You are on page 1of 42

PROJECT WORK ON

FM BASED LONG RANGE REMOTE CONTROL
For the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Diploma in Electronics and Communication Engineering of the Department of Technical Education

Submitted By
C.M. RAJA J. VICTOR JEGAN S. ARICHANDRAN R.K. VIGNESH E. RAJ KUMAR T. JEGATHESH

Guided by
Mr. G. V. PREM KUMAR., B.E

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
NAGERCOIL – 629 004. 2005-2006

FM BASED LONG RANGE REMOTE CONTROL
PROJECT REPORT
CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is the bonafide recode of project work on “FM BASED LONG RANGE REMOTE CONTROL” done by Mr. Reg. No: of Final year Electronics & Communication Engineering during the year 2005-2006

Project Guide

Head of the Department

Submitted for the Board Examinations, April 2006

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We wish to thank the GOD “Who is invisible without him nothing is possible.” We here by acknowledge our sincere thanks to our Principal, TMT.C.J.HONIBALD M.E., MISTE, for her constant encouragement and blessing. We express our sincere and hearty thanks to our Head of Electronics & Communication Engineering department & our guide Mr. G. V. PREM KUMAR., B.E. for his source inspiration and technical guidance throughout this project. We also express our sincere thanks to our teaching & non teaching staffs & friends for their co-operation to complete this project.

ESTIMATION 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY . PROGRAM 7. CONCLUSION 10. PCB PREPARATION 8. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 5. FLOW CHART 6. SYNOPSIS 2. INTRODUCTION 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM 4.CONTENTS 1.

The Microcontroller is used as the Master in the receiver end which is used to control all the devices. Unlike Infra Red remote control. this Project employs FM transmission and Reception. SYNOPSIS The Project Long Range Remote Control can be used to remotely control a number of Electrical or Electronic Gadgets connected to it.92Mhz. The Receiver is made up of the famous 8 bit Microcontroller from Atmel. .1. For transmission we are using frequency modulation at the frequency of 433. It decodes the Signal from the transmitter and control the relays according to the signal. and hence it can be used for comparatively longer range. Any gadget can be switched on/off by keying the number allocated to it.

INTRODUCTION A microcontroller unit (MCU) uses the microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU) and incorporates memory. In the receiver end the FM receiver is used to receive the FM signal and its output contains the digital signal. etc on the same chip. timing reference. I/O peripherals. In our Project we are using the 8-bit Microcontroller AT89C2051 from Atmel semiconductors . The digital signals are decoded by a decoder and the outputs are coupled to the microcontroller. In our Project the Microcontroller is used to control all the External devices.2. The Transmitter transmits the signal using the FM transmitter. Limited computational capabilities and enhanced I/O are special features. It controls the External devices through the Relays.

3. BLOCK DIAGRAM BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TRANSMITTER SECTION KEYPAD DIGITAL ENCODER FM TRANSMITTER BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE RECEIVER SECTION FM RECEIVER DIGITAL ENCODER MICRO CONTROLLER RELAY DRIVER RELAYS .

The program is normally contained either in a second chip. Microcontroller-based systems are generally smaller. automobiles. hard drive controllers. WHAT IS A MICROCONTROLLER? A microcontroller (often abbreviated MCU) is a single computer chip (integrated circuit) that executes a user program. etc. .Block Diagram Explanation 3. require the least amount of energy. time & attendance clocks. A microcontroller is normally found in devices such as microwave ovens. CD players. security systems. called an EPROM. etc). more reliable.1. or within the same chip as the microcontroller itself. hard drives. Microcontrollers are used in devices that require some amount of computing power but don’t require as much computing power as that provided by a complex (and expensive) 486 or Pentium system which generally requires a large amount of supporting circuitry (large motherboards. keyboards. cell phones. video cards. In such applications it is almost always desirable to produce circuits that require the smallest number of integrated circuits. and cost as little as possible. They are ideal for the types of applications described above where cost and unit size are very important considerations. normally for the purpose of controlling some device hence the name microcontroller. hundreds of megabytes of RAM. A microwave oven just doesn’t need that much computing power. VCRs. and cheaper. that require the smallest amount of physical space.

In recent years. or any of the other circuitry necessary to access such devices. or on the microcontroller chip itself. An EPROM (Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory) is a special type of integrated circuit that does nothing more than store program code or other data but which is maintained even when the power to the EPROM is turned off. it is now entirely possible to have a single microcontroller which stores the program code internally.Microcontroller Program Storage The program for a microcontroller is normally stored on a memory integrated circuit (IC). The microcontroller accesses the program stored in the EPROM and executes it. and that chip is subsequently physically inserted into the circuitry of your hardware. Once you’ve developed software for a microcontroller it is normally programmed (or “burned”) into an EPROM chip. . Thus the program is made available to the microcontroller without the need for a hard drive. floppy drive. rather than having a circuit that includes both a microcontroller and an external EPROM chip. more and more microcontrollers offer the capability of having programs loaded internally into the microcontroller chip itself. Thus. called an EPROM.

Features of AT89C2051 · Compatible with MCS-51 Products · 2 Kbytes of Reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1.000 Write/Erase Cycles · 2.2.3.7 V to 6 V Operating Range · Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz · Two-Level Program Memory Lock · 128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM · 15 Programmable I/O Lines · Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters · Six Interrupt Sources · Programmable Serial UART Channel · Direct LED Drive Outputs · On-Chip Analog Comparator · Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes .

high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 2 Kbytes of flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). . The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry Standard MCS-51Ô instruction set and pinout.DESCRIPTION The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage. By combining a versatile 8bit CPU with flash on a monolithic chip. the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.

PIN CONFIGURATIONS .

BLOCK DIAGRAM .

3.0 to P3.1 require external pullups.6 is hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a general purpose I/O pin. GND Ground. P1. of the on-chip precision analog comparator. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. As inputs. When pins P1.7 provide internal pullups.2 to P1. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20 mA.0 and P1. respectively.1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0) and the negative input (AIN1). Port pins P1.7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low. they can be used as inputs.7 are seven bidirectional I/O pins with internal pullups. P1.2 to P1.3. Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming and program verification. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C2051 as listed below: . When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs.0 and P1. P3. Pin Description of AT89C2051 VCC Supply voltage. Port 3 Port 3 pins P3. The Port 1 output buffers can sink 20 mA and can drive LED displays directly. they will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups.5. P3.

XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. .Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and programming verification. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. RST Reset input. Holding the RST pin high for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles.

3.4V~12V • Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology • Low standby current • Capable of decoding 12 bits of information • Binary address setting • Received codes are checked 3 times • Address/Data number combination • HT12D: 8 address bits and 4 data bits • Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor • Valid transmission indicator • Easy interface with an RF or an infrared transmission medium • Minimal external components • Pair with Holtek’s 212 series of encoders .4. 212 Series of Decoders (HT12D) FEATURES • Operating voltage: 2.

The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed 212 series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. the HT12D is arranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits. the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. They compare the serial input data three times continuously with their local addresses. Of this series. a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen. .GENERAL DESCRIPTION The 212 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. The 212 series of decoders are capable of decoding informations that consist of N bits of address and 12_N bits of data. If no error or unmatched codes are found. They are paired withHoltek_s 212 series of encoders (refer to the encoder/decoder cross reference table). For proper operation.

Pin Diagram of HT12D .

PIN DESCRIPTION OF HT12D .

5.) at VDD=5V • Minimum transmission word • Four words for the HT12E • Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor • Data code has positive polarity • Minimal external components • Pair with Holtek_s 212 series of decoders • 18-pin DIP.4V~12V for the HT12E • Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology • Low standby current: 0. 212 SERIES OF ENCODERS (HT12E) FEATURES • Operating voltage o 2.3. 20-pin SOP package APPLICATIONS • Burglar alarm system • Smoke and fire alarm system • Garage door controllers • Car door controllers • Car alarm system • Security system • Cordless telephones • Other remote control systems .1_A (typ.

The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12E further enhances the application flexibility of the 212 series of encoders. Each address/data input can be set to one of the two logic states.GENERAL DESCRIPTION The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits. . The programmed addresses/ data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal.

PIN DIAGRAM OF HT12E .

PIN DESCRIPTIONS OF HT12E .

• Interface directly to Encoders and Microcontrollers with ease.6. WIRELESS TRANSMITTER MODULE TX1-433. • 4 Pin Compact size module • Can be directly used in your PCB • Right angle Pin (Flat out) is the standard in these modules. • Low Power Consumption suitable for battery operated devices. • High Performance SAW Based Architecture with a Maximum Range of 100 feet at 4800 bps data rate. • Optional Vertical pin out available • Can be used with Fixed Code and Rolling Code Encoders or direct with microcontrollers PIN DIAGRAM OF THE TRANSMITTER MODULE .3.92MHZ FEATURES: • Complete RF Transmitter Module no external components and no tuning required.

0 70 Deg.PIN DETAILS OF THE TRANSMITTER MODULE PIN 1 PIN 2 PIN 3 PIN 4 RF OUT DATA IN GROUND VCC SPECIFICATIONS PARAMETER MINIMUM TYPICAL RANGE UNITS Modulation method ON-OFF KEYED (OOK) Modulation (FM) Voltage 2.8 Vcc Volts Operating temp. Cel range Operating 433.2V DC Supply Current 5 5.92 434. Data rate 2400 bps Antenna External1/4 Wave Whip.67 433.7 3 5.5 mA Stand by Current 3 micro A Output power into -2 0 0 dBm 50ohms Overall frequency -250 250 KHz accuracy Data input low 0 0.8 Volts Data input High >0.17 MHZ frequencies Max. Helical or PCB Trace Package SMD .

PIN DIAGRAM OF RECEIVER MODULE 433.3. which can facilitate the OEM designers to design their remote control applications in remote control in the quickest way. The circuit is designed with SMD components and the module size is small enough to be able to be fitted in almost any application.7.92MHZ R/F Gnd OUT Gnd Vcc Gnd Ant Vcc PIN DETAILS OF RECEIVER MODULE PIN 1: GND PIN 2: Digital Output PIN 3: Linear Output (For Testing) PIN 4: VCC (5V DC) PIN 5: VCC (5V DC) PIN 6: GND PIN 7: GND PIN 8: ANT . FM RECEIVER MODULE (RX-3304) This is the radio frequency receiver module.

4.1. Main Circuit Diagram . CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 4.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 2 .

3. . This analog data was transmitted continuously through the FM transmitter. At the rectifier output we get an 12v DC which is filtered by the Capacitor and the filtered 12v dc is regulated to 5v dc using the three terminal regulator IC 7805. At the receiving end the FM signal was received by the FM receiver and the data was decoded by the decoder IC and the decoded signal was fed to the microcontroller and the microcontroller will control the devices according to the received signal. CIRCUIT EXPLANATION The Circuit consists of the transmitter and a Receiver section. The transmitter section has encoder IC HT12E which scans the keys and convert into analog data. The 12v ac is further Rectified with help of the four Diodes.4. In the power supply circuit diagram we are using a 230v to 12v AC step down transformer. For the transmitter section we use a 3V battery.

FLOW CHART RECEIVER SECTION START CHECK IF SIGNAL IS AVAILABLE YES NO READ THE DATA CHECK DATA=01 YES COMPLEMENT DEVICE 1 NO CHECK DATA=02 YES COMPLEMENT DEVICE 2 NO CHECK DATA=03 YES COMPLEMENT DEVICE 3 NO CHECK DATA=04 YES NO CO MPLEMENT DEVICE 4 .5.

6.4 CSEG .---------==========----------==========---------=========--------ORG JMP 00H MAIN . PROGRAM INCLUDE reg_51. Main routine.5 DEV1 EQU P1.3 EQU P3. Reset .4 EQU P3. RESET VECTOR .---------==========----------==========---------=========--------MAIN: MOV SP.$ .7 DEV2 EQU P1.---------==========----------==========---------=========--------.#0FFH TOP: SETB VT JB VT.pdf VT DATA1 DATA2 DATA3 DATA4 EQU P3.#2FH MOV P1.6 DEV3 EQU P1.5 DEV4 EQU P1. .2 EQU P3. AT 0 .---------==========----------==========---------=========--------PROCESSOR INTERRUPT AND RESET VECTORS . Program execution starts here.0 EQU P3.

$ DOWN1:JB DATA2.SETB DATA1 SETB DATA2 SETB DATA3 SETB DATA4 JB DATA1.DOWN4 CPL DEV4 JNB DATA4.DOWN3 CPL DEV3 JNB DATA3.DOWN2 CPL DEV2 JNB DATA2.$ DOWN2:JB DATA3.$ DOWN4:AJMP TOP .REP1 DJNZ R1.$ DOWN3:JB DATA4.DOWN1 CPL DEV1 JNB DATA1.********************************************************** END .REP2 RET .#0FFH REP1: NOP DJNZ R2.********************************************************** DELAY: MOV R1.#055H REP2: MOV R2.

PCB Layout . PCB DETAILS 7.7.1.

Component Layout .7.2.

. coefficient of thermal expansion .7.shear strength. Though it is very cheap and can easily be drilled.The two main types of base laminate are epoxy glass and phenolic paper laminates are generally used for simple circuits. d) Acid etch. PCB Design The PCB design starts right from the selection of the laminates . c) Resist application an fixing . dimensional stability etc.insulation resistance. hardness. f) Resist removal. water absorption property. The important properties that have to be considered for selecting the PCB substrate are the dielectric strength . e) Cleaning and inspection. Epoxy glass has higher mechanical strength.3.4 Manufacturing Process The steps involved in manufacture are a) Art work preparation . 7. phenolic paper has poor electrical characteristics and it absorbs more moisture than epoxy glass. b) Resist preparation .

the area that each component would occupy . d) Finishing ie) drilling.the diameter of holes .the type of end terminal should be considered. b) Transferring the pattern onto the PCB.7. smoothing. turning etc. Transferring the PCB Pattern The copper side of the PCB should be thoroughly cleaned with the help of alcoholic spirit or petrol must be completely free from dust and other contaminants. PCB Fabrication The fabrication of a PCB basically of four steps. . cutting. c) Developing the PCB. all interconnection between the components in the given circuit are converted into PCB tracks several factors such as positioning . a) Preparing the PCB pattern .5. Pattern designing is the primary step in fabricating a PCB in this step. The mirror image of the pattern must be carbon copied and to the laminate the complete pattern may now be made each resistant with the help of paint and thin brush.

the mixture should be thoroughly stirred and a few drops of HCl may be added to speed up the process.hole of suitable diameter should be drilled . For accuracy however 3-jaw chunks aren’t brilliant and small drill below 1 mm from grooves in the jaws preventing good grips.then the PCB may be tin plated using an ordinary 35 Watts soldering rod along with the solder core . Finishing Touches After the etching is completed . After etching the board it should be washed under running water and then held against light . should be placed in a flat bottomed plastic tray and the aqueous solution of FeCl 2 poured in the etching process would take 40 to 60 min to complete.5 grams of FeCl3 added to it. About 100ml of tape water should be heated to 75 ° C and 30. The board with its copper side facing upward.the printed pattern should be cleanly visible.Developing In this developing all excessive copper is removed from the board and only the printed pattern is left behind. Drilling Drills for PCB use usually come with either a set of collects of various sizes or a 3-Jaw chuck. . The paint should be removed with the help of thinner.the copper side may be given a coat of varnish to prevent oxidation.

Now connect the switch and then solder/screw if on the PCB using multiple washers or spaces. Assembling The circuit can be enclosed in any kind of cabinet. LED and buzzer. Now connect the battery lead.Soldering Begin the construction by soldering the resistors followed by the capacitors and the LEDs diodes and IC sockets. Note that a rotary switch can be used instead of a slide type. The components are selected to trigger the alarm a few minutes before the set limit. Switch on the circuit to be desired range. Don’t try soldering an IC directly unless you trust your skill in soldering. . Soldering it directly will only reduce its height above other components and hamper in its easy fixation in the cabinet. Before fitting the PCB suitable holes must be drilled in the cabinet for the switch. All components should be soldered as shown in the figure. To be sure that it is working properly watch the LED flash. It will automatically start its timing cycles.

9. 12. 10.8. 3. 6. Total Microcontroller Encoder IC Decoder IC FM transmitter module FM receiver module Antenna Battery SIP Resistors Capacitor Crystal PCB Designing PCB Fabrication Microcontroller Programming Rs. 13. 2. ESTIMATION Sl. 8. 4. 5.No Component Name 1. 11. 14. 3400-00 9V 10K 12 MHZ Number AT89C205 1 HT12E HT12D _ Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 2 Price 400 250 300 250 300 50 25 20 5 50 50 250 250 700 . 7. 15.

Motor etc . Through this project we have learned how to face a new project work. This system can be adopted to control any kind of devices such us fan.9. CONCLUSION The Construction and testing of all parts of the project have been successfully completed. home etc. This system can be used in factories. light. so that the we can control devices from a distant place using this system.

ATMEL.COM 4.10.COM . Janice Gillispie Mazidi 2. Sharma 3.DALSEMI. WWW.8052. WWW.MICROCONTROLLER.COM 5.NET 6. WWW. WWW. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS –By B. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS -By Muhammed Ali Mazidi .