Lower Limb Muscles

TRANSCRIPTIONIST: RYE CHU TRANX 2015 S.Y. 2011 -- 2012

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 MUSCLE

GLUTEAL MUSCLES ORIGIN INSERTION INNERVATION MAIN ACTIONS Extends thigh at the hip and assists in its lateral rotation; steadies thigh and assists in raising trunk from flexed position Abducts and medially rotates thigh at hip; steadies pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised Abducts and medially rotates thigh at hip; steadies pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised Laterally rotates extended thigh at hip and abducts flexed thigh at hip; steadies femoral head in acetabulum Laterally rotates extended thigh at hip and abducts flexed thigh at hip; steadies femoral head in acetabulum Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line, Most fibers end in iliotibial tract that inserts Inferior gluteal nerve dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx, into lateral condyle of tibia; some fibers insert and sacrotuberous ligament on gluteal tuberosity of femur Lateral surface of greater trochanter Superior gluteal nerve

Gluteus maximus

Gluteus medius External surface of ilium

Gluteus minimus Piriformis

External surface of ilium

Anterior surface of greater trochanter

Superior gluteal nerve

Anterior surface of sacrum and sacrotuberous ligament Pelvic surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones Superior: ischial spine Inferior: ischial tuberosity

Superior border of greater trochanter

Branches of ventral rami S1 and S2 Nerve to obturator internus

Obturator internus Gemelli, superior and inferior

Medial surface of greater trochanter

Medial surface of greater trochanter

Superior gemellus: same Laterally rotate extended thigh at the hip nerve supply as obturator and abduct flexed thigh at the hip; steady internus femoral head in acetabulum Inferior gemellus: same nerve supply as quadratus femoris Nerve to quadratus femoris Laterally rotates thigh at hip; steadies femoral head in acetabulum

Quadratus femoris

Lateral border of ischial tuberosity

Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur and inferior to it

 MUSCLE ANTERIOR THIGH MUSCLES ORIGIN Sides of T12-L5 vertebrae and disks between them. rectus femoris also steadies hip joint and helps iliopsoas to flex thigh at hip Extends leg at knee joint Extends leg at knee joint Extends leg at knee joint Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius Femoral nerve Femoral nerve Femoral nerve . and flexes thigh at hip. abducts. iliac fossa. medially rotates. transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae Iliac crest. and femur Iliotibial tract that attaches to lateral condyle of tibia Superior part of medial surface Femoral nerve of tibia Quadriceps Femoris Rectus femoris Anterior inferior iliac spine and ilium superior to acetabulum Greater trochanter and lateral lip of linea aspera of femur Intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur Anterior and lateral surfaces of femoral shaft Base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity Base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity Base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity Base of patella and by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity Femoral nerve Extends leg at knee joint. lesser trochanter. helps to keep knee extended Flexes. ala of sacrum. and anterior sacroiliac ligaments Anterior superior iliac spine and anterior iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine and superior part of notch inferior to it INSERTION Lesser trochanter of femur INNERVATION Ventral rami of lumbar nerves (L1-L3) Femoral nerve Superior gluteal nerve MAIN ACTIONS Acts jointly with iliacus in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilizing hip joint Acts jointly with psoas major in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilizing hip joint Abducts. flexes knee joint Psoas major (iliopsoas) Iliacus (iliopsoas) Tensor fasciae latae Sartorius Tendon of psoas major. and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint.

g. extends thigh at hip (e. with flexed hip and knee. flexes leg at knee. linea aspera. and adductor tubercle of femur tuberosity (hamstring part) Body and inferior ramus of pubis Superior part of medial surface of tibia Gracilis Obturator externus  MUSCLE Margins of obturator foramen Trochanteric fossa of femur and obturator membrane POSTERIOR THIGH MUSCLES ORIGIN Ischial tuberosity INSERTION Medial surface of superior part of tibia INNERVATION Tibial division of sciatic nerve MAIN ACTIONS Extends thigh at hip. just inferior to lesser trochanter INNERVATION Femoral nerve. extends trunk Extends thigh at hip. hamstring part: extends thigh Adducts thigh at hip.. ramus Gluteal tuberosity. adductor part: also flexes thigh at hip. and helps to rotate it medially Rotates thigh laterally at hip. with flexed hip and knee. tendon at this site split by fibular collateral ligament of knee Long head: tibial division of sciatic nerve Short head: common fibular (peroneal) division of sciatic nerve . when Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Ischial tuberosity Posterior part of medial condyle of tibia Tibial division of sciatic nerve Biceps femoris Long head: ischial tuberosity Short head: linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur Lateral side of head of fibula. steadies femoral head in acetabulum Pectineus Adductor longus Adductor brevis Adductor magnus Body of pubis inferior to pubic Middle third of linea aspera of femur crest Body and inferior ramus of pubis Pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of femur Inferior ramus of pubis. extends trunk Flexes leg at knee and rotates it laterally. and ischial line (adductor part). assists with medial rotation of thigh Adducts thigh at hip Adducts thigh at hip and to some extent flexes it Adducts thigh at hip. medial supracondylar of ischium. flexes leg at knee and rotates it medially. may receive a branch from obturator nerve Obturator nerve Obturator nerve Adductor part: obturator nerve Hamstring part: tibial part of sciatic nerve Obturator nerve Obturator nerve MAIN ACTIONS Adducts and flexes thigh at hip. MUSCLE MEDIAL THIGH MUSCLES ORIGIN Superior ramus of pubis INSERTION Pectineal line of femur. flexes leg at knee and rotates it medially.

supports longitudinal arches of foot Plantar-flexes foot at ankle and inverts foot Popliteus Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior Tibial nerve Tuberosity of navicular. and posterior surface of fibula INSERTION Posterior surface of tibia. and medial border of tibia Inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligament Tibial nerve Plantaris Tibial nerve  MUSCLE POSTERIOR LEG DEEP MUSCLES ORIGIN Lateral epicondyle of femur and lateral meniscus Inferior two thirds of posterior surface of fibula and inferior interosseous membrane Medial part of posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line. cuneiform. 3. steadies leg on foot Weakly assists gastrocnemius in plantarflexing foot at ankle and flexing knee Gastrocnemius Lateral head: lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur Medial head: popliteal surface of femur. flexes leg at knee joint Plantar-flexes foot at ankle. and Tibial nerve cuboid and bases of metatarsals 2. and 4 . raises heel during walking. MUSCLE ANTERIOR LEG MUSCLES ORIGIN Lateral condyle and superior half of lateral surface of tibia Middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane Lateral condyle of tibia and superior three fourths of anterior surface of interosseous membrane and fibula INSERTION Medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of first metatarsal Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of great toe Middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits Dorsum of base of fifth metatarsal INNERVATION Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve MAIN ACTIONS Dorsiflexes foot at ankle and inverts foot Extends great toe and dorsiflexes foot at ankle Extends lateral four digits and dorsiflexes foot at ankle Dorsiflexes foot at ankle and aids in eversion of foot Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus Fibularis Inferior third of anterior surface of fibula and (peroneus) tertius interosseous membrane  MUSCLE POSTERIOR LEG SUPERFICIAL AND INTERMEDIATE MUSCLES ORIGIN INSERTION Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon (tendo calcaneus) INNERVATION MAIN ACTIONS Tibial nerve Plantar-flexes foot at ankle. superior to soleal line Base of distal phalanx of great toe (big toe) Bases of distal phalanges of lateral four digits INNERVATION MAIN ACTIONS Tibial nerve Tibial nerve Weakly flexes leg at knee and unlocks it Flexes great toe at all joints and plantar-flexes foot at ankle. supports longitudinal arches of foot Flexes lateral four digits and plantar-flexes foot at ankle. soleal line. superior fourth of posterior surface of fibula. and from fascia covering tibialis posterior Interosseous membrane. superior to medial condyle Soleus Posterior aspect of head of fibula. posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line.

assists in maintaining transverse arch of foot Flexes proximal phalanx of little toe. plantar aponeurosis. and intermuscular septa Medial and lateral tubercles of tuberosity of calcaneus. flexor retinaculum. plantar aponeurosis. MUSCLE LATERAL THIGH MUSCLES ORIGIN Head and superior two thirds of lateral surface of fibula Inferior two thirds of lateral surface of fibula INSERTION Base of first metatarsal and medial cuneiform Dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of fifth metatarsal INNERVATION Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve MAIN ACTIONS Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes foot at ankle Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes foot at ankle Fibularis (peroneus) longus Fibularis (peroneus) brevis  MUSCLE Abductor hallucis Flexor digitorum brevis Abductor digiti minimi  MUSCLE Quadratus plantae Lumbricals 2 ND ST 1 LAYER DORSAL FOOT MUSCLES ORIGIN Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus. thereby assisting with its flexion ORIGIN Medial surface and lateral margin of plantar surface of calcaneus Tendons of flexor digitorum longus Medial aspect of expansion over lateral four Medial one: medial digits plantar nerve Lateral three: lateral plantar nerve Both sides of base of proximal phalanx of first digit Medial plantar nerve Flexor hallucis brevis Adductor hallucis Flexor digiti minimi brevis Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiforms Oblique head: bases of metatarsals 2–4 Transverse head: plantar ligaments of metatarsophalangeal joints Base of fifth metatarsal Tendons of both heads attach to lateral side Deep branch of lateral of base of proximal phalanx of first digit plantar nerve Base of proximal phalanx of fifth digit Superficial branch of lateral plantar nerve . and plantar aponeurosis Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus. and intermuscular septa RD INSERTION Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of first digit Both sides of middle phalanges of lateral four digits Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of fifth digit INNERVATION Medial plantar nerve Medial plantar nerve Lateral plantar nerve MAIN ACTIONS Abducts and flexes great toe Flexes lateral four digits Abducts and flexes little toe AND 3 LAYER DORSAL FOOT MUSCLES INSERTION Posterolateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longus INNERVATION Lateral plantar nerve MAIN ACTIONS Assist flexor digitorum longus in flexing lateral four digits Flex proximal phalanges and extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits Flexes proximal phalanx of great toe Adducts great toe.

 MUSCLE DEEP LAYER DORSAL FOOT MUSCLES ORIGIN Bases and medial sides of metatarsals 3–5 INSERTION INNERVATION MAIN ACTIONS Adduct digits (2–4) and flex metatarsophalangeal joints Abduct digits and flex metatarsophalangeal joints Medial sides of bases of proximal phalanges Lateral plantar of digits 3–5 nerve Lateral plantar nerve Plantar interossei (three muscles) Dorsal interossei (four muscles) Adjacent sides of metatarsals 1–5 First: medial side of proximal phalanx of second digit Second to fourth: lateral sides of digits 2–4 .

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