Overview on piezoelectric actuators, mechanisms & motors with their related driving electronics: Technology & Applications

Topics overview
1 / Piezo materials for actuators
1.1/ Piezo theory & properties 1.2/ Multilayer ceramic 1.2.1 /current properties, trends, perspectives, 1.2.2 / Reliability aspects,

4 / How to choose an actuator & its related electronics ?
4.1 Exercises 4.2 Demonstration

5/ Piezomotors
5.1 / Inchworm and Inertial step motors 5.2 / Resonant structure 5.2.1 / example of motors 5.2.1 / modelling techniques 5.3 / Tribology of piezo motors 5.4 / Driving of piezo motors

2 / Piezo actuators & mechanisms
leveraged piezo actuators, 2.2/ Piezo mechanisms,

2.1/ Internally & externally

3 / Driving and control of piezo actuators
3.1 / Basic of amplifiers 3.2 / Static & Dynamic conditions
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6 / Applications & references

1 Day Piezo Training 2010

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Piezoelectricity Theory & Properties

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1 Day Piezo Training 2010

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Piezoelectricity : an overview
Materials aspects Equations Materials constants Technological aspects Illustrative example Electromechanical analogy

Piezo electric ceramics & magnetostrictive alloys
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Various effects in materials

Charge current Electrical field Magnetic field Stress Heat Light Permittivity Conductivity Mag-electric effect

Magnetisation Elec-mag effect Permeability

Strain

Temperature

Light Optic

Inverse piezo Elec. Caloric Elec. effect effect effect Magnetostriction Elastic constant Thermal expansion Photostriction Mag.caloric effect _ Specific heat _

Mag.optic effect Photoelastic effect _ Refractive effect

Direct Piezo- Direct Piezoelectric effect magnetic effect (biased mat.) Pyroelectric _ effect Photovoltaic effect _

"Smart" materials refer to materials having a non - diagonal effect (sensing or actuating functions).

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1 Day Piezo Training 2010

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1mm = 100µm E L δL 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 6 .Active strains of active materials Applying a field (E or H) on an free sample. S = 1000ppm => u = δL = 0.1% Stroke : u = δL = S . L Example : L = 100mm. it deforms Small deformation in the elastic domain Strain = relative expansion : S = δL / L Expansion = positive strain / Contraction = negative strains Units : ppm= 10-6 or % = 10-2 Typical active free strains are S= 1000ppm = 0.

F / A Compression is positive stress . Traction is negative stress Units : MPa = N /mm2 Typical active blocked stresses are T= 20MPa = 20 N /mm2 Ex.4 MPa with B=1T -F F A 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 7 . A = 1cm² . T = 20MPa => F = 2000N = 2kN Stress from electromagnets T = B²/2µo = 0.Active stress of active materials Blocked Stress of active materials Stress = force par unit of surface : T = .

300 + 1 250 +. Shape Mem.0.5 8.Active materials properties Active materials offer small strains (ie small displacement) & high forces density compared with electromagnetic actuators Field E Field / H Field E (MV/m) H (MA/m) Piezo-electrics Bulk PZT .5 + .0.70 +.2.6 7.0 Strain (ppm) Stress (MPa) Young’s modulus (Gpa) Coupling factor (%) Relative permitivity / permeability Curie temp.15 + 40 72 66 48 30 67 70 75 70 425 1300 3400 2100 350 325 195 180 7.5 +.7 7. NiMnGa H + 0.4 Bulk PZT .16 + 1 800 + 50 25 70 4 380 9.1 E E E E +. (°C) Density (kg/m3) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 8 .5 +.5 MLA Magnetostrictives Terfenol-D Mag.6 +.5 + 60 000 (6%) +2 H + 0.150 +.7 Bulk PZT .5 +.10 +.0.

Piezoelectric effects Piezoelectric material = non centro-symmetric crystal below the Curie temperature d: piezo coefficient E: Electrical field S: Strain. D: Electric displacement T: Stress D ~dT Direct effect: sensing S ~dE Inverse effect: actuation Courtesy of APC 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 9 .

E: electric field Pyroelectricity & electrostriction are disturbing effects on piezoelectric response Actually. piezo strain combines all effects in a more or less extend : S = d E + M E2 + α ∆T 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 10 . p: pyroelectric coefficient Pure electrostrictive material = non piezoelectric material => S = M E2 = Q P2 M & Q: cofficients of electrostriction.Pyroelectricity & Electrostriction Pyroelectric material = piezoelectric + polar material => ∆P = p ∆T P: Polarisation. S: strain. T: Temperature.

Std 80°C but 150°C on request 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 11 . A poling process gives the material its remanent polarization. During the poling process. it’s no longer piezoelectric but it can be repoled again in some conditions. the material is subjected to a high electric field at the Curie temperature.Ferroelectric materials PZT “lead Titanium –Zirconate”: Ferroelectric material under the Curie temperature. If the material is subjected to a temperature that is greater than its Curie point.

Ferroelectric materials Origin of poling in ferroelectric materials : Crystal structure. Characteristic of a ferroelectric material : high relative permittivity D = ε0 E + P = ε . + & . Ferroelectric = material whose direction of poling can be reversed by an electric field. ε0 E D : electric displacement . even if E = 0. ε : relative permittivity 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 12 . P : polarization .charge centres may not coincide.

Interpretation of poling in PZT crystal structures Perovskite structure in PZT Different shapes of the crystal structure Sub solidus phase diagram of PZT Ceramics (B. Noheda & al) Courtesy of Tokin 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 13 .

Intrinsic / Extrinsic piezoelectricity Intrinsic piezoelectric effect : strain of the crystal lattice Extrinsic piezoelectric effect : domain reorientation => Hysteresis 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 14 .

Hysteresis butterfly cycle Courtesy of Tokin Repoling process in the domains 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 15 .

Piezo ceramic vs Single Crystal PZT Piezo ceramics Industrial materials produced by sintering of powder Compatible with multilayer technique to get low voltages Linear strain response Single crystals New material obtained by crystal growth Large strains with large E-field Not compatible with multilayer so need large voltages Non linear (electrostrictive contribution) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 16 .

in oil for hard type. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 17 . PbO. 120°C.type. …) Poling operation : room temp.Piezo ceramics : Manufacturing process of bulk materials Mixing oxyde powders Zr02. with a binder Sintering at high temperature (1200°C). / 2 kV/mm for soft . 5 kV/mm. Ti02. PVD. Cutting & Grinding at the correct size. External electrodes deposition (Screen printing.

n = 1. .General constitutive law of piezoelectric body No electrostriction & pyroelectric effects Choosing T and E as independent variables Sα = S : Strain E sαβ Tβ + d nα E n T ε mn D m = d mβ Tβ + T : Stress En α.. 6 m.. 2. β = 1.. 3 E : Field 3 6 P 4 5 1 2 D : Induction sE : Compliances at constant field d : Piezoelectric strains per unit of field eT : Permittivity at constant stress 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 18 .

Constitutive law of PZT ceramics PTZ ceramic : 6 mm class E ⎡s11 ⎡ S1 ⎤ ⎢ E ⎢S ⎥ ⎢s12 ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ E ⎢S 3 ⎥ ⎢s13 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 S4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢S 5 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ + ⎢S 6 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢D1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢D ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢D 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ d 31 ⎣ 04/06/2010 E E s12 s13 0 0 0 E E s11 s13 0 0 0 E E s13 s 33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 E s 44 0 0 0 sE 0 44 E 0 0 s 66 0 d 15 0 d 15 0 0 0 0 d 31 d 33 0 0 0 d 31 ⎤ ⎡ T1 ⎤ ⎥ 0 0 d 31 ⎥ ⎢T ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎥ 0 0 d 33 ⎥ ⎢ T3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 d 15 0 ⎥ ⎢ T4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ T5 ⎥ d 15 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ T6 ⎥ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ T ⎢E1 ⎥ ε 11 0 0 ⎥ ⎢E ⎥ ⎥ T ⎢ 2⎥ 0 ε 11 0 ⎥ ⎢E 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T 0 0 ε 33 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 19 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 .

Electromechanical coupling effect Materials show 3 coupled deformation due to non-zero coefficients d33 d31 d15 3 6 P 4 5 1 2 33 : Longitudinal mode In static : S3=d33 E3 04/06/2010 31 : Transverse mode In static : S1=d31 E3 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 15 : Shear mode In static : S5=d15 E1 20 .

Electromechanical coupling effect Materials properties are characterised by intrinsic coupling coefficients Longitudinal coupling factor k33 Transverse coupling factor k31 Shear coupling factor k15 k332 = d332 / s33E ε33T k312 = d312 / s11E ε33T k152 = d152 / s44E ε11T 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 21 .

Um 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 22 .U2 In an electromechanical device Uem = Mutual Electromecanical Energy Ue = Electrical Energy Um = Mecanical Energy kem2 = Uem2 / Ue .Electromechanical coupling effect Meaning of the coupling coefficient: Coupled energies in a usual magnetic transformer U12 = Mutual Energy U1 = Energy in the Primary U2 = Energy in the Secondary Transformer coupling factor k2 = U122 / U1 .

2002) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 23 .Physical properties of piezo materials Courtesy of Nava Seter (ABC of piezoelectricity. Interlaken conference. feb.

Constitutive law of PZT ceramics Simplification for a length . T3 + ε 33 E 3 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 24 . D1 = D 2 = 0 . S 4 = S5 = S6 = 0 E S1 = S2 = s13 . T3 + d 31 E 3 E S3 = s33 .expansion mode (33-mode) 3 T1 = T2 = T4 = T5 = T6 = 0 E1 = E 2 = 0 . T3 + d 33 E 3 T D 3 = d 33 .

T3 V = L . S 3 F = − A .expansion bar (33-mode) A : active area L : active length A { U1 0 0 L U2 + V E k E = A / s 33 L N = d 33 . k E T C T = ε 33 .F + E . E3 Q = A .Laws of Piezo actuators Simplification for a length .V k ∆u =− 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 25 . A / L ∆u = u 2 − u 1 = L . D3 1 N .V kE k N Q = − E .F + C T .

Laws of Piezo actuators Simplification for a length .expansion bar (33-mode) A { U1 0 0 L U2 + V S1 = S2 S3 D 3 = = = E s13 E s 33 . T3 + + d 31 d 33 T ε 33 E3 E3 E3 k332 = d332 / s33E ε33T = N2/kE. F + CT . V k k N . F + E E . T3 .CT d 33 . T3 + N 1 . V Q = − k ∆u = − 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 26 .

V Q = N ∆u +C S .∆u + N.V NV k F NV 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 27 .Laws of Piezo actuators Generalisation u k2 eff Cs N2 = CTk E = C T (1 − k 2 ) eff F =− k E .

Laws of Piezo actuators Generalisation – Characteristic curve of a piezo actuator ∆ u max = NV/K = Max Displacement @ V Stroke ∆ u max If V = Vmax = 150 V => ∆ u max is the max stroke ∆u = (NV-F)/K V=150V V=50V Slope 1/K = elasticity Force Fb NV = Max Force without displacement @ V If V = Vmax = 150 V => Max Force = Blocked Force (Fb) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 28 .

Additional effects in static applications Hysteresis: 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 29 .

00 40.00 0 200 400 600 800 Time (s) 1000 1200 1400 1600 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 30 .00 Displacement (µm) 100.00 120.00 80.Additional effects in static applications Creep effect: Actuator's displacement (µm) .Record of the creep effect using a capacitive displacement sensor 140.00 20.00 0.00 60.

Additional effects in static applications Displacement with load: 2 cases Stiffness Gravity May be accounted in equivalent circuits (b) (a) (c) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 31 .

Application parameters that influence the piezo actuators Spring Gravity Displacement Displacement Spring stiffness No-load charac. curve Working point Load characteristics Shifted curve Force Force 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 32 .

Additional effects in static applications Displacement with load: 2 cases 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 33 .

Equivalent circuit Equivalent electromechanical circuit : Dynamic aspects ∆v = v 2 − v 1 = I = jω Q c = 1/ k I C V s Current j ω∆ u speed 1 F = − ∆v + N V jω c I = N ∆ v + jω C s V CS = Blocked capacitance E Motional capacitance = 1/ Stiffness c ∆v NV 1:N F Electrical Branch 04/06/2010 Motional Branch 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 34 .Laws of Piezo actuators .

Electro-mechanical analogy Symbol Electric Mechanics Symbol C Capacitance Elasticity e = 1/k (k=stiffness) L Inductance Mass M R Resistance Damping rm u Q Electrical charge Displacement I = dQ/dt = jω.u V Potential Force F 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 35 .Q Current Speed V = du/dt = jω.

Equivalent circuits & related data Same equivalent circuit but …: Boundaries conditions Free-free configuration: The same mass each side of the piezo actuator: The stroke is divided by 2 and the resonant frequency is higher. The actuator generates force when voltage is applied. Blocked-Blocked configuration: the piezo actuator is rigidly fixed on each side. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 36 . Blocked-free configuration: Blocked on the back side of the actuator the stroke in the front is the full stroke & the frequency is lower than the free free configuration.

Losses in equivalent circuit Dielectric Losses Dielectric loss angle : tg d => Ro Mechanical losses Mechanical quality factor : Qm => rm I C Ro s c rm ∆v V NV 1: N F 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 37 .

Blocked side : v1 = 0 Free side. with M1 and M2 Equivalent mass M = M1 .M. M2 / (M1 + M2) I C Ro s c rm ∆v M F V NV 1: N 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 38 .Masses in equivalent circuit Masses effect In blocked-free condition.v2 In free-free conditions.ω. loaded with a mass M : F = j.

(1 / j ω c + rm + j ω M ) ∆ v = NV / (1 / j ω c + rm + j ω M ) ∆ v / V = j ω cN / (1 + j ω cr m − ω 2 cM ) ∆ u / V = cN / (1 + j ω cr m − ω 2 cM ) ∆v M F I C Ro s c rm V NV 1:N 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 39 .Transfer functions Vibration speed & displacement vs voltage NV = ∆ v .

Transfer functions Vibration speed & displacement vs voltage Mechanical resonance frequency & Mode quality factor : ωr = 1 cM = kE M 1 kE = Q = ω r cr m ω r rm ∆ v / V = j ω cN / (1 + j ω / Q ω r − ( ω / ω r ) 2 ) ∆ u / V = cN / (1 + j ω / Q ω r − ( ω / ω r ) 2 ) I C Ro s c rm ∆v M F V NV 1:N 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 40 .

( ∆ u / V ) ω = 0 At high frequency : Blocked force F /V = N I C Ro s c rm ∆v M F V NV 1:N 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 41 .Transfer functions Vibration speed & displacement vs voltage At low frequency : Free displacement ∆ u / V = cN ∆ v / V = j ω cN ∆ v / V = Q ω r cN At resonance : Amplified displacements ∆ u / V = QcN = Q .

V Resonance f = fr fr = 1/2pi (k/M)0. uLF 3dB Bandwidth : df / Qm = fr /df High Frequency f >> fr Mass opposing force = ‘Blocked’ force : FHF= N.Equivalent circuit & associated data Example APA200M+Mass M=40gr (Blocked-Free) Low Frequency f << fr No opposing force from the Mass ‘Free’ displacement : uLF = N/k. Quality factor Displacement : uRes = Qm.V 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 42 . N/k.5 Amplification by Qm : Mec. V = Qm.

Qm = 10 fr = 1/2pi (k/M)0. : uRes = Qm.32N/µm .Equivalent circuit & associated data Example APA200M+Mass=40gr (Blocked Free) Low Frequency f << fr ‘Free’ disp.43N/V High Frequency f >> fr 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 43 .4kHz Displ. : uLF = N/k. M=0. uLF => uRes/V= 13µm/V 3dB Bandwidth : df = fr / Qm => df = 40 Hz ‘Blocked’ force : FHF= N.V => FHF/ V = N F=73N@150V => FHF/ V = N = 0.V => uLF/V= N/k u=230µm@V=150V => uLF/V= 1.3µm/V Resonance f = fr k=0.04kg .5 => fr = 0.

00 Mod(u) [µm/V] Phase(u) [°] -80 -100 -120 -140 f < fr/3 uLF/V = N/k 0.900 © Cedrat Technologies .00 -160 2.000 fr 0. [µm/V] 16.F.00 14.100 0.) / displacement per volt vs freq.00 6.Equivalent circuit & associated data APA200M+Mass=40gr (B.300 0.600 Frequency [kHz] 0.00 8.700 0.00 0.200 0.00 Displacement generation [°] 0 -20 -40 Controllable displacement : Displ.00 4. Amplitude & Phase = Constant if : 12.400 0.33 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 44 .COMPACT v4.800 -180 -200 0.500 0.00 -60 10.

100 0.33 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 45 .400 0.800 -180 -200 0. N/k 14.00 0.300 0.Equivalent circuit & associated data APA200M+Mass=40gr (B.COMPACT v4.600 Frequency [kHz] 0.200 0.000 fr 0.00 6.00 8.00 [°] ures/V = Qm.00 0.900 © Cedrat Technologies .500 0. [µm/V] 16.00 Vibration generation 0 -20 -40 Qm Mod(u) [µm/V] Phase(u) [°] -60 -80 -100 -120 -140 -160 uLF/V = N/k 2.) / displacement per volt vs freq.00 4.00 Vibrations : Non Controllable displacements (Phase varies) Amplitudes are amplified by Qm 12.00 10.700 0.F.

4000 0.F.0 Phase [°] 0.8000 Frequency [kHz] © Cedrat Technologies .Equivalent circuit & associated data APA200M+Mass=40gr (B.0 0.9000 fr 0.0 20.3000 0.00 Vibration generation Vibrations : Controllable Speed Amplitude 3dB Bandwidth : df = fr / Qm 30.00 Phase(v) [°] df = fr / Qm -100.00 -160.) / speed per volt vs freq.0 35.1000 0.00 -80.00 -40.0 15.00 -140.0 Mod(v1) [mm/s/V] 25.COMPACT v4. Mod(v) [mm/s/V] 40.2000 0.0 0.33 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 46 .00 -120.0 5.7000 0.5000 0.00 -20.00 0.6000 0.00 -180.0 10.0000 -60.

0 3.7000 0.0 Mod(Fa) [N/V] FHF/V = N = force factor 0.5 1.F.Equivalent circuit & associated data APA200M+Mass=40gr (B.0 0.6000 Frequency [kHz] 0.4000 0.5 2.3000 0. 5.9000 © Cedrat Technologies .5000 0.COMPACT v4.) / Force per volt vs freq.8000 0.2000 0.33 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 47 .5 fr Force [N/V] 3.0 4.5 4.1000 0.0 1.5 Dynamic Force generation Controllable Dynamic Forces Force Amplitude & Phase = Constant if f >1.0 2.5 0.0000 fr 0.

N 2 Motional resistance Motional inductance R m = rm / N Lm = M / N 2 2 I im Cm Rm Lm V C Ro s 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 48 .Admittance from equivalent circuit Transferring motion branch in the electrical branch Motional capacitance Cm = c .

5000 Frequency [kHz] -20 0.00E-02 1.0000 80 Mod(Y) [S] Phase(Y) [°] 60 CS CT 40 20 0 fr 0.Equivalent circuit & associated data APA200M+Mass=40gr (B.00E-03 2.) / Admittance vs frequency [S] 2.00E-03 0.00E-03 4.COMPACT v4.00E+00 0.9000 © Cedrat Technologies .80E-02 [°] 100 Free capa. : CT Blocked capa.2000 0.F.7000 0.60E-02 1.40E-02 1.00E-03 6.8000 0.20E-02 1.00E-02 8. : CS Motion Cap : Cm Cm=CT-CS Effective coupling keff2 = 1 .fr2/fa2 =1-CS/CT 1.4000 0.1000 0.33 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 49 .6000 0.3000 fa 0.

fr2/fa2 = Cm / (Cm+Cs) Electrical Resonance frequency : fr2 = (1/4π2) k/m = (1/4π2) / CmLm Electrical Antiresonance frequency : fa2 = (1/4π2) [(Cs+Cm)/LmCsCm] Mechanical quality factor : Qm = 1/(2πfrCmRm) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 50 .Equivalent circuits & related data Effective coupling coefficient : keff2 = 1 .

Equivalent circuit & associated data 3 Frequency regions Low frequency f < fr/3 Positioning applications Fast actuation: injection valves. shutters … Resonance f = fr Sonic and ultrasonic transducers Acoustic generators … High frequency f> fr Structure exciters in health monitoring Proof mass dampers … 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 51 .

Equivalent circuit & associated data Displacement Transient response for a step voltage Overshot effects & Stabilisation time => Dynamic effects occur even on static applications => High fr and low Q is better for static applications Step response T = 1 / fr Tmin (open loop) = T/4 Tmin (Closed loop) = T/3 2 u / u0 1 High Q Low Q 1/4 0 0 1 2 3 4 t/T 5 6 7 8 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 52 .

Additional effects in dynamic applications Multiple vibration modes Multi modes electromechanical model: Voltage Speed 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 53 .

Electromechanical transduction means a «strong» coupling effect. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 54 . A common basis for piezoactive actuators description. widely used in measurements.Electromechanical circuits : summary Lumped representation. switching electronic design. semi active control. Basic representation.

d. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 55 .ε).Conclusion Piezoelectricity : strong electromechanical coupling effect. Wide use of the electromechanical analogy. The materials are characterised through 3 types of constants (s. An electrical scheme can be derived for simple cases and measured.

Piezoelectric Multi-layer Ceramics 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 56 .

failure modes Future of MLA 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 57 .Introduction Basic architecture Process Internal & external electrodes Behaviour.

Bulk Piezoelectric Stack Structure Assembled stack made of thick piezo plates & external electrodes electrically connected in parallel with alternative poling and electrodes + - P P P P E E E E 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 58 .

Piezoelectric multilayer actuators Structure Monolithic Stack made of thin piezo layers & internal electrode electrically connected in parallel with alternative poling and electrodes & external electrodes P P E E S S 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 59 .

Sintering operation.Piezoelectric Multilayer actuator : technological aspects Green tape (mixture of oxydes (Zr02. Ti02. Pb0) with an organic binder). grinding at the correct size. stacking). Cutting. Insulation. Indexing and screen printing of internal electrodes. External electrodes deposition. Poling operation. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 60 . Laminating operation (tape.

Bulk Piezo Ceramic: Manufacturing process 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 61 .

Piezo Multilayer actuator : Manufacturing process Courtesy of Ceramtec 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 62 .

Nickel.20 %). Copper Palladium Platinium 850°C 1150°C 1250°C 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 63 .Piezo Multilayer components : technological aspects Technical difficulties : compatibility between the internal electrodes material and the sintering operation. shrinking during sintering (15 .

Piezoelectric multilayer actuators : internal & external electrodes Internal and external electrodes influence the materials properties . example of electrodes configurations : 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 64 .

thermal mismatch.Piezoelectric multilayer actuators : internal & external electrodes Fully open internal electrodes : indexing operation. on the external electrodes) is tricky. capability to deal with several sizes are easy. patented by Tokin (J). external insulation (esp. subjected to ion migration. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 65 .

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 66 . need for an insulating coating. indexing operation is medium.Piezoelectric multilayer actuators : internal & external electrodes Semi-open internal electrodes : thermal mismatch is medium. subjected to ion migration.

no needs for external insulation coating. non poled ceramic tends to clamp the component. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 67 . current density is limited.Piezoelectric multilayer actuators : internal & external electrodes Buried internal electrodes thermal mismatch & stress relieving are tricky.

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 68 . 1st special geometry patented by Siemens (D). performances depend on the clamped region.Piezoelectric multilayer actuators : internal & external electrodes Special design internal electrodes : claimed advantage : stress relieving during the sintering operation is easier.

subjected to fatigue effects. Ni-Au electro-deposited + Pb-Ag solder : better behaviour. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 69 . patented by Ceramtec (D). subjected to failures with thermal shocks. Ni-Au electro-deposited + brazed mesh : good fatigue behaviour.Piezoelectric multilayer components : technologies for external electrodes Sputtered Ag-Pd external electrodes : bad solderability.

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 70 .. humidity.Coating technologies Required dielectric strength : 80 kV/mm. . … Easiness of application (viscosity. ageing. Stability of the electrical insulation with temperature. Relative independence of the elastic behaviour with temperature.). … Compatibility with aggressive media.

not necessarily commercially available.type material (PZT4) may give 2000 ppm when driven at the mechanical resonance : subjected to high cost of the internal electrodes. Hard .5 . 1300 ppm @ 1. On-going development of PZT5A materials : high Curie Temp.2 kV/mm. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 71 .1300 ppm @ 1.5 . (300 °C).2 kV/mm.Functional performances Standard materials (PZT5H) gives 1000 .

Functional performances Static strain level Dielectric losses CTE Drift Hysteresis 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 72 .

crack propagation. Ag+ ion migration under humidity combined with high DC field. Electrical breakdown is the most current problem : loss of insulation (failure in the coating due to humidity or excessive temperature).FMECA analysis Process errors are expected to be discovered at the poling operation or through an over. Mechanical failure is often meet in dynamic conditions Piezo ceramic are fragile in tensional forces See Prestressed-actuator section 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 73 . excessive stresses.voltage test.

continuous 101 cycles 109 cycles 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 74 .MLA tested in APA : Lifetime tests 1010 cycles are achieved on a APA200M-NM ! Prestressed Actuator Test conditions : 0-150 V @ 625 Hz.

6 0.MLA tested in APA : Lifetime tests Electrical admittance evolution vs number of cycles.7 0.3 -20 0. Admittance (S) 0.2 0.8 0.5 Cyclage APA200M Phase(°) 100 80 60 40 20 Mag 0 [S] Mag 1e6 [S] Mag 1e7 [S] Mag 1e8 [S] Mag 1e9 [S] Phase 0 [°] Phase 1e6 [°] Phase 1e7 [°] Phase 1e8 [°] Phase 1e9 [°] 0.4 0 0.1 0 3300 -40 -60 -80 3900 3400 3500 3600 f( Hz) 3700 3800 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 75 .

MLA tested in APA : Lifetime tests Fatigue effects of the external electrodes after 4 109 cycles 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 76 .

Leakage current test under high humidity Electrical DC field under humidity ⇒Ion migration ⇒Increase of leakage current ⇒Increase of temperature ⇒Electrical breakdown Current (A) Leakage current test 2. Humidity (%) 0 200 400 600 Time (hours) 800 1000 1200 0.00E+00 -2.00E-03 1.00E+00 1400 -1.20E+02 0.40E-02 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 77 .00E+01 -8.00E-03 APA50S_01011 APA50S_00060 APA50S_00059 PCT1 PCT 2 Failure 4.00E-03 -6.00E-03 8.00E+01 Relative humidity (%) -4.00E-03 -1.00E-02 T1 T2 Failure T3 APA150M_01003 TCMEL Rel.20E-02 -1.

Expertise of failed components. Optical microscope view Acoustic tomography High porosity Void probably after the arc over ? 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 78 .Reliability aspects Arc over is the most important source of failure.

000. Use of the internal electrodes materials as dopants for the PZT material. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 79 . Correct functional behaviour with a low sintering temperature.000 units to 1.Future of MLAs Most advanced factories produce 100. Demonstrating the reliability in a given applications : Arrhenius laws.000 units / year. Hass-halt tests.

Piezoactive actuators : introduction Material properties. Design methodology & Performances. Mechanisms = multi axis actuation Conclusion. Advantages and drawbacks of piezoactive actuators. Conventional mechanical amplifiers. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 80 . internally leveraged actuators externally leveraged actuators Amplified Piezo Actuators = Innovative solutions.

5 +.4 PZT .7 7.0.16 + 0.125 +.15 + 40 72 66 48 30 67 70 75 70 425 1300 3400 2100 350 325 195 180 7.015 +.5 8.18 + 50 25 70 4 380 9.5 +.5 CMA Magnetostrict ives E E E E +.0 Terfenol-D H + 0.0.0.030 + 0. (°C) Densit y (kg/m3 ) (%) (MPa) PZT .Active materials : properties Field E Field / H Field E (MV/m) H (MA/m) Piezoelectrics Strain Stress Young’s modulus (Gpa) Coupling factor (%) Relative permitivity / permeability Curie temp.0.0.5 + .5 +.6 7.0.007 +.7 PZT .1 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 81 .10 +.2.6 +.

5 1.9 3.2 3.8 MULTILAYERED PIEZOELECTRICS MAGNETOSTRICTIVES 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 82 .5 2.2 13.6 8.9 1.7 7.Active properties MATERIALS Optimal Max S-cst Max fieldMax Control dielectric / cst elastic Mechanical dissipated field quality factor magnetic energy energy E electric energy density density H magnetic density on (Qm)opt (Qm) (kJ/m3) (kJ/m3) opt (kJ/m3) Max dissipated energy density on Qm =2 (kJ/m3) MASSIVE PIEZOELECTRICS PZT .8 1.3 19.4 4.4 PZT .4 1.0 26.8 PZT .7 1.0 50.9 0.5 Soft type Hard type TERFENOL-D E E E E E E H 0.7 25.4 19.2 16.6 0.1 9.9 17.5 15.4 14.0 6.0 26.3 13.8 0.3 12.3 0.7 PZT .1 5.0 12.9 2.6 8.

1600 °C 300 300 PC/N 300 Ceramtec SP4 Ferroperm PZ26 Matroc PZT4D Channel 5400 Type 200 Soft PZT 1600 .1100 250 800 250 Ceramtec SP8 Ferroperm PZ28 Matroc PZT8 Channel 5804 Type 600 Very soft PZT 2500 – 4000 180 100 600 Ceramtec SP51 Ferroperm PZ29 Matroc PZT5H Channel 5700 εT33 Tc Qm d33 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 83 .New European classification : example of material Type 100 Property Free relative permittivity Curie Temperature Mechanical quality factor Piezoelectric charge coefficient Example of material Sym bol Unit Hard PZT 1100 .2500 300 100 400 Ceramtec SP5 Ferroperm PZ27 Matroc PZT5A Channel 5500 Type 300 Very hard PZT 800 .

Piezoelectric actuators and mechanisms

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Advantages & drawbacks of piezoelectric actuators
Limited displacements Subjected to fatigue effect (depends on the design) Temperature dependant (Curie temperature)

Fast response Unlimited positioning resolution Large force Non-magnetic operation & no magnetic field generated

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Piezoelectric Multi-Layer Actuators (MLA) History of piezo ceramics
1880 : Quartz (P.Curie) 1922 : Langevin Transducers 1960 : PZT ceramics
∆L/L = 0,3mm/m @ ∆V= 2000V

Structure of a MLA
Piezo layers (PbZrTi) Internal Electrodes (Pt or AgPd) External Electrodes Insulation (Coating or ceramic)

1990 : MLA components
∆L/L = 1,2mm/m @ ∆V=200V

The naked MLA ceramic bar is fragile to tensile force...

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Internally leveraged Actuators (stack) … that is why we pre-stress it to increase its life time
Direct Piezo Actuators Two different prestress
serial parallel

Belleville washers

Piezo stack

DPA30
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Preload / Prestress of Piezo Ceramic
Stress – Strain Diagram
Thanks to an optimum static Preload, the strain is symmetric in traction & in compression The dynamic strain & stress range is symmetric and much more increased than without preload
F/A = Stress Piezo Ceramic is fragile in tensile stress
Elastic limit in traction Dynamic range with preload

S = Strain
Dynamic range without preload Optimum level of static preload / compression pre-stressing force

Elastic limit in compression

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stressed through an external frame. PPA60L 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 89 .Internally leveraged Actuators (stack) Direct piezo actuators can be pre. Stress analysis of the pre-stress frame of the PPA (I-DEAS computation of half the frame) The design of the parallel spring is dependant on the applied prestress.

Pre-load effect .short & open circuit 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 90 .

Internally Leveraged Actuators (bender) Courtesy of Midé (ACX) & CeraNova Quick Pack 10ni 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 91 .

Internally Leveraged Actuators (bender) Courtesy of PI 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 92 .

Courtesy of NOLIAC 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 93 .Internally Leveraged Actuators (bender) Ring Bender CMB-R .

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 94 .Internally Leveraged Actuators (unimorph) Courtesy of Aura Ceramics Inc.

Internally Leveraged Actuators (unimorph) Thunder TH 8-R Courtesy of Face international 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 95 .

Internally Leveraged Actuators (building block) Courtesy of Michigan University & MSI 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 96 .

Externally leveraged actuators (hydraulic amplification) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 97 .

Externally leveraged actuators (lever arm) Use of flexural hinges and pivots Hertzian pivots MLA piezo ceramic Mechanical Efficiency η = (FActuator*uActuator) / (FMLA*uMLA) = 10% flexure pivots 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 98 .

Externally leveraged actuators (flextensional) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 99 .

Externally leveraged actuators (flextensional & others) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 100 .

Amplified piezoelectric actuators magnification of the MLA displacements using an elastic amplifier. optimisation of the overall efficiency Includes a high prestress to get good dynamic properties 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 101 . reduction of the blocked force.

The elastic amplifier is used to prestress the active material.Amplified piezoactive actuators Use of the flextensional principle (uniform distribution of flexure pivots along the shell). 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 102 .

Amplified Piezo Actuators Finite element deformations (ATILA software) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 103 .

Amplified piezo actuators Range of APAs 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 104 .

Amplified piezoactive actuators 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 105 .

Amplified piezoactive actuators Smallest APAs to largest APAs APA 40µXS . APA500XXL 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 106 . APA35XS.

APA static properties APA Deformations APA strain : Sa = ua / h Piezo strain : Sp = up / L ua up/2 up/2 h L 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 107 .

8 4.3 63.9 76% 10.9 2.5 36% Strain amplification factor Force disamplification factor Actuator mechanical efficiency η 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 108 .4 2.2 2.APA static properties APA Deformations APA strain : Sa = ua / h Piezo strain : Sp = up / Lp Actuator data Free displacement Max Blocked force Stiffness Actuator Height Actuator free strain Active material data Length Section No-load strain Blocked stress No-load displacement Blocked force Amplifcation analysis Displac.9 83.1 8.5 0.0 28.0 40% 22.1 1. amplification factor Actuators type APA 120ML µm 130 1 400 10.6 25.9 APA 900M 916 16 0.017 1.25 1000 40 40 1000 4 0.3 ua Fa N N/µm cm h % Sa cm cm2 ppm MPa µm N 6 1 4 0.29 APA 400M 400 40 0.25 1000 40 40 1000 Sp up Fp 1000 40 60 4000 Au As % 2.

25 1000 40 40 1000 Sp up Fp 1000 40 60 4000 Au As % 2.0 40% 22.017 1.9 2.1 8.9 76% 10.9 APA 900M 916 16 0.4 2.2 2.0 28.25 1000 40 40 1000 4 0.3 63.29 APA 400M 400 40 0.5 36% η 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 109 .3 APA amplification Displacement amplification: A d = u a / up Strain amplification: As = Sa / Sp ua Fa N N/µm cm h % Sa Active material data Length Section No-load strain Blocked stress No-load displacement Blocked force Amplifcation analysis Displac.6 25.5 0. amplification factor Strain amplification factor Force disamplification factor Actuator mechanical efficiency cm cm2 ppm MPa µm N 6 1 4 0.APA static properties Actuators type Actuator data Free displacement Max Blocked force Stiffness Actuator Height Actuator free strain µm APA 120ML 130 1 400 10.9 83.1 1.8 4.

8 4.5 36% η 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 110 .0 40% 22.APA static properties Actuators type APA amplification amplification efficiency: η = (ua Fa) / (up Fp) APA 120ML µm 130 1 400 10.2 2. amplification factor Strain amplification factor Force disamplification factor Actuator mechanical efficiency ua Fa N N/µm cm h % Sa cm cm2 ppm MPa µm N 6 1 4 0.5 0.1 1.25 1000 40 40 1000 Sp up Fp 1000 40 60 4000 Au As % 2.017 1.29 APA 400M 400 40 0.0 28.25 1000 40 40 1000 4 0.9 APA 900M 916 16 0.9 2.1 8.9 76% 10.3 Actuator data Free displacement Max Blocked force Stiffness Actuator Height Actuator free strain Active material data Length Section No-load strain Blocked stress No-load displacement Blocked force Amplifcation analysis Displac.9 83.6 25.4 2.3 63.

.. ⇒ No weak point in APAs :No hinges.APA dynamic properties Prestress of Piezo Ceramic : Needed as it cannot bear tensile stress APA stress budget considered at the design : prestress stress : static stresses from the prestress process. elastic pivot. external force stress : stresses due to external vibrations or shock or applied forces. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 111 . actuation stress : stresses produced in the shell when the ceramic is supplied.

75*Re. 20 15 10 5 0 100 Stress >=700MPa Stress >=600MPa Stress <600MPa 56% Eff Curve APA120ML 110 120 Stroke (µm) 130 140 Example of a genetic run for the APA120ML 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 112 .APA static properties APA amplification Stiffness (N/µm) amplification efficiency: η = (ua Fa) / (up Fp) Use of a genetic algorithm with the following objective : free displacement efficiency η as high as possible stresses < 0.

143 36 Performances ratio Free deformation along active axe % Output Energy / actuator volume J/dm3 Output Energy / actuator mass J/kg 0.0 91 1150 0.159 40 200 5.14 0.5 36 120 11.60 PPA90L Actuator Actuator Mass Actuator Height Actuator Volume No-load free displacement Stiffness Blocked force Stored elastic energy Output elastic energy Some CEDRAT products : Standard & customised APA120ML APA230L APA500L APA500L.14 570 0.08 0.91 0.91 0.32 1.07 0.27 0.084 21 275 8.529 132 gr cm cm3 µm N/µm N J mJ 204 13.218 54 600 7.45 0.7 1 400 0.64 1.7 43 90 39 3 510 0.14 0.54 0.Performances comparison Best actuator in 1998 according to US specialists before Cedrat product launching Actuator names P844.18 1.39 778 0.8 920 0.7 1 345 0.14 1.59 0.31 0.9 41 560 1.158 39 155 4.27 0.22 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 113 .28 0.5 48 500 1.134 33 147 10.78 0.7 43 90 33 2 970 0.5 74 236 5.APA750XLSV SV 170 4.16 0.74 0.

including resonance 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 114 .APA dynamic properties APA force limits Ceramic Prestress : typically designed to about half blocked stress of the piezo ceramic force limit at the actuator level Fmax : half the max actuator blocked force Fa : Fmax = Fa/2 This criteria is used to analyse the limitation of the actuator in dynamic conditions.

APA dynamic properties
Prestress of Piezo Ceramic :
Needed as it cannot bear tensile stress

APA stress budget considered at the design :
prestress stress : static stresses from the prestress process. actuation stress : stresses produced in the shell when the ceramic is supplied. external force stress : stresses due to external vibrations or shock or applied forces.

No weak point in APAs :No hinges, elastic pivot..

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APA dynamic properties
APA force limits
Ceramic Prestress : designed to half blocked stress of the piezo ceramic force limite at the actuator level Fmax : half the max actuator blocked force Fa : Fmax = Fa/2

This criteria is used to analyze the limitation of the actuator in dynamic conditions, including resonance

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APA dynamic properties
APA120ML in blocked-free with M=180g & Q=10
Static properties
Free displacement : ua = 130µm @170V Displacement per volt : u/V = 0,76µm/V Blocked force : Fa = 1400N @150V

Dynamic limits
Max voltage : Max dynamic force due to prestress : Vmax = 170Vpp = 85Vp Fmax = 700N

Analysis with COMPACT tool based on eq circuit

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APA dynamic properties
APA120ML in blocked-free with M=180g & Q=10

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APA dynamic properties
APA120ML in blocked-free with M=180g & Q=10

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APA dynamic properties APA120ML in blocked-free with M=180g & Q=10 Voltage limit Force limit 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 120 .

APA dynamic properties APA120ML in blocked-free with M=180g & Q=10 Voltage limit Force limit 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 121 .

APA dynamic properties APA120ML in blocked-free with M=180g & Q=10 Thanks to prestress : Fmax = 700N umax > 120 µm between 0 and 1000Hz If low prestress : Fmax = 70N umax > 100 µm between 0 and 200Hz umax = 15 µm at 1000Hz Prestress allows to get high displacements in a large bandwidth ⇒ Advantage for dynamic applications such as scanning... ⇒ 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 122 . active damping. vibration generators .

Mechanical integration issues Type Quick Pack Bimorph Ring Bender Thunder DPA PPA APA Pre-stress NO NO NO YES YES YES YES Mechanical interfaces for actuator ‘s fixing NO NO NO YES YES (Threaded Hole) YES (TH) YES (TH) Mechanical interfaces for payload ‘s fixing NO NO NO NO YES (TH) YES (TH) YES (TH) Mounting techniques Glue Glue Glue Glue / Screw Glue / Screw Glue / Screw Glue / Screw 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 123 .

10 Optimization of the efficiency using FEM Includes a high prestress to get good dynamic properties 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 124 .Conclusion about APAs Use of Ceramic Multilayer Actuators Use of an elastic amplifier with amplification ratio in the range 2 .

Mechanisms Multi axis actuation 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 125 .

Mechanims At least one active axis : Possibility of several degrees of freedom (dof) Linear motion. combinations Passive axis controlled by guiding Active axis could be geared 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 126 . rotation motion.

XY orthogonal stages Stack of 2 linear stages • slow response time • risk of orthogonality error • No axis runout compensation Monolithic but nested module • No axis run out compensation Monolithic but nested module • Run out & cross talk compensation in closed loop Neither mechanically centred nor thermally compensated Courtesy of PI 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 127 .

[+/-100µm]x[+/-100µm].XY orthogonal stages This stage. is mechanically & electrically centred and thermally compensated Active Control of Position :Symmetric XY stage XY200M 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 128 .

XY micro sanner piezo stage : Improvement of Camera Sensor Resolution Applications Embedded IR cameras > 100 THALES cameras > 400 piezo actuators Future space missions IR cameras / telescopes XY microscanners for improving resolution of Infra Red cameras Push-pull stage based on APA25XS 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 129 .

Piezo Mechanisms with several dof Hexapode HEX100M Tx = Ty = 65 µm.100 µm .1 mrad (+/-) XYZ200M-SG Tx=Ty= +/.7 . Tz = 200 µm 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 130 . Rz= 1. Tz = 57 µm Rx=Ry= 2.

linear stage X60SM Push pull configuration Mechanically & electrically centred Thermally compensated Very low parasitic motions stroke = 60 µm 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 131 .Single axis .

2mrad TT50S Space qualified DTT35XS Courtesy of CNES Pharao project 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 132 . plus a vertical (z) actuation : one rotation: +/.5° two rotations: +/.0.Tilt Mechanisms The tip-tilt mechanisms are the most simple structures that can perform one or two rotations.

11 50. parasitic X Y rotations Voltage range Resolutio n Stiffness Heigth Dimensio ns Mass Unloaded resonance frequency (in the actuation's direction) Response time Loaded resonance frequency (in the actuation's direction) load = 200 g Loaded response time Capacitance (per electrical port) Mechanical interfaces (payload) Mechanical interfaces (frame) Ele ctrical interfaces µm µrad V nm N/µm mm mm g Hz ms Hz ms µF Unit OPP120SM Preliminary data ECL TZ 90 140 -20 … 150 9 1.75 3.11 285 1.0 65 * 40 170 450 1.15 objective interface to be specif ie d tbd 1 RG178B/U coaxial cable 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 133 . No-load displacement Max.Objective Piezo Positioner References Notes Sensors option Active axis Max.

low jitter. response time < 2 ms. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 134 .Fast Piezo Shutter FPS200M Technical Features with dedicated SP75 driving electronics : Aperture > 300 µm. Overshoot < 10%.

Space …) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 135 . Non magnetic.Conclusion about mechanisms Combinations of several dof Push pull configuration to cancel thermo. Cryogenic.mechanical issue Guiding and closed loop needed to compensate or cancel parasitic motions Compatibility in option with severe environment (UHV.

Driving & control electronics for piezoelectric actuators & mechanisms 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 136 .

quasistatic. Practical implementations.Introduction Specifity of piezoelectric loads. resonant). different cases (static. Control of piezoelectric actuators. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 137 . Basics of amplifiers. Conclusion.

COMPACT v4.Introduction – load & frequency Piezoelectric actuators constitute capacitive resonant loads: pretty high stress generated in the active switches Different types of applications : Static : load of a capacitance.20E-02 1.8000 0.7000 0. I = jωC.33 0.2000 0.00E-02 1.V (out side resonance) [S] 2.9000 © Cedrat Technologies .1000 0. Dynamic : reactive load.3000 0.40E-02 1.80E-02 1.5000 Frequency [kHz] 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 138 .00E-03 20 40 80 Resonance : Complex load [°] 100 Mod(Y) [S] Phase(Y) [°] 60 Admittance Curve Y=I/V 0 2.6000 0.00E-03 0.00E+00 0.00E-03 4.60E-02 1.4000 0. compensation of dielectric losses.0000 -20 0.00E-03 6.00E-02 8.

sine or square signal 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 139 .Introduction – driving signal Definition of the output signals voltage&Current DC.

2 µF C = 24.0 µF 1000 10000 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 140 .7 µF C = 2. Bandwidth varies with the actuator capacitance Bandwidth using a 40W Vcc source Frequency Response of the LA75 Linear Amplifier against various Capacitive Loads 200 180 160 Voltage range (V) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 10 100 Frequency (Hz) C = 0.Linear amplifier for static / dynamic applications For a given amplifier. having a given current limitation.

3 A.Dynamic applications : example with a linear amplifier V = -R1 / R2 Vin Required electrical power Electrical current i = 2π f V Cbf Electrical power dissipated in the amplifier. P = 4V2 f Cbf Numerical example : Cbf = 1 µF. V=100V. f = 2 kHz i = 1. P = 80 W 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 141 .

= 460 Hz C = 40 µF Peak Amplitude vs frequency Displacement = 500 µm @ 100 Hz Driven by a LA75C-1 from Cedrat T.Example of dynamic application: APA500L Standard APA500L features: Displacement = 500 µm Blocked force = 560 N Resonant Freq. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 142 .

Noise in static / dynamic applications Noise in static applications : 80 mV/ @ 50V = 0.16 % 80 dB signal to noise ratio can be obtained through a correct shield. 100 dB signal to noise ratio obtainable at the expense of a reduced bandwidth 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 143 .

THD.Amplifiers for static applications 2 principal classes: The linear amplifier. Output voltage. B or AB classes. A. Protections 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 144 . Capacity to drive reactive loads. Gain. The switching amplifier D classes and Co. Characterised by: Output current. SNR. Bandwidth.

Basics of amplifiers Use of a the traditional linear amplifier R2 R1 Vin Rg Cbf PZT 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 145 .

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 146 .Basics of amplifiers Class A amplifiers : dynamic behavior around the static polarisation point. Low efficiency on a resistive load : 25 %.

Basics of amplifiers Class B amplifiers : The characteristics is influenced by the non – linear characteristics of the transistors around the static point => pretty high distortion. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 147 .

Basics of amplifiers Resulting distortion of the Class B amplifier. Efficiency on a resistive load = 78 % 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 148 .

Basics of amplifiers Class A-B amplifiers : cancellation of the distortion through diodes or junction multipliers 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 149 .

Full bridge is used for inductive load.Basics of amplifiers Class D (switching) amplifiers : high frequency on / off operations and filtering. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 150 . Half-bridge and Full bridge topologies (depending on load) : Half bridge is used for capacitive load.

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 151 .Basics of amplifiers Class D (switching) amplifiers :On-off control through PWM in open loop. Filtering function is often necessary to reduce to output voltage ripple.

Basics of amplifiers : Synthesis Criteria Class A Linear Amplifier Class B Class AB Comments Switching Amplifier Class D Voltage High High High Bipolar transistor High Bandwidth High High High High (require high frequency switching) Low High High Low Distortion Noise Efficiency Dimensions (for a given load) Maximal power Low Low Very low Important Medium Low Medium Important Low Low Medium Important Low Low Low High 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 152 .

Basics of amplifiers : Synthesis 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 153 .

Basics of amplifiers : Synthesis 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 154 .

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 155 . Possibilities for energy recovery.Amplifiers for Dynamic applications Linear amplifier : high reactive load. Switching amplifier : More complex control strategy. design of heat sinks necessary.

Dynamic applications Schematic of a switching amplifier 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 156 .

Dynamic applications Schematic of a switching amplifier 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 157 .

Dynamic applications Basic circuit 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 158 .

Dynamic applications Switching strategy including energy recovery 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 159 .

Dynamic applications : Conclusion Energy recovery and precise charging results from a compromise. Monitoring the charge (and the resulting displacement) may be used as an alternative strategy. Switching strategy should be monitored through a numerical controller. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 160 .

Introduction . Charge controlled versus voltage controlled amplifiers. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 161 .control Static & dynamic : controller (PID) to remove the hysteresis.

Control in static applications
Very high position accuracy can be obtained with piezoelectric actuator Sensors for a closed-loop system
strain gauge capacitive displacement sensor Eddy current sensor

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Control in quasi-static applications
Typical structure of an analogue controller :
PI + Filter topology

Typical step response

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Control in quasi-static applications
The Strain gauges are the most simple sensor : Use of a complete Wheastone bridge bonded on the MLA to achieve the best sensitivity. Example of a APA50S with strain gauges :

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Static applications
Removal of the creep effect (process of repoling)

Actuator's displacement (µm) - Record of the creep effect using a capacitive displacement sensor 140,00 120,00 Displacement (µm) 100,00 80,00 60,00 40,00 20,00 0,00 0 200 400 600 800 Time (s) 1000 1200 1400 1600

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Static applications
Removal of the hysteresis

Removal of the piezoelectric actuator hysteresis using a displacement sensor
9 8 displacement measurement (Volts) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 Order (Volts) 6 8 10 closed loop off closed loop on

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Static applications Alternative hysteresis removal method by using an electrical charge control. The control is more complex. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 167 .

Static applications Charge amplifier: 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 168 .

Static applications Charge amplifier: 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 169 .

it can differ for resonant applications The reactive power requires attention Quasi static applications & use of MLA can use PWM driver.Conclusion Piezo actuators constitute mainly capacitive loads . without step-up transformer 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 170 .

See technical data sheets in the “Piezo Products catalogue” 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 171 . via USB or RS-232 .Driving Electronics for Piezo Actuators & Mechanisms CA45 & LA75A : Linear Amplifier for driving Actuators with low noise for precise & quasi-static motion LA75B & LA75C: Linear Amplifier for driving Actuators in power demanding dynamic motion SP75 : Switching Power for driving Actuators in fast onoff motion Options available: PID and Micro Controller for feedback and monitoring through a PC.

How to choose the right actuators and driving electronics ? 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 172 .

current of the driver X X X X D ynam ic Im pulse X X X X X X X X X 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 173 .How to chose the right actuator ? Depending on the type of applications. several parameters govern the selection of the actuator : Static Param eters of the actuator Stroke Stiffness B andw idth Electrical capacitance Param eters of the application Payload m ass Parallel stiffness X M ax.

How to chose the right actuator ? Frequency / response time considerations in dynamic applications Controllable frequencies : f< fmax = fr/3 Impulse response : tmin = 1/(3*fr) =T/3 fr= device resonance frequency 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 174 .

Equivalent circuit & associated data Displacement Transient response for a step voltage Overshot effects Stabilisation time 2 Step response u / u0 1 High Q Low Q 0 0 1 2 3 4 t/T 5 6 7 8 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 175 .

Arrangement of piezo-actuators Parallel arrangement adds force Serial arrangement adds displacement 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 176 .

voltage V.Cm Loaded fr = 1/2π (k/(m+M))1/2 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 177 . payload mass M. blocked force F. force factor N. m = k/(2πfr)2 . clamped capacitance C0.Deriving the electrical circuit from the actuator ’s properties Stiffness k. Cm = N2/k C0 = CBF . modal mass m. motional capacitance Cm. unloaded resonance frequency fr. N = F/V . capacitance CBF.

Exercices How to select piezo actuators. associated mass and electronics ? Analytical models Finite element models COMPACT tool Excel tool based on an analytical model Free ware. download from Cedrat web Fast way for predimensioning or selecting components 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 178 .

Exercice 1: Slow positioning of an optic A summary of the specifications is given in the table beside : Application is optic positioning in lab environment Specs Required Payload Mass (g) 1000 Max Displacement (µm) Max Frequency (Hz) 400 5 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 179 .

Exercice 2: Fast positioning of a tool A summary of the specifications is given in the table beside : Application is oval piston machining Specs Required Payload Mass (g) 2000 Max Displacement (µm) Max Frequency (Hz) 100 100 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 180 .

Exercice 3: Ultrasonic vibrations A summary of the specifications is given in the table beside : Specs Required Application is ultrasonic glass cutting Payload Mass (g) 3 Displacement (µm) With Piezoactuator Assistance 6 Frequency (Hz) 20 000 Without Piezoactuator Assistance Courtesy of Schott 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 181 .

Example 4: Pulsation force Generation A summary of the specifications is given in the table beside : Application is Anti-vibration for a turbo-engine aircraft cabin (ATR42) Specs Required Payload Mass (g) 100 Kq Force (N) 8-10N Frequency (Hz) 100-500 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 182 .

time (ms) <1ms 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 183 .Example 5: Fast response A summary of the specifications is given in the table beside : Application is Piezo injectors for fuel injection Specs Required Payload Mass (g) 0.015 Kq Stroke (N) >60µm Resp.

COMPACT tool) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 184 .Illustration of limitations in dynamic applications Current limitation of the driving electronics (working frequency) Force limitation of the piezo actuator (Payload mass & working frequency) Self heating limitation of the piezo ceramic (Duty cycle) => Computations and curve analysis (Cedrat Technologies Excel sheets .

Current limitation APA120ML + 1 kg in blocked free condition (Resonant Freq = 0.5 kHz) driven by a LA75A-1 (Imax peak = 90 mAmps) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 185 .

4 Amps) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 186 .5 kHz) driven by a LA75C-1 (Imax peak = 2.Power and Force Limitations APA120ML + 1 kg in blocked free condition (Resonant Freq = 0.

Adiabatic Self Heating APA120ML + 1 kg + LA75A-1 APA120ML + 1 kg + LA75C-1 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 187 .

Piezo Motors Overview 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 188 .

high potential for micronization. Ultrasonic motors (USM) : large torque at low speed and at rest. excellent dynamic characteristics. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 189 . multiple degrees of freedom. low speed. Inertial Step Motors (ISM) : simple structure.Different types of piezoactive motors ‘INCHWORM’ motors : high resolution. silent and nonmagnetic operation.

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 190 .‘Inchworm’ motors Use of active grips and active member along a rail & combination of activations of grips and active member.

D. Nov.Vaughan .. Inchworm with APA120ML 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 191 . Integrated piezoelectric linear motor for vehicule applications..Leo from US Center for Intelligent Material Systems & Structures. Proc IMECE02/TTRST-32942.‘Inchworm’ motors Linear inchworm CIMMS Virginia Tech M. 2002. New Orlean US.17-22.J. 9p. ASME Symp.

CEDRAT piezo motor stepping solution Use of at least two Amplified Piezo Actuators Slider (or rotor) Driving direction (a) driving stage Anchor point (b) return stage 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 192 .

LISA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna High Pointing Precision Piezo Motor Principle Normal displacement : same voltage supply MLA-1 MLA-2 Tangential displacement : opposite voltage supply Anchor point Anchor point Amplified Piezo Actuators APA with the piezo ceramics driven : in phase (left) / in opposition (right) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 193 .

LISA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna High Pointing Precision Piezo Motor Accuracy <100nrad resolution < 5nrad non magnetic no lubricant LISA HP Piezo Motor Breadboard (courtesy of ESA) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 194 .

Inertial step motors (ISM) Working principle: sudden contractio: inertia effect slow contraction: no inertia 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 195 .

Inertial step motors (ISM) reliability for multiple degrees of freedom motion : for instance. a piezoelectric XY micrometric stage 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 196 .

Inertial step motors (ISM) Rotating ISM New Focus active screw = pico motor 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 197 .

CEDRAT New miniature linear piezo motors SPA Stepping Piezo Actuator from Cedrat New APA-based piezo motors Golden Micron 2008 at Micronora Cedrat patent 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 198 .

CEDRAT New miniature linear piezo motors SPA Stepping mode Principle 4 components Mass APA (piezo) Rod Clamp SPA60SM Animated Principle (2 steps) One stick-slip step Stick-Slip step excited by a saw tooth signal Accumulation of steps to get a long stroke (several mm) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 199 .

New miniature linear piezo motors : SPA SPA combined modes for Nano positioning Stepping mode (M1) Saw tooth signal Stick-slip of the rod in the clamp Deformation mode (M2) Load fixed on the Mass APA deformation proportional to voltage u1 One stick-slip step (M1) t M1 04/06/2010 Long stroke combining Stepping (M1) and Deformation (M2) Modes M2 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 200 .

5nm (due to amplifier) SPA35XS bench with sensor Long stroke combining Stepping (M1) and Deformation (M2) Modes. and associated electric excitation 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 201 .New miniature linear piezo motors : SPA SPA tests : Combined M1–M2 modes for Nano positioning Achieved precision : 60nm (due to sensor) Achieved resolution : 0.

New miniature linear piezo motors : SPA SPA Advantages Simple APA-based structure Reliable. large heritage from APA One channel electronics Scalable Various APA size and forces High degree of miniaturization SPA30uXS Cryogenic versions Non.magnetic versions (MRI-compatible) Firm connection between the load and the motor Fine positioning with nanometer resolution on a large range (due to the APA amplified stroke) Cost effective approach 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 202 .

5 0.27 2 60 0 A-B-C yes SPA XS-S Preliminary APA35XS SPA XS-F Preliminary APA35XS SPA SM-S Preliminary APA60SM 20 1.052 15 5x9 0.2 0.27 2 60 0 A-B-C yes SPA uXS-F Preliminary APA30uXS 4 0.New CEDRAT miniature linear piezo motors SPA performances References Notes Base Long stroke (M1) Stiffness (M1) Max speed (M1) Blocking force at rest (M1.38 5 30 10 80 4.49 30 5 3 6 1 2 55 55 3.7 3.052 15 5x9 0.6 0.1 3.2 0.25 0.5 0.6 1. M2) Max actuation force (M1) Short high resolution stroke (M2) Resolution (M2) Bandwidth (M2)** Capacitance (M1.7 3.1 0.108 70 0.38 30 15 5 80 4.25 30 30 16 x 16 16 x 16 30 30 50 50 60 60 0 0 A-B-C A-B-C B-C yes yes no 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 203 .3 30 1. M2) Height along active axis Base size Inertial mass Mass Max current consumption Holding current LA75 types compatibility CA45 compatibility Unit mm N/µm mm/s N N µm nm kHz µF mm mm2 gr gr mA mA SPA uXS-S Preliminary APA30uXS 4 0.55 50 27 x 27 70 120 350 0 SPA SM-F Preliminary APA60SM 20 1.4 0.108 30 0.1 30 1.8 0.6 1.49 0.55 50 27 x 27 70 120 350 0 B-C no 10 10 0.6 0.

What are ultrasonic motors ? Use piezoelectric material to produce a small elliptical displacement in the stator. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 204 . Drive a moving member through friction forces.

Ultrasonic Motors : USM classification Travelling Wave Ultrasonic Motors (TWUM) Standing Wave Ultrasonic Motors (SWUM) Hybrid Type Ultrasonic Motors (HTUM) Mode Conversion Ultrasonic Motors (MCUM) Multi Mode ultrasonic motors (MMUM) Mode Rotation Ultrasonic Motors (MRUM) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 205 .

Travelling Wave Ultrasonic Motors (TWUM) Excitation of a rotating flexural mode in an elastic ring. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 206 .

Roughness 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 207 .Flatness .Geometric conformity of static contact Machining tolerance of contact surfaces .

Mode Conversion Ultrasonic Motors (MCUM) Newscale Technologies -> Squiggle motor AF system 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 208 .

Design of multi-mode ultrasonic motors Working principle (patented Cedrat technology) : 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 209 .

Design of multi-mode ultrasonic motors Two vibrations modes Flexural mode excitation in phase normal displacement Translation mode excitation opposite in phase tangential displacement 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 210 .

LPM20-3 using a LVDT position sensor 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 211 .

LPM20-3 Load characteristic Perfomances of standard LPM20-3 measured in 1999 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 212 .

Friction layers’ properties Thermal stability Elasticity : dynamic interpenetration at the interface Absence of noise generated by sliding Size of the third body particles Wear resistance : fibbers & powder reinforced polymer 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 213 .

Wear aspects in piezomotors Critical role of the fibbers use to reinforce the polymer. Surface after 520.000 actuation's in vacuum : polymer vibrating steel Frictional direction Frictional direction 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 214 .

No change of performances after 520.Wear aspects in piezomotors A stable frictional coefficient of 0.45 is obtained after an adequate running procedure.000 strokes View of the wear zone : 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 215 .

Conclusion for piezo motor tribology Mechanism of preload application Running aspects Stability of shift velocity accommodation mechanisms Debris evacuation device 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 216 .

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 217 . automatic frequency resonance tracking necessary.Driving piezo motor Inchworm / ISM => Standard electronics similar to piezo actuator drive. USM : resonant load switched inverters are generally used. non linear behaviour of the USM for the automatic point of view.

electronic. Current applications in microelectronic. Difficult subject. automatic. tribology.Piezomotors : conclusion Motors useful for positioning applications. …). Superior torque / mass ratio. Development require multidisplinary skillness (piezoelectricity. mechanics. space. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 218 .

Applications using piezo actuators CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES REFERENCES 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 219 .

Air & Space Valves Active damping Machine tools Telecom Actuation Electrical generator Reclamation 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 220 .Applications for piezo actuators Optics .

Standard Actuators Products 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 221 .

Standard Actuators Products 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 222 .

Standard Drivers / Conditionners Products 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 223 .

. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 224 . Drones Active Flaps of Air plane (mock-up) flaps. Active shape control of wings Direct drive of Hydraulic jacks Scanning function in fine space instruments . Missiles.Optics Air & Space Identified Applications Active vibration controls of electronics.instruments Active vibration controls in cameras. telescopes Improvement in CCD/CMOS cameras resolution Refocusing of space telescopes Active optical filters. Active Flaps of Helicopter blade.. extended cavity lasers.

applications needs Actuators with: High output energy to mass ratio Low power consumption Resistance to severe environment (esp vibrations) High bandwidth High resolution Cedrat Response: Piezo Actuators based on pre-stressed MLA MLA = low voltage multilayer piezo ceramics Design under ECSS standards + Qualification 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 225 . Air & Space Id.Optics.

Piezo Actuators & Electronics: Application for Space Telescopes
5 dof mechanism for telescope secondary mirror

BERTIN mechanism using CEDRAT APA120ML actuators & electronics
04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 226

Piezo Actuators & Electronics: Space Qualification
‘FB-LA75A’ electronics
Fly-Back DC-DC converter (from 2050V to 150V) Linear Amplifier for Piezo Actuators Strain Gage conditioner Analog Servo controller

Space qualification
EEE components analysis Radiation analysis Thermal analysis EMC analysis Mechanical analysis Thermal-Vacuum tests

FB-LA75A space electronics for piezo actuators from CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES

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Active Control of Position (scanning): Space XYZ stage for ROSETTA/MIDAS

• FM Piezo mechanism including SMA latch actuators

CAD view of XYZ piezo stage : 9 Piezos : 8 APA50S + 1 PPA10M + 2 SMA latch actuators + positions/check sensors

Flight model on board ROSETTA satellite, flying since Feb. 2004 displacement = [100*100*8] µm resolution = 4 nm successful commissioning !

Dust analysis of the comet, heart of MIDAS AFM instrument (Courtesy of ESA, European Space Agency)
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Normally centred piezo mechanisms: Symmetric XY stage XY200M
This stage, [+/-100µm]x[+/-100µm], is mechanically & electrically centred and thermally compensated

Space qualified model

Closed loop options: Strain Gages or Capacitive Sensors

( Courtesy of CNES, French Space Agency )

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Application for Improvement of Camera Sensor Resolution
Over-sampling technique
4 successive pictures (n° 1 to 4) are merged. The distance between points correspond to 1/2 sensor pixel. The XY stage carries either a lens or the CCD itself.
Principle of the over – sampling

Lens motion produced by the XY micro scanner to perform over-sampling

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Application for Improvement of Camera Sensor Resolution Improvement provided by over-sampling technique Improved images using over-sampling technique 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 231 .

Application for Improvement of Camera Sensor Resolution Cedrat XY micro scanners Push-pull stages based on 4 APA25XS Monolithic design Thermally compensated Stroke [-15µm +15µm]² Open loop control Qualified : Operation in vibration Temperature -40 +80°C Life time XY microscanners manufactured by CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 232 .

Application for Improvement of Camera Sensor Resolution Applications of Cedrat XY micro scanner piezo stage Embedded IR cameras > 1000 THALES cameras > 1000 Microscanners > 4000 piezo actuators Future space missions IR cameras / telescopes THALES Catherine MP LWIR QWIP Camera Courtesy of THALES OL 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 233 .

Normally centred piezo mechanisms: Tilt Mechanism for laser pointing DTT35XS PHARAO Double tilt : a space MOEMS MOEMS = Micro Optical Electro Mechanical System Control of a mirror on 2 dof in rotation (Rx. Ry) Key Components: 1 Mirror 4 Hinges 4 APA35XS Actuators 4 Strain Gages Sensors (bonded on PZT MLA) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 234 .

04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 235 .2mrad (Tz = 20µm is not used) Positioning Precision = 1µrad r ms Temperature = -40°C / +75°C Passed qualifications : Life time Vibration Shocks Thermal Vacuum cycling Non magnetism . Ry = +/.Normally centred piezo mechanisms: Tilt Mechanism for laser pointing DTT35XS PHARAO Double tilt : a space MOEMS Mass = 15 gr (2gr per actuator) Rx...

Normally centred piezo mechanisms: Tilt Mechanism for laser pointing DTT35XS PHARAO Double tilt : a space MOEMS Batch of 10 Qualification Models of DTT35XS in casing delivered to EADS Sodern (Jan 2003) Batch of 8 Flight Models in production Qualification Models of the PHARAO/MEF space piezo mechanisms based on 4 APA35XS (courtesy of EADS) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 236 .

Meudon) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 237 .Normally centred piezo mechanisms: A Rz mechanism for despinning correction Correction of the spinned movement of the GAIA spacecraft on the CCD of the RVS instrument Breadboard for GAIA/RVS space piezo mechanism based on 2 APA400M (courtesy of Obs.

response time < 2 ms. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 238 .Fast Piezo Shutter FPS200M Fast Piezo Shutter FPS200M Qualification of 1 FPS200M (1 year test ) by ESRF Batch of 8 FPS200M delivered to ESRF Technical Features with dedicated SP75 driving electronics : Aperture > 300 µm. low jitter. Overshoot < 10%.

10 Flight Models planned for the end of 2004 PHARAO/LCE space piezo mechanism (courtesy of EADS / SODERN) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 239 .Refocusing mechanisms (1/3) External laser cavity tuning by a PPA10M Parallel Pre-stress piezo Actuator.

The main difficulties are : • The high bandwidth (> 2 kHz). 4 QM/FM delivered before end 2004 ALADIN AEOLUS space refocusing piezo mechanism (courtesy of GALLILEO Avionica) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 240 .Refocusing mechanisms (2/3) The dynamic refocusing of the 1st European LIDAR (ALADIN on board on ESA /AEOLUS). • The lifetime (4*1010 cycles).

Refocusing mechanisms (3/3) The piezo actuator is used to refocus a laser beam ALADIN Lidar (courtesy of GALLILEO) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 241 .

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control Flap design proposed by CEDRATECHNOLOGIES in 1998 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 242 .

) Support of: French Civil Aviation Authority Ministry of Defense (DGA) Eurocopter 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 243 .Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control RPA Helicopter Project: Active trailing edge flaps on the main rotor for: decrease BVI noise in descent flight improve the dynamic behaviour of the rotor throughout the largest possible flight domain Work done by Onera (French Aircraft Design Inst.

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise: 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 244 .

619 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 245 .2 m the maximum blade chord : 140 mm the flap dimensions at wind-tunnel scale : 210 mm in span 21 mm in chord geometrical reduction factor : 2.Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control Wind tunnel scale rotor diameter of the Mach-scaled rotor : 4.

static moment of 4. 262 Hz. 78 Hz.22 Nm for hinge centred at 0% ideal flap deflection : ± 15°. static moment of 1. of the flap/hinge axis : > 150Hz min.Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control Requirements for the Mach-scaled rotor: − − − − − − natural freq. flap deflection : ± 5°.9 Nm for hinge centred at 0% flap actuation frequencies : from 0 to 5-per-rev with respect to rotor rotation speed required energy/kg of actuators : > 150mJ/kg maximum centrifugal field : 2300 g 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 246 .

200 V 208 g 570 N 500 µm 1.5 Maryland full scale blade Prototype Piezostacks with L-L amplification mechanism 0-120 V 634 g 20 N 889 µm 0.Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control Comparison of Actuators by ONERA for selection Maryland 1/7th scale blade model in-house fabricated Multi-layer actuator configuration (8 layers) ± 134V → ± 400 V 14 g 8N 165 µm 0.5 0.200 V 250 g 1350 N 230 µm 3.5 ⇒ Selection of the standard APAs from CEDRAT because of highest energy density 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 247 .048 106 N/m above 150 Hz 24 mJ/kg 0..14 106 N/m 450 Hz 342 mJ/kg 6.48 106 N/m 800 Hz 310 mJ/kg 5. /L-L Energy.45 55 mm 145 mm 10 mm ±9°. Width (chord axis) Length (span axis) Thickness Pk-to-pk flap deflection 0.021 106 N/m Above 150 Hz 28 mJ/kg 1 71 mm 183 mm 19 mm ±11°.62th model mass production Piezostacks in elliptic housing CEDRAT APA500L mass production Piezostacks in elliptic housing Actuator technology Voltage Mass of actuator Blocked force ( F ) Maximum stroke ( x ) Stiffness Resonance frequency nergy to weight ratio of actuator Ratio of Energy.86 69 mm 140 mm 10 mm ±4°..5 CEDRAT APA230 For 1/ 2.44 33 mm 60 mm 2 mm to 5 mm ±11°.

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control Onera flap concept using APAs 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 248 .

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control ONERA Centrifugal tests rig • APA actuator • Dummy flap • Strain gage • Rotation sensor • BRAVoS rig 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 249 .

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control ONERA Centrifugal tests results Active flap based on the standard APA230L under 0g Active flap based on the standard APA230L under 2000g 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 250 .

50 0.00 0.00 -7 -0.00 Uppe r Sur f a c e -7° 0° +11° M+ B l oc ki ng M ome nt ⇒ Selection of the APA500L for the aerodynamic test because of better performances 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 251 .50 AP A500L Aer odynamic Hinge Moment Envelope f or ps i=0°-360° -5 -3 -1 1 U=1 8 0 V 3 5 7 Fl a p a ng l e ( °) 9 11 -1.Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control Selection between APA230L & APA500L H i n g e mo me n t ( N m) Ac t ua t o r o pe ra t io n c urv e AP A230L U=0V B l oc ki ng M ome nt 1.

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control ONERA S3MA wind tunnel tests set-up Accelerometers on flap and airfoil 04/06/2010 Calibration on the model in the wind tunnel 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 252 .

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control ONERA S3MA wind tunnel tests results Flap deflection versus Input Control Voltage (at Mach=0.3) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 253 .

3) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 254 .Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control ONERA S3MA wind tunnel tests results 10 8 Fl a p a ngl e ( °) 6 4 2 0 -2 -2 -4 -6 -8 0 2 Ri ght f l ap angl e Cent r al f l ap angl e Lef t f l ap angl e Wi ng i nc i de nc e ( ° ) 4 6 Max Flap Deflections versus Wing Incidence (at Mach=0.

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control New actuator APA750XL designed for ONERA Stroke = 1150µm Force = 920N Energy to weight : 441mJ/kg APA750XL prototype for ONERA (scale 1 flap) from CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 255 .

Piezo Actuators: Application for Helicopter Flap Control ONERA conclusion & perspectives No breakdown & Encouraging performances ONERA perspectives Improvement of the flap mechanism foreseen to get less than 8% loss of stroke @2300g New centrifugal tests of APA500L flap planned Scale 1 tests using the new actuator APA750XL Actuator improvements using composite shells 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 256 .

Piezo Actuators: Application for Air Plane Flap Control Flap control of Air plane mock-up (AWIATOR) reduction of slipstream of Airbus A340 need for specific flat actuators stroke : 500µm force : 700N height : 60mm thickness : 9mm 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 257 .

Piezo Actuators: Application for Air Plane Flap Control Flap control of Air plane mock-up (AWIATOR) ONERA pre-selection : APA500L stroke u= 500µm force F= 560N => Pb / 700N height : 55mm thickness : 10mm => Pb / 9mm Length : 145mm Standard APA500L-SG from CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 258 .

keeping constant the stroke u and the same PZT amount Reduction of capability to withstand external vibrations.Piezo Actuators: Application for Air Plane Flap Control CEDRAT offer to ONERA : an APA500L-SV Customised product starting from the APA500L (SV = special version) Reduction of thickness : 10mm => 9mm Optimisation of the Force F. noting that vibrations are smaller in this application than in space launching conditions 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 259 .

071 J 0.109 J +53% Emec/m 0.Piezo Actuators: Application for Air Plane Flap Control Results on APA500L-SV developed for ONERA Actuator APA500L APA500L-SV Gain Thickness 10mm 9mm -9% Mass m 0.17 kg -15% Stroke u 500 µm 560 µm +11% Force F 570 N 778 N +36% Emec=F.35 J/kg 0.u/4 0.64 J/kg +82% 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 260 .20 kg 0.

leading to significant improvements in energy densities 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 261 . such as Aircraft applications.Piezo Actuators: Application for Air Plane Flap Control Conclusions APA500L-SV is fully compliant with ONERA needs Standard APAs are designed for Space need and are not optimised for all applications (even if they possess highest power density on the market) APAs can be optimised for other needs than space.

Application for Mini Helicoptere Mufly project Micro APA APAµXS for wing orientation (0.2gr) Mini BDLC motor for wing rotation (3gr) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 262 .

Piezo Actuators & Electronics: Application for proportional valves Valve for micro thrusters : Implementation in a cold gas micro propulsion system 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 263 .

Piezo Actuators & Electronics: Application for proportional valves Valve for micro thrusters Cold gas (Nitrogen) APA200M actuator placed outside the gas Proportional Piezo Valve from CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 264 .

Piezo Actuators & Electronics: Application for proportional valves Valve for micro thrusters : Results Flow control in open loop Flow control with a feedback loop 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 265 .

SAAB. ZFL. ALENIA... Goal : Improving EHA with smart actuators : piezoelectrics actuators piezomagnetics (biased magnetostrictives) Expected improvements Mass Power consumption Bandwidth 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 266 .Piezo Actuators : Application for Aircraft Hydraulic jacks Piezo-based EHA (Electro Hydrostatic Actuators) R&D works performed in co-operation with SABCA. ZIP .

Piezo Actuators : Application for Aircraft Hydraulic jacks Piezo-based EHA (Electro Hydrostatic Actuators) 1 hydraulic jack 2 actuated valves 1 actuated pump 1 accumulator (not shown) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 267 .

Piezo Actuators : Application for Aircraft Hydraulic jacks Piezo-based EHA (Electro Hydrostatic Actuators) Piezoelectric or magnetostrictive Valves & Pump for an EHA prototype designed by CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 268 .

Piezo Actuators : Application for Aircraft Hydraulic jacks Valve test bench Flow meter Piezo Valve Pressure sensors No leakage at 220 bars in closed position. Output Input 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 269 .

5 l/min. limitation) Max.Piezo Actuators : Application for Aircraft Hydraulic jacks Valve results Type Actuator Piston stroke Maximal working pressure Maxi. 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 270 . tested working freq. Open flow rate Normally closed APA500L 460 µm 100 bars 400 Hz (power supply 1000 Hz > 2. theoretical working freq.

Active Control of Fluids: Piezo Injectors for Automotive short time response compact structure potential for low cost small piezo ceramic amount few simple parts Car Injectors based on an APA. according to C.Fiat 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 271 .R.

Active Control of Fluids: Proportional Pneumatic Valves Pneumatic Valve Prototype (designed by Cedrat Technologies ) based on the APA100S (Courtesy of ENS) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 272 .

Piezo Actuators : Application for sound generation Sound generator for urban water pipes localisation APA230L + back mass + front membrane po < 10Bar Fr = 500 Hz V < 10Vrms @Fr u = 230µm @Fr ufront = 110µm @Fr MADE Water Tracker sound emitter Transducer based on APA230L 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 273 .

in order to drive & control the actuator(s) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 274 . PID. speed. force .. a controler : PI. accel.. Force feed back ….. Feed forward.Active Control of Vibrations Complete close loop electronics including : a linear amplifier a sensor of displacement.

without control (red curve) & with control (blue curve) Space Truss of ULB using an active tendon concept based on APA100Ms for active damping (Courtesy of Micromega Dynamics & ULB & ESA) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 275 .Active Control of Vibration: Damping of a truss by active tendons Truss vibration level after a shock excitation.

Active Control of Vibration : 6 dof Stewart Isolation platform Hexapod based on 6 APA50S Courtesy of ULB & Micromega Dynamics 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 276 .

Active Control of Vibration : 6 dof Stewart Isolation platform Experimental results Courtesy of ULB & Micromega Dynamics 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 277 .

Electronics for Piezo Actuators: Micro-Positioning & Damping R&D works supported by CNES / Applications Space Telescope mirror. Space fine instruments Aircraft embedded cameras New Objectives for the electronics : 2 functions Micro-positioning of a load Isolation of the load from micro-vibrations Position Micro vibration Isolation 5Hz 40Hz Frequency (Hz) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 278 .

Electronics for Piezo Actuators : Micro-Positioning & Damping Set-up list APA120ML actuator : load positioning&damping ‘FB-LA Space’ electronics : driving the APA Strain Gage & Capacitive Sensors : position sensing Accelerometers : vibration sensing Servo controller : closed loop control Large Magnetostrictive Actuator : Excitation 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 279 .

Electronics for Piezo Actuators: Micro-Positioning & Damping Set-up view Excitator APA120ML Dummy load Electronics 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 280 .

the vibration sensor transfer function. K(p). K1(p). F(p). A(p). the vibration corrector function Pdrift Préf ε F(p) A(p) D(p) Piezo F1(p) H1(p) K1(p) H(p) K(p) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 281 . the filter of the control loop. H(p). the power amplification transfer function. F1(p). the position corrector function. the piezo+load transfer function. the low pass filter transfer function. the position sensor transfer function. H1(p).Electronics for Piezo Actuators : Micro-Positioning & Damping Closed loop D(p).

the maximum attenuation : 10 dB 6 4 2 Attenuation (dB) 0 -2 0 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 Frequency (Hz) 50 100 150 200 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 282 . the cut off frequency close to 50Hz. the over shoot 5dB@50Hz.Electronics for Piezo Actuators: Micro-Positioning & Damping Measured performances -40dB/decade roll off.

Active Control of Vibration: One axis flexure beam / Rossignol Ski Control OFF 04/06/2010 Control ON 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 Ski Rossignol 283 .

Active Tool Control: Oval Piston Machining PPA80L-SG 04/06/2010 Courtesy of Entech (SP) 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 284 .

PI controler C = 26 µF .2 A Tool mass = 1 kg Peak Amplitude vs frequency Displacement = 70 µm @ 100 Hz Courtesy of Entech (SP) 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 285 04/06/2010 . Imax = 1.Active Tool Control: Oval Piston Machining PPA80L + OEM LA75B inc.

Active Control of Vibrations : One axis tool control in machining Mechanical structure Chatter vib. feed passive cuttin g m agnitude [m/s2] 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Ha/38251 © IFW passive force direction cutting force direction Tool holder Tool interface Force sensor Tool case Actuated sleeve VDI-3425 Guiding membrane interface Elastic actuator pre-stress Piezo actuator 0 500 1000 frequency [Hz] 1500 Cooperation IFW .Cedrat (ACTUATOR 2004) 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 286 .

Active Control of Vibrations : One axis tool control in machining Control by force feedback actuator amplifier U U analogue integrator U Fp actuator + Fd F Q force sensor Q U ~ _ _ charge highpass amplifier filter 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 287 .

Active Control of Vibrations : One axis tool control in machining Control by force feedback -40 Magnitude g/N [dB] -46 -50 -56 -60 -66 -70 -74 -80 Acti ve damping off Acti ve damping on Ha/38253 © IFW IFW .Cedrat 0 200 500 700 Frequency [Hz] 1024 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 288 .

Active damping of Vibration of Rossignol Ski Application : Launched Kilometer Ski Vibration level of the Ski tip : 8cm pk-pk Design configuration : APA120ML + pulling rod Dynamic displacement divided : <120µm to the actuator Dynamic force transmitted < 1200N to the actuator LK Ski of SKI Rossignol equipped with APA120ML for active damping 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 289 .

Active damping of Vibration of Rossignol Ski Application : Launched Kilometer Ski FEM analysis to get Eq circuit Matlab simulink Test results on snow : 32bB damping / 1st mode Cedrat design patented by Rossignol 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 290 .

Other Machine Tools PDP Glass cutting assistance Wire bonding LCD screen alignement Chip testing on wafers Active damping on tools APA100S Courtesy of Kammrath & Weiss 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 291 .

Telecom: stretching fibre Active Fibber Bragg Gratings for DWDM Tunable Laser Optical switch Fibber alignment APA50S + FBG for laser tuning 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 292 .

Electrical Power Generator 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 293 .

Electrical Power Generator 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 294 .

Electrical Power Generator Basic configuration 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 295 .

Electrical Power Generator APA-based Proof-mass APA400M_MD + Mass Mesema project end user : EADS. Eurocopter APA400M proof mass Out power & Effciency accounting for the electronics 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 296 .

5 1. Voltage Time to maintain the voltage Unit mJ µm pk-pk mJ kOhm V ms GPA60SM preliminary data 2 11 0.Electrical Power Generator References Notes input mechanical energy Displacement Output electrical energy Load impedance Min.8 45 Wireless switch based on APA60SM Courtesy of LEGRAND 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 297 .1 1.

Synthesis: typology of applications of Piezo products Position control Optical control Shape control Driving control Vibration control Fluid control Energy harvesting Reduction of noise. vibration 04/06/2010 1 Day Piezo Training 2010 298 . vibration Generation of noise.