This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Nepal's most possessed natural resource is water. A land-locked country it may be, but the country is blessed by snow-capped mountains which feed Nepal land. Rivers are not only for rafters but also for businessmen. More than 80% of Nepal's electricity is generated by rivers. Snow-capped Himalayas are the main sources of Nepali rivers. Nepal has altitude ranging from 60 meter to all the way upto 8848 meters (Mt everest), the highest altitude of the earth. Some of the fastest running rivers in the world are located here. There are three major rivers in Nepal namely Kosi River, Gandaki River and Karnali River which lie across east to west running from north to south. Surroundings of most rivers are in their natural settings. Nepali rivers are paradise to River Rafters who just can't have enough of angry and mad rivers. Need we mention Himalayan Water? It's all here in this beautiful country. No matter how many rivers you have rafted here, there is always a river waiting to be explored.
Quick Facts on Rivers and Relevant
Nepal is a mine of water. In Nepali "Nepal Pani Ko Khani Ho", this statement is taken literally. (Translation : Pani - water, Khani - Mine), This is a very popular phrase used and honored by Nepalese everyday. Nepal is a rich country of water. Nepal's Total Area is 147,181 sq km of which land is 143,181 sq km and water is 4,000 sq km - source CIA the World Fact Book. So 3% of Nepal is water which includes rivers, lakes, and ponds Arun River of Nepal shares the name of Arun River of United Kingdom, isn't that interesting ? Karnali is Nepal's largest and longest River. Nepal is a mountainous country, most of its rivers have mountains as the source. Nepal is prone to natural disasters like floods and land and slides. Major Rivers continue to shift their path and go deeper. World's 39th longest River Ganges starts from the Himalayas of Nepal. The river is 2510 K.M Nepal's about 70% of the population is in Rural Areas. Less than 20% of Rural people have access to Electricity. 80% of Nepalese depend on Agriculture. Rivers are a good source to Agriculture business. More than 220 billions cubic meters of water run through Nepal every year.
8 of the 10 snow-capped and highest mountains in the world are located in Nepal. Nepal Himalaya is the source of most rivers of Nepal The largest river in the world is Nile River which is 6516 Kms All major rivers start from Tibet, transverse through Nepal, then join Ganga River of India before finally meeting the heavenly sea. Of all the rivers in the world having more than 600 miles (965.60 km) in length, 90% are located in the United Sates of America Water is the #1 natural resources of Nepal. The others are quartz, timber, hydro power, lignite, copper and cobalt.
List of Major Rivers (this table is being populated, so please check-back later for more data here...)
Name of River Arun River Nepal Bagmati River Dudh Kosi River River Length (Runoff) L L L River Originating Remarks Location / Altitude A A A tribe indigenous to northeastern Nepal, living west of the Arun River in the area drained by the Sun Kosi River. Remarks Remarks Remarks / Notes Remarks The biggest and the largest river of Nepal which provides tons of rapids for river-rafters and awesome side-trip for eco-tourists Remarks Remarks Remarks Remarks Remarks Remarks Remarks Remarks Remarks Remarks
Kali Gangaki Length (Miles / Highest Point River Kilometers) (Feet / Meters) Kankai Mai River Karnali River Kulekhani River L A
Length (Miles / Highest Point Kilometers) (Feet / Meters) L A A A A A A A A A A
Lothar Khola L River Narayani Koshi River Mahakali River Mahananda River Sapt Koshi Mahananda River Mahananda River Sharada Khola Seti River Tamur River L L L L L L L L
The only river that remains to follow without 130 Miles (210 15419 ft (4700 M) causing any harm to land. Everything in its path to Km) the right or left is as it is as given by the Nature! L A Remarks
there are hydro-power plans for upto year 2030. Visit our Web Directory . This sport did not become popular over-night. Nepal had more than 10 different governments. Read about Nepal's War and how Nepal is unfolding. Extreme elevation of the land helps these rivers fly! And they carry water to generate more than 90. safety jackets. by which they believe Nepal will produce enough electricity for the entire country as well as start making some money by selling it! Many small to medium sized. and Every Government operates for about an year before it is replaced by another. So why hasn't anything been done to get closer to 98% of this open business ? Many small sized hydro power plants are being currently setup. don't you ? Here is the answer if you need! Nepal's rivers are mad. Lack of infrastructure such as roads.000 mW of electricity. Currently Nepal produces less than 2% of it's capacity.Trisuli River L A Remarks footnote: L.. some rivers are here for the easy riders too. See Web Directory > Nepali Blogs Also check out this nice PDF File which has Nepal Power Development Map. Rivers and Fun Rafting is a popular sport of Nepal. about one new government per year. proving to all foreign investors that Nepal's rivers are good for business.United Nations Many of Nepal's rivers such as the Karnali. lot of small to large . they argue why plan-numbers were not long. war and conflict in the region has slowed down many projects. fast and furious. they provide tons of river fun. In Nepal. In case you were interested. Rafting is more about getting closer to the heavenly Shangrila of Nepal than losing paddles in the water! Do rafting here. its popularity does say a lot about how well Nepal is prepared to take you to the rivers. Hydro power Plans have similar numbers like Plan 1 and Plan 2 and so on. There are also plans to setup hydro-power projects to make nepal sufficient of electricity and also earn foreign revenue by selling it..A and remarks are being updated. you will be glad you did it. there are more plans than actions. tents and camps but you can leave all to our professional companies too. But don't be scared. Rivers and Hydro-power Business in Nepal "Hydro power could help alleviate poverty" -. such plans go through numbers like these. government policy. first-aid kits. When the new Government comes to office. Just make sure you get hold of the right guys. There are plans to elevate poverty. They are as boring as the talks of political leaders.. and Gandaki are fueled by the Himalayas. Everybody loves pointing their fingers at the other Government. These rivers rush through 8848m altitude from sea level to 60m. You probably already know about the number one sport of Nepal. please stay with us. some privately owned hydropower plants are being setup in many part of the country. Seti.List of Exclusive River Rafting Operators >> and Learn all about Rafting Sport of Nepal here >> It is worth carrying a water-proof camera. so they add Plan 21 through Plan 9999 before saying good bye! In last 10 years alone. Unspoilt Magnificent Natural surroundings add to the beauty of these rivers which will multiply your fun. Plan 1 to Plan 20. some argue is it really ? Also visit blogs by Nepalese who have good coverage on what Nepali Government really is.
with an average dry season flow (November–May) of 451 m3/s a. and some other sensitive industries directly relating to public health. covering nearly 30% of Nepal. breach of contract. according to the statistics of foreign investment division of Department of Industry. Construction.Nepal and Foreign Investment With the expectation to supplement domestic private investment through foreign capital flows. agro based industries. In order to obtain the permission.NepalHydro. But cottage. some active and some just sleeping ones.. The project has a catchment area of 43. transfer of technology. poultry and fisheries. Energy. Mineral. arm and ammunition industries. The Government of Nepal has also created a competitive and investment friendly environment by making the administrative procedures simple and easy and also providing attractive incentives and facilities to the foreign investors making Nepal one of the safest and suitable business destinations in the world. there are about 905 foreign direct investment projects in Nepal that worth approximately US$ 1. loans..000 people in Nepal.. Japan. Besides this. the foreign investor should first submit an application to the Department. Nepal being a member of Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) assures the foreign investors against non-commercial risks like currency transfer.389 m3/s. China. Tourism and other Service related industries have generated employment opportunities to almost 95.000 or its equivalent in a . If an investor makes a lump sum investment of US$ 100. also Chisapani Dam Project. The law of Nepal also assures the security of investments against nationalization. These projects in the sectors like Agriculture/Forestry. South Korea and Germany are the leading countries with highest number of projects in Nepal. Until the investment of a foreign investor is retained in Nepal. explosives and atomic energy. As of July 2004. immediately upstream of the Terai. India.org. environment and defense are a few exceptions for foreign investment. war and civil disturbances in the country. energy. he/she and his/her dependents will be granted a business visa. Norway. etc. is located in the Karnali Gorge. enhancement in management skills and productivity and to get into the global market.np : PDF : 2001 Publications Related Content(s) Himalayas of Nepal Briefs on the Himalayas with photos Lakes of Nepal photos of some major lakes in the country PROJECTS Karnali (Chisapani) Multipurpose Project (10.65 billion.679 km². UK. tourism. real estate.800 MW): The site of the Karnali Multipurpose Project. There are various forms of foreign investment like shares. Almost every sector in Nepal is open for investment like manufacturing. USA. Manufacturing.scale hydro power projects. Any investor can establish an industry or a project in Nepal with the approval and permission of the Department of Industry under His Majesty’s Government of Nepal. either in joint venture or cent percent foreign. The potential foreign investor is granted six months non-tourist visa for the feasibility study. mining.. The long-term average river flow is 1. Nepal finally opened its door for foreign investment by adopting the most liberal economic policies.
sales tax. Female employees are entitled to 52 days paid maternity leave but all these employee benefits and facilities vary from one organization to the other. Nepal along with Bangladesh. she has very close economic ties with China. Reimbursement of (a) customs duty and sales tax on raw materials meant for industrial use (b) sales tax and excise duty levied on products sold to Export Promotion House (c) the customs duty.convertible currency and as long as he/she retains investment in Nepal. Other close neighbors of Nepal are Bangladesh and Pakistan. Exemption of tax. Bhutan. No royalty on captive power generation for the industry's own use and no double sales tax on the raw materials and products. spent on publicity and promotional services. tools and raw materials used by an export industry. The labor cost of Nepal is comparatively very low. auxiliary raw materials. India. Pakistan and Sri Lanka are the seven member countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The wage and salary of any of these groups is also lower than in any other developing countries. hospitality and any other similar permissible expenses.. Maldives. used for production by an export industry (d) excise duty. Apart from all these. Nepal and Bangladesh have already started bilateral trade through land route. Semiskilled and skilled laborers are plenty so as the unskilled laborers who generally work for 8 hours a day and 48 hours a week with a half and hour lunch break which is moreover known as tiffin break. 15% of income tax on income earned as technical fees as well as royalty. excise duty and sales tax levied on the raw materials. used for the production of goods sold within the country in foreign currency (e) customs duty. 15 days of sick leave with pay or half pay. equipment. Some incentives and facilities accorded by the Government to foreign investors: No income tax on (a) dividends (b) export earning (c) interest earned on foreign loan. he/she is granted a residential visa along with his/her dependents. etc. sales tax. The SAARC nations have a Preferential Trading Arrangement and are heading to free trade area under the SAARC framework. An additional of 10 % rebate on income tax to any industry providing direct employment to 600 or more Nepalese citizens. While Nepal has preferential trading arrangement with India. About Nepal Nepal lies in between the most populous countries of the world. Most . a foreign investor can employ an expert or technical personnel in the foreign investment project from his/her particular country upon the permission of the Labor Department and these experts can remit up to 75% of their income in convertible currency. The retirement age in Nepal is 55 but in some cases. sales tax and premium levied on any product and customs duty. A deduction of (a) 40 % of the value of new additional fixed assets from taxable income to industries which diversify production through reinvestments or expanding installed capacity by 25 % or more or modernize technology or develop ancillary industries (b) up to 50 % from the taxable income for the investment made on process or equipment for non-pollution (c) 10% from gross profit that goes for technology or product development and skill enhancement (d) 5% or less of the gross income. etc. Capitalization of pre-operating expenses incurred for skill development and training. India and China and maintains very good economic rapport with her neighbors which are also excellent trading partners with huge potentials for Nepalese exports. chemicals and packing materials. it can be extended to the age of 60. excise duty and premium levied on inputs used for production of intermediate goods to be used for the production of exportable goods including refund on the sales tax and excise duty paid on intermediate goods on the basis of the quantity of exports within sixty days from the date of export (f) excise duty or sales tax or both to the industry using duty-and tax-paid raw materials. The permanent workers are entitled to 13 days of public holidays. excise duty and premium levied on raw materials. duty and fee on the products. machinery.
Dolomite. other joint venture and commercial banks and financial corporations provides loans and full fledged services. Floriculture and Sericulture. Talc.000 MW is economically viable.2 (27 MW) Lower Arum (308 MW) Kali Gandaki . As per the same statistics of July 2004. Electronic and the Service Industries also carry high possibilities of foreign investment. Banking Service The Central Bank of Nepal . Silica. 17 Construction and 203 Service Industries related foreign direct investment projects in Nepal. In order to harness and develop hydropower.3 (402 MW) Kankai (60 MW) Likhu . The commercial banks also determine the open market exchange rate. Similarly the government is encouraging private foreign investment in this sector.000 MW out of which 43.A (30 MW) Arun . Oil and Natural Gas needs to be further explored. Nepal has not been able to exploit much of its potentiality and the people in Nepal still face severe power shortages. Flower and Vegetable Seeds. Until now. the two indigenous commercial banks . Banks. Iron-ore.Nepal Rastra Bank. Coffee.2 (207 MW) Upper Marshland . Processing of Spices.4 (51 MW) Dudh Koshi .Mewa (101MW) Rahughat Khola (27 MW) Andhi Khola (176 MW) Upper Arun (335 MW) Scope for foreign investment in other areas/sectors Tourism also avails high scope for foreign investment opportunities. As of the July 2004 statistics of Department of Industry. As of July 2004. Vegetable and Mushroom Farming and Tea comes under this sector. There are 3 foreign direct investment projects in this sector. Pharmaceutical.Nepal Bank and Rastriya Banijya Bank. 15 Energy Based. Areas like Computer Software Development.of the offices in Nepal are closed Saturdays and Sundays like the Government organizations. There are insurance companies also providing insurance services. Diplomatic Corps. but others work from Sunday through Friday – six days a week. Medicinal and Aromatic Herbs.3 (121 MW) Hydro Power Projects identified for Development Chameliya (30 MW) Budhi Ganga (20 MW) Kabeli . there are about 218 foreign direct investment projects in this sector. . private sectors were involved to carry out small and medium sized hydro power projects. Leather and Textile. there are 435 Manufacturing. etc. Mineral that includes Stone and Limestone.2 (660 MW) Burhi Gandaki (600 MW) Tila River (203 MW) Naumure (245 MW) Tama Koshi .3 (287 MW) Upper Trishuli (300MW) Mai Loop (60 MW) Tama Koshi . A number of projects for feasibility studies and development has also been recognized which are as follows: Hydro Power Projects identified for Feasibility Study Khimti Khola .1 (300 MW) Tamur . Fruits and Dairy Products. there are 14 projects under Agriculture and Forestry. Scope for foreign investment in Hydro Power Nepal has a huge potential of hydro power that comes to about 83.
Finance Minister Barsha Man Pun said that the government would move ahead by taking the private sector into confidence to build strong foundation of national economy. The federation proposed to introduce Nepal in the map of international investment. According to him. “Lack of conducive environment for investment. he said. emphasised on the need of improvments the labour sector.Although the Government of Nepal is open to foreign direct investment with all its liberal policies. The umbrella organisation of Nepal‟s private sector has indicated some major problems for the investment environment in Nepal. Article by visitnepal. Speaking at the programme. Similarly. “The existing labour unrest should be ended at the earliest.com editor HIMALAYAN NEWS SERVICE KATHMANDU: Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FNCCI) has proposed to observe the year 2012 as „Nepal Investment Year‟. labour unrest and illegal tax are major stumbling blocks to the industrial environment. President of the FNCCI Suraj Baidhya called on the government to create investment-friendly environment to boost up morale of private sector for investment and create employment in the country.com . energy crisis.” he said. www.thehimalayantimes. liquidity crunch and high interest rate. The government will give a priority to the economic prosperity along with political stability.” the federation asserted. Dipendra Bhahadur Kshetri. finance minister Pun said that present government has embraced the private sector as a key player for development. poor infrastructure facilities. in an interaction here today. increase the investment in industrial sector. create more jobs and adopt the investment as a main economic policy of the country. sometimes its implementation policies seems unclear with the bureaucratic delays and inefficiency but it should not be considered as an obstacle towards the foreign investment in Nepal. newly-appointed vice-chairman of the National Planning Commission (NPC). Nepal should take advantages from surging economic prosperity achieved by its neighbours – China and India.
an unstable political system and no skilled labor force. their students are denied quality education. mobile learning. Now. .This year’s budget allocated US$ 8 billion for education – up 25% from last year. Technology Regions: Nepal Compared to neighboring India and China. In urban areas too public schools lack proper facilities and funding. via Wikimedia Commons. This publicprivate school gulf further perpetuates the divide between the haves and have nots in the community. Photo by Argenberg. internet. The government allocates and distributes funds for these schools every year. more and more people are now connected to the information superhighway. Schools in poor.Nepal: Opportunities and Challenges For Mobile Education Thursday. the gains made over the years are encouraging and show that the country has significant untapped potential. This is not to say that all rural public schools are poor performers or that private schools are always the best option. but lax oversight and an inability to root out corruption has meant that large amounts of funds simply disappear before being put to good use. Nepal is no longer on the sidelines. the disporportionate number of rural public schools that fail should set alarm bells ringing in Kathmandu. While the public schools wait for government and public attention. alongside gleaming private schools that boast of the highest quality education money can buy and teachers from the best univerisities stand dilapalated public schools whose students struggle to compete with their private school counterparts. A great step forward. Nepal was a late entrant to the information revolution that swept the region in the 1990s. healthcare and entertainment. with young people leading the charge to make the country more technologyfriendly. Private schools are limited outside urban areas and in any case are beyond the reach – or pockets! – of many families. rural areas lack basic physical facilities and trained teachers. Nepal. the country was forced to stand by and watch while others tried to make sense of the changes the new technology was pushing. the country is enthusiastically embracing information technology. nepal. Basic Education Nepal’s education sector has suffered years of neglect. With limited infrastructure. In the capital Kathmandu. inadequate funding and political meddling. education. and 17% of the total budget. However. From education to business.With the explosive growth in smart phone and mobile Internet market. two decades later. School kids at Ranighat. 25 August 2011 / Bhumika Ghimire Tags: developing countries. Although there are still many areas where Nepal could improve access to technology and make it easier and cheaper. Mobile Phone.
Political interference in the education sector means that even schools and universities are victimized.Universities and Political Meddling Public universities too are neglected in Nepal. The messages. pure science or mathematics. finding that as few as 4 days of school missed in a year because of snow storms reduced student exam scores. history. Given the fast growing telecom market in Nepal and the ready availability of trained professionals. they can be a great boon. Educational messaging can be of great service. Now with the country’s industrial sector in shambles and the economy sliding. Students routinely complain of lack of adequate laboratory materials. dozens of strikes have brought school. their fate is similar to public schools. The messages can supplement their outside reading and learning requirements.” Cavanaugh suggests implementing mobile or online learning to compensate for school hours lost due to strikes. Take into account other kinds of service users and the country has about 7 million mobile phone users. Technology to the Rescue According to the Nepal Telecommunications Authority. It is an investment in the country’s education sector and could produce great results .and use them as pawns to further their education and social strategies. They can also be a way to spread awarness about diseases. associate professor at the university of Florida and a former Fulbright scholar. Education institutions – profit seeking or non-profit – can develop course materials and send them via text messaging to subscribers. 2009 data). Private universities are trying to fill the gap. American researchers recently studied this impact by investigating the effect of snow days on student learning outcomes. frequent dropped calls. With the mobile internet – although this may not be feasible for those in rural areas or with financial constraints – the institutions can provide an option for students to take online courses. And it does not take many missed school days to noticeably impact student academic performance. there are more than 6 million GSM mobile phone subscribers in Nepal. civics. social issues and natural disasters in hard to reach areas.but is the Nepal’s physical infrastructure dependable enough? The Roadblocks Market growth and investment from the private and public sector in technology education has strengthened information technology’s soft side in Nepal while the backbone – the infrastructure – still remains on shaky ground. the country is slow to invest in strengthening existing structures and building new ones. mobile learning is not an impossible goal for the country. This presents an opportunity for mobile education in Nepal. and technical problems plaguing the masts are the most common problems facing Nepal’s mobile phone service providers. as a supplement to the text messages. Charging a flat rate fee for the course or selling advertising can generate revenue for the institutions. No More Strikes In Nepal with its political uncertainities. even in rural areas without proper roads and means of transportation. but for basic courses in English. and geography. has noted that Nepali students are losing precious school hours due to frequent strikes: “In recent years. but for the majority of students. On the policy level too there are roadblocks which can mainly be ascribed to the unstable political environment and lack of consistent leadership.000. direct or indirect political meddling has perhaps had the most negative impact. . Even primary schools are not left untouched. Political parties and their youth wings recruit students – usually those in high school and university. The market has shown growth across the whole country. 160 characters long (a typical tweet is 140 characters) may not be suitable for subjects requiring analysis or calculations like economics. The ten year long conflict also dealt a severe blow to the already fragile infrastructure. It does not take many unanticipated days out of school to amount to a significant proportion of the school year. although compared to urban areas the rate of growth there is much slower. This is much higher than the number of households with access to the internet (about 630. Among all the issues plaguing Nepal’s public education institutions. Under-aged students are often forced to take part in political events without their parents’ or guardian’s consent. Cathy Cavanaugh. strikes -known locally as banda – are a common occurance. The other interesting aspect of Nepal’s mobile phone users is that they are not centered in any one part of the country. Poor voice quality. these instutions are prohibitively expensive and their desire to stay urban-centered keeps them out of the reach of students in rural areas. and travel to a standstill around Kathmandu. work. especially to students in rural areas who have little or no access to the internet or a library. Incoming messages are provided free of charge while outgoing messages are charged at less than a penny by most mobile phone service providers. too much politicization of university affairs and also that the curriculum does not keep pace with the new technology.
and political accountability represents an opportunity in this transition. In the past five years. For instance. major milestones of the peace process are yet to be met and progress in constitutionwriting has been slow. and online courses present a broad window of opportunity for Nepal’s educational institutions and also for the government. Private educational institutions too can use mobile learning to supplement classroom learning and as a revenue generator. democratic elections. The new constitution is supposed to lead to a major restructuring of the state as Nepal will adopt federalism as a fundamental principle of governance. the election of a Constituent Assembly. Also. social and political inclusion. this could be a great way of strengthening public schools which could even sell advertising to raise extra revenue. subsidizing the service for rural and financially disadvantaged students. It can supplement classroom instruction and also provide a way for students to minimize the loss of hours caused by frequent strikes. However.futurechallanges.The Opportunities Mobile learning through text messaging.org world bank site Nepal Country Overview 2011 Updated September 2011 Overview | Current Challenges | World Bank in Nepal | Current Lending Overview Political instability has been the defining feature of the Nepali state during the last two decades. Mobile education presents a fresh opportunity to focus on education. the abolition of monarchy and declaration of a federal republic. This has led to the rise of identity politics with an increasing demand for state recognition and greater accommodation of diverse . As the country’s history has proven. www. The political compact around a new Constitution that endorses the devolution of power. The conflict and the prolonged transition to peace and stability have contributed to a progressive erosion of the effectiveness of some state institutions. It would be a great leap forward if the private and public sector enter a partnership and push mobile learning as a national priority. Nepal has had 20 governments since the introduction of democracy in 1990. an opportunity Nepal must not ignore. Elections both at national and local levels are planned after the constitution is promulgated. five governments. The country is still emerging from a violent 10-year conflict with some aftershocks. a new Interim Constitution. poor law and order is a growing concern. For the government. and the rise of strong ethnic identity movements. particularly in certain geographic areas. social. education is the best and most effective way to strengthen the people. and economic institutions that did not reflect the country’s diversity. Nepalis have witnessed the signing of a peace agreement between the former Maoist rebels and the state. the conflict raised awareness that the Nepali state had been associated with exclusionary political.
The Infant Mortality Rate dropped from 79 in 1996 to 39 in 2010. Efforts to reduce the 16 hour load shedding gap during the dry season have been unsuccessful. Nevertheless. Official remittances. The rapid expansion of expenditures (20 percent of GDP in FY10) has been supported by a strong revenue performance (15 percent of GDP) and the availability of foreign aid (2. and international reserves declined by about US$ 300 million to 6. The Human Development Index ranks Nepal at 138 out of 169 countries in 2011. The Gender Parity Index for secondary school net enrollment has also increased from 0. Price movements in Nepal have largely mirrored India’s because of the open border between the two counties. More recent estimates show that since 2004.87 (2007) to 0. But expenditure quality remains an issue. Nepal has one of the largest untapped hydropower resources in the world – an estimated 83. energy-hungry countries in the world. but its potential has not yet been fully utilized. Gender and social parity have been achieved in primary education. remains about 20 percent of GDP. construction. excluding informal flows and flows from India.5 months of imports. the national poverty rate may have declined further. Nepal’s local government officials elected in 1999 were dismissed in 2002. income disparity has increased. Ironically.5 percent).000 live births. and ethnic identities. cultural.98 (2010).000 MW of hydropower potential and is surrounded by two of the fastest growing. Real GDP growth was 4. The CA provides an inclusive forum to negotiate these issues. remittances are estimated to be equivalent to 25-30 percent of GDP. Poor reliability and access to power are the most serious infrastructure bottlenecks to growth. and consumption fueled by remittances. earning Nepal the MDG Millennium Award in 2010. Women now make up over 30 percent of the representatives in parliament.5 percent) and domestic borrowing (2. At least one-third of deliveries are now in the presence of trained health workers. When these flows are included. Increasing access to electricity in a timely and cost-effective manner is one of the most significant development challenges facing Nepal today. Full immunization coverage rose from 43 percent in 1996 to 83 percent in 2006. Implementation of an inclusion policy of women in the civil service shows positive trends. Inflation has been in the low double digits but has recently come down to below 10 percent. .4 percent in FY09. Despite political uncertainties. the lack of elected local officials increases the challenge of making the state downwardly accountable to its citizens.5 percent in 2010. Current Challenges With a GDP per capita of US$ 490 (estimated FY11).social. Net Primary Enrollment in schools has increased from 81 percent in 2002 to 94. Sources of growth include agriculture. Nepal maintained a policy of prudent fiscal management during FY10 and through mid-FY11. Nepal remains the poorest country in South Asia and the seventeenth poorest in the world: While the proportion of poor people has declined substantially in recent years. Gender disparities in political participation are decreasing both in elected and administrative government.6 percent in FY10—following 4. Also. The Maternal Mortality Rate declined from 538 in 1996 to 380 per 100. Informal political forums and ‘street actions’ are popular as approaches to resolving politically contested issues. Nepal’s economic growth continues to be adversely affected by the political uncertainty. Nepal has made impressive progress on several social indicators: The proportion of poor people has declined substantially in recent years from 42 percent in 1995-96 to 31 percent in 2003-04. financial and other services. Remittance growth slowed to 11 percent (in Nepali Rupee terms) from above 40 percent during the two previous years.
and rural livelihoods. but modestly. the poor have been affected. Investments in Nepal are constrained by a challenging regulatory and legal framework for foreign investment.9 percent for low-income developing countries. Three and a half million people are considered moderately to severely food insecure in Nepal. Food and Fuel Prices Food prices in Nepal have risen rapidly. To the extent there have been modest adjustments in retail prices of various oil products. poor implementation of property rights. The urban poor are most affected by high prices for staples and vegetables in urban markets. including most rural roads. absence of supporting infrastructure and the relatively smaller size of projects constrain investments. The political space to introduce difficult reform measures is limited economic growth and increased private investment also remain dependent upon a political settlement that promotes greater law and order. Nepal is highly susceptible to climate change risks and ranks 11th in the world in terms of vulnerability to earthquakes. Climate change is expected to intensify Nepal’s already pronounced climate variability and increase the frequency of climate extremes such as droughts and floods. while the rural poor – especially in remote. Over one-third of the people in the hills are more than four hours away from an all-weather road. As a result. poor governance and accounting practices. incomes. The quality of the road network is also poor – 60 percent of the road network. Poor physical connectivity has been another major challenge to Nepal’s development efforts. Preoccupation with the prolonged political transition has overshadowed economic issues. Maintenance is seriously neglected. In addition. to consumers. The overall effect of rising or high food prices on the poor is therefore a function of location as well as prices. chronically food-insecure districts – are doubly impacted by high transport costs and grain prices. Its road density is one of the lowest in South Asia. cannot provide all-weather connectivity. The impact of international fuel price increases has largely been on government finances in Nepal. among those who do join. fewer complete the 10th grade. inadequate attention has been given to issues of reforms that could improve the investment climate. the country’s logistical limitations. however. The urban poor. The government has not passed through all the increase of oil import prices. stimulate growth and create more private sector jobs. net Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nepal averaged only 0. especially in food-insecure areas. 15 out of 75 district headquarters are yet to be connected by a road. and heightened political uncertainty. The nutritional status of women and children has not shown much improvement with chronic malnutrition affecting about half of the nation’s children. affecting the poor.1 percent of GDP as compared to an average of 1. Given that productive agriculture is a crucial element of inclusive growth. In the five years to 2009. fewer girls than boys join secondary schools and. The country has also experienced a series of droughts and erratic monsoons in food-insecure areas which have reduced food availability and raised prices. weakness in the domestic banking sector together with lack of a swap market for the Nepali Rupee. This is in part because the real poor in rural areas consume few oil products (mostly kerosene for lighting). and thus the impact appears as higher loss of Nepal Oil Corporation (NOC) and their monthly losses have increased. Food inflation remains at about 15-17 percent nationally. Increasing access to secondary school education (grades 9-12) remains a major challenge as evidenced by the disturbingly low net enrollment rate of 24 percent at this level. and only one-half of them complete secondary schooling. In addition. except gasoline. In addition. Meeting the Challenges . More than half of primary level students do not enter secondary schools. consume more LPG for cooking. enhancing the efficiency of irrigation systems will continue to be critical to increase agricultural productivity. especially in the manufacturing sector.
The nearest allseason road is least a two hour walk away for 1 in every 3 Nepalis. some 60 percent of the road network and most rural roads are inoperable during the rainy season. Nepal is not without some significant assets. travel time for road users was cut from an average trip time of 2. has so far focused on remote. A survey of five completed roads found an increase of more than 20 percent in motorized and nonmotorized trips during the first year of operations.6 hours to 32 minutes. Additionally the remote hill project districts have upgraded another 38 kilometers to dry-season standard. schools. The headquarters of 6 of Nepal’s 75 districts are yet to be connected by road. and developed small community infrastructures. micro-hydropower generation. Connecting Nepal’s Rural Poor Nepal's rugged terrain prevents people from moving with ease. and hilly areas of the country. The evidence is compelling that the strength behind development in Nepal is highly concentrated at the community level. active in 20 districts. 17 districts still need to upgrade their roads to all weather conditions. To date the project has rehabilitated and upgraded 540 kilometers of existing dry-season rural roads to all-season standard. Where a supportive framework has been created for communities to undertake such activities. The Rural Access Improvement and Decentralization Project (RAIDP). to community-based programs in rural drinking water. Improving these inoperable roads to an all-weather standard and implementing a system of regular maintenance is essential for Nepal’s economic growth and social welfare. Village Road Coordinating Committees were established to monitor . Success stories abound. the World Bank agreed in 2005 to help Nepal improve rural roads to provide greater access to markets. The project financed maintenance of about 3. Nepal’s road network and quality are among the lowest in South Asia. Similarly. Key to the project’s success is the active role played by the local communities. there have been impressive development successes. rural.In meeting these challenges.500 kilometers of rural roads. To help address these problems. from forestry user groups and women’s groups. community management of schools and the Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF). rural roads. For example. and health clinics. Many of the truly community-owned efforts demonstrated great viability even during the height of the conflict. constructed 102 trail bridges. Overall.
depending on the availability of viable investments and improvements in the business climate. Nepal has been selected as a pilot country to implement an enhanced joint strategy to leverage IDA and IFC resources and realize synergies. Over the next two years (FY12-FY13) Nepal can potentially benefit from an allocation of about US$ 400 million from IDA. these include roads. Communities contribute at least 20 percent either in cash or local labor and materials. It also emphasizes greater selectivity. lending to Small and Medium Enterprises and trade finance facilities for local banks. Supporting the Government of Nepal’s overarching goal to build a peaceful. the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the World Bank Institute (WBI). It proposes development programs that are consistent with the Government of Nepal’s Three Year Plan. also provide investment insurance and capacity building services respectively. building on programs with successful track records that are adapted to local conditions. The project will help upgrade a further 550 kilometers of existing dry-season rural roads to all-season standard. the private sector arm. IFC can potentially commit US$ 25-30 million on average annually. agriculture and climate change. gender equality and social inclusion are themes that run across all three pillars. In most cases. the World Bank committed additional funds to help Nepal expand RAIDP to 10 more districts. food security and livelihood vulnerability. For IFC. the World Bank Group includes the International Development Association (IDA). The additional financing is expected to create 150 days a year of off-farm employment for over 30. The strategy reflects considerable continuity. accountability. The second focuses on reducing vulnerabilities and improving resilience. Two more World Bank Group organizations. These funds could finance four to five new operations per year. IDA and IFC expect to work together on power development. including construction of markets and community trails and roads.000 people. Governance. The third pillar concentrates on promoting access to better quality services. trade facilitation. focusing on areas considered vital to Nepal’s development and complementing programs supported by other development partners. the strategy identifies specific areas where the Bank Group can make a difference. Given the transitional nature of Nepal’s current situation – with a new constitution being drafted and elections to follow – the World Bank Group has prepared an Interim Strategy Note covering Fiscal Years 2012 and 2013. As part of this project villages receive support to develop small community infrastructure. education. The first pillar intends to enhance connectivity and productivity for growth. urban services. Approximately 2. . the strategy is organized around three ‘pillars’ that emerged during consultations within the Bank Group and with the Government. this is covered through contribution of labor and local materials.The World Bank Group in Nepal In Nepal. the quality of road works and also to identify other community infrastructure needs. and disaster management. health. Within each of these pillars. including those in the Tarai plains. the concessionary lending arm and the International Finance Corporation (IFC). prosperous and just Nepal. In December 2009. subject to performance and economic management.4 million people are expected to benefit by the time the project ends in 2013. donor partners and key stakeholders. these include improving access to finance and investment climate. For IDA.
In partnership with the Government and other donors. and support the formation of a Trans-boundary Waters Cell. and resource mobilization arrangements for forestry in Nepal was initiated in FY2009/10 and will be completed in the coming fiscal year. to provide core data on poverty trends and access to services. ADB. IDA’s North Eastern Region Trade and Transport Facilitation Program (NER T&T) and IFCs planned South Asia Regional Trade and Integration (SARTI) program. medium-term public expenditure management. In addition. looking at integrated management options. with support from DFID and Denmark. discussions are underway to support updating of Nepal’s key river basin master plan. In addition. Nepal is also part of IFC’s SME Venture Fund global initiative which focuses on eight high-risk IDA countries. Red Cross and others) is expected to lay the basis for future program support from the Global Fund for Disaster Risk Reduction. such as investment climate strengthening and trade facilitation. At the global level. The Regional Wildlife Program. such as trade finance facilities for local banks and advisory activities. implementation of the Right to Information and food security and nutrition challenges. Other areas of attention have included analysis of migration and remittances trends.Analytical and Advisory Services The World Bank Group is also engaged in analytical and knowledge dissemination exercises. Both these CIF programs involve joint design and implementation by the . Nepal is the only country in the world that has been selected to participate in two Climate Investment Fund (CIF) Pilot Programs – the Scaling Up Renewable Energy Program (SREP) and the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR). the Bank continues to provide advice on ways to improve existing social protection systems and on the design of a national social protection framework. IDA and IFC plan to collaborate on two new tentative programs. and eventually. Regional and Global Programs In addition to nationally focused investment projects. The Nepal-India Electricity Transmission and Trade Project will enable power trade through imports into Nepal as needed. the Bank is working closely with the Central Bureau of Statistics to complete the next Living Standards Survey (NLSS 3). IFC is enhancing regional integration through investment activities. With respect to forests and climate change. In the non-lending areas. build capacity within the GON for river basin modeling. an assessment of incentives. teams have disseminated information on international experience on specialized topics (such as fiscal decentralization and civil service transition) at the request of Constituent Assembly committees and other Government bodies. the World Bank Group is actively supporting Nepal’s participation in regional and multilateral global initiatives. export of surplus power to India. governance. develop river basin models. financial sector risk management. Other areas of analytic focus include water resource management. Other on-going IDA/IFC work is laying the foundation for carbon-based trading and financial support from the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience and other climate investment funds. institutions and incentives to collaborate in tackling illegal wildlife trade and other conservation threats to habitats in border areas. is assisting participating governments to build capacity. For example. where the Bank team is working with the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat to establish a geo-referenced water resources information system. Joint work on disaster management (in collaboration with the UN. Strengthening Regional Cooperation for Wildlife Protection in Asia. IFC’s trade logistics reform work relies on a strong private sector partnership approach to identify issues and validate results. assessment of the investment climate. Strong IFC/private sector engagement in the creation of the Nepal Business Forum is facilitating public-private sector dialogue and pragmatic problem-solving. IDA is channeling support to Nepal from the regional programs like the South Asia Water Initiative (SAWI) and the South Asia Food and Nutrition Security Initiative (SAFANSI). Trade facilitation work by IFC includes assisting governments to build efficient trade logistics systems and services through targeted reforms aimed at reducing the time and cost for the private sector to import and export.
The impact on other welfare indicators is . the United States) to ensure complementarity with local programs. inequality and lack of services. Of the total number of poor households supported currently.000 poor households. They are free to choose from an open menu to correspond to local priorities.831 Community Organizations and 405. and IFC. Community groups organize themselves and collectively identify. 57 percent are Dalit and Janajati. implying program’s ability to distribute growth towards targeted groups. as well as collaboration with other donors (such as DFID. Central to the idea of the PAF is a conviction that the poor themselves are best suited to manage their own needs and resources. The estimated net program impact on per capita consumption has also been positive and in particular.000 households. growth has been higher for Dalit and Janajati and for the poorer segments of the population. The evaluations indicate that 66 percent of households covered under PAF have obtained a minimum income increase of 15 percent (in real terms) and have achieved an average increase in income of 82. Recently completed impact evaluation studies show that this program has resulted in enhancing income and consumption levels. The program began implementation at the height of the conflict in 2004. and implement their development needs. prioritize. supporting 14.Asian Development Bank (ADB). Empowering the Disempowered The Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF) was designed to address the root causes of Nepal’s conflict – poverty. PAF has covered 40 poorest districts. and has benefitted more than 513. Denmark.5 percent in real terms and 182 percent in nominal terms. plan. IDA. fund.
The IDA portfolio consisted of 19 active projects with net commitments of US$ 1.0 million) Strengthening Regional Cooperation For Wildlife Protection (US$ 3. Additional financing approved by the World Bank in April 2011 will continue supporting PAF activities in more communities.0 million) Kabeli Transmission Project (US$ 38.0 million) Additional Finance for Poverty Alleviation Fund (US$ 65 million) Nepal. with net commitments of about US$ 142.2 million) IDF: Strengthening Inst Capacity of DNPWC (US$ . It will also help improve food security in response to the drought and price fluctuations. New IDA commitments approved in FY2010/11 totaled US$ 355 million (of which IDA Grants represented US$ 131. consisting of power.0 million) In addition. banking. microfinance.India Electricity Transmission and Trade (US$ 99.0 million) Enhanced Vocational Education and Training (US$ 50. IFC’s committed investment portfolio in Nepal stood at US$ 28 million as of June 30. farmers’ groups) and women’s empowerment. 2011 .also positive and significant: 10 percent points decrease in incidence of food insufficiency and 6 percent points increase in school enrolment rate for children aged 5-15.34 million.5 million) IDA Portfolio in Nepal as of June 30.66 million): Additional Finance for Road Sector Development Program (US$ 75. 2011. the World Bank’s concessional lending and grant program to Nepal consisted of 28 active projects.503 billion. tourism. and IDA Credits amounted to US$ 223.0 million) Urban Government and Development Program (US$ 25. three grants amounting to US$ 123. particularly among the most vulnerable to the spiraling cost of food.0 million) REDD Preparation Grant (US$ 3. and trade finance lines.9 million. The program’s positive effect is also seen in access to services (agriculture centers. 2011. Current Portfolio As of June 30. community forest groups.7 million were approved in FY2010/11 to support: EFA-FTI School Sector Reform Project (US$ 120. transport. while the Trust Fund portfolio included 11 active projects.
. and improved basic service delivery for Nepal’s poor.Last updated: 2011-09-21 Nepal: Moving Towards a Better Future for All New Opportunities July 7. On June 27. which at the same time. prosperous and accountable. growth. presents to its people an opportunity to build a stable and peaceful nation that is inclusive. the World Bank and the Government of Nepal signed agreements totaling US$116 million paving the way for four key projects which will address some of the major development challenges the World Bank is helping Nepal to overcome. Upcoming Projects The World Bank in Nepal is helping to address key elements of this peace process.Nepal is passing through a difficult and prolonged transition. 2011. including the foundations for state building. 2011 .
promoting a strong and inclusive local government system.Emerging Opportunities As Nepalis move in unprecedented numbers into towns and cities. Protecting our Natural Heritage Nepal’s biodiversity is extremely important for the country’s economy as well as the well-being of its people. The Project will construct a 132 kV transmission line in eastern Nepal that will open up the extreme east of Nepal for power sector development and shorten the distance required to transmit electricity to the country’s main industrial center around Biratnagar. improved standards of services and better infrastructure is also increasing. and youth belonging to Dalit. The project will also support institutional development activities. Dhankuta. renewable energy and small hydropower generation. technical education. and opportunities for certifying their existing skills. This Project is a continuation of the World Bank Group’s deepening engagement in Nepal’s power sector which includes projects in cross-border electricity transmission. Baglung and Tansen. the Government of Nepal approved an Electricity Management Plan. the need for rapid economic development. However. these new undertakings will help maximize the benefits of urbanization and revive economic activity by removing barriers to growth. helping to move towards a just and equitable state. But most Nepali migrant workers are poorly skilled and thus they end up with low paying jobs. Lekhnath. and. The Strengthening Regional Cooperation for Wildlife Protection in Asia is a regional project that will address the cross-border illegal wildlife trade through regional cooperation and capacity building and support the country’s initiative for habitat protection and management for wildlife in general and tigers in particular. poor youth. women.000 Nepali youth get access to short-term skills training. The Urban Governance and Development Program: Emerging Towns Project will address these challenges by helping to improve the basic delivery of services and priority infrastructure in six key municipalities – Mechinagar. in the longer term. A third of the working male population is already believed to be abroad and they remit a staggering 25 percent of the GDP or maybe even more. Empowering the Youth While the country has a vibrant workforce. as generating projects must have a credible plan for transmitting power. habitat loss and poaching of wild animals have put the environmental and ecological balance under severe threat. In response to the dramatic worsening of electricity supply in 2008. Few jobs are available domestically. The Enhanced Vocational Education and Training (EVENT) project will help improve access to Technical Education and Vocational Training programs especially for disadvantaged youth. No of projects funded by world bank in nepal . Together with the Emerging Towns Project. A Brighter Nation Insufficient and costly electricity is a major constraint to the economic and human development of the country. Itahari. Protecting the wildlife and their habitat has numerous benefits in protecting livelihoods as well as in the potential of promoting ecotourism. which has become the fastest growing and most profitable segment of the tourist industry. and Nepali workers migrate out of necessity than by choice. The project will enhance sustainable development while promoting ecotourism. in which the Kabeli Transmission Project was identified as one of the priorities. nearly half of the workers have never attended school. Special attention will be given to lagging regions. The transmission line will also facilitate efforts by Nepali private hydropower developers to arrange financing for their projects. pressures such as deforestation. The project will help approximately 75. Janajati and other marginalized communities. as well as persons with disability.
Amt lent by year in Nepal .
AS WORLD BANK GDP IN 2010: 15701058166 USD POPULATION:29959364 ENERGY PRODUCED : 8733 (kt OF OIL EQUIVALENT) IN 2010 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.