Description: The xylene are flammable. Xylene refers to either a mixture of the ortho, meta and para isomers of xylene or any of the individual isomers. Commercial xylene is a mixture of the three isomers and generally contains small amounts of toluene, ethylbenzene, phenol, trimethylbenzene and other substances. Mixed xylenes-mobile liquid; ortho-xylene and meta-xylene-colorless liquids; para-xylene colorless plates or prisms at low temperature, colorless liquid at 13-14C. Hazards: Inhalation of the vapor may cause dizziness, headache, nausea and mental confusion; vapor and liquid irritate the eyes, skin, mucous membranes and respiratory tract; absorption through the skin and ingestion causes poisoning; repeated breathing of vapor over long periods may cause blood disease; prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis; they are respiratory depressants which produce nausea, headache and ataxia at low doses and confusion, respiratory depression and coma at high doses . Illicit use: Solvent used in the conversion of cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Where controlled or regulated: Unknown. Legitimate uses: Mixed xylene are used as octane boosters in gasoline and for aviation fuel. Ortho-xylene is used in the production of phthalic anhydride for use in the manufacture of polyester fibers and in the manufacture of pesticides. Meta-xylene is used in the production of isophthalic acid which is used for paints, finishes and resin manufacture and for the production of isophthalonitrite used in the manufacture of agricultural chemicals. Para-xilene is the most important xylene commercially; it is primarily used to produce terephthalic acid which is used in the manufacture of polyester; small amounts are used as solvents and in the manufacture of coatings and pesticides.

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Manufacturing process: Mixed xylene are obtained from aromatic streams in oil refineries for further refinement into individual isomers (ortho, 16%; meta, 3%; para, 81% based on end use). They are converted to the individual isomers through a metal-catalyzed process using high temperature and a hydrogen environment. Toluene and other aromatics can be converted to xylene . Shipping and storage: Flammable liquid; shipped in glass carboys, metal barrels and drums and fiberboard boxes lined with glass or earthenware. Sold in 55-gallon drums, tank cars, tank trucks, barges, tankers and ocean vessels. Manufacturers: Europe: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom. Asia: South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan. North America: United States. Central America: Mexico. Remarks: Xylene, usually in combination with other solvents, has been identified by DEA laboratories in cocaine samples. The xylenes have solvent properties similar to those of toluene. They have not been specifically reported at cocaine laboratories except possibly as aviation fuel.

REFERENCES
1.- Diccionario de Qumica y de Productos Qumicos, Gesner G. Hawley, 2nd. Edition, Edit. Omega, S.A., Barcelona, 1991 2.- Enciclopedia Qumica, George L. Clark, Edit. Universal, Mxico, 1993 3.- Directory of Chemical Producers, United States of America, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, 1994 4.- Directory of Chemical Producers, Western Europe, Vol. II, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, 1994 5.- Directory of Chemical Producers, South America, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, 1994 6.- Model Regulation to Control Chemical Precursor and Chemical Substance, Machines and Materials, Organization of American States, Washington D.C., 1990.

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7.- Chemical Used in the Clandestine Production of Drugs, U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control, Drug and Chemical Evaluation Section, 1995. 8.- Qumica General, James Kendall, FRS, Edit. Nacional, Mxico, 1989. 9.- Hazards of Chemical Laboratories, Wayne Jeffery, Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Appendix I MODEL REGULATIONS TO CONTROL CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES USED IN THE ILLICIT PRODUCTION OF NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES

SECRETARY GENERAL

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ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES WASHINGTON, D.C.

1999

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MODEL REGULATIONS TO CONTROL CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES USED IN THE ILLICIT PRODUCTION OF NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES
`
PART I PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION

ARTICLE 1
The purpose of these Model Regulations is to monitor and control the production, manufacture, preparation, transformation, storage, importation, exportation, marketing, transportation or other type of transaction involving chemical substances used in the production, manufacture, preparation, or extraction of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or other substances having a similar effect. ARTICLE 2 The tables of substances in these Regulations shall contain, as a minimum the substances included in Table I and Table II of the Annex to the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988 and may contain other substances in order to address regional needs and problems following verification of their use in the illicit manufacture or production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances or other substances having a similar effect. ARTICLE 3 These Regulations shall be applicable in all national jurisdictions including free-trade zones and free ports or other customs operations. PART II DEFINITIONS

ARTICLE 4
The following definitions shall be applicable throughout the text of the Model Regulations except when another is expressly indicated or the context calls for another interpretation: Chemical substances: Substances used in the illicit production, manufacturing, preparation or extraction of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or other substances having similar effects.

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Customs transit: Customs procedure whereby goods are transported under customs control from one customs jurisdiction to another, whether within the same country or to another. Importation and exportation: respectively, entry into or exit from, a customs jurisdiction including temporary placement in the jurisdiction. Marketing: Any transaction, whether direct or indirect, among natural and juridical persons. Mixture: Any combination of one or more substances included in Tables I, II or III of the Model Regulations with one another or with another substance or substances, and that may be used in the illicit production, manufacture, preparation or extraction of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances or other substances having similar effects. Production and Manufacturing: As the case may be, whether carried out by industrial or non-industrial means. Transshipment: procedure whereby goods are transferred under customs jurisdiction and control from one means of transportation to another. PART III TABLES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

ARTICLE 5
Chemical substances shall be identified by the names and corresponding numeric codes under which they are listed in the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) of the World Customs Organization (WCO). These classification systems should also be used in statistical records and in documents pertaining to importation, exportation, transit and transshipment and apply to other customs operations and in free trade zones and free ports.

ARTICLE 6
The competent authorities of each Member State may add, delete or relocate chemical substances in the pertinent tables under their internal norms, in accordance with national needs and circumstances. These decisions will be reported to the Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS) through the Executive Secretariat of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). ARTICLE 7

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Countries that have identified the need to add, delete or relocate chemical substances included in Tables I or II, shall send a request to that effect to the Executive Secretariat of CICAD accompanied by the reasons underlying its proposal. The Executive Secretariat will distribute the proposal to the member states for comments, which must be returned to the Secretariat within three months. The Secretariat will prepare a paper summarizing these comments for consideration by the Commission at its next Session. The decision of the Commission will be communicated to the Member States and where the change proposed is adopted, it shall be duly reflected in the applicable table or tables of the Model Regulations.

PART IV SUBSTANCES UNDER SURVEILLANCE


ARTICLE 8 There is hereby established a Table III containing substances not found in Tables I and II that, in the experience of some member countries, are being diverted to or are being used as substitutes in the production, manufacture, preparation, or extraction of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances or other substances having similar effects. ARTICLE 9 In accordance with their respective national legal systems and constitutional principles, member states may, as they deem appropriate, adopt, with respect to substances included in Table III, some or all of the control and monitoring measures in Parts VI, VII and IX of these Regulations.

PART V MIXTURES ARTICLE 10


Mixtures of substances included in the tables to these Model Regulations shall be subject to the control or monitoring measures set out in Parts VI, VII, VIII and IX. In determining the controls or measures of surveillance to be applied, countries shall take into consideration the following: a) A mixture that contains in any concentration, one or more substances included in Table I, shall be subject to the controls applicable to Table I substances;

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b)

A mixture that contains chemical substances included in Table II at a level of concentration above 30%, shall be subject to the controls applicable to Table II substances. When a mixture contains two or more of the substances included in this table, the applicable controls shall be applied when the level of concentration of each of the substances added together exceeds the percentage as determined by each country.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, in accordance with its particular situation, a country may establish in its respective norms, percentages greater or less than those suggested, and may consider, in addition, other factors in subjecting mixtures to the applicable controls. Such factors could include, among others, the quantity and composition of the mixture and its importance in illicit production.

ARTICLE 11
When a mixture contains one or more substances included in Table III, the applicable measures shall be applied when the level of concentration of the substance alone, or the substances in combination, as the case may be, exceeds the percentage as determined by each country.

ARTICLE 12
Notwithstanding the foregoing, a mixture that contains substances included in Tables I, II or III that are not likely to be used as such in the illicit production, manufacture, preparation, or extraction of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or others having a similar effect, or from which it is difficult or impractical to extract those substances, shall not be subject to the controls or measures mentioned above.

II. III.
ARTICLE 13

I. PART VI CONTROL MEASURES

A. LICENSES AND REGISTRATION

Whosoever produces, manufactures, prepares, transforms, stores, imports, exports, markets, uses or engages in any other type of transaction involving substances included in Table I shall be subjected to controls, consisting of a permit, licensing or similar system. The competent authorities shall maintain a record of all authorizations, licenses and the like, either granted, denied or revoked.

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ARTICLE 14
Whosoever produces, manufactures, prepares, transforms, stores, imports, exports, markets, uses or engages in any other type of transaction involving substances included in Table II, shall register with the competent authorities so that the scope and nature of the activities they conduct may be known. The licenses, permits and registration to which this Part refers shall be updated periodically.

ARTICLE 15
Member States may stipulate exceptions to the licensing, permit or registration requirements of this Part in accordance with their national needs and circumstances, provided that such exceptions are not inconsistent with the objectives of these Regulations.

ARTICLE 16
In addition, with respect to the issuance of licenses, permits or other forms of authorization, Member States may take into account background information relating to the applicant, such as evidence of his ability to maintain effective controls over the chemical substances, his compliance with applicable national laws for the control of chemical substances, whether he has been convicted of an offence relating to the trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances or whether there have been convictions for such offences of senior managers in his employ. In accordance with national law, factors such as the foregoing may be taken into account in order to suspend or revoke an existing license, permit or other authorization.

IV. ARTICLE 17

B. RECORDS

The persons referred to in Articles 13 and 14 shall keep, for a period of not less than two years, a complete, accurate and up-to-date record of each of the substances listed in Tables I and II, including the following information at a minimum: (1) Amounts received; (2) Amounts produced, manufactured, prepared or extracted; (3) Amounts imported; (4) Amounts used to manufacture or prepare other products; (5) Amounts marketed domestically; (6) Amounts exported;

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(7) Existing stocks; (8) Amounts lost, destroyed or reduced by effects such as shrinkage and other causes such as accidents and pilferage; (9) Amounts received in excess.

ARTICLE 18
Records of the amounts of substances referred to in items 1, 3, 5 and 6 of the preceding article shall include the following information, at a minimum: (1) Date of the transaction; (2) Name, address, telephone, facsimile number and e-mail address, where available, as well as license or registry number of each and every party involved in the transaction and those of the final consignee if not one of those parties; (3) Name, amount, unit of measurement and form of presentation and packaging of the precursor, other chemical substance. (4) Means of transportation and identification of the transport company. PART VII IMPORT, EXPORT TRANSIT AND TRANSSHIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

ARTICLE 19
In addition to the license and registry requirements, but without prejudice to any other authorizations required by the respective foreign trade system, importers and exporters of the substances listed in Table I shall obtain an import, export, transit or transshipment permit from the competent authorities.

The competent authorities may subject all or some of the substances listed in Table II to the same system as above.
ARTICLE 20 The competent authorities may also determine which of the substances included in Tables II and III shall be subject to an import, export, transit or transshipment notification.

ARTICLE 21

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In all cases, the importer or exporter shall make the application for a license or the notification referred to above at least 15 days prior to the anticipated date of importation, exportation, transit or transshipment.

ARTICLE 22
Import or export permits shall expire not later than 180 days after the date of their issue. Such permits shall be issued for a single substance only and may not be used more than once. If the 180-day period has passed and no importation or exportation has occurred, application for a new permit must be made. ARTICLE 23 The application for a permit or notification shall contain the following information, at a minimum: 1. 2. The importers or exporters name and address, license or registration, telephone, telex and fax numbers and e-mail address, where available; The name and address and telephone, telex, and fax numbers and e-mail address, where available, of the agent of the importer or exporter and of the forwarder, if any; The name and corresponding numeric codes under which they are listed in the Commodity Description and Coding System of the WCO for each substance included in each of the Tables, and the description appearing on the drums, barrels or other containers or packaging in which the substance is contained; Net weight or volume of the commodity, in kilograms or litters and fractions thereof; Quantity and net weight of the drums, barrels or other containers or packaging; Quantity and identification of containers, if applicable; Scheduled shipping and import or export date. Place of origin, and the points of shipment, stopover ports, place of entry into the country, and final destination; Means of transportation and identification of the carrier; 9. Names, addresses and telephone, telex and fax numbers and email addresses, where available, of the supplier and purchaser; 10. Name, address and telephone, telex and fax numbers and e-mail address, where available, of the end-user or consignee, if known, or ascertainable through reasonable inquiry.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

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ARTICLE 24
The competent authorities may deny the permits, licenses or authorizations referred to herein or suspend a transaction when there exists a substantiated reason to believe that such items may be used for illicit production, manufacture, preparation or extraction of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, or other substances having similar effects.

PART VIII
PRE NOTIFICATION OF INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENTS

ARTICLE 25
Before exporting a substance included in Table I, a country intending to export such a substance shall provide, through its competent authorities the information required under Article 23 to the competent authorities of the importing country.

ARTICLE 26
The information requirements of the preceding article shall also be applied to acetic anhydride and potassium permanganate. Such requirements may also be applied to some or all of the remaining substances in Table II, where countries participating in the respective transactions so decide.

ARTICLE 27
Within 15 days of receipt of pre notification by the importing country, the competent authority of the importing country shall advise the exporting country whether or not the transaction is legitimate. Failure by the competent authority of the importing country to advise the exporting country within the above-noted time frame, shall signify acceptance of the transaction.

ARTICLE 28
The state receiving the pre notification shall preserve the confidentiality of any industrial, trade, commercial or professional information contained therein and any shall observe any other requirement made by the competent authority with respect thereto. PART IX REPORTS OF IRREGULAR MOVEMENTS

ARTICLE 29
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Persons engaged in the production, manufacture, preparation, processing, storage, importation, exportation, marketing or transportation of chemical substances listed in Tables I, II or III shall immediately report to the competent authorities any transaction or proposed transaction to which they are parties when they have reasonable grounds to suspect that such substances may be used in the production, manufacture, preparation or extraction of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or other substances with similar effects. It will be considered that there are reasonable grounds particularly when the quantity of the above-mentioned chemical substances involved in a transaction, the method of payment or the personal characteristics of the purchaser are extraordinary or unusual. ARTICLE 30 The competent authorities shall also be apprised of any losses or unusual or significant disappearances of such substances under the person's control. The report shall contain all available information and shall be made to the competent authorities, as soon as the circumstances that warrant suspicion are known, by the quickest means and as far in advance of the completion of the transaction as possible. After the information has been confirmed, the competent authorities shall notify those authorities of the country of origin, destination or transit as soon as possible and provide them with all available information.

ARTICLE 31
All information provided shall be treated as confidential and not divulged to any person save and except for law enforcement, judicial or internal control purposes, or for international cooperation. PART X OFFENCES

ARTICLE 32
The following acts will be considered to constitute punishable offences: 1. The production, manufacture, preparation, processing, storage, importation, exportation, marketing, transportation, possession or any other type of transaction involving chemical substances listed in Tables I and II, knowing that they are intended to be used for the production, manufacturing, preparation or extraction of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, or other products having similar effects, in any manner prohibited by law, and whether or not the production, manufacture, preparation or extraction of these drugs or psychotropic substances themselves occurs in the same national territory or abroad.

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2. 3.

The organization, management, or financing of the offences cited in the preceding paragraph. The use of any means to induce or publicly incite the commission of any of the activities offences stipulated in this article. 4. Participation in, association or conspiracy to commit, attempts to commit and aiding, abetting, facilitating and counseling the commission of any of the offences cited in this article.

PART XI INVESTIGATION AND PROOF OF OFFENCES ARTICLE 33


In accordance with national law, Member States may employ the following techniques, among others, in the investigation of the offences referred to in the preceding paragraph: (1) II; controlled deliveries of the chemical substances listed in Tables I and

(2) interventions, the opening or interception of private documents or communications and the surveillance of suspects, with the prior approval of the appropriate competent authority; and (3) undercover agents and informants.

ARTICLE 34
Any evidence obtained by employing the techniques referred to in the previous article shall be admissible in criminal proceedings and will be afforded the evidentiary value afforded to such evidence by national law.

PART XII EXTRADITION AND MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE ARTICLE 35


The offences referred to in Part X of these Regulations shall be extraditable, in accordance with the constitutional and legal principles of each respective Member State.

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ARTICLE 36
Such offences shall be afforded the widest possible mutual legal assistance under the international treaties and agreements subscribed to by each respective Member State. PART XIII CIVIL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND OTHER CRIMINAL OFFENCES

ARTICLE 37
Contraventions of the control measures set out in these Model Regulations may result in the application of the following measures: 1. civil proceedings which can lead to the application of financial sanctions or injunctions; 2. administrative proceedings which can lead to the application of financial sanctions or the revocation, suspension or application of other sanction involving the required license or registration; 3. criminal sanctions in cases where the contravention is considered as an offence punishable under corresponding national law. PART XIV COMPETENT AUTHORITIES FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

ARTICLE 38
Member States shall designate a competent authority to attend to requests for international cooperation and information pursuant to these Model Regulations or to convey them to the authority responsible for their execution. The authorities designated for these purposes and any changes of such authorities shall be identified to the Secretary General of the OAS and the Secretary General of the United Nations. PART XV COOPERATION WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR

ARTICLE 39
Member States shall promote the creation and application of cooperation measures in collaboration with the entities of the private sector who carry out activities related to the subject matters covered by these Model Regulations such as, for example,

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the establishment of joint task forces or the creation of a voluntary code of cooperation and conduct.

IN ADDITION, THE EXPERT GROUP RECOMMENDS TO THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE MEMBER STATES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES:
That each Member State: 1. Enact legislation or update its current legislation, to control national and international transactions in chemical substances. Insofar as possible, such laws should be compatible with those of the other countries, taking into account these Model Regulations prepared by the CICAD Expert Group. Improve its national and international communication systems for the exchange of information on transactions of chemical substances. Ensure the application of a surveillance system of any movement of chemical substances at crossings and borders wherever traffic between or border trade with neighboring countries takes place. Ensure that the authorities entrusted with border control exercise a close watch over any large quantities of chemical substances held there that are not used for consumption in the area or for a licit transaction. Enact or update its pertinent legal norms to prevent and control the diversion of tableting and encapsulating machines from legitimate purposes to the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or other substances having similar effect. Give consideration to requiring the registration of brokers of the chemical substances governed by these Model Regulations and requiring them to notify the governments of the countries in which they are registered whenever they are engaged in arranging international transactions of those chemical substances. In accordance with its concerns, incorporate safety measures into national laws relating to the handling and storage of chemical substances taking into account their physical-chemical properties and grouping them separately to prevent contact between those that produce toxic gases that could cause harm to the environment. Where possible, to avoid environmental pollution resulting from the destruction of such substances countries should consider appropriate means of storage and may consider the possible recycling of substances for purposes of non-profit scientific or educational research or disposing of them in such other ways as are authorized by domestic law.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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9.

That the competent authorities investigate alleged diversion and illicit uses of precursors or other chemical products, machines and materials at another country's request and report their findings promptly.

10. Finally, the Group of Experts wishes to make clear that these Model Regulations are not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of this extensive subject matter.

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TABLE I / CUADRO I

Harmon ized Code/ Cdigo Armoni zado


291431 293292 292422 292219

Product/Producto

Synonym/Sinn imo

1-Phenyl-2Propanone/1-Fenil-2-Propanona 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl1-2propanone/ 3,4-Metilenodioxifenil-2propanona N-acetylanthranilic acid and its salts/ Acido Nacetilantranlico y sus sales Phenylpropanolamine its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optcal isomers salts/Fenilpropanolamina sus sales, ismeros pticos y sales de sus ismeros pticos Isosafrole and its optical isomers/Isosafrol y sus ismeros pticos Safrole/Safrol Lysergic Acid/Acido Lisrgico Ephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers/Efedrina, sus sales, ismeros pticos y sales de sus ismeros pticos Ergometrine and its salts/ Ergometrina y sus sales Ergotamine and its salts/Ergotamina y sus sales Piperonal/Piperonal Pseudoephedrine, its salts, opticla isomers and salts of its optical isomers/ Seudoefredina, sus sales, ismeros pticos y sales de sus ismeros pticos

P-2-P 2-carboxy acetanilide/ 2 carboxiacetalinida

293291 293294 293963 293941 293961 293962 293293 293942

Ergonovine and its salts/ Ergonovina y sus sales /heliotropina /isoefedrina

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TABLE II / CUADRO II Harmonized Code/ Cdigo Armonizado 292243 280610

Product/Producto
O-aminobenzoic acid and its salts/ Acido oaminobenzoico y sus sales Hydrochloric acid/ Acido Clorhdrico

Synonym/
Sinnimo Anthranilic Acid and its salts/ Acido antranlico y sus sales Muriatic Acid, Hidrogen Chloride/ Acido Muritico, Cloruro de Hidrgeno Hydrogen Sulfate/ Sulfato de Hidrgeno

280700 281420 281520 281500 283311 283640 283620

Sulfuric Acid/ Acido Sulfrico Ammonia (anhydrous or in aqueous solution) / Amonaco Anhdro o en disolucin acuosa. Potassium Hydroxide/ Hidrxido de Potasio Sodium Hydroxide/ Hidrxido de Sodio Sodium Sulfate/Sulfato de Sodio Potassium Carbonate/ Carbonato de Potasio Sodium Carbonate/ Carbonato de Sodio

Caustic Potash/Potasa Caustica Caustic Soda/ Soda Caustica Disodium Sulfate/ Sulfato Disodico Potash/Carbonato Neutro de Potasio Soda Ash, Washing Soda/ Carbonato Neutro de Sodio, Soda Solvay

284161

Potassium Permanganate/ Permanganato de Sodio

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97

Harmonized Code/ Cdigo Armonizado 290110 290220 290230 290241

Product/Producto
Hexane/Hexano Benzene/Benceno Toluene/Tolueno

Synonym/Sinnimo

N-Hexane/Hexano Normal

290312 290911

291411 291412 291413 291521 291524

291531 291634 293332

Methylbenzene/Metilbenc eno Xylenes/Xylenos o-Xylenes, m-Xylenes, pXylenes/1,2Dimeltibenceno, 1,3 Dimeltibenceno, 1,4 Dimeltibenceno Methylene Chloride/Cloruro de DichloroMetileno metane/Diclorometano Ethyl Ether/ Eter Etlico Sulfuric Ether, Ethyl Oxide, Diethyl Ether/ Ether Sulfrico, Oxido de Etilo, Eter Dietlico Acetone/Acetona Propane/Propanona Methyl Ethyl Ketone/Metil Etil Cetona Butanone/Butanona, MEK Methyl Isobutyl Ketone/ Metil Isobutil Isopropilacetone/Isopropil Cetona acetona, MIBK Acetic Acid/Acido Actico Acetic Anhydride/Anhdrido Actico Acetic Ether, Acetic Acid, Ethyl Ether/Acetato de Etilo, Eter Etlico del Acido Actico Ethyl Acetate/ Acetato Etlico Phenylacetic acid and its salts/Acido Fenilactico y sus sales Piperidine/Piperidina

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TABLE III / CUADRO III


Harmonized Product/Producto Code/ Cdigo Armonizado 290329 Acetyl Chloride/Cloruro de Acetilo 282710 Ammonium Chloride/Cloruro de Amonio Synonym/ Sinnimo Ethanoyl Chloride/ Cloruro de Etanolo Ammonium Muriate/Muriato de Amonia Ammonia Solution/ Amonaco Acuoso Benzoic Aldehyde, Artificial oil of almond, Benzenecarbonal/Al dehido Benzoico, aceite sintetico de almendras amargas Chloromethylbenzen e, a chlorotoluene/ Clorometilbenceno, alfa-clorotolueno Benceneacetonitrile, phenyl-acetonitrile, a-tolunitrile, cyanotoluene/ Acetronitrilo, de Benceno, 2Fenilacetonitrilo, Alfatoluinitrilo Bromo-benzylacetonitrile/ Bromobenceno acetonitrilo

281420 291221

Ammonium Hydroxide/Hodrxido de Amonia Benzaldehyde/Benzaldehido

290369

Benzyl Chloride/Cloruro de Bencilo

292690

Benzyl Cyanide/Cianuro de Bencilo

292600

Bromobenzyl Cyanide/Cianuro de Bromobencilo

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Harmonized Code/ Cdigo Armonizado 281590

Product/Producto

Synonyms/ Sinnimo Calcium Hidrate, Caustic Lime/Hidrato Calccico, Hidrato de Cal Lime, Burnt Lime/Cal, Cal viva Pimelic Ketone, Nadone/Cetona Pimlica, Cetohexametileno N-Ethyletamine/ Amina Dietlica Ethanol, Ethyl Hidroxide/Etanol, Alcohol Anhidrido Methanamide/Meta namida Aminic Acid/Acido Metanoico

Calcium Hidroxide/ Hidrxido de Calcio

282590 291422

Calcium Oxide/Oxido de Calcio Cyclohexanone/Ciclohexanona

292112 220710

Diethylamine/Dietilamina Ethyl Alcohol/ Alcohol Etlico

292410 291511 281119 280120 290514 291539 290512

Formamide/Formamida Formic Acid, its salts and derivatives/Acido Frmico, sales y sus derivados Hydriodic Acid/Acido Yodhidrico Iodine/Yodo Isobutyl Alcohol/ Alcohol Isobutlico Isopropyl Acetate/ Acetato Isoproplico Isopropyl Alcohol/ Alcohol Isoproplico

290512

Isopropyl Alcohol/ Alcohol Isoproplico

271000

Kerosene/Kerosene

2-Methyl-1Propanol/ 2-Metil-1-Propanol 2-Propylacetate/ acetato2-proplico 2-Propanol, isopropanol, dimethyl carbinol, petrohol, secondary porpyl alcohol. IPA/2propanol, isopropanol, dimetilcaronil, petrohol, IPA Kerosine/Kerosina

100

2207700

Methyl Alcohol/Alcohol Metilico

291211 290420 290300

Methylamine/Metilamina Nitroethane/Nitroetano Trichloroethylene/Tricloroetileno

Methanol, Carbinol, Wood Alcohol/ Metanol; Carbinol, Alcohol de Madera Methanamine/ Monometilamina

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Appendix II CLANDESTINE CHEMICAL LABORATORIES


This section will deal with the following topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hazard Assessment. Knowledge Requirements. Types of Booby Traps. Safety Equipment Chemicals and Safety - safety concerns in a lab. - health, flammability, reactivity rating of chemicals. - general considerations for safe handling of chemicals - acids - bases - solvents 6. Toxic effects of chemicals. 7. Disposal of Hazardous Material - re-cycle, re-use. - disposal: - incineration of flammables - dilution, then incineration - neutralization - landfill. 8. Toxic Effects of Chemicals. - Factors Influencing Toxicity - Toxic Effects of Various Chemicals - First Aid in Chemical Exposure PROCEDURES ON CHEMICALS LABS: 1. 2. 3. The most immediate dangers in the lab are from fires, explosions, inhalations of chemicals and skin contact with chemicals. Most chemicals on a lab are corrosive, explosive or flammable under most conditions. Do not: smell or taste chemicals/drugs, smoke, drink, or eat in a clandestine lab.

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HAZARD ASSESSMENT: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A wide variety of chemicals A wide variety of chemical equipment Many chemical processes and many possible drug products. Initial observations may not tell you what chemicals or drugs are involved. Possible mislabeling of chemicals.

The hazard assessment is difficult even when chemicals are labeled and the route of manufacture known because the hazards may not have been determined. You must treat all labs as potentially dangerous until proven otherwise. You need minimum safety standards. Don't overlook safety precautions because they are inconvenient, cumbersome, or you think they are unnecessary. They may safe your life. KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS: 1. How to handle a potentially dangerous situation. 2. Be familiar with the chemical used in the process and the hazards involved. 3. Be familiar with the routes of manufacture, and the hazards involved. 4. If unsure get somebody who knows. 5. Use a clandestine lab team, they have more intense training. THE CLANDESTINE LAB TEAM: a. b. c. d. e. The Police. The Police Scientist. Health and Safety Officers. The Fire Department. Other Agencies - Utilities; - Gas, power, electrical, telephone - Armed Forces - SPCA

BOOBY TRAPS: The purpose of booby traps are to prevent: - drug rip-offs, destruction by animals, prevent police from entering and to destroy evidence. The traps are usually not designed to kill, only to maim.

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104

105

106

107

108

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SAFETY EQUIPMENT USED IN CLANDESTINE LABORATORIES


LEVELS OF PROTECTION: Level A: FULLY ENCAPSULATED: Protection for highly corrosive and toxic material which have severe acute hazards by skin contact or by gas or vapor skin absorption, or when the materials and hazards have not been identified. 1. SCBA. 2. Fully encapsulated chemical resistant suit. 3. Chemical resistant gloves and safety boots. 4. Two way radio communication 5. Hard hat. Level B: HIGHEST LEVEL OF PROTECTION IS NEEDED BUT THE ENVIRONMENT IS NOT CONSIDERED ACUTELY TOXIC TO SKIN CONTACT OR BY GAS OR VAPOUR SKIN ABSORPTION. 1. Same as level A, except full face piece SCBA, and chemical resistant clothing (not fully encapsulated). Level C: THE CRITERIA FOR WEARING RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IS NEEDED AND THE ENVIRONMENT IS NOT CONSIDERED TO BE TOXIC BY SKIN ABSORPTION. 1. Same as level B, except the SCBA is replaced with a full face piece air purifying canister/cartridge equipped respirator. Level D: WHEN THE ATMOSPHERE CONTAINS NO KNOWN HAZARDS, WORK FUNCTIONS PRECLUDE SPLASHES, NO POTENTIAL FOR INHALATION, OR CONTACT WITH HAZARDOUS LEVELS OF CHEMICALS. 1. Coveralls. 2. Safety boots. 3. Safety classes. 4. Hard hat. 5. Face mask. PERSONAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT: Coveralls or fatigues rated as chemical and flame resistant, (Saranex, Nomex, Chemklos, Cellulosic). Chemical Splash Impact Goggles, (Encon 160, Monogoggles). Chemical resistant gloves, (neoprene, nitrile, PVC/nitrile). Chemical resistant safety boots.

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Respirators (chemical cartridge, canister gas mask, self-contained breathing apparatus). Safety line, hard hat and explosion proof flashlight. RESPIRATORS CHEMICAL CARTRIDGES: 1. Organic vapor for use indoors or outdoors. 2. Acid gas cartridge for use indoors or outdoors. 3. A combination of 1 and 2. Outdoors means all well ventilated area and indoors means chemicals are in sealed containers. CANISTER GAS MASKS: These are used with specific chemicals and can be combined, as for chemical cartridges. SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS (SCAB): These are used in poorly ventilated areas, especially indoors if chemicals are not sealed and they are in high concentrations. They are also used if you are unsure of what type of chemicals are present, or you are working in an oxygen deficient area (trenches). HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL RESPONSE UNIT EQUIPMENT Tyvek suits (full body), hats shoe and boot covers; PVA gloves; Neoprene gloves; latex and vinyl gloves; cartridges for respirators (acid gas, organic, combination), disposable respirators; spare safety goggles, hard hat and spare respirators (all types). SCENE SAFETY EQUIPMENT Barricade tape, TLV sniffer, Matheson/kitagawa detector and tubes, non-sparking tools, no smoking signs, fire extinguishers, (Co2, halon, dry chemical), fire blanket, first aid kit, eye wash, explosion proof fluorescent light, caps for all types of containers, army knife, safety line, and explosion proof flashlight. AIR MONITORING EQUIPMENT GASTECH 314: It only detects flammable organic chemicals, and the percentage of oxygen. It does not detect low concentration of flammable and toxic chemicals. DRAGER TUBES: These tubes allow for the detection of chemicals not detected by the GASTECH.

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DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Wash down employee with hose (trap water for disposal) Remove and discard disposable garments. Dispose of inexpensive sampling tools. Wash and rinse SCBA and air purifying respirators. Wash down air monitoring equipment. Wash hands and face prior to leaving the scene. Remove and dispose of wash down solutions for disposal.
8. Scene must have: soap, fresh water, scrub brush, papertowels, respirator/decontamination kits.

CHEMICALS AND SAFETY SAFETY CONCERNS: 1. Working in the clandestine lab - check for different vapors: Organic, Hydrocarbons, and Gases. - Ventilate the area: Open all doors and use fans. - remove all flammable substances. - no smoking eating or open flames. - avoid electric sparks.(flash cameras)
- compressed gases. Shut off valve on tank first. (Located on top of tank). Shut off regulator at side of tank.

- shut off vacuum pumps. - shut off external heat sources. - cool all reactions. - If spills in laboratory, use sand and baking soda and scoop up into a bucket COMMON HAZARDS: 1. Heat. Acid + Water: Base + water 2. Fires. Solvents. 3. Explosions: Build up of solvents. 4. Release of Toxic Gases, Conc. HCl 5. Toxic by-products: Hydrochloric Acid + Potassium permanganate, yields chlorine gas. 6. Shock sensitive substances.

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DEFINITIONS: Reagent: Precursor: Solvent: A substance used for various purposes because it takes part in one or more chemical reactions or biological processes. A substance from which another substance is formed. A substance capable of dissolving one or more other substances.

DEA DEFINITIONS: Reagent: Precursor: Solvent: A reagent reacts chemically with one or more precursors, but does not become part of the finished product. Is raw material for a controlled substance that becomes part of the finished product. Do not react chemically with a precursor or reagent and does not become part of the finished product. Solvents are used to dissolve precursors or reagents, to dilute reaction mixtures, and to separate and purify other chemicals.

HEALTH, REACTIVITY AND FLAMMABILITY RATINGS: HEALTH RATINGS: 4. 3. 2. 1. 0. A few whiffs of the gas or vapor could cause death. The gas vapor or liquid could be fatal on penetrating the protective clothing. Material is extremely hazardous to health, area may be entered with extreme care. Full protective clothing must be used. No skin surface should be exposed. Material is hazardous to the health, but area may be entered freely with SCBA. Material only slightly hazardous to health, it may be desirable to wear face piece SCBA. No hazard.

REACTIVITY RATINGS:

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4. 3.

Materials which in themselves are readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperature and pressure. Materials which in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or reaction, but which require a strong initiating source. Includes materials which are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperature and pressures, or which react explosively with water without requiting heat. Materials which are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. Includes materials which react violently with water or which may form potentially explosive mixtures with water. Materials which are normally stable but may become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. May react with water with some release of energy but not violently. Materials which are normally stable even under fire exposed conditions and which are not reactive with water.

2.

1.

0.

FLAMMABILITY RATINGS: 4. Very flammable gases and very volatile liquids and materials that in the form of dust or mist, readily form explosive mixtures when dispersed in air. Liquids which can be ignited under almost all normal temperature conditions. Any material that ignites spontaneously at normal temperatures in air. Liquids which must be heated before ignition can occur. Solids which give off flammable vapors. Materials which must be preheated before ignition can occur. Materials that will not burn.

3. 2. 1. 0.

****NOT ALL CHEMICALS ARE RATED! UNITED NATIONS CATEGORIES FOR DANGEROUS MATERIAL: 1. Explosives 2. Gases 3. Flammable liquids 4. Flammable Solids 5. Oxidizing Agents 6. Poisons 7. Radioactive Material 8. Corrosive 9. Diverse Dangerous Substances

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GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFE HANDLING OF CONFISCATED CHEMICALS: FIVE HAZARD CATEGORIES: 1. Flammable liquids. i.e. Ethyl Ether 2. Acids. (Corrosive). Hydrochloric Acid 3. Bases. (Alkali) (Corrosive) Sodium Hydroxide. 4. Strong Oxidizers. Potassium Permanganate. 5. Toxic. (Cancer Causing) Benzene. Many of the chemicals in clandestine laboratories are mislabeled or not labeled to prevent identification. Exercise extreme caution in handling unknown material. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Handling and transportation of chemicals should be done by only qualified Scientific Personnel. Package for transportation in original containers if possible. Separate containers to prevent breakage. Separate into chemical hazard groups. Transportation must follow dangerous good legislation. Chemicals should not be stored or handled more than is absolutely necessary. Keep only chemicals that are required for evidence. Accurately label all samples. Have qualified personnel destroy the rest. Store incompatible chemicals in separate rooms where possible. Use explosion proof, fireproof cabinets to store chemicals. Store acids in an acid resistant cabinet marked "CORROSIVE" Store bases in a cabinet to exclude water and moisture. Oxidizers are stored in a cabinet with a non-combustible interior, marked "OXIDIZERS". Other compounds can be stored together.

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Have proper safety equipment available. Use common sense. Read labels Never mix chemicals. Use partner rule.

MARKINGS ON CONTAINERS: Red Diamond White Diamond Yellow Diamond Poison = = = = Flammable Corrosive. Flammable solid, oxidizing agent Poison

GAS CYLINDER MARKINGS: (MOVE WITH GREAT CARE!). Red Diamond Green Diamond = = Flammable Gas Non-Flammable Gas.

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117

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INORGANIC ACIDS: 1. Hydrochloric Acid 2. Sulfuric Acid 3. Nitric Acid = = = Blue Cap Yellow Cap Red Cap

PRECAUTIONS WHILE HANDLING: - Cause severe burns of skin. - Do not inhale vapors as they cause irritation of the mucous membrane and eyes. - Wash off with water and Sodium Bicarbonate. - When handling wear gloves, face-shield and have good ventilation. ORGANIC ACIDS: 1. Acetic Acid 2. Phosphoric Acid 3. Perchloric Acid 4. Hydriodic Acid = = = = Brown Cap Clear/White Cap Black Cap (pint bottles) Black Cap (amber glass)

NOTE: The organic acids are less dangerous than the inorganic acids. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACIDS: 1. Evaporate very slowly. 2. Turn litmus paper red. 3. Foams when carbonate powder is added. 4. Acid + Water = Heat 5. When mixing always add acid to water. 6. Burns skin tissue. 7. Chars paper and burns holes in clothes. 8. TEST FOR HYDROCHLORIC ACID: Conc HCl vapors and Conc Ammonia vapors = white vapor. 9. HCl gas can be made from sodium chloride and sulfuric acid and bubble the gas into water.

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BASES: 1. Sodium Hydroxide 2. Potassium Hydroxide 3. Ammonium Hydroxide = = = White Solid Pellets White Solid Pellets Liquid with a Green Cap

PRECAUTIONS WHILE HANDLING BASES: 1. They are corrosive and cause severe burns to the skin. Washing with water just spreads the burn. Therefore must wash with dilute vinegar solution. CHARACTERISTICS OF BASES: 1. Turn litmus paper blue. 2. Solids are usually white and have the appearance of soap. 3. Liquid (ammonia) is a clear colorless liquid with a strong stinging odor. 4. Ammonia can be made by reacting Urea (fertilizer) and sodium hydroxide, and bubble the gas into water. MOST DANGEROUS SOLVENTS: 1. Ethyl Ether or Ether 2. Petroleum Ether 3. Acetone 4. Toluene 5. Methyl Alcohol or Methanol 6. Tetrahydrofuran 7. Methylene Dichloride or Dichloromethane. 8. Benzene 9. Chloroform = = Extremely Flammable = Extremely Flammable = Flammable Flammable = Flammable and Toxic = Flammable and Extremely Toxic = Toxic = = Flammable and Carcinogenic Carcinogenic

COMMON ODORS OF SOLVENTS: ACETONE: Sweet pleasant odor, similar to finger nail polish remover. ETHER: Sweet odor, common hospital odor. ETHYL ACETATE: Pleasant fruit like odor. METHYL ETHYL KETONE: Similar to Acetone. TOLUENE: Gasoline Odor. ALCOHOLS: Usually odorless.

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PROPERTIES OF ETHER: - Highly flammable. - Vapors for explosive mixtures with air. - Toxic if inhaled or absorbed through skin. - If stored for a long time, it forms explosive and shock sensitive peroxides. - Boils at 95 F, the air temperature in hot climates may be above this. PRECAUTIONS WHEN HANDLING ETHER: - Keep away from heat and flames. - Look for white crystals around the lid (peroxides). - Look for a dark liquid at bottom of container (peroxides). - Avoid jarring if peroxides present. - Keep away from oxidizers (potassium permanganate). PROPERTIES OF ACETONE: - Clear liquid with burnt sweet, pungent odor. - Highly flammable. - Vapors for explosive mixtures with air. - Avoid handling near heat. - May dissolve rubber or plastic compounds. - Avoid contact with skin and eyes. - Avoid breathing vapors (if done so may produce a drunken like state). CHARACTERISTICS OF OXIDIZERS: POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE: It is a purple solid that can come in a fine powder to solid chunks. It is odorless and turns brown on paper when exposed to air. It dissolves readily in water giving a purple solution. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE: It is a colorless unstable liquid that is caustic to the skin. It will spontaneously ignite flammable material in undiluted form. MOST DANGEROUS LABORATORIES: CHEMICALS FOUND IN CLANDESTINE

1. LITHIUM ALUMINIUM HYDRIDE: It is used in the manufacture of Methamphetamine, Amphetamine, Mescaline, and D.M.T. It reacts violently with water liberating Hydrogen Gas that may ignite and explode. Store in moisture proof containers. Do not come in contact with the skin. Methanol and Ethanol both contain water and therefore do not use these solvents with it. Vitride is replacing it - it is more stable,

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however treat with the same caution. Destroy very carefully with Ether saturated with water! 2. OXALYL CHLORIDE: It is used in the manufacture of Dimethyl Tryptamine. It is highly toxic and very corrosive. It can be neutralized with baking soda (Sodium Bicarbonate). 3. GRIGNARD REAGENT: It is used in the manufacture of Phencyclidine. It is similar to Lithium Aluminium Hydride. Therefore do not allow coming in contact with moisture or alcohols. 4. O-TOLUIDINE: It is used in the manufacture of Methaqualone. It is extremely flammable and highly toxic. It can be absorbed through the skin or inhaled. 5. SODIUM (POTASSIUM) CYANIDE: It is used in the manufacture of Phencyclidine (PCP). On contact with acids Hydrogen Cyanide Gas is released. When using have the room well ventilated. 6. DIMETHYL SULFATE: It is used in the manufacture of Mescaline. It causes intense irritation several hours after exposure, and death occurs in 3 to 4 painful days. 7. ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE: It is used in the manufacture of P-2-P. It is a white powder that reacts with water to form HCl gas. 8. CHLOROACETONE: It is used in the manufacture of P-2-P. It is very irritating to the mucous membrane. 9. RAINEY NICKEL: It is used in many chemical reactions. It ignites on contact with air when dry. Therefore you must keep it wet. 10. PHOSPHOROUS OXYCHLORIDE (TRICHLORIDE). It is used in the manufacture of Methaqualone. It is highly toxic and corrosive to the respiratory tract. PROPERTIES OF ACETIC ANHYDRIDE AND ACETYL CHLORIDE: They have a strong odour of vinegar. It is incompatible with the following compounds: acids, bases, moisture, alcohol, oxidizing and reducing agents. It has the following toxicity: destructive to tissues of the mucous membrane, upper respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Inhalation may be fatal. The symptoms of exposure are as follows: burning sensation, coughing, wheezing and laryngitis. The first aid treatment is flush with water. IT HAS A HEALTH RATING AND FLAMMABILITY RATING OF 2. POTENTIAL EXPLOSIVE COMBINATIONS OF SOME COMMON REAGENTS FOUND IN A COCAINE LAB: 1. Acetone + Chloroform in the presence of bases (ammonium hydroxide).

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2. Ammonia + Chlorine, Bromine or Iodine. 3. Diethyl Ether + Chlorine. 4. Ethanol + Calcium Hypochlorite. OTHER INCOMPATIBLE CHEMICALS: CHEMICAL Acetic Acid Alkaline Metals Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonium Nitrates Flammable Liquids Hydrogen Peroxide Potassium Permanganate KEEP OUT OF CONTACT WITH Nitric Acid, Hydroxyl Compounds, Perchloric Acid, Permanganate. Water, Chlorinate Hydrocarbons. (aluminum, magnesium, sodium, potassium) Calcium Hypochlorite, Iodine, Bromine, Acids, Chlorates, Flammable Liquids, Combustible Material. Ammonium Nitrate, Chromic Acid, Hydrogen Peroxide, Nitric Acid, Any Combustible Material. Glycerin, Ethylene Glycol, sulfuric Acid

DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL: RECYCLING: 1. Recycle unused chemicals at Universities and School Laboratories. 2. Give to Industrial Plants: - Oil Industry - Paint - Pharmaceutical Industry - Agricultural - Cosmetic - Printing - Fertilizer Plants - Perfume Industry - Building Industry Pulp and Paper Industry Rubber Industry Refrigeration Plants Plastic Industry Munition Plants Dye Industry Soap Industry Pottery Industry Glass Manufacturing

3. Give to Reputable Chemical Laboratories: - Private

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- Government - Industrial INCINERATION: CHEMICAL Acetone Benzene N-Butyl Acetate 2-Butyl Acetate 2-Butyl Alcohol Carbon Disulfide Cyclohexane Diacetone Alcohol Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl Ether Hexane Isobutyl Alcohol Isopropyl Alcohol Kerosene Methyl Alcohol Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Petroleum Ether Toluene Xylenes H 1 2 F 3 3 R 0

1 0 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 1

3 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 4 3

0 1 0 0 0 0

MIX WITH COMBUSTIBLE SOLVENT AND INCINERATE: CHEMICAL Chloroform Methylene Chloride Oxalic Acid Potassium Carbonate Trichloroethylene Urea. H 2 2 F 3 R

DILUTE WITH WATER, ADJUST TO NEUTRAL pH, FLUSH DOWN DRAIN: CHEMICAL Ammonium Hydroxide H F R

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Hydrochloric Acid Potassium Hydroxide Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Carbonate Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Sulfate Sulfuric Acid Note: rating H = health rating

3 3 3 3 F = flammability rating

0 0 0

1 1 2 R = reactivity

(NEUTRALIZATION MAY CAUSE HEAT, USE EXTREME CAUTION!) SPECIAL PROCEDURES: Acidify to pH 2 with Sulfuric Acid and add 50% excess of aqueous Sodium Bisulfite. The temperature will start to increase, if not add more Sodium Bisulfite. Adjust pH to 7 and flush down drain. CHEMICAL Calcium Hydroxide Hydrogen Peroxide Potassium Permanganate BURY IN LANDFILL SITE: CHEMICAL Calcium Oxide DISPOSAL OF ETHER AND ACETONE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Recycle if new Waste Hauler Up to 4 litres may be evaporates Larger volumes may be incinerated - must dilute with a less volatile liquid (see procedure for trench incineration) Must test ether for peroxide H F R H 2 1 F R

TESTS FOR PEROXIDES: To 1 ml. of substance to be tested, add 100 mg of sodium iodide in 11 ml of glacial acetic acid.

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YELLOW COLOUR BROWN COLOUR

= =

Low concentration of peroxides. High concentration of peroxides.

You can also use commercially available test papers. REMOVAL OF PEROXIDES FOR SAFE DISPOSAL OR TRANSPORTATION: 1. Add 10 ml of a 5% Ferrous Sulfate Solution. or 2. Add 6 grams of Ferrous Sulfate (hydrated) and 6 mls. of concentrated Sulfuric Acid in 11 ml of water. or 3. Add 3.5 grams of Sodium Iodide in 70 ml. of Glacial Acetic Acid. (TEST DIETHYL ETHER AND METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE EVERY 6 MONTHS.) TRENCH INCINERATION: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select a suitable site. Low spot with elevation up wind. Prepare trench. If possible use 45 gallon drums, if not dig a trench and clear burnable material. Pour liquid in trench (use safety equipment!) Ignite the material, using flare, long wick, blasting cap, etc. Observe the burn at all time. Make sure fire is out before leaving area.

PROCEDURE FOR DILUTION AND NEUTRALIZATION OF ACIDS AND BASES: LARGE QUANTITIES: 1. 2. Dilute concentrated acids with water 10:1, dilute acids are less dangerous. Select a basic material (sodium, potassium or calcium bicarbonate, or limestone). Strong bases, sodium, potassium, or ammonium hydroxide must also be dilute 10:1 with water before use.

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3. 4. 5. 6.

Neutralization Procedure: Add dilute acid to a solution selected on #2, add slowly, watch for build up of heat and always check the pH. Continue the process until a pH of 6-8 is obtained. Dilute the solution further with water 10:1. Dispose of in trench and fill in.

SMALL QUANTITIES: 1. 2. Dilute 1 gallon with 100 gallons of water. If pH not 6-8 dilute a further 1:10 with water. Dispose of in trench, ground or fast running stream.

DISPOSAL OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE: 1. 2. 3. 4. Dissolve 450 grams (1 lb.) in 8 liters of water. Prepare a trench, at least 50 feet away from flammable trenches. Place green leafy material in trench. Do not use dry or combustible material. Pour solution into trench as follows: - small amount at a time. - must change color from purple to brown. - heat may be generated, be careful. - Adjust pouring rate so it all turns brown. Observe the reaction: - You may have to add more green leafy material. - Watch for the disappearance of the purple color (The reaction is over). Add water to the trench, if purple in color, add more leafymaterial. Refill the trench with dirt when finished.
8. A dilute solution of Sodium bisulfate will neutralize a solution of Potassium Permanganate.

5.

6. 7.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE TOXICITY: 1. The Chemical: -Composition -Concentration -Properties -Interactions

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2. Exposure: -Route -Quantity -Time 3. The Individual: -Age -State of Health 4. The Environment: -Chemical Interactions -Environmental Conditions

-Duration -Number of Exposures

-Sex

TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHEMICALS: 1. CYANIDES:

Solid cyanides in contact with acid release Hydrogen Cyanide Gas, which is responsible for the toxic effects. - respiratory failure - coma and possibly death 2. IRRITANTS AND CORROSIVES: - lacrimation - corneal damage - lung irritation - shortness of breath - coughing up blood -skin irritation -severe burns - dizziness - anxiety

Volatile Vapors: - eye irritation - conjunctivitis

Inhalation: - irritation of nose and throat - chest pain - pulmonary edema - chronic lung disease. High Concentration Contact with Skin Other Effects - headache - nausea SPECIFIC IRRITANTS: - Phosphine - Formic Acid

- may explode - Liver and Kidney damage.

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- Tetrahydrofuran and - Perchloric acid 3. SOLVENTS:

- form explosive crystals.

INHALATION: - Mild to severe eye, ear, nose and throat irritation - Symptoms of intoxication, in coordination and - Drowsiness - Loss of consciousness. - Liver and kidney damage - Death CANCER CAUSING SOLVENTS: - Benzene - Carbon Tetrachloride. - O-Toluidine 4. METALS AND SALTS: a. Sodium and Potassium Metal and Sodium and Lithium Hydroxide produce extreme corrosiveness in the presence of moisture. b. Sodium, Potassium and Magnesium metals, and Lithium Aluminum Hydride are extremely reactive with air and water and can ignite or explode. c. Thorium is radioactive. d. Lead or Mercury over-exposure. - nausea and vomiting. - liver and kidney damage. e. Red Phosphorous if contaminated with phosphorous may explode on contact with water, heat or friction. 5. OTHER HAZARDS: a. Fentanyl: a very potent narcotic at low doses. b. MPTP, a by-product of the manufacture of MPPP, causes irreversible parkinsonism. c. Phenyl Acetic Acid is an irritant - Chloroform - Dioxane - Methylene Dichloride

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d. P-2-P, Phenyl acetone, Phenyl-2-Propanone is an irritant. e. Piperidine is an irritant f. Cylcohexanone is an irritant g. Hydrogen Gas is a flammable explosive gas.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Irritation of eyes, ears, nose, throat, skin or respiratory tract producing a burning sensation. Headache, light-headness, dizziness. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Coughing and breathing difficulties Sneezing, Sweating or tearing. Tightness in chest. Changes in skin color or complexion Behavioral changes Irritability Fatigue and or weakness Drooling from mouth.

CHEMICAL FIRST AID ACTION: 1. INHALATION: - remove to fresh air - loosen clothing - maintain airway - avoid unnecessary movements - blow nose if particulate - exposure - lay victim down - call ambulance

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- treat for shock 2. INGESTION: - remove from contaminated area

- monitor pulse and respiration

- if conscious, rinse mouth with water (a). Induce vomiting only if conscious and ingested chemical has been identified and will not cause burning and re-absorption. - loosen clothing - If unconscious - lay victim down - prevent aspiration of vomit - monitor pulse and respiration - treat for shock - call ambulance. 3. SKIN EXPOSURE: - remove from contaminated area. - remove contaminated clothing immediately. - if exposure from acid wash exposed area with sodium bicarbonate. - if exposure from caustics wash with dilute vinegar - if exposure from other chemicals or solvents wash with copious amounts of water. - lay victim down - treat for shock - call ambulance. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HEAT EXHAUSTION, STRESS OR STROKE: - cold clammy skin - confusion - nausea - dizziness, light-headness and fainting - heat rash (localized red skin) - profuse sweating

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- slurred, incoherent speech -convulsions -staggering gate -heat cramps

- weak pulse -hot skin, high temperature (may feel chilled) -unconsciousness -pale, cool ,moist skin

CHRONIC AND REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS FOR PERSONNEL: Little is known about long term health hazards or reproductive risks resulting from exposure to street drugs and precursor chemicals used in clandestine laboratories. Certain precursors, chemicals and drugs have been implicated in lasting disabilities to law enforcement officers. PAP and its' precursors cause neurological disorders to children born to women who were occupationally exposed to or users of PAP. Therefore, extreme precaution must be used at all times. The wearing of protective clothing and equipment is crucial for all workers.

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