Sensors & Transducers

Volume 114, Issue 3, March 2010 ISSN 1726-5479

www.sensorsportal.com

Editors-in-Chief: professor Sergey Y. Yurish, tel.: +34 696067716, fax: +34 93 4011989, e-mail: editor@sensorsportal.com
Editors for Western Europe Meijer, Gerard C.M., Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Ferrari, Vittorio, Universitá di Brescia, Italy Editor South America Costa-Felix, Rodrigo, Inmetro, Brazil Editor for Eastern Europe Sachenko, Anatoly, Ternopil State Economic University, Ukraine Editors for North America Datskos, Panos G., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA Fabien, J. Josse, Marquette University, USA Katz, Evgeny, Clarkson University, USA Editor for Asia Ohyama, Shinji, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan Editor for Asia-Pacific Mukhopadhyay, Subhas, Massey University, New Zealand

Editorial Advisory Board
Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi, Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia Ahmad, Mohd Noor, Nothern University of Engineering, Malaysia Annamalai, Karthigeyan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan Arcega, Francisco, University of Zaragoza, Spain Arguel, Philippe, CNRS, France Ahn, Jae-Pyoung, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea Arndt, Michael, Robert Bosch GmbH, Germany Ascoli, Giorgio, George Mason University, USA Atalay, Selcuk, Inonu University, Turkey Atghiaee, Ahmad, University of Tehran, Iran Augutis, Vygantas, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania Avachit, Patil Lalchand, North Maharashtra University, India Ayesh, Aladdin, De Montfort University, UK Bahreyni, Behraad, University of Manitoba, Canada Baliga, Shankar, B., General Monitors Transnational, USA Baoxian, Ye, Zhengzhou University, China Barford, Lee, Agilent Laboratories, USA Barlingay, Ravindra, RF Arrays Systems, India Basu, Sukumar, Jadavpur University, India Beck, Stephen, University of Sheffield, UK Ben Bouzid, Sihem, Institut National de Recherche Scientifique, Tunisia Benachaiba, Chellali, Universitaire de Bechar, Algeria Binnie, T. David, Napier University, UK Bischoff, Gerlinde, Inst. Analytical Chemistry, Germany Bodas, Dhananjay, IMTEK, Germany Borges Carval, Nuno, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal Bousbia-Salah, Mounir, University of Annaba, Algeria Bouvet, Marcel, CNRS – UPMC, France Brudzewski, Kazimierz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland Cai, Chenxin, Nanjing Normal University, China Cai, Qingyun, Hunan University, China Campanella, Luigi, University La Sapienza, Italy Carvalho, Vitor, Minho University, Portugal Cecelja, Franjo, Brunel University, London, UK Cerda Belmonte, Judith, Imperial College London, UK Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia Chakravorty, Dipankar, Association for the Cultivation of Science, India Changhai, Ru, Harbin Engineering University, China Chaudhari, Gajanan, Shri Shivaji Science College, India Chavali, Murthy, VIT University, Tamil Nadu, India Chen, Jiming, Zhejiang University, China Chen, Rongshun, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan Cheng, Kuo-Sheng, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan Chiang, Jeffrey (Cheng-Ta), Industrial Technol. Research Institute, Taiwan Chiriac, Horia, National Institute of Research and Development, Romania Chowdhuri, Arijit, University of Delhi, India Chung, Wen-Yaw, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan Corres, Jesus, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Spain Cortes, Camilo A., Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia Courtois, Christian, Universite de Valenciennes, France Cusano, Andrea, University of Sannio, Italy D'Amico, Arnaldo, Università di Tor Vergata, Italy De Stefano, Luca, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystem, Italy Deshmukh, Kiran, Shri Shivaji Mahavidyalaya, Barshi, India Dickert, Franz L., Vienna University, Austria Dieguez, Angel, University of Barcelona, Spain Dimitropoulos, Panos, University of Thessaly, Greece Ding, Jianning, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, China Kim, Min Young, Kyungpook National University, Korea South Djordjevich, Alexandar, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Donato, Nicola, University of Messina, Italy Donato, Patricio, Universidad de Mar del Plata, Argentina Dong, Feng, Tianjin University, China Drljaca, Predrag, Instersema Sensoric SA, Switzerland Dubey, Venketesh, Bournemouth University, UK Enderle, Stefan, Univ.of Ulm and KTB Mechatronics GmbH, Germany Erdem, Gursan K. Arzum, Ege University, Turkey Erkmen, Aydan M., Middle East Technical University, Turkey Estelle, Patrice, Insa Rennes, France Estrada, Horacio, University of North Carolina, USA Faiz, Adil, INSA Lyon, France Fericean, Sorin, Balluff GmbH, Germany Fernandes, Joana M., University of Porto, Portugal Francioso, Luca, CNR-IMM Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Italy Francis, Laurent, University Catholique de Louvain, Belgium Fu, Weiling, South-Western Hospital, Chongqing, China Gaura, Elena, Coventry University, UK Geng, Yanfeng, China University of Petroleum, China Gole, James, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA Gong, Hao, National University of Singapore, Singapore Gonzalez de la Rosa, Juan Jose, University of Cadiz, Spain Granel, Annette, Goteborg University, Sweden Graff, Mason, The University of Texas at Arlington, USA Guan, Shan, Eastman Kodak, USA Guillet, Bruno, University of Caen, France Guo, Zhen, New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA Gupta, Narendra Kumar, Napier University, UK Hadjiloucas, Sillas, The University of Reading, UK Haider, Mohammad R., Sonoma State University, USA Hashsham, Syed, Michigan State University, USA Hasni, Abdelhafid, Bechar University, Algeria Hernandez, Alvaro, University of Alcala, Spain Hernandez, Wilmar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain Homentcovschi, Dorel, SUNY Binghamton, USA Horstman, Tom, U.S. Automation Group, LLC, USA Hsiai, Tzung (John), University of Southern California, USA Huang, Jeng-Sheng, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan Huang, Star, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan Huang, Wei, PSG Design Center, USA Hui, David, University of New Orleans, USA Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France Jaime Calvo-Galleg, Jaime, Universidad de Salamanca, Spain James, Daniel, Griffith University, Australia Janting, Jakob, DELTA Danish Electronics, Denmark Jiang, Liudi, University of Southampton, UK Jiang, Wei, University of Virginia, USA Jiao, Zheng, Shanghai University, China John, Joachim, IMEC, Belgium Kalach, Andrew, Voronezh Institute of Ministry of Interior, Russia Kang, Moonho, Sunmoon University, Korea South Kaniusas, Eugenijus, Vienna University of Technology, Austria Katake, Anup, Texas A&M University, USA Kausel, Wilfried, University of Music, Vienna, Austria Kavasoglu, Nese, Mugla University, Turkey Ke, Cathy, Tyndall National Institute, Ireland Khan, Asif, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India Sapozhnikova, Ksenia, D.I.Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia Saxena, Vibha, Bhbha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India

Ko, Sang Choon, Electronics. and Telecom. Research Inst., Korea South Kockar, Hakan, Balikesir University, Turkey Kotulska, Malgorzata, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland Kratz, Henrik, Uppsala University, Sweden Kumar, Arun, University of South Florida, USA Kumar, Subodh, National Physical Laboratory, India Kung, Chih-Hsien, Chang-Jung Christian University, Taiwan Lacnjevac, Caslav, University of Belgrade, Serbia Lay-Ekuakille, Aime, University of Lecce, Italy Lee, Jang Myung, Pusan National University, Korea South Lee, Jun Su, Amkor Technology, Inc. South Korea Lei, Hua, National Starch and Chemical Company, USA Li, Genxi, Nanjing University, China Li, Hui, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China Li, Xian-Fang, Central South University, China Liang, Yuanchang, University of Washington, USA Liawruangrath, Saisunee, Chiang Mai University, Thailand Liew, Kim Meow, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Lin, Hermann, National Kaohsiung University, Taiwan Lin, Paul, Cleveland State University, USA Linderholm, Pontus, EPFL - Microsystems Laboratory, Switzerland Liu, Aihua, University of Oklahoma, USA Liu Changgeng, Louisiana State University, USA Liu, Cheng-Hsien, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan Liu, Songqin, Southeast University, China Lodeiro, Carlos, University of Vigo, Spain Lorenzo, Maria Encarnacio, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain Lukaszewicz, Jerzy Pawel, Nicholas Copernicus University, Poland Ma, Zhanfang, Northeast Normal University, China Majstorovic, Vidosav, University of Belgrade, Serbia Marquez, Alfredo, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Mexico Matay, Ladislav, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia Mathur, Prafull, National Physical Laboratory, India Maurya, D.K., Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore Mekid, Samir, University of Manchester, UK Melnyk, Ivan, Photon Control Inc., Canada Mendes, Paulo, University of Minho, Portugal Mennell, Julie, Northumbria University, UK Mi, Bin, Boston Scientific Corporation, USA Minas, Graca, University of Minho, Portugal Moghavvemi, Mahmoud, University of Malaya, Malaysia Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza, University of Cambridge, UK Molina Flores, Esteban, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Mexico Moradi, Majid, University of Kerman, Iran Morello, Rosario, University "Mediterranea" of Reggio Calabria, Italy Mounir, Ben Ali, University of Sousse, Tunisia Mulla, Imtiaz Sirajuddin, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India Neelamegam, Periasamy, Sastra Deemed University, India Neshkova, Milka, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria Oberhammer, Joachim, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Ould Lahoucine, Cherif, University of Guelma, Algeria Pamidighanta, Sayanu, Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), India Pan, Jisheng, Institute of Materials Research & Engineering, Singapore Park, Joon-Shik, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Korea South Penza, Michele, ENEA C.R., Italy Pereira, Jose Miguel, Instituto Politecnico de Setebal, Portugal Petsev, Dimiter, University of New Mexico, USA Pogacnik, Lea, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Post, Michael, National Research Council, Canada Prance, Robert, University of Sussex, UK Prasad, Ambika, Gulbarga University, India Prateepasen, Asa, Kingmoungut's University of Technology, Thailand Pullini, Daniele, Centro Ricerche FIAT, Italy Pumera, Martin, National Institute for Materials Science, Japan Radhakrishnan, S. National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India Rajanna, K., Indian Institute of Science, India Ramadan, Qasem, Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore Rao, Basuthkar, Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, India Raoof, Kosai, Joseph Fourier University of Grenoble, France Reig, Candid, University of Valencia, Spain Restivo, Maria Teresa, University of Porto, Portugal Robert, Michel, University Henri Poincare, France Rezazadeh, Ghader, Urmia University, Iran Royo, Santiago, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Spain Rodriguez, Angel, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Spain Rothberg, Steve, Loughborough University, UK Sadana, Ajit, University of Mississippi, USA Sadeghian Marnani, Hamed, TU Delft, The Netherlands Sandacci, Serghei, Sensor Technology Ltd., UK

Schneider, John K., Ultra-Scan Corporation, USA Seif, Selemani, Alabama A & M University, USA Seifter, Achim, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA Sengupta, Deepak, Advance Bio-Photonics, India Shearwood, Christopher, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Shin, Kyuho, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Korea Shmaliy, Yuriy, Kharkiv National Univ. of Radio Electronics, Ukraine Silva Girao, Pedro, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal Singh, V. R., National Physical Laboratory, India Slomovitz, Daniel, UTE, Uruguay Smith, Martin, Open University, UK Soleymanpour, Ahmad, Damghan Basic Science University, Iran Somani, Prakash R., Centre for Materials for Electronics Technol., India Srinivas, Talabattula, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India Srivastava, Arvind K., Northwestern University, USA Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana, University of Pretoria, South Africa Sumriddetchka, Sarun, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand Sun, Chengliang, Polytechnic University, Hong-Kong Sun, Dongming, Jilin University, China Sun, Junhua, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China Sun, Zhiqiang, Central South University, China Suri, C. Raman, Institute of Microbial Technology, India Sysoev, Victor, Saratov State Technical University, Russia Szewczyk, Roman, Industrial Research Inst. for Automation and Measurement, Poland Tan, Ooi Kiang, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Tang, Dianping, Southwest University, China Tang, Jaw-Luen, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan Teker, Kasif, Frostburg State University, USA Thumbavanam Pad, Kartik, Carnegie Mellon University, USA Tian, Gui Yun, University of Newcastle, UK Tsiantos, Vassilios, Technological Educational Institute of Kaval, Greece Tsigara, Anna, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Greece Twomey, Karen, University College Cork, Ireland Valente, Antonio, University, Vila Real, - U.T.A.D., Portugal Vaseashta, Ashok, Marshall University, USA Vazquez, Carmen, Carlos III University in Madrid, Spain Vieira, Manuela, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Portugal Vigna, Benedetto, STMicroelectronics, Italy Vrba, Radimir, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic Wandelt, Barbara, Technical University of Lodz, Poland Wang, Jiangping, Xi'an Shiyou University, China Wang, Kedong, Beihang University, China Wang, Liang, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA Wang, Mi, University of Leeds, UK Wang, Shinn-Fwu, Ching Yun University, Taiwan Wang, Wei-Chih, University of Washington, USA Wang, Wensheng, University of Pennsylvania, USA Watson, Steven, Center for NanoSpace Technologies Inc., USA Weiping, Yan, Dalian University of Technology, China Wells, Stephen, Southern Company Services, USA Wolkenberg, Andrzej, Institute of Electron Technology, Poland Woods, R. Clive, Louisiana State University, USA Wu, DerHo, National Pingtung Univ. of Science and Technology, Taiwan Wu, Zhaoyang, Hunan University, China Xiu Tao, Ge, Chuzhou University, China Xu, Lisheng, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Xu, Tao, University of California, Irvine, USA Yang, Dongfang, National Research Council, Canada Yang, Wuqiang, The University of Manchester, UK Yang, Xiaoling, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Yaping Dan, Harvard University, USA Ymeti, Aurel, University of Twente, Netherland Yong Zhao, Northeastern University, China Yu, Haihu, Wuhan University of Technology, China Yuan, Yong, Massey University, New Zealand Yufera Garcia, Alberto, Seville University, Spain Zakaria, Zulkarnay, University Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia Zagnoni, Michele, University of Southampton, UK Zamani, Cyrus, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain Zeni, Luigi, Second University of Naples, Italy Zhang, Minglong, Shanghai University, China Zhang, Qintao, University of California at Berkeley, USA Zhang, Weiping, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China Zhang, Wenming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China Zhang, Xueji, World Precision Instruments, Inc., USA Zhong, Haoxiang, Henan Normal University, China Zhu, Qing, Fujifilm Dimatix, Inc., USA Zorzano, Luis, Universidad de La Rioja, Spain Zourob, Mohammed, University of Cambridge, UK

Sensors & Transducers Journal (ISSN 1726-5479) is a peer review international journal published monthly online by International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA). Available in electronic and on CD. Copyright © 2009 by International Frequency Sensor Association. All rights reserved.

Sensors & Transducers Journal

Contents
Volume 114 Issue 3 March 2010

www.sensorsportal.com

ISSN 1726-5479

Editorial
Sensors: Smart vs. Intelligent Sergey Y. Yurish………………………………………………………………………………………………

I

Research Articles
Novel Sensors for Food Inspections Mohd. Syaifudin Bin Abdul Rahman, Subhas C. Mukhopadhyay and Pak Lam Yu .......................... A Neural Network Approach to Fluid Level Measurement in Dynamic Environments Using a Single Capacitive Sensor Edin Terzic, Romesh Nagarajah, Muhammad Alamgir ...................................................................... Novel Orthogonal Signal Based Decomposition of Digital Signals: Application to Sensor Fusion Abdul Faheem Mohed, Garimella Rama Murthy and Ram Bilas Pachori .......................................... A Multiobjective Fuzzy Inference System based Deployment Strategy for a Distributed Mobile Sensor Network Amol P. Bhondekar, Gagan Jindal, T. Ramakrishna Reddy, C. Ghanshyam, Ashavani Kumar, Pawan Kapur and M. L. Singla ........................................................................................................... A Low Cost and High Speed Electrical Capacitance Tomography System Design Ruzairi Abdul Rahim, Zhen Cong Tee, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul Rahiman, Jayasuman Pusppanathan. . Fiber Optic Long Period Grating Based Sensor for Coconut Oil Adulteration Detection T. M. Libish, J. Linesh, P. Biswas, S. Bandyopadhyay, K. Dasgupta and P. Radhakrishnan ........... Type Identification of Unknown Thermocouple Using Principle Component Analysis Palash Kundu and Gautam Sarkar..................................................................................................... A Dynamic Micro Force Sensing Probe Based on PVDF Qiangxian Huang, Kang Ni, Nan Shi, Maosheng Hou, Xiaolong Wang ............................................. LED-Based Colour Sensing System Ibrahim Al-Bahadly and Rashid Berndt .............................................................................................. Design and Development of Black Box for Analyzing Accidents in Indian Railways Alka Dubey and Ashish Verma........................................................................................................... Use of the Maximum Torque Sensor to Reduce the Starting Current in the Induction Motor Muchlas and Hariyadi Soetedjo.......................................................................................................... Implementation of FPGA based PID Controller for DC Motor Speed Control System Savita Sonoli, Nagabhushan Raju Konduru ....................................................................................... 1

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ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier Allan Huynh, Jingcheng Zhang, Qin-Zhong Ye and Shaofang Gong ................................................

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Authors are encouraged to submit article in MS Word (doc) and Acrobat (pdf) formats by e-mail: editor@sensorsportal.com Please visit journal’s webpage with preparation instructions: http://www.sensorsportal.com/HTML/DIGEST/Submition.htm
International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA).

Sensors & Transducers Journal, Vol. 114, Issue 3, March 2010, pp. 66-82

Sensors & Transducers
ISSN 1726-5479 © 2010 by IFSA http://www.sensorsportal.com

A Multiobjective Fuzzy Inference System based Deployment Strategy for a Distributed Mobile Sensor Network
1

Amol P. Bhondekar, 1Gagan Jindal, 1T. Ramakrishna Reddy, 1C. Ghanshyam, 2 Ashavani Kumar, 1Pawan Kapur and 1M. L. Singla
Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR), Sector 30C, Chandigarh – 160030, India 2 National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra, Haryana-136119, India E-mail: amolbhondekar@csio.res.in ashavanikumar@yahoo.co.in
1

Received: 5 November 2009 /Accepted: 22 March 2010 /Published: 29 March 2010

Abstract: Sensor deployment scheme highly governs the effectiveness of distributed wireless sensor network. Issues such as energy conservation and clustering make the deployment problem much more complex. A multiobjective Fuzzy Inference System based strategy for mobile sensor deployment is presented in this paper. This strategy gives a synergistic combination of energy capacity, clustering and peer-to-peer deployment. Performance of our strategy is evaluated in terms of coverage, uniformity, speed and clustering. Our algorithm is compared against a modified distributed selfspreading algorithm to exhibit better performance. Copyright © 2010 IFSA. Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, Deployment, Clustering, Fuzzy inference system

1. Introduction
Advancements in technologies such as sensing, Electronics and computing have attracted tremendous research interest in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), apart from their enormous potential for both commercial and military applications. A WSN generally consists of a large number of lowcost, low-power, multifunctional, energy constrained sensor nodes with limited computational and communication capabilities [1]. In WSNs sensors may be deployed either randomly or deterministically depending upon the application [2]. Deployment in a battlefield or hazardous areas is generally random, where as a deterministic deployment is preferred in amicable environments.
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In general there are certain issues which are needed to be taken care of while senor network deployment. Network lifetime is one of the important issues to optimize as energy resources in a WSN are limited due to operation on battery. Replacing or recharging of battery in the network may not be feasible. Though the overall function of the network may not be hampered due to failure of one or fewer sensor nodes of the network as neighbouring sensor nodes may take over, but for optimum performance the network density must be high enough. Network Connectivity, which depends upon the communication protocol, is another WSN design issue. Generally cluster based architecture is followed as the most common protocol. In cluster-based architecture, the sensor nodes are grouped in clusters which communicate with a sink node (master node); the sink node gathers information from the nodes in its cluster (slave nodes) and transmits the information to the base station. Network connectivity issues include the number of sensor nodes in a cluster depending upon the load handling capability of the sink nodes, as well as the ability of sensor nodes to reach these sinks. Apart from the design issues discussed above parameters depend upon the application for which the network is to be deployed. The problem becomes much more complex when the sensor nodes are mobile and are randomly deployed. Several strategies have been reported for mobile sensor network deployment by various researchers. Strategies based on Virtual forces concept was presented in [3]. Wherein two kinds of virtual forces act upon the sensor nodes, a repellent force which repels the nodes to improve coverage and an attractive force for maintaining the connectivity between sensor nodes. A distributed self spreading Algorithm (DSSA) was proposed by Heo and Varshney [4]. Strategies based on voronoi diagram, constrained multivariable nonlinear programming has also been reported by P. Cheng, C. Chuah and X. Liu [5] respectively. Shu et al [6] applied Fuzzy logic systems to handle uncertainties in the random movement and unpredictable oscillations in sensor node deployment. However issues related to clustering and power management were not handled by Shu et al. In this paper, we apply fuzzy inference system (FIS) to handle issues related to clustering and power management along with the uncertainties in distributed sensor node deployment. We have applied FIS to redeploy the sensor nodes after initial random deployment. Each individual mobile sensor node uses FIS not only to self adjust its location but also its operational mode. The sensor nodes are capable of assuming two modes i.e. master mode and slave mode. Neighbouring sensor nodes location is the only information required by an individual sensor node to make the movement decision. Whereas, operational mode decision depends upon the current battery capacity and the mode information of neighbours. The operational mode decision eventually leads to clustering of the sensor nodes. We have modified DSSA proposed by Hue and Varshney [4], by introducing rules for operational mode and battery lifetime. We compare our approach with the modified DSSA in terms of uniformity, coverage, speed and clustering. This comparison proves that our approach outperforms mDSSA. The rest of the paper is organized in the following way. Section 2 defines our approach to the problem and the basic functioning of FIS. Minutiae of FIS approach and mDSSA are given in Section 3. Section 4 and 5 discuss the simulation results and performance respectively followed by conclusion in Section 6.

2. Methodology
We consider the deployment problem for a rectangular region of interest (RoI), without the loss of generality. Our aim is to find the positions and movements of sensor nodes to achieve maximum coverage and to distribute the sensor nodes uniformally in minimum time while consuming minimum
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energy. In the initial condition, a given number of sensor nodes are randomly deployed such as by airdropping. Because of the randomness in initial deployment, it is very likely that the RoI will not be fully covered. Part of the RoI might be over crowded with the sensor nodes. Such unbalanced deployment brings difficulty in uniform sensing, and increases the interference during communications. It can be seen in the Fig. 1, that there are lots of uncovered and overcrowded areas. Uncovered area cannot be perceived, while in the overcrowded area, communication between sensor nodes is corrupted by the interference from neighbouring sensor nodes.

Fig. 1. Random Deployment of sensor nodes.

Our algorithm then intends to re-deploy these sensor nodes such that maximum field coverage and high quality communication could be achieved. Each individual sensor node in the network needs to fine-tune its location such that densely deployed sensor nodes can be evenly spreaded in the field. Four critical measures are considered in our algorithm: • • • • Determine the next-step move distance for each sensor node Determine the next-step move direction for each sensor node Determine the next-step mode adopted by sensor node Determine the battery value left for the sensor node

Following assumptions are being made in this research: • RoI is denoted by a two-dimensional grid. Sensing and communication is modelled as a circle on this grid. • Coverage discussed in this paper is grid Coverage. A grid point is covered when at least one sensor covers this point. • A sensor can detect or sense any event within its sensing radius. Coverage is determined based on sensing radius. • Two sensors within their communication range can communicate with each other. Neighbours of a sensor are defined as sensor nodes within its communication range.
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• • • •

Sensor nodes are mobile and are capable of computing, detection and communication. Sensor node can obtain the knowledge of its location. Sensor nodes are capable of reconfiguring themselves as masters or slaves. Sensor in Master mode can communicate with slaves around it, slaves pass on the information to master which then pass it on to the base station. • Master battery consumption rate and communication range is higher than that of the slaves. • All sensor nodes are peer to peer.

2.1. Fuzzy Inference System Design Fuzzy Logic is a mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Basically, Fuzzy Logic is a multivalued logic that allows intermediate values to be defined between conventional evaluations like true/false, yes/no, high/low, etc. Fig. 2 shows the typical structure of a rule-based type-1 FIS [7-8]. FIS contains four components namely Fuzzification interface, Rule base, Decision Making unit, Defuzzification interface. When an input is applied to a FIS, the inference engine computes the output set corresponding to each rule. The defuzzifier then computes a crisp output from these rules output set. The rules base may be formed based on experience and or from specific experimental/numerical observations. These rules can be implemented by means of IF-THEN statements [9] for e.g. IF number of neighbours of a sensor node are low and average Euclidian distance between sensor nodes and its neighbours is moderate, THEN move the sensor node nearly. The IF-part of the rule is known as Antecedent and the THEN-part is known as Consequent.

Fig. 2. Rule-based type1 Fuzzy Logic System.

Fuzzy inference process involves five steps namely: fuzzification, fuzzy operation (AND or OR) over antecedents, inference from the antecedent to the consequent, aggregation of the consequents across the rules, and defuzzification. The first step is to take the inputs and determine the degree to which they belong to each of the appropriate fuzzy sets characterized by membership functions. A membership function (MF) is a curve that defines how each point in the input space is mapped to a membership interval between 0 and 1. Though the shapes used to describe the membership functions have hardly any restrictions, some standard mathematical functions developed over the years are generally used. The input to the fuzzification process is always a crisp numerical value limited to the universe of discourse of the input variable and the output is a fuzzy degree of membership in the qualifying linguistic set. Either a table lookup or a function evaluation is used to find out the fuzzified values. Next, we know the degree to which each part of the antecedent is satisfied for each rule.
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Fig. 3. Membership Function for Shiftdistance.

The input to the fuzzy operator is two or more membership values from fuzzified input variables. The output is a single truth value. The rule’s weight must be known beforehand to send it for implication. Every rule has a weight, which is applied to the number given by the antecedent. The input for the implication process is a single number given by the antecedent, and the output is a fuzzy set. Implication is implemented for each rule. Aggregation is the process by which the fuzzy sets that represent the outputs of each rule are combined into a single fuzzy set. Aggregation only occurs once for each output variable, just prior to defuzzification. The input for the defuzzification process is a fuzzy set and the output is a single number. The most popular defuzzification method is the centroid calculation which returns the center of area under the curve. Applying center-of-sets defuzzification [10], for every input (x1, x2), the output is computed using:
 

y ( x 1, x 2 ) =

m

l =1 m

l cG µ

l F1

( x1) µ

l F2

(x2)
(1)

µ

l =1

l F1

( x1) µ

l F2

(x2)

where m is the no. of rules. In this work Fuzzy Logic toolbox of MATLAB® is used for deriving the fuzzy decision surfaces. Two decision surfaces were derived for Shift Distance and Next Mode decisions. A MATLAB® script was coded to simulate the sensor deployment using these decision surfaces. The shift distance is calculated using the FIS made by using two antecedents and a set of rules as listed in Table 1.  Antecedent 1- Number of neighbours of each sensor. Antecedent 2- Average Euclidean distance between sensor node and its neighbours. Here moderate, near and far are the values taken from the membership function of respective variable. Coloumb’s law becomes a handy tool for determination of next step move direction [6]. Wherein the sensor nodes act as similarly charged particles which repel each other. Thus, the direction of movement for an individual sensor node can be determined by the vector addition of repulsive forces acting on it from its neighbouring nodes.

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Table 1. Rules for Shift Distance Decision. Antecedent 1 Low Low Low Medium Medium Medium High High High Antecedent 2 Near Moderate Far Near Moderate Far Near Moderate Far Antecedent 3 Moderate Near Near Far Moderate Near Far Moderate Moderate

The next step is to decide the next operational mode that the sensor node would be working in. Initially all sensor nodes are randomly assigned their modes.

Fig. 4. Membership Function for Selecting mode.

For this FIS we have used three antecedents as inputs and one output, as listed in Table 2. Antecedent 1:- Battery- Current battery value. Antecedent 2:- Slaves- Number of slaves the sensor node has in its neighbourhood. Antecedent 3:- Master- Number of masters or sensors working in master mode in its neighbourhood. After getting next mode, the next step is to calculate the battery value. Battery value is calculated as the result of a mathematical function Equation (2) consisting of shift distance, mode and the time sensor node has been operational.  

b = 10 − (log(1 + t ) + log(1 + d ) + log(1 + m)) , 

(2)

where b is the remaining battery value; t is the time elapsed; d is the total distance transversed; m is the current operational mode. 
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Thus after calculating the next step move information, operational mode and battery value, the sensor node coordinates and operational mode are updated.

Table 2. Rules for Next mode Decision.
Antecedent 1 Very low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium High High High High High High High High High Antecedent 2 None Low Low Low Medium Medium Medium High High High Low Low Low Medium Medium Medium High High High Low Low Low Medium Medium Medium High High High Antecedent 3 None Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Next mode Hibernate Slave Master Slave Master Slave Slave Master Master Slave Master Slave Slave Master Slave Slave Master Master Slave Master Slave Slave Master Master Slave Master Master Slave

3. Algorithms
This Section Explains the Algorithms we have used for both mDSSA and Fuzzy Logic codes.

3.1. Modified Self Spreading Algorithm DSSA reported by Heo and Varshney [4] was modified, henceforth to be referred as mDSSA, to accommodate remaining battery strength and time to determine next step operational mode. We have implemented the algorithm in MATLAB®. Performance of this mDSSA is compared against the proposed FIS base deployment. We investigate various number of sensors deployed in a field of 80X60sq unit area. The main idea of DSSA is to define a partial force for the movement of sensor nodes during the deployment process. The force a sensor node receives from a closer neighbour node [4] is greater than that from a farther neighbour. For N sensor nodes deployed in a square field with area A, DSSA formulates the partial force sensor node i receives from neighbour node j as
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f

i, j n

i p nj − p n = 2 ( cR − | p − p |   i | p nj − p n | µ i Dn i n j n

(3)

where cR stands for communication range, N .π .cR 2 µ (cR) = is called the expected density A i D is the local density, and pn stands for the location of node i at time step n. Each node makes decision to move by adding up all partial forces from its neighbouring nodes. DSSA sets up two criteria: stable status limit (Slim) and oscillation limit (Olim) to stop a sensor’s movement. Various Steps in the algorithm used can be explained as:

3.1.1. Initialization Initially nodes are deployed randomly on the field. Then we calculate expected density that gives us an idea of the desired density. Expected density is average number of nodes to cover the entire area if uniformally deployed. Based upon the current battery strength, neighbourhood information and operational mode the next step operational mode is decided and battery strength is also updated based on Equation (2).

3.1.2. Partial Force Calculation Here the nodes are treated as particles in physics following Coloumb’s law. Force here depends on the distance between nodes and also on the current local density. Force corresponding to higher density is higher.

3.1.3. Oscillation Check mDSSA deploys two stopping criterias. A node is considered to be in oscillation state if it is moving back and forth between two points. This state is determined and the oscillation count is maintained, if it exceeds oscillation limit then the node is stopped at the centre of the two oscillation points.

3.1.4. Stability Check A node is considered to have achieved stability if it moves less than some threshold value in a fix time called Stability_limit. This is the second stopping criterian employed in mDSSA to stop nodes movement. Algorithm 1 pseudo code for modified distributed self spreading algorithm

1. Initialization Initial_node_locations; sensing_range sR; communication_range cR; clock; battery value; mode; calculate_expected_density µ For (no_of_iterations)
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For (no_of_sensors) Calculate shift_distance moved by each sensor Time to complete one iteration Calculate the battery (depend on shift_distance,time and mode) While (Not (Oscillation occurred OR In a region of stable)) 2. Partial Force Calculation Calculate partial_force
i, j f ( µ , D , cR , p ) n n

Update temporary_position 3. Oscillation
i i n+1 |

If (

| p

n−1

− p

< threshold1)

Increase oscillation_count by 1; If (oscillation_count < oscillation_limit) Update next location to the temporary_position; Update local_density D; Else Move to the centroid of oscillating points; Update local_density; Stop node i’s movement; Else Update next location to the temporary_position; Update local_density D; 4. Stable
i i n |

If ( |

p

n+1

− p

< threshold2)

Increase stability_count by 1; If (stability_count < stability_limit) Go to while loop; Else Stop node i’s movement; Else Go to while loop End Increase sensor_count by 1; End Increase no_of_iteration by 1; End
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3.2 Fuzzy Logic Algorithm After initial random deployment the record of each node’s neighbourhood information and average distance is maintained, which serves as input to the fuzzy calculation of Shift distance. Number of masters and Salves are also calculated, which are further used for calculating the next operational mode using FIS.

Algorithm 2 pseudo algorithm for the Fuzzy Logic algorithm 1. Initialization Initial_node_locations; range_of_sensors; clock; battery value; mode; Readfis of shift_distance and next_mode; distributed=1; While (no_of_iterations) While (distributed=1) Increment no_of_iterations by 1; Distributed=0; Move_direction=0; For (no_of_sensors) Average_euclidean_distance=0; No_of_neighbours=0; For (no_of_sensors) If (|Xj-Xi| < range_of_sensors) Increment no_of_neighbours by 1; Average_euclidean_distance=average_distance+mag (Xj-Xi); If (mode =slave) Increment slave count by 1; Else If (mode =master) Increment master count by 1; End Do_not_move=1; Distributed=1; End End If (mode =master) For (no_of_sensors) If (|Xk-Xi| < 3*range_of_sensors) If (mode > master) Move master according to coulomb’s law Else
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Increase slave_count by 1 End End End If (do_not_move==1) Evaluate fuzzy for shift_distance & next_mode Calculate the time for each iteration; Calculate the battery value (depend on shift_distance, time, mode); End If (battery < slave) Go to hibernate; End End End

4. Simulation and Results
Sensors are initially randomly deployed in the given ROI. Then the algorithm is run and final deployment is shown in above Fig. 5. It can be seen that the network distribution is uniform and the masters (Red dots) are surrounded by the slaves (Blue dots). All the slaves are in the communication range of relevant masters and the masters are in communication range (Red circles) with each other enabling multihop communications. Surface plots are three-dimensional curve that represents the mapping between two inputs and an output.

Fig. 5. Final Deployment After Running Fuzzy Algorithm. 76

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If there are more than two inputs the surface plot is generated keeping one input as constant. Fig. 6 shows the decision surface generated by the FIS for Shift Distance calculation.

Fig. 6. Decision Surface for Shift distance.

We have three input antecedents for calculating the next operational mode so the following curves are drawn keeping one of them constant Fig. 7 shows the decision surface between Next Mode, Master and Battery; here number of slaves is kept as a constant.

Fig. 7. Decision Surface for Next mode, Master and Battery.

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Fig. 8 shows the decision surface generated by the FIS between the Next Mode, Battery and Slaves; here number of masters is kept as constant.

Fig. 8. Decision Surface for Next mode, Slaves and Battery.

5. Performance and Discussion
The section compares the performance of our fuzzy logic with the modified distributed self spreading algorithm. Various parameters are deployed to compare the two algorithms.

5.1. Coverage Coverage [11] accounts for the quality of service of a wireless sensor network. The concept of coverage as an archetype for the system level functionality of multi-robot systems was introduced by Gage [12]. In this paper, coverage is defined by the ratio of the union of covered areas of each node and the complete area of interest. Here the covered area of each node is defined as the area within sensing radius Rs. It is assumed that it will detect every event happened in this range perfectally. We have used around 20000 Monte Carlo simulations to calculate Coverage. Monte Carlo method [11] requires many sample points to be evaluated and based on the evaluation the results are calculated. As we can see Fuzzy algorithm has much higher Coverage ratio for the same number of iterations as compared to mDSSA and it is almost touching 99 % for thirty five iterations. In Fig. 10 as we increase the number of nodes the coverage ratio increases for both mDSSA and Fuzzy but coverage is initially better in case of Fuzzy deployment and increases at greater rate with increasing number of nodes than mDSSA, which saturates as number of sensors is increased to 300. Whereas in Fuzzy deployment the coverage ratio is approaching 100% mark with increasing number of nodes.

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Fig. 9. Coverage vs. No of Iterations curve for Fuzzy and mDSSA.

Fig. 10. Coverage Ratio vs. No. of Nodes curve for 60 iterations each for Fuzzy and mDSSA.

5.2. Uniformity Uniformity (U) [13] can be defined as the average local standard deviation of the distances between nodes.  
U= 1 N

∑U
i =1

N

i

 

(4)

 

Ui = (

1 1 Ki ( Di , j − M j )2 ) 2   ∑ Ki j =1

(5)

where N is the total number of nodes; Ki is the number of neighbours of the ith node; Di,j is the distance between ith and jth nodes; Mi is the mean of internodal distances between ith sensor node and its neighbours.
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While calculating local uniformity Ui, at the ith node, only the neighboring sensor nodes that are present in its communication range Rc are considered. A smaller value of U symbolizes that nodes are more uniformly distributed in the ROI. Network density doesn’t have much role to play here while calculating Uniformity. In Fig. 11 as we can see with number of iterations approaching 60, uniformity is almost zero in case of Fuzzy while it still hovering around 50 in mDSSA.

Fig. 11. Uniformity vs. No. of iterations.

5.3. Speed Speed in the deployment of sensor nodes plays an important role in various critical applications. The required time depends on the complexity of the reasoning and optimization algorithm and physical time for the movement of sensor nodes. The total time elapsed is defined here as the time elapsed until all the nodes reach their final locations. Here we have noted time after every iteration and we can see that the total time in case of mDSSA amounts to 300 sec compared to 8-9 sec in case of FUZZY deployment. This shows that fuzzy algorithm works much faster as compared to mDSSA. Lower time value means increased battery life and increase in lifetime of the complete sensor network.

5.4. Mode The graph shows as the time progresses the number of masters sharply decreases and number of slaves increases in case of mDSSA and the final value approaches 70 in case of masters and 225 in case of slaves thus the slave master ratio is poor and unbalanced while in Fuzzy it maintains a healthy ratio throughout. It also shows that power management is better in case of Fuzzy deployment as in the end there are more number of masters present with higher battery values. Similarly lesser number of slaves for fuzzy system strengthens our point that fuzzy deployment involves much less energy consumption as compared to mDSSA.
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Fig. 12. Total time vs. No. of iterations.

Fig. 13. No. of Masters vs. No. of iterations.

Fig. 14. No. of Slaves vs. No. of iterations. 81

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6. Conclusions
A sensor deployment strategy based on FIS has been proposed in this paper. The technique handles the complexity and uncertainties involved in the wireless sensor deployment in much better way than any existing algorithm. In energy constrained WSN the battery and network life are reciprocative and a fast and efficient strategy is indispensable. FIS algorithm proposed here has proved itself on these parameters prolonging network lifetime and achieving efficient deployment in much lesser time with least amount of power consumption. The proposed strategy not only demonstrates the usefulness for deployment of energy constrained WSN’s but also efficient clustering of sensor nodes.

References
[1]. I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, Wireless Sensor Networks: a Survey, Computer Networks, 38, 2002, pp. 393-422. [2]. M. Ishizuka, M. Aida, Performance Study of Node Placement in Sensor Networks, in Proc. of 24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, 2004, pp. 598-603. [3]. Y. Zhou and K. Chakrabarty, Sensor Deployment and Target Localization Based on Virtual Forces, IEEE 22nd Annual Joint Conference of the Computer and Communications Societies, Vol. 2, 2003, pp. 12931303. [4]. N. Heo and P. K. Varshney, Distributed Self Spreading Algorithm for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 3, New Orleans, LA, 2003, pp. 1597-1602. [5]. P. Cheng and C. Chuah and X. Liu, Energy Aware Node Replacements in Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE Global Telecommunication Conference, Vol. 5, 2004, pp. 3210-3214. [6]. Haining Shu, Quilian Liang and Jeon Gao, Distributed Sensor Networks Deployment Using Fuzzyu Logic Systems’, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, Vol. 14, No. 3, September 2007. [7]. J. M. Mendel, Fuzzy Logic Systems for Engineering, Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 83, No. 3, 1995, pp. 345-377. [8]. http://www.scielo.br/img/revistas/ca/v14n4/a05fig01.gif [9]. J. M. Mendel, Uncertain Rule-Based Fuzzy Logic Systems, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001. [10].S. Poduri, and G. S. Sukhatme, Constrained Coverage for Mobile Sensor Networks, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 165–171. [11].Seok Myun Kwon and Jin Suk Kim, Coverage Ratio in the Wireless Sensor Networks Using Monte Carlo Simullation, IEEE, 2008. [12].Gage, D. W., Command Control for Many-Robot Systems, Unmanned Systems Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1992, pp. 28-34. [13].Nojeong Heo and Pramod K. Varshney, An Intelligent Deployment and Clustering Algorithm for a Distributed Mobile Sensor Network, IEEE, 2003.

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