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10-13 Reference style handbook
02 Personal /organizational home-page An entire internet site Webpages with no author 10 10 11 Book … single author Book … no known author/editor Book … 2 or more authors Book … more than 3 authors Chapter of a book Translated book Two or more books by the same author Book by a corporate author Reference book article Dictionary definition Edited book Poems Magazines and journals Newspaper articles Electronic resources 4.12 2 3 4 3 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 Online subscription database Online newspaper/magazine 10 10 10 5.01 1.08 1.10 1.03 1.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook Table of Contents: Page What is a bibliography? Why is a bibliography important? What are the "rules"? What is footnotes? Organizing a bibliography Bibliography format 1.05 1.04 1.1a 5.01 4.01 5.06 1.09 1.02 5 Web-pages 2 .07 1.11 1.0 Print material 1.02 1.
02.02 E-mail Interview 6.01 7.01 6.02 7.05 Television and radio programs Sound recordings Films / DVD Pictures Digital files 12 13 13 14 14 Bibliography 3 .Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook 6 Personal communications 6.04 7.02.2 6.3 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 Published interview Personal interview Telephone interview 7 Other sources 7.1 6.02.03 7.
i. journal or newspaper articles.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook What is a bibliography : A Bibliography [Works Cited] shows all the resources you have used in your project or research paper. Plagiarism includes any of the following. any other person’s work. 4 . Two of the best known are the APA [American Psychological Association] and MLA [Modern Language Association] styles. writings or other work of someone else as though it is your own work. A citation must be included when you • paraphrase (express someone else’s idea in your own words) • summarize (express someone else’s idea in a reduced form in your own words) • quote (express someone else’s idea in their exact words) or • copy (reproduce a diagram. Appropriate citation is one skill that helps all writers avoid unintentional plagiarism. personal interviews. This listing has full details so that your reader can find the cited reference. There are many different formats for referencing. items from the Internet and pictures or diagrams. current or past student’s work. journal. of the whole or part of a written work from any source including but not limited to a book. What this means for you is that whenever you write an assignment that is based on information from other sources. Your acknowledgement of where these ideas came from. This is the case for all sources including books. you are expected to cite these resources in your writing. in essays or other assessable work. 2. newspaper article. set of lecture notes. 1. without full and appropriate acknowledgment of the original source(s): (a) the use of the whole or part of a computer program written by another person. intext referenced AND * listed once in the bibliography at the end of the assignment. (c) the paraphrasing of another’s work. graph or table from someone else’s work) Each citation must appear in two places: * shown in the text of your assignment. Plagiarism is the action or practice of taking and submitting or presenting the thoughts.e. Why is a bibliography important? Academic writing assumes that you have read widely and that you acknowledge the writings and ideas of other people by using a referencing system. What are the "rules"? Using the MLA [Modern Language Association] format used in this guide are two main rules of referencing. The use of citations in your assignment show two things: • • The range of ideas and approaches to a topic that you have been found and thought about. a website or database. (b) the use.
How to write footnotes A footnote appears as a number directly after the actual text to which you are referring. Footnote Format: 1. explanatory notes / content notes e. 2009. When proofreading be sure that the number in the text matches the number in the note. and as a reference to that text. New York: Pearson. see Krugman. Paul. that is. I use Krugman’s definition of equilibrium price as the basis of analysis. The number should not be put in parentheses and should be inserted after any punctuation (except a dash). If you are footnoting a general idea or opinion. Print. from 1. Works Cited Krugman. Note: All works quoted in the footnotes must be mentioned in the bibliography. the number should appear right after the facts or quoted material. place the number at the end of the paragraph or paragraphs that discuss it. comments that qualify or supplement statements in your paper. the reader can check the accuracy of your quotations and statements. Some writers place the number at the end of a paragraph rather than at the end of a sentence. 8th ed.g. International Economics: theory & policy. If you are footnoting specific facts or quotations. All footnote numbers in the text should be in superscript. a half-line above the line of type. This is proper only if the footnote refers to the material in the paragraph as a whole. You must number your notes consecutively.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook What is a footnote? You can use a footnote for the following two purposes: bibliographic notes. In this way. You should place each number right after the word or phrase you want to footnote. For a good definition of the term. 5 . judge the bias and credibility of your sources or carry out research of his or her own. In the paper. on the bottom of the same page. Your references must tell your reader where the original information can be found.
Intext reference: (Encyclopedia of Copyright 241) 1. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Press. [Primary sources/Secondary sources. Print. etc] Your bibliography should be is alphabetized according to the last name of the author. Copyright and Researcher Responsibility. ignoring any initial A.03 Book [2 or more authors]: Bibliography Format: Carr. MLA style suggests that all resources be listed alphabetically regardless of media or document type.02 Book [no known author or editor]: If the author’s name is unknown.Walsh. 1991. 2007. Bibliography Format: Encyclopedia of Copyright. and Lorena S.Menard. year of publication.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook Organizing a Bibliography A bibliography is an alphabetical listing of the resources you have used in writing your paper. Print. 1. An or The. Each item in a bibliography is single-spaced with double-spacing between items. Lois Green. alphabetize it according to the first word (except for "A. "The") of the title. Intext reference: (Smith 52) 1. alphabetize by the title.0 Print material: 1. Bibliography Format: Smith." "An". Russell R. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Press. See examples below for each media type for both bibliography format and intext referenced format. Menard and Walsh 61) 6 . Print. Print. Publishing place: Publisher. Your bibliography must include all of the resources that appear in your essay / footnotes and all of the sources that contributed towards your research paper. Intext reference: (Carr.01 Book [Single author]: Author. If a work has no author (or editor or translator). Title of the book. Robert Cole’s World: Agriculture and Society in Early Chapel Hill. 2007. John. Maryland: University of North Carolina Press.
Bibliography Format: Elliott. Date of publication.04 Books with more than Three Authors: If there are more than three authors. give the names in the first entry only. 1-58. Trans. Name of editor. Bainton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1966. Name of translator.~ [“and others”]. or you may give all names in full in the order in which they appear on the title page. 1995.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook 1. Inventions of Farewell: A book of Elegies. Page no. New Haven: Yale University Press. Print. Hajo. Ghost Volcano: Poems. Hysteria beyond Freud. Print. New York: Norton. Intext reference: (Holborn 103) 1.07 Two or more works by the same author: To cite two or more books by the same author. Place of publication: Name of publisher. 7 . followed by a period and the title.05 Chapter of a book or a separate work in an anthology: Author. Print. Bibliography Format: Holborn. Bibliography Format: Gilman. Leslie Bethell. J. Intext reference: (Elliott 33) 1. Print. Print. Ed. Sandra M. The three hyphens stand for exactly the same names as in the preceding entry: Bibliography Format: Gilbert. H. in the place of names. Thereafter. Title of the book. you may name only the first and add ~ et al. date. 2001. Medium.” Title of the book. 1987. New York: Norton. ---. et al.” Colonial Latin America. Print. Intext reference: (Gilman et al 103) 1. Trans. Sander. Ed. 1993. “The Spanish Conquest. ed. Ulrich von Hutten and the German Reformation 1937. “Title of the chapter. Roland H. Berkeley: University of California Press. type three hyphens. Place of publication: Name of publisher.06 Translated work: Author.
Print.. name of the work page no. 15th ed.” Def. among several. Medium. especially those that frequently appear in new editions. Edition year of publication. Clayman.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook Intext reference: (author. Charles B. Intext reference: (American Medical Association 124) 1.g. Bibliography Format: American Medical Association. If the article is signed give the author’s name first. 2009.10 Dictionary definition: If you are citing a specific definition. 2007. a government or semi-government committee.) (Gilbert. Print. Omit any initial article [A. 1989. When citing familiar reference books. add the abbreviation “Def.” The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. Inventions of Farewell 69) 1. number.” [definition] and the appropriate designation [e. Bibliography Format: “Title of the article. The Oxford English Dictionary. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. Intext reference: (Oxford English Dictionary 249) 8 . letter] Bibliography Format: “Noon. Ed. New York: Random. do not give full publication detail. 4b. An. if unsigned give the title first.09 Article in a Reference Book/Encyclopedia: Do not cite the editor of a reference book. Print. an association.08 Book by a corporate author [Government or other organisation]: A corporate author may be an organization. 2nd ed. list only the edition [if stated] and the year of publication. Ghost Volcano 58) (Gilbert. Intext reference: (Indian Philosophy 238) 1. The] in the name of the corporate author. “Indian Philosophy.” Name of the work.
Bibliography Format: Jeromack. New York Times. Sponsoring organization.” Name of Journal issue no.0 Magazine or journal articles: Author. Comp. but omit any introductory article [e. Phillip. 18 July 2007. Web. Intext reference: (Jeromack B8) 9 .” Name of Newspaper [italics] day. give the name as it appears on the masthead.html> 2.” [Editor] or “comp. ed.11 An anthology or compilation [edited book]: For a book that has been compiled by an editor. Date of access.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook 1. Name of compiler. Al Filreis. <URL> Frost.” [Compiler] Bibliography Format: Lopate.g. whose name appears on the title page. Bibliography Format: Iriye. Author [if stated]. Robert.. “Article Title. Print.12 Poem Bibliography Format: Author. Intext reference: (Lopate 57) 1. 15 May 2009. Print. Date.edu/~afilreis/88/frost-mending. NOT The New York Times]. Medium.” American Historical Review February (1989): 39. Intext reference: (Iriye 39) 3. New York: Anchor-Doubleday. Medium.upenn. B8 sec. "The Melting of Antarctica. Comp. “The Internationalization of History. U of Pennsylvania. Akira. The Art of the Personal Essay. page number. ‘Mending Wall. month. year of publication. (publication year): Page no. Print. section. 1994. late ed. ‘Title of the poem’ Name of the book. Medium.0 Newspaper articles: To cite an English-language newspaper. Paul. begin the entry with the Editor’s surname followed by the abbreviation “ed. “Article Title. It is important to state the edition as different editions of the same issue of a newspaper contain different material. edition." New York Times 13 July 2007.’ Modern & Contemporary American Poetry. < http://writing.
16 Feb. “Article Title. 4. "A Bibliography of Literary Theory and Criticism.hk/pages/websiteaclpage. John. Date of Access. University of California San Diego.0 Webpages: Web Page here refers to personal or organizational homepage. 15 June 2008. <http://www.mycis. 1917-1918: Class.asp> Intext reference: John Green’s “Cooling Trend in Antarctica” …….com/mla. Medium. Subscription Service Name. Date of access.citeeasy. Jose. “Article Title. Online Databases e.” The Journal of American Sociology March (2001):n. pag .” Futurist May-June (2007): 15. Web." MLA Reference Center.01 Articles in online subscription database: Author.html> Intext reference: “The people in the South have been waiting this for more than a centure…” (Keith) 5. Gale. Race and Conscription in the Rural South. Student Resource Centre. Web.historycooperative. Date of Access. “Cooling Trend in Antarctica. (publication date): Page no. Intext reference: In Landa’s online article. Student Resource Centre should NOT be classified in this category. Medium. <www. “The Politics of Southern Draft Resistance. < URL> Bibliography Format: Landa. Web. he …. 2009. Date of publication.“creating a bibliography is a daunting task” (Landa) 10 .org/journals/jah/87.0 Electronic resources: 4. Web. “Title of the work”. 12 Jan. <URL> Bibliography Format: Green.” Name of the Journal issue no. 22 May 2007. Author.02 Articles from online newspaper and magazine: [Not from subscription online database] Author.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook 4. Publisher of the site.” Name of the newspaper issue no. 2009.g. (publication year): Page no. <http://www. <URL> Bibliography Format: Keith. Jeanette.edu.4/keith.guide.htm>.
g.) Medium. Email. 21 June 2007. Homepage. Intext reference: Anthony Boyce’s email …. use n." Scripps News.0 Personal communications: 6.01 Webpages with no author Title of the work. Anthony T. http://scrippsnews.d. 2008. (if no title is given. Bibliography Format: Boyce. <URL> Name of the site. (should there be more than 1 email communication. The date. Title of the work.g. “Title of the message” [if any. Name of Sponsoring institution. The medium.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook 5. Web. “Re: Utopia. Date of access.01 E-mail: Author.ucsd.).” Message to Daniel J.. 16 May 2009. taken from the subject line and enclosed in quotation marks. 12 Feb. (if none.] The recipient. Cahill. use a descriptor e. use N.p. Date of publication. Bibliography Format: "Lake Mead Could Be Dry by 2021. Anthony Boyce’s email on 21st June 2007…… 11 . state the date as well) e.edu/Releases/?releaseID=876 Intext reference : (Lake Mead Could Be Dry by 2021) 6. online posting and no punctuation is needed) Title of the overall website. (italics) Publisher / sponsor of the site (if none given. Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
M. CBS.M. Intext reference : Alvin F.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook 6. 12 .0 Other sources: 7. 1993.. 10 Dec. Intext reference: Jimmy Breslin’s interview with Neal Conan on 26th March 2002 …… 6.02 Interviews: 6. 22 Jul.02. Telephone interview. Personal interview. Alvin F. give the name of the person interviewed. Call letters and city of the television station [if given]. 7. Radio. Broadcast date. 2007.02.02. 2007. Medium. 6. WCBS. Television. the KIND of interview and the date or dates: Bibliography Format: Pei.1 Published/recorded interview: Bibliography Format: Breslin.but is it Art “ in the Sixty Minutes …. 26 March 2002.Poussaint’s telephone interview on 10th December 2007 ….3 Telephone interview: Bibliography Format: Poussaint. Boston.Name of the network. Bibliography Format: “Yes … but is it Art?” Narr. New York.2 Personal interview: For an interview that you conducted.. Sixty Minutes. Morley Safer. Interview by Neal Conan. Title of the program [italics]. Intext reference : I. Intext reference : In the television program “Yes ….01 Television and radio programs: Title of the episode or segment.”]. National Public Radio. 19 Sept. [in quotation marks if appropriate]. I. Name of Narrator [if given use”Narr. Jimmy. Talk of the Nation. Pei’s interview on 22nd July 1993 ….
includes facts similar to film details and concludes with the site of the performance. http://scrippsnews. John Gielgud. Billie. The Essence of Billie Holiday. Columbia.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook 7. 1968. Web. 2008.. Perf. BBC. Richard Burton. 2007. Intext reference : Billie Holliday’s The Essence of Billie Holiday offers a soothing effect … 7. Bibliography Format: Lake Mead at Hoover Dam.02 Recordings: Composer. 12 Feb. Intext reference : Richard Burton’s DVD of Hamlet in 1968 …. Bibliography Format: Holliday. CD. Bibliography Format: Hamlet.03 Films and videotapes / DVD: Begin with Title [italics]. 16 May 2008.edu/Releases/?releaseID=876 Intext reference : (Lake Mead at Hoover Dam) 13 . Medium. Title of recording [italics] Manufacturer and the date.04 Pictures Sample picture found at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography website. Dir. Photographer Ken Dewey. October.ucsd. 1991. DVD. conductor or performer’s name. Scripps Institute of Oceanography. 7.
Hudson. Washington. pdf. Jack. doc.g. Bibliography Format: Delano... MP3 file.’ Sony BMG. 2006. Library of Congress. 1941. ‘And I am Telling You I’m Not Going. Intext reference : (Delano) (Hudson) 14 . mp3) These refer to files that are obtained from a source other than the Internet. Jennifer. At the Vermont State Fair. JPEG file. perf..05 Digital files (e..Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook 7. jpg. gif.
4 Nov.lib.” University of Southern Mississippi Libraries. University of Southern Mississippi. <http://www. 2009. Web.Year 10-13 MLA Reference Style Handbook Works cited MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed.edu/help/style_guides/mla. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association. Print. 2009.usm. “MLA Style Guide.html> 15 .
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