13'o Congress

IMAM 2009, istanbul, Turkey,

of Intl. Maritime Assoc. of Mediterranea

12_15 Oct.200

Computerized method for propeller design of optimum diameter and rpm
M.M. GAAFARY

AssociateProress"?r:,;!:::;";'#!g:j

j'"*'::-:#:;TJ#""""Engineering; ".:

ABSTRACT: The process of marine propeller dosign, using theoretical or experimental charts of methodica series' consumes time and effort. This work proposes a computerized desigrr process for optimization o propeller diameter and number of revolutions for better characteristics and higher performance. In thir process, for known propeller rpm, thrust, and blad e area ratio, anoth.r *ol.ston of propeller thrusl coefficient is developed such that the unknown diameter is eliminated. Hence, a new developed curve ol thrust coefficient can be plofted on any arbitrary propeller performance curyes such as ssp; ;;;;r-"1'rn*.0 B-Series charts of prdpeller performance. using- Newton's divided differgnce method of, interpolation, the required optimum propeller diameter can be determined' A similar process has been appried to determine the optimum propeller number of revolutions o1 known propeller diameter. Flow charts and computer programs have been developed to represent the proposed procedure. Applications have been performed on the design of three different propellers of the existing ships. complete agreement is achieved between results of the present work and the real ships propeller
diameters.

NOMENCLATI.IRE

diameter,

Ka

torque coeffi cient of open propeller,

(*)
^o

A^

Kr
blade area ratio, projected area, Wageningen series coefficient of Rn torque coefficient, thrust coefficient,
Po

AP

Pv

Cijt
Cq

t

Rn
n

effect,

tlirust coefficient of open propeller, static pressure at propeller CL, psi water-vapor pressure, psi Reynolds number, propeller number of revolutions per
second.

Cr D
i,
J

PID

j,

k,l

propeller diameter, integers,
advance ratio,

a
T
t

Kd

thrust coefficient with eliminated
number of revolutions, thrust coefficient with eliminated

Vu

V.

propeller pitch/diameter ratio propeller torque, propeller thrust, thrust deduction factor. propeller advance speed, service ship speed,

K"

211

(1976). There are many moderrr theoretical methods. and many others.i t.. Also. another expression of propeller thrust coefficient is developed such that the unknown diameter is eliminated. Carnahan. for known propeller rpm. (1966). Breslin. namely. there are many experimental propeller series test results. A similar process can be applied to determine the optimum propeller number of revolutions when the propeller diameter is known. a naval architect is faced with sorne requirements. w Z q p 1. a new developed curve of thrust coefficient is plotted on Oosterveld's form of Wageningen B-Series charls of propeller performance. which makes it a difficult process. pitch/diameter ratio. 5. 2. thrust. Morgan. advance ratio and Reynolds number. habitable Generally. number of blades. (1979. this proposed procedure is valid to apply when the propeller torque is known. apply the 212 . (2000). It is the main target of this paper to develop a direct computerized design procedure for optimization of propeller diameter and rpm that guarantees the highest possible propeller performance. surface theories. but the area ratios are limited. the most efficient propeller is that having the largest possible diameter and lowest rpm. INTRODUCTION To perform a successful propeller design. the required optimum propeller diameter has been determined from the advance ratio of the highest propeller efficiency. Also. This is to develop the proper theory. Flow charts and computer programs have been developed to represent both of the Oosterveld's mathematical polynomial of Wageningen series and the proposed procedure. et al . instead of the propeller thrust.High efficiency. and it is very efficient method of conventional propeller design. This useful and simple polynomial form is expressed by its multi-terms of arbttrary propeller's number of blades. (196I).a . Bahgat. such as the NSMB Wageningen A. SSPA-Series. propeller efficiency. Either theoretical or experimental method is applied the main task of propeller design is the optimization process of propeller particulars. (1951). the optimum diameter and rpm can be determined. then computerize that method. 2. Andersen. Aside from the well known useful charts of Bp . hence. Applications have been performed on three different propellers of existing ships. the present work introduces some kind of substitute of these design charts. Usually there are two ways to develop a successful propeller design. and a designer usually interpolates between chafts. (1994). the theoretical and experimental methods. blade area ratio.{ . In this process. 4.Proper strenglh. (1981). The Wageningen B-Series is still up to now applicable. Gaafary. The main target of this work is to develop a simple computerized procedure of propeller design that achieves optimum propeller diameter and number of revolutions. Kerwin.:9 :. and FORMULATION OF THE METHOD This work presents a proposed procedure for propeller design. (1975). et al (1915) has developed a mathematical polynomial to represent the propeller performance curves of B-Series propeller type. et al (1919). 0987 and 1995). Hence. such as lifting line and lifting Turnock. where complete agreement has been achieved for propeller particulars deduced method and those of the real ship. (1951) and Lewis. Berlram.and B-Series. by the proposed Oosterveld. ship's wake fraction.E. Troost. (1989). such as: irnportant 1.____. Using Newton's divided difference method of interpolation. et al (2006).. and blade area ratio. and q) versus (J). Kq.Acceptable low vibration and noise excitation. to achieve the highest possible efficiency.Sufficient thrust 3. Lindgren. water density. and Carlton. where it deals with charts of propeller performance curves of (Kr.No cavitation erosion. .:. et aI (1994). These curves are based on theoretical or experimental results of methodical series of marine propellers. of propeller series of B-type of NSMB. Troost.

P- (1951). 4. Consider the point at which the curve o{ (q) osculates the envelope of maximum efficiency curyes. and 3) together to . When this expression is plotted. n2T 1 (3) (1. 3. of specific number of blades. (1989). as shown and depicted on Figure (1). Vs (1 -w) As the blade area ratio increases. it gives a line just specific Wageningen B-Series chart of marine propellers performance curves of (Kr. (Kr) and advance ralio. To reach there a naval architect need to know the following propeller particulars: propeller rpm. (t). and Lindgren. The propeller thrust can be determined on basis of accurate determination of the total ship resistance. with those (Krt culves which dependent on varying (PiD) ratio.. area ratio. the optimum propeller diameter can be accomplished by eliminating the diameter between the relations defining thrust coefficient. . and 5. and the thrust deduction _^o Consider a specific systematic series of conventional marine propellers with available performance curves. These particulars can be determined according to the following: Now. Rr. the propeller efficiency and perf. where 1. according to Burrill.sVo Ap . as: . propeller number of blades. such as those of Troost. and blade possible manual solution can follows. (Ao: no. factor. as in Lewis. (1989). a Determine the different values of (r1) for each intersection. an expression of projected blade area has been developed by NSMB. Determine each intersection of (Kr. (Z). The optimum diameter is secured at a specific manually interpolated (P/D) ratio 213 . Kr: Pn2Pa (1) tI:vo nD Introduce a new variable. ).computer program on existing ships of ih" . where. the speed ofadvance is: .1 Optimum Propeller Diameter Using this equation one can get the blad '' 'A area rario. Knowing the ship's Va: wake.ormance wi I I i ncrease. there will be less chance of cavitation occwrence. K-" Breslin. A be secured as 1. we might return to our main track of finding the optimum propeller diameter. required propeller thrust. This might be a direct verification of this computerized method. this expression is. diagram above the upper 2. 2. the less chance of cavitation occurrence could be.2. (J). (w) at ship (4) KnJn This relation of equation (4) can be graphed on a Kr: service speed. (1961). speed ofadvance. 2. Manipulating equations fr 994). as' it increases.(1-r) For the number of propeller blades. ( + ). are limit of Burrill's cavitation for merchant ships. et al ( (2) as developed by Kn: get: o To avoid the harm of cavitation. However. eompare the resuits. to avoid cavitation or reduce it. (Ar)' : AI1F - I- L360(Po-Pv)I. Lewis. the lower propeller rpm.u-" propeller t1'pe.sqft J. Kq. of (4). and q) versus (J). and then draw a curve connecting them. o "r ! . and finaliy. blade arearatio. and less propeller efficiency. where.

A possible manual solution can be secured when following the same first four steps mentioned in the case of optimum diameter. : Ka 'J' Q) (8) V r\d and Tc. et al (1976). canbe graphed on a specific Wageningen B-Series chart of marine propellers performance curves of (Kr. Kq. but to determine numerically. Find the highest efficiency at every specific (J).r" is performed manually for propeller design according to on. this is the formulation of the optimum diameter. this procedr.*u . A new curve of Kr.by Newton's interpolation. 4. (n). 3. determine the propeller efficiency for each value of (J). and 11) versus (J). . Now.2 Optimum Propeller RPM 3.# (10) Hence. RPMopumu* xo: ILo -"P_. this process is depicted on Figure (1). o.this paper to perform this procedure using a newly developed computer program. required propeller thrust. curves of varying (p/D) ratio. speed ofadvance. the (P. Dopti. In the same manner. now we fum to the optimum rpm formulation. Until now. of the available methodical series charts of propeller performance curves. were plotted in charts form known 214 . 3. blade area ratio. 2..4D) ratio of Kr.# (5) l.. . and 5.----|r-- that coresponds to the point where the fwo curyes of (n) osculate each other. At every specific value of (J) and (P/D). 2. while the fifth step is given instead. and blade arearatio. between the expressions of (Kr) and (J). The The applied expression of Newton's divided difference method of interpolation as given in Carnahan. determine the (Kq) value. 5.s p 1(1v] (e) To determine the optimum propeller rpm for a given diameter. one may get. hence. the optimum diameter can be determined. the is In a very similar fashion. .curve at every value of (J) with equal small steps. PROPOSED COMPUTEzuZED METHOD 3. of specific number of blades. 2. xn-1-. advance ratio at this osculation point determines the optimum rpm. some special steps are made to treat the differences befween applying the method numerically and manually. F (xn. propeller diameter. just as in the case of optimum diameter. Kr where. and hence. propeller number of blades. one may apply a very similar procedure to -that previously described. ttj=s\^i-xj) n The present developed computer program is applicable to determine the optimum propeller rpm. based on equation (7). is. During the development of the program. Not to find intersections between Kr-curve of (4). Troost. (1951). these parameters can be determined as previously described. after eliminating the propeller number of revolutions. . The advance ratio at this osculation point determines the optimum diameter. It is the target of .1 Computer Programfor Wageningen B-Series For propeller design pulposes. 5. o wT- Dffirences when the procedure ls apptied nttmerically rctther than manually : l. a similar procedure developed to yield the optimum propeller rpm for given: useful experimental test results of Wageningin methodical series of B-type propeller performance of NSMB. with (Kr.

In the present wotk.2 Computer Programfor Optimum Diameter (1975).06 In this numerical approach. :5 t Z .. a computer program has been designed and developed specially to perform this proposed procedure numerically. (Z). Repeating this process is required at every stepped ztc . and q) are plotted versus (J) as shown on Figure (3). Kq.)u 'l' . (P/D). It is true that these B-type propeller chafts are still applicable and yields accurate propeller design. any number of blades. Howevet. another flow chart has been designed to describe the procedure's logic and its executing steps. a computer program has been designed and developed in this work. calculation of (Kr) as shown in equation (4). calculations of (Kq and n) are performed.70 . interpolation for (P/D) value at every step of (J) which is done according to Newton's method. as shown on Figure (2). /D). and q) versus (J) at different (P/D) ratios. (J). et al (1975). ou :0. the formulation steps of the optimum rpm introduced in sub-section 2. .75 no .. Repeating this process -is required at . (X)t . o Rn ':2 x1. Important Feature I: the propeller performance curves shown on Figure (1) of Wageningen series can be reproduced by using this developed program. At that specific (P/D) of equation (12). is considered for applications: every stepped (J). a flow chart has been designed to represent the logical steps of processing numerically the Oosterveld's mathematical polynomial of Wageningen series.as Bp . Based on that flow chart.iur. {f. et al 3. and also at any pitch/diameter ratio.(11) The propeller performance cur-ves of (Kr. When Newton's equation of interpolation. calculation of (Kr) as shown in equation (7). a decision must be taken by choosing the highest efficiency and its corresponding advance ratio. . has developed a mathematical polynomial to represent these propeller perfonnance curves of B-Series propeller type. aside from Bp -6 diagrams. (6) is applied numerically to determine the required (P/D).2 are Kr: Ito If =o ZJ=oE?=o c. interpolation fot (P/D) value at every step of (J) which is done according to Newton's method of interpolat ion.7. it yields.t . As an application of the developed computer program to determine the propeller performance values has been performed for a specific propeller of the following particulars: Considering the formulation steps of the optimum diameter introduced in2. Hence. as shown on Figure ( ) This include5 representation of the mathematical polynornial of Wageningen series of propeller characteristics. the performance cur-ves can be developed at any intermediate blade area ratio. and minor modifications on the flow chart of finding optimum diameter. it is the target of this work to apply the curves of propeller performance of (Kr.3 Computer Programfor Optimum kPM In a very similar manner. should be made to represent the procedure's logic and its executing steps. This includes representation of the mathematical polynomial of Wageningen series of propeller characteristics. Kq. developed by Oosterveld. which will save time and effort as a contribution of this present work. using the "pre-" and "post-" values of (Kr. Based on that flow char1."qurred : PD(j) + IPD(j + 1) PD(i\1' * 1--!I:!IJi)-l (12) v/ 'Kr(j+1)-Kr(j)' At that specific (P/D).. considered. 3. the mathematical polynomial representation of Wageningen BSeries type of propellers. P/D :0. Oosterveld.6 diagrams. to determine the optimum diameter as in equation (5). calculations of (Kq and q) (P are performed. Almost for any arbitrary B-type propeller. shown on Figure (4). and their corresponding (P/D) values.

74.D :7. APPLICATIONS OF THE PROPOSED present Important Feature III: The computer program gives accurate output results that almost agree with the real ship propeller diameters.3 Optimum Propeller Diameter of 250. Figure (2) shows a flow chart that has been developed in this present work. w : 0.the following remarks and comments can be drawn: l.125.--- (J). performance curves of one of the the diameters and PiD ratios. (J). there are three different examples 5. Vs : 16 knots.The proposed computerized method has been developed to be applied almost on any propeller performance curves.92 m and P.606. Comment: There is agreement befween and P/D ratios. Z : 5: PID : 0. METHOD For the purpose of applying the computerized method on some existing ships.2 m 5- Present Method Results: 216 . Z :5: P/D:0.37.. t: 0.65. A computer program has been developed by following the designed flow chart. yields and rym for almost any N : 10s tp*. (ff) :0. as shown and depicted on Figure (1).8m Present Method Results: Doptimum 4. a decision must be taken by choosing Doptimum the highest efficiency and its corresponding advance ratio. 4. Comment: There is agreement betw-een the diameters and P/D ratios.2 m and P/D : I. to determine the optimum lpm. w : 0.733.13 N : 134 tp*.792. Wageningen B-series propellers. in order to determine the propeller performance curyes EHP : 81. t:0. Comment: There is agreement between the application of the program.75. This work provides a quick way to design a propeller with optimum diameter and rpm.794 Figure (4) shows another flow charl that has been developed to represent the proposed computerized method that might determine the optimum propeller diameter propeller methodical series. as in equation (10).6 which has fixed blade ratios and then interpolate between them to get the optimum propeller particulars. the 4.74 N :85'p*. with the computer 24.200. Applications of the present method on three different existing ship propellers. will save time and Important Feature II' A naval alchitect is not obligated to use charls such as Bp . Z :6. a process which will consume time and effort. it gives the logical sequence of executing steps. Minor modifications need to be done to the computer program of finding the optimum diameter numerically. f#) :0. :8. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS From the present work.22 EHP :23.25.t.25 EHP :26. (Yo) :0.028.000 Ton Dwt Tanker This tanker has the following data: 'diameters :8.0. such as provided herein together program output data. As an :7. which effort in finding oplimum rpm. as shown on Figure (3).098 Wageningen B-series propellers.D :8. P/D: 1.26 m and P/D :0.D : 8. where each set of data has been prepared as an input data to the developed computer program.1D :0.1 Optimum Propeller Diameter of SL-7 Container Ship The SL-7 container ship has the following data: Vs :33 knots.0 m Present Method Results: Doptimum for almost any 3- propeller methodical series. w :0.12. In the following.2 Optimum Propeller Diameter of a Merchant Ship 4- This merchant ship has the following data: Vs : 19 knots. Hence.

and Wiikes.. The method is also applicable to determine the optimum propeller rpm. Oosterueld. Italy.. the Newton's divided difference method of interpolation has been applied to determine intermediate values of pitch/diameter ratios at different advance coelflcients. MIT Deparlment of Ocean Engineering. Principles of Naval Architecture. 1979. Ph. S.. H. NSMB. P. Part II. This computerized method is also valid to be applied when the propeller torque is known instead of propeller thrust. Rome. The method could be considered as a quick alternative tool that saves time and effort that are consumed in propeller design by the available charts. Denrnark.Heineman-r. Marine Propellers & Propuluon. Trans. Feb. Troost. Open Water Test Series with Modern Propeller Fornts. M. and AnderserrP. Al-Maaref Establishment. Stevens Institut€ of Tech..E. Dissertation. by following the same procedure to determine York. 1994. F. Propeller Design by Lifting Line Theory. 47. A CONCLUSIONS proposed computerized method of propeller design has been developed and checked for applications on Wageningen B-series of conventional marine propellers. C.. Applications of the present method on three different existing ship propellers... SNAME...V..... Carlton. Intemational Shipbuilding Progress. T. P. and Oossanen. Ktype propeller series ofducted propellers. John Wiley.. SNAME. First Edirion. Younis.8. Mass. Gaafary. Tumock. G. and number of blades. Cambridge 6. Department of Ocean Engineering. Further Computer-Analyzed Data of the Wageningen B-Screw Series. REFERENCES Andersen. July 1975. Forces on Ship Propeller Blades of Low Aspect-Ratio.W. Gaafary.A.J. Nr. 25 1. Silovic. M.Y. Lindgren.1. M. Proceedings of the the optimum propeller diameter and optimum rpm. and Rogers. USA.R.S. methodical series. IMAM'95. Egypt. l. Flow . ship required thrust. N. 1981. N.r. Propeller Lifting Surface Corrections. Buttelwofth .2" Institute Skibs-og Havteknik. 1961 .For known propeller determined rpm. 1989. 86. Alexandria.. Future Work: The present method might have more development for the application on other a4a ztt . 26th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. and Boil. and Denny. 1994.. Yol. blade area ratio. A computer program has been designed to represent l"he developed method. 1995. Y o1. Applied Numerical Methods. J. Practical Ship Hydrodynamics. Morgan.. the Swedish State Shipbuilding Experimental Tank. S. Butterworth and Heinemann.. Dubrovnik.. be the optimum propeller diameter can Universify Press. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present work: . L. Croatia. 1979. The Sociefy of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Wageningen. INSEAN Italian Ship Model Basin / Office of Naval Research. DTH. and (P/D).4ay 1987.... Optimizing the different values of Kr and Kq for the highest efficiency. Breslin. Luther. 22. 19b6. Model Test with a Family of Three and Five Bladed Propel/ers. P. Lewis. Hoboken. M. J. yields almost a complete agreement of the results with those of real ships. Marine Propellets. such as Gawn-Burrill series.E. Edward V. M. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers..O. V. Bertram. Hydrodynamic T'heoryfor Propeller Design and Analysls. H.C.. New York. Nov. Bahgat.almost a complete agreement of the results with those of reai ships. P.fcation for capture of propeller tip vortex evolution. Kerwin. Volume Ii.. Carnahan.D. Vol. yields the determination of optimum propeller diameter at specific (J).No. J.New Approach.. 1916.ISH Design Basic Program. M. B. M. and Hamdi. New 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 78- On the curve of required KT. Oxford. 2000. J.2006.. W"B. A. Mosaad. Pashias.. and Part III. SSPA. V.feattrre identi. Cambridge. Hydrodynamics of High Speed Marine Propellers -. A.. 1951..

rrcJ RaLioJO.1 0.6 0. et al (1994\.3 0.--:(-l.4 Advance Ratio.\ \ \ \.6 0.lor .5 F tu od 0./oL il !ryigl_]i:Pf qqgg $lpdc. Present proposed method computer program output of wageningen 8-5-75 propeller perfofinance curves.5 J 0.7 0.7KQ at PD= 10 :a o Fl F ct n? 0. Wageningen B-series of Z=5.\ { clEs ^*.r.2 0. nit.7 0.Lt .75 at PID=O.7KT at PD= -{-0. /\-to*o \ EHV€LOPE Ha q q dlch/diem=r. breslin.7ETA at PD= 0 0.Kr to Ko rl K. 218 .4 ***0.o Figure (l): A scheme for the procedure of finding an optimum propeller diameter using Wageningen 8-6-65 performance curves at a *. 0. Ae/Ad=O.65 i = t.1 0 I I - :z 0.7 0. -: l OF Nr: 2 !' xo ro.8 Figure (3)./arJ).nge of (p/D) values.4 / =p.2 0.

.+0.:1'. ' '"i'j. r:.i |:. j. u{kl.- :i . (KT) EKT(l)= Estimate : Torque coeff. 219 ....39 Estimate : thrust coeff. .i:*ii.r ::' iit..::!: Figure (2): Flowchart to determine the propeller performance curves of Wageningen B-series. C{k)...I .s(k).lnput Data : Blade Area Ratio.. Number of blades. P/D Do k= 1. 't:i.02 OUtput Data : KT. :i r' -l:.:''. KQ. ''l .t{k}. (KQ) EKQ(t) =EKQ(t)+Ka(t) Estimate : Propeller Efficiency (ETA) J{l)=111. tq!-. Do K= 1. '. n.86 Read : Coefficients of Wageningen Sdries oolvnomials.:: . EKT{I) =0.! . -..l i .1 . iLif '..

q() -.PD .KT. n. Fa Do K= 40.Input Data : Blade Area Ratio. P/D Read : Coefficients of Wageningen . vfk) d g Estimate : thrust coeff. Number of blades. 15 OH p. ufk). tlk).075 o6 +. I =*. 'tsk r6 9l o9 Eo F5 Ya aO EStiMAtC : KN. 86 oti 9H (H* ov Estimate : Toroue coeff. slk). KT1. ETA. ctk). <0 =Q Estimate PD1 by Newton's Method of lnterpolation O 9o oo go \JH AH o\< o.6 t. D xo * q() F? €t{ c)d NN Do J= 1. EKQ(I)= rKQ(l)+KQ(l) vo Estimate : Propeller Efficiencv (ETA) Yes 9= boo ETA < ETA (r-1) J(l)=1111 +O. (KQ) -0) >f.series polynomials.@ 9! EKT(l)= EKT(l)+KT(l) PD(i+1)= PD(i) + 0.02 Output Data: J.KQ. (KT) .

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