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INFORMATION SHEET 25.

1-1 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Alphabetical Older During your training in the Air Force, you will read many technical manuals. The manuals will have many new words that you may not understand. A dictionary will help you understand these words. In this lesson you will learn how to use a dictionary. As you know there are 26 letters in the English alphabet. These letters are in a certain order. The letters are in alphabetical order. The order of the English alphabet is:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
All words in a dictionary are in alphabetical order. Look at the words below. These words are arranged in alphabetical order. Avoid Belt Clog Into Long Note Ruler Weak When words start with the same letter, then the words are arranged in order according to the second letters. Example: Back Been Big Bolt Brown When the first two letters are the same, then the words are arranged according to the third letters. Example : Brass Break and Bronze bronze brother, when the first three letters are the same brown

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-2 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Guide Words At the top of each page in the dictionary are guide words. These words tell you the first and the last words on the page. The word on the top left tells you the first word. The word on the top right tells yo the last word. Any word which can be arranged according to the alphabet between these two words will be on this page of the dictionary. Look at the example below. On this page we see guide words on the top right corner of the page. The first gide word is airborne. The second guide word is alarmist. All the words in alphabetical order between airborne and alarmist are on this page.

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-3 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Parts of Speech In a sentence there are many types of words. You learned about these types of words in earlier lessons. In order to use a dictionary correctly you will need to know the function of different words. NOUN A noun is a name for a person, a place ar a thing. Eko, Bandung and wing are all nouns. The abbreviation for noun is n. if a noun indicates more than one, it is plural. Cities, cars, officers and men are example of plural nouns. Most plurals in English are made by adding an s or es to the end of the words. Examples: boxes, wings, ships. These nouns are reglar nouns. A dictionary will tell you if the plural of a noun irregular. City is a noun. Cities is the irregular plural of city. Here are some examples of other irregular plural nouns : man foot child supply men feet children supplies

the abbreviation for plural is pl. if a noun indicates only one, it is singular. The abbreviation for singular is s or sing. PRONOUN A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun. A pronoun usually refers to a noun that occurs earlier in the reading. It, he, none, one, anyone, someone, that, them and these are examples of pronouns. The abbreviation for pronoun is pron. Pronouns can be singular or plural. Example : Jakarta is big city. It has many people. VERB A verb is a word which indicates an action or a condition. Is, go, conduct, hurry, rub and sleep are example of verbs. The abbreviations for verbs are v., v. aux., v.i. and v.t. PREPOSITION A preposition is a word that is used before a noun or pronoun. It shows the relationship to some other word in the sentence. With, by, for, at, under, of, to, in, on, into, from, around and near are examples of prepositions. There are many other prepositions. The abbreviation for preposition is prep. ADJECTIVE An adjective is a word that describes a noun. English adjective are located before the noun or after forms of the verb be. Examples : The small aircraft is in windy weather. The volleyball is white. The abbreviation for adjective is adj.

ADVERB An adverb is a word that describes verbs, adjectives, other verbs. Examples : He worked carefully. (Carefully describes worked.) The car is dark red. (Dark describes red.) He speaks English very well. (Very describes well.) The abbreviation for adverb is adv. Adjectives and adverbs describe other words. There are some other parts of speech, but they are not used as often.

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-4 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Parts of a Dictionary Entry An entry is an item put in list, as in a dictionary. A definition in a dictionary tells you many things about a word. It is very helpful to understand how a definition is arranged. Look at the dictionary entry. The word that is defined is in big, thick letters.

Look at the word above. There is a dot in the word air line. A dot looks like a period. The dot is not important to the meaning of the word. The dots divide the word into syllables. English words consist of syllables. Syllables are units of spoken English. English words can have one, two three or more syllables. good to.night to.mor.row = 1 syllables = 2 syllables = 2 syllables

Look at the word in parentheses (ar lin). This tells you how to say the word. The different marks help you to say the word correctly.

After the word airline you can see three numbered sentences. These numbered sentences tell you what the word means. Sometimes a word means more than one thing. After airline there are three numbered sentences, so we know that airline has three meanings. Lets look at the three meanings. 1. A system for transportation of passangers and freight by air. This tells us that an airline is a group of planes you can pay to fly on or send cargo on. An airline flies from Jakarta to Bandung or from Jakarta to Singapore. Meaning nmber two says, 2. A business organization providing such a system. A business is a group of people who we pay to help us. Garuda is a business organization. We pay them money and they fly us somewhere. Garuda is an airline. Meaning number three says, 3. The shortest, most direct distance between two points. This tells us that if we look at a map and draw straight line from city A to city B, this line is called an airline. How many meanings does airline have? It has three meanings.

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-5 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Grammar Box Prono uses a pencil every day. What does Prono use every day? He uses a pencil every day. The pencil is used by Prono every day. The pencil is used by him every day. Is the pencil used by prono every day? Yes, it is. Is the pencil used by Eko every day? No, it isnt. The pencil isnt used by Eko every day. Who is the pencil used by every day? By Prono. The students write letters every day. What do the students do every day? The students write letters every day. Letters are written by the students every day. Letters are written by them every day. Are letters written by the students every day? Yes, they are. Are books written by the students every day? No, they arent Books arent written by the students every day. What is written by the students every day? Letters.

Grammar Box Active Sentence Present In an active sentence, the subject does something. Prono cleans the room every day. Passive Sentence Present In a passive sentence, something happens to the subject. The room is cleaned every day by Prono. The room is cleaned every day. Active Sentence Past In an active sentence, the subject did something. Prono cleaned the room yesterday.

Passive Sentence Past In a passive sentence, something happened to the subject. The room was cleaned by Prono yesterday. The room was cleaned yesterday.

The captain asked Eko what kind of work the mechanics had done on the A-4 this morning. Eko told him: The fuel lines were checked and cleaned. The landing gear was inspected. The right wing was repaired. Then the captain asked Eko who did all this maintenance. Eko answered: The fuel lines were checked and cleaned by Umar. The landing gear was inspected by Burhan. The wing was repaired by me.

Grammar Box Were fuel lines checked and cleaned by Umar? Yes, they were. Was the landing gear inspected by Umar? No, it wasnt

Grammar Box Present I use the pencil every day. You use the pencil every day. He uses the pencil every day. She uses the pencil every day. We use the pencil every day. You use the pencil every day. They use the pencil every day. I write letters every day. You write letters every day. He writes letters every day. She writes letters every day. We write letters every day. You write letters every day. They write letters every day. The pencil is used by me every day. The pencil is used by you every day The pencil is used by him every day. The pencil is used by her every day. The pencil is used by us every day. The pencil is used by you every day. The pencil is used by them every day Letters are written by me every day. Letters are written by you every day. Letters are written by him every day. Letters are written by her every day. Letters are written by us every day. Letters are written by you every day. Letters are written by them every day.

Grammar Box Past I used the pencil yesterday. You used the pencil yesterday. He used the pencil yesterday. She used the pencil yesterday. We used the pencil yesterday. You used the pencil yesterday. They used the pencil yesterday. I wrote letters yesterday. You wrote letters yesterday. He wrote letters yesterday. We wrote letters yesterday. You wrote letters yesterday. They wrote letters yesterday. Grammar Box REGULAR VERB Present Clean Erase Try `Past cleaned erased tried IRREGULAR VERB Hear Teach Send Make Lose Write See Begin Do/does Give Forget Choose Take Know heard taught sent made lost wrote saw began did gave forgot chose took knew heard taught sent made lost written seen begun done given forgotten chosen taken known Past Participle cleaned erased tried The pencil was used by me yesterday. The pencil was used by you yesterday. The pencil was used by him yesterday. The pencil was used by her yesterday. The pencil was used by us yesterday. The pencil was used by you yesterday. The pencil was used by them yesterday. Letters were written by me yesterday. Letters were written by you yesterday. Letters were written by him yesterday. Letters were written by us yesterday. Letters were written by you yesterday. Letters were written by them yesterday.

ACTIVE (Present) He teaches the lesson every day. He teaches the lessons every day. He taught the lesson yesterday. He taught the lessons yesterday.

PASSIVE The lesson is taught every day. The lessons are taught every day. The lesson was taught every day. The lessons were taught yesterday.

(Past)

Grammar Box Past Passive Class was begun at 8 oclock yesterday. Class wasnt begun at 9 oclock yesterday. Was class begun at 8 oclock yesterday? Yes, it was. Was class begun at 9 oclock yesterday? No, it wasnt. When was class begun? At 8 oclock. What was taught in class? English was taught. Where were the books put? Under the desk. These kinds of sentences cannot be changed to passive. He worked at home They began to eat.

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-6 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Grammar Box Prono is using the pencil now. What is Prono using now? Prono is using the pencil now. The pencil is being used by Prono now. The pencil is being used by him now. Is the pencil being used by Prono now? Yes, it is. Is the penceil being used by Eko now? No, it isnt. The pencil isnt being used by Eko now. Who is the pencil being used by now? By Prono. The pencil is being used by Prono now. The students are writing letters now. What are the students doing now? The students are writing letters now. Letters are being written by the students now. Letters are being written by them now. Are letters being written by the students now? Yes, they are. Are books being written by the students now? No, they arent. Books arent being written by the students now. What are being written by the students now? Letters.

Grammar Box Present I am using the pencil now. You are using the pencil now. He is using the pencil now. She is using the pencil now. We are using the pencil now. You are using the pencil now. They are using the pencil now. I am writing the letters now. You are writing the letters now. He is writing the letters now. She is writing the letters now. We are writing the letters now. You are writing the letters now. They are writing the letters now. The pencil is being used by me now. The pencil is being used by you now. The pencil is being used by him now. The pencil is being used by her now. The pencil is being used by us now. The pencil is being used by you now. The pencil is being used by them now. The letters are being written by me now. The letters are being written by you now. The letters are being written by him now. The letters are being written by her now. The letters are being written by us now. The letters are being written by you now. The letters are being written by them now.

Grammar Box Past I was fixing the engine last week. You were fixing the engine last week. He was fixing the engine last week. She was fixing the engine last week. We were fixing the engine last week. You were fixing the engine last week. They were fixing the engine last week. I was using the tools yesterday. You were using the tools yesterday. He was using the tools yesterday. She was using the tools yesterday. We were using the tools yesterday. You were using the tools yesterday. They were using the tools yesterday. The engine was being fixed by me last week. The engine was being fixed by you last week. The engine was being fixed by him last week. The engine was being fixed by her last week. The engine was being fixed by us last week. The engine was being fixed by you last week. The engine was being fixed by them last week. The tools was being used by me yesterday. The tools was being used by you yesterday. The tools was being used by him yesterday. The tools was being used by her yesterday. The tools was being used by us yesterday. The tools was being used by you yesterday. The tools was being used by them yesterday.

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-7 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Grammar Box Umar isnt feeling well today. He went to the doctor but he couldnt find out what was wrong. Tomorrow Umar will have to go to the hospital in Bandung. It will be his first time in a hospital. His friends told him that what will happen when he arrives at the hospital. He is too sick to drive so he will be taken there by taxi. When he goes in, he will be asked to fill out many forms. Some test will be taken to determine why he is sick and how the doctors can help him. The result of the tests will be written on different forms. These forms will be sent to different sections of the hospital. If he is not too sick, he will be sent back to the base to rest.

The students will finish the work tomorrow. The work will be finished by the students tomorrow. (will + be + past participle) Will the work be finished tomorrow? Yes, it will. (No, it wont.) What will be finished tomorrow? The work. The work will be finished tomorrow.

Grammar Box The doctor is going to write the order. The order is going to be written by the doctor. (am/is/are + going to + be + past participle) Is the order going to be written by the doctor? Yes, it is. (No, it isnt) Who is the order going to be written by? By the doctor? Its going to be written by the doctor. When is it going to be written? May be this afternoon.

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-8 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Eko is a mechanic. Today he has repaired several different engines. He has used many different tools. Now he is cleaning them. After the tools have been used, they must be cleaned. Eko has already cleaned the hand tools. The screwdrivers and hammers have already been cleaned. He hasnt cleaned the power tools. The drills havent been cleaned yet.

He cleaned the tools yesterday. The tools were cleaned yesterday. He has already cleaned the tools. The tools have already been cleaned. (have/has + been + past participle) The parts have already been thrown away. Have the parts already been thrown away? Yes, they have. They have already been thrown away. The order hasnt been filled yet. Has the order been filled yet? No, it hasnt. it hasnt been filled yet.

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-9 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Grammar Box These mechnics are servicing a car. In order to keep the car in good condition, they must do many things. Many things must be done in order to maintain the car properly. For example, someone must check the oil often. Oil must be added as needed, or the engine will be damaged. The oil and oil filter should be changed several times a year. Any worn out parts must be replaced. They cant be used again.

(Present)

someone cleans the room every day. The room is cleaned every day.

(active) (passive) (active) (passive) (active) (passive)

Someone must replace the worn out parts. The worn out parts must be replaced. Yani shouldnt lose the order form. The order form shouldnt be lost. (helping verb + be + past participle)

Grammar Box Worn out parts cant be used again. Can worn out parts be used again? Why cant worn out parts be used again? The oil should be changed. Should the oil be changed yet? When should the oil be changed? Many things must be done before we leave. Must they be done before we leave? What may be needed? These parts might be replaced if we have some spares. Might these parts be replaced? When might these parts be replaced?

INFORMATION SHEET 25.1-10 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

Grammar Box Lieutenant: This air conditioner needs to be repaired. It was damaged last week, but no one took it to the mechanics for repairs. Prono: I can take it there this afternoon. But what should I tell the mechnics to do? Lieutenant: Tell them that the air conditioner must be repaired in two days. All the parts need to be inspected. The worn out parts have to be replaced. The new parts have to be oiled and the outside needs to be painted. And I want to be shown what repairs were made. Pay attention while they are making the repairs.

The mechanics need to repair the engine. The engine needs to be repaired. (verb + to + be + past participle) Eko doesnt have to replace the filter. The filter doesnt have to be replaced. (do/does + not + verb + to + be + past participle)

(active) (passive)

(active) (passive)

Grammar Box Does the engine need to be repaired? Why does the engine need to be repaired? Does he have to replaced the filter now? Why doesnt he have to replaced the filter now? The mechanics needed to repair the engine. The engine needed to be repaired. (verb + to + be + past participle) Eko didnt have to replaced the filter. The filter didnt have to be replaced. (did + verb + to + be + past participle) The students want to be shown the procedures. The mechanics like to be shown new procedures. All of the repairs ought to be completed on time.

These repairs will have to be done tomorrow. These repairs are going to have to be done tomorrow. I think that those parts will need to be replaced. I think that those parts are going to need to be replaced. (will + verb + to + be + past participle) (is/am/are + going to + verb + to + be + past participle)