INTRODUCTION One thing that web have in common is that we all are consumers.
In fact everybody in this world is a consumer. Every day of our life we are buying and consuming an incredible variety of goods and services. However, we all have different tastes, likes, dislikes, and adopt different behavior, patterns while making purchase decisions. The term consumer behavior refers to the behavior that consumers display in searching for purchase, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. The study of consumer behavior is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources (time, money and effort) on consumption related items. It includes the study of “ what they buy”, “ why they buy”, “where they buy”, “how often they buy”, and “how often they use it”. soft drinks are a consumer products
purchased by individuals primarily to quench their thirst and secondarily for social status.
“Soft drink” is termed for its non-alcoholic contents. It is a sweetened, carbonated, flavored beverage. When compared to the “hard-drinks”. Soft drink, as the very word signifies is a drink for all purposes and all seasons. India is considered to be the heaven for soft drink industry, as it happened to be the single largest in the world with twelve core consumers. Bottled soft drinks are the order of the day for most of the reputed brands. On a hot summer day, soft drink seems to be a drop from heaven. One may wonder the taste, which is unique for its fig, and tingling taste. Manufacturing of soft drinks on scientific lines was made possible with the invention made by john Marvin nooth, as English ma n, who developed on apparatus for production of Co2 during 1832 Cholera, epidemic. Hence for the first time in France bottling units did come us, who multiplied also over Europe & threw it lead to higher volume of; production of “softdrinks”. Soft drink manufacturers with all their creative and bubbling advertisement are trying to catch new quenches in marketing soft drinks.
Bottled soft drink in India started in as early as 1888 with M/s Dukes 4 Company, a Bombay based company with passing of every year for recently at two giant multi national i.e., Pepsi and coca-cola, the scenario of soft drinks business has under gone a great change. The estimated asperity in the country on soft drinks is around Rs. 1000/- cores. Thus it shows that Indians are sipping more accreted waters and drinks to quench their summer thirst. Wide verities of soft drinks are now available in different size. In 1994 government has shown its enthusiasm to bring amendments to weights and measurements ACT 1976. as per its notification is shown all the manufactures should strictly adhere be following measurements. For all bottled soft drinks For all bottled soft drinks For all bottled soft drinks For all bottled soft drinks For all bottled soft drinks For all bottled soft drinks Soft drink in tins 250ml 500ml 700ml 1lts 1.5lts 2lts 300ml
Non-alcoholic soft drinks beverages market can be divided in to fruit drinks and soft drinks. The soft drink can be further divided in to carbonated and non-carbonated drinks. The soft drinks till early 1990’s were in the hands of domestic players like compa, Thums-up & Limca etc. But with the opening up of economy and coming of MNC players pepsi and coca-cola the market has come totally under their control. The growth of soft drinks in India is very high compared to other countries . So it attracted the attention of world leading players a lot. Before the entry of pepsi in to India the market share of coca-cola was 80%, but with in the entry of pepsi its market share was decreased by 10%. The major players in soft drink industry are coca-cola pvt ltd, Cadbury Schweppes, pepsi foods pvt ltd. Besides these there are more than 200 units of independence manufactures of soft drink industry. Coca-cola was invented by a Dr. John Stith Pemberton in 1886. It was the doctor’s second drink with coca leaves and the kola nut as a basis. The doctor’s first coca leaf drink, Pemberton's French Wine Coca, was actually an imitation of Vin Mariani, a coca-wine drink invented by Angelo Mariani in 1883. Although there were several imitators of the French Coca-Wine, Pemberton's formula was superior. He was actually quoted saying "I believe that I am now producing a better preparation than that of Mariani." Pemberton was not very good health, not to mention he was a morphine adict. So in 1887 he begain to sell parts of the company off. On July 8th he sold a third of the company to Willis Venable and another third to George Lowndes. Neither man had the time to market, make or sell Coke so they sold their portion of the company to wool folk Walker and his younger sister Margaret Dozier. Dozier owned two-ninths and Walker four-ninths of the formula rights. Now here is where it gets interesting. Venable somehow disposed of his portion of Coca-cola twice. During some time in 1887, he gave his share of Coca-cola to Joseph Jacobs, owner of Jacobs' Pharmacy. In early October, 1887 Pemberton ran a blind ad looking for additional investors. 3
He was able to get three investors with this ad. He took $2,000 from each of them. Their names were J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey and E.H. Blood worth. In late December the three new partners moved to Atlanta, ready to produce all of Pemberton's wonderful medicines. At this point the formula of Coca-cola was officially owned by Pemberton, Walker and Dozier, but several others had interest in it. Enter Asa Candler, an ambitious Atlanta druggist. Candler some how acquired control of the company later in the month of December although he probably didn't own any part of the company until 1888. He acquired the drink in return for debts owed hime by certain "gentlemen." Things got a little sticky for a while with Charley Pemberton (John's son) claiming his right to the drink. This kicked off two coke clones by the names of: Yum Yum and Koke. Pemberton grew even more ill, but continued with his work. He was developing a new drink, a modified cola with celery extract. The drink was never finished. Pemberton died on August 16, 1888. Candler serveda as a pallbearer at Pemberton's funeral and spoke very highly of him. In later years he was quoted saying "Why, I suppose Dr. Pemberton felt I was one of his best friends in town." Exactly two weeks after Pemberton died Candler bought the remaining interest of Walker and Dozier for $1,000. With the exception of the Walker, Candler & Company ownership, Asa Candler had legal rights to Coca-Cola. He was calling himself the drink's sole proprietor by May 1, 1889. By the turn of the century Candler would become one of the wealthiest men in Atlanta and Coca-Cola would become the most popular soft drink in America. COCA-COLA WORLD WIDE: Although Coca-Cola® was first created in the United States, it quickly became popular wherever it went. Our first international bottling plants opened in 1906 in Canada, Cuba and Panama, soon followed by many more. Today, we produce nearly 400 brands in over 200 countries. More than 70 percent of our income comes from outside the U.S., but the real reason we are a truly global company is that our products meet the varied taste preferences of consumers everywhere.
We bring refreshment to people in over 200 countries. Here are brief descriptions of our business in some of those locations -- information about our local history; brands, bottling operations, community involvement, and other initiatives. Come explore some of the locations where our beverages are enjoyed. COCA-COLA IN INDIA: Leading Indian brands Thums-Up, Limca, Maaza, Citra and Gold Spot join the Company's international family of brands including Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Sprite and Fanta, plus the Schweppes product range. Our Kinley water brand was launched in 2000 In 2001, our energy drink Shock and our first powdered concentrate, Sunfill, hit the market Annual per capita consumption of soft drinks in India is nine 8-ounce servings. The Company ranking up "firsts" in the introduction of Canned and PET soft drinks, vending machines and backpack dispensers for crowds of cricket supporters. In early 2003, Coca-Cola India collected Advertiser of the Year and Campaign of the Year awards for the Thanda Matlab Coca-Cola all-media campaign The Coca-Cola system adheres not only to national laws on food processing and labeling, but also to our own strict standards for exceptional quality In everything we do, from the selection of ingredients to the production of our beverages and their delivery to the marketplace, we use our specialized quality management system, The Coca-Cola Quality System, to ensure that we are offering consumers only the highest quality products We monitor our success through our customer and consumer feedback and our in-trade monitoring programmes, and this information enables us to continuously improve our already demanding systems.
COCA-COLA BRANDS IN INDIA
BOTTLING DETAILS: 6
in turn. sports andentertainment venues.From the world's largest cities to its most remote villages. schools and colleges. The Coca-Cola Company bottling partners are always local businesses. supermarkets. They sell our brands to businesses and institutions retail chains. exerting a strong influence on economic development and actively participating in community life through local events and philanthropic activities. our bottling system is made up of locally rooted enterprises committed to quality. These customers.For each of our customers. are where you go when you want a Coke® or one of our other brands. Local consumer tastes determine the brands and package types a particular customer wants us to supply. providing the right mix of Company products and packages at the right price is the foundation of mutual success. restaurants. among others. Bottlers in many countries offer tours of their facilities to schoolchildren and adult groups. small neighborhood grocers. Bottlers and Customers Bottlers are a critical local link. Contact the local bottler in your region for more information on tours and other activities that our bottlers sponsor.
(NYSE: CCE) is the world's largest marketer. 300ml. SOFT DRINK IN M/S COCA-COLA BEVERAGES PRIVATE LIMITED: COCA-COLA THUMS-UP FANTA ORANGE MAZZA LIMCA SPRITE KINLEY COLA DRINK COLA DRINK ORANGE DRINK MANGO DRINK LIME DRINK CLOUDY LEMON SODA
Soft drink is released in 200ml. and the Netherlands.Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. As a result pepsi entered into the market in 1992 . Luxembourg. 1000ml. Its reach recital was search for prospective partner to establish a joint venture in India .S. Coca-Cola Enterprises sells approximately 80 percent of The Coca-Cola Company's bottle and can volume in North America and is the sole licensed bottler for products of The Coca-Cola Company in Belgium.A that has turn over of $50 billions. and producer of bottle and can liquid nonalcoholic refreshment.The capacity of the present India soft drink market is around 120million cases of which coke has a market share of 57% in the India soft drink market. distributor. inc Atlanta . 600ml.The advantage pepsi having over it’s archival coke is the shipping of bottling plant which give more flexibility in carrying out their business. continental France.U. 2000ml etc.
HINDUSTAN COCA-COLA BEVERAGES ORGANIZATION LIMITED:
. Great Britain. 1500ml.After a long period coke re-entered the India market on 22nd july 1998. Monaco. Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages is owned by multinational gaint of beverages cocacola. In 1991 the government of India allowed foreign manufacturers to enter in the India soft drink industry. 500ml.
CHANEELS IN CITY MARKET :
UP COUNTRY MAREKET:
: DISTRIBUTORS.A well organized structure makes every one aware of his duties and responsibilities. A Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages consists of employees and has organized systematically.Ltd. Bottling (Production) Distribution Sales Marketing Administration of day to day activities DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS OF HINDUSTAN COCA-COLA BEVERAGES: It adopts three ways to distribution for supply of brands. Credit outlets. City market. The activities performed by Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages PVT. Up Country Market Districts). It provides co-ordination horizontal and vertically in the enterprise. 9
star clubs. This enables us to raise our standards even higher.
COCA-COLA QUALITY COMMITMENT IN INDIA: The secret ingredient 10
.HEAD QUARTERS : WHOLE SALERS. In our ingredient evaluation laboratories. so that they meet the highest quality requirements. We are never content to let our standards become static.
COMPANY PROMISES: The Coca-Cola Company exists to benefit and refresh everyone it touches. joy and fun to our stakeholders. we perform precise analyses of fruit juices and other ingredients sent to us by our suppliers. for example. particularly Coca-Cola. to ensure and to improve product quality. We inform and educate our business partners about our standards. by all our business units. COCA-COLA QUALITY COMMITMENT: The Coca-Cola Quality System is a worldwide initiative involving every aspect of our business. undergo constant scrutiny. to safe-guard the water we use in our products and the packaging that carries them to our consumers. Our processes. When we bring refreshment. Under the Coca-Cola Quality System.etc which are supplied directly by factory and business is carried and credit basis. processes and relationships. quality is our highest business objective and our enduring obligation. That is the key to fulfilling our ultimate obligation to provide consistently attractive returns to the owners of our business. Everyone who works for or with Coca-Cola is empowered and expected to maintain the highest standards of quality in products. These are special outlets such as star hotels. CREDIT OUTLETS : FACTORY OUTLETS. then we successfully nurture and protect our brands. The basic proposition of our business is simple. value. too. airports. The Coca-Cola Quality System mandates in-depth selfassessment throughout our operations. solid and timeless.
water and carbon dioxide . In addition to the water and concentrate. It’s the consistent quality of Coca-Cola. then shipped on for the next step . But most are simply delighted that it makes Coca-Cola. which are rigorously analyzed to ensure that they meet quality specifications. And. The quality standards are very high. To do this. the Coca-Cola system adheres not only to local and national laws for food processing and labeling.and transform them into the essence of refreshment. The entire syrup manufacturing system must employ hot sanitation. But another is just an arm’s length away.from the selection of ingredients to the calibration of equipment adheres to our own strict requirements. Everything we do. we take special care to ensure that every step . the world’s premier soft drink. Each concentrate lot is coded and packaged. sweeteners are added to produce syrup for most products. Wherever we do business. Others are sure they taste a distinctive flavour base. but also to our own strict standards for exceptional quality. one secret is locked safely away in a secured vault. The magic of turning syrup into a finished beverage is the role of bottlers and canners. Let’s take a closer look at that commitment. reflects our commitment to offering you the highest quality products. The final step is to verify that our efforts have been successful by testing the syrups for taste and adherence to their formulas. Our syrups start with fresh water. They bring together the essential ingredients . many producers now use the latest 11
.People love to speculate about the secret ingredient in Coca-Cola. taste so consistently delicious. Some say it could be ferreted out by simple analytical chemistry. Throughout the manufacturing process.the addition of sweetener and water to the concentrates to produce syrups for our products. from the selection of ingredients to the delivery of our finished products. What’s our secret? Well. treated by using a multiple barrier filtration process to ensure its quality.syrup. Precise control over water and sweetener components must be demonstrated. quality control professionals must oversee each step of the process. Concentrate and syrup manufacturing Most of our flavors are produced as concentrates. Mixing tanks must be of a specified grade of stainless steel.
we work tirelessly to ensure that we make it right the first time. Then. To ensure we have it right. syrup-to-water ratios (mixtures) are accurately established at production start-up and are monitored frequently during the production run. The filler injects a precise amount of product. No matter what sophisticated techniques are utilized. we test our work as a confirmation of our tightly controlled process. We clearly define the process and control the inputs and steps in the process so that we can predict the quality of what we produce. It’s a modern way to achieve our one traditional goal . but also employ our own testing methods. uniform application without gaps or leaks. Cans are regularly "torn down" to check the quality of liners and seams. Once the package has been inspected and rinsed. must meet standards for finish and uniformity. Some plants use "in-line" electronic monitors. Plastic closures are tested for proper alignment.consistent quality. Checking fill heights or net contents of our products helps to ensure that each package contains the proper volume.in computer technology and statistical process control. packaging must also pass rigorous standards. metal crown or plastic closure seals the package. We not only work with our packaging suppliers to ensure quality in their production. whether glass or plastic. Can fill levels are continuously checked by an electronic device. Metal crowns for glass bottles must be properly crimped onto the bottle lip. Each closure application method must pass regular testing. it passes to the filler. puts the "sparkle" in soft drinks. frequent taste-testing confirms that the blending process has produced exactly the right flavour . For instance. Adding pure carbon dioxide to the blend. the flavour you expect every time you drink one of our products. Bottles.. In addition to consistent syrup and beverage quality. The process Because we know that quality cannot be "tested in" to a product. Can ends are inspected for smooth. threading and torque (how hard you have to twist to get the closure off the bottle). 12
. technicians periodically check production runs. which continuously test the ratios and the carbonation of the beverage. in just the right proportion. Immediately. a can end. All packages must be free from defects..
At The Coca-Cola Company. or by weight. strengthen and protect. It’s our primary tool for maintaining high quality standards throughout the distribution cycle.our consumer. working at their innovative best and representing the diversity of the world we serve. refresh. Bottle fill heights are measured gravimetrically. Our consumers throughout the world deserve the highest quality beverages we can produce. or see. enrich the workplace. Every production lot is coded by date and producing facility. From processing to packaging to pouring. we strive every day to refresh the marketplace. COMPANY ENVIRONMENT:
. We are an investor in local economies and a driver of marketplace innovation. Quality shows itself in our every action. Trained route sales people use this code extensively to provide the freshest. in over 200 countries. And we are a local citizen. The CocaCola Company is a vibrant network of people. We are a local employer. or measure or manage.
COMPANY BELIEFS: There is much in our world to celebrate. best-tasting product possible. understanding our responsibility to contribute to an improved quality of life in our communities. protect the environment and strengthen ourcommunities. around the world. Learn more about our beliefs and how they guide our actions every day. putting citizenship into action. quality is more than just something we taste. anything less than 100 percent quality is unacceptable.which rejects any can not properly filled. it encompasses everything we do. Through our actions as local citizens. with responsibility to enable our people to tap into their full potential. with a responsibility to act as a good steward of our natural environment. Every time. right to you . Labeling and graphics for all packages must meet clearly defined standards.
This same spirit of innovation comes alive in our environmental programs. We're committed to preserving our environment. waste management and environmental education. from the use of more than $2 billion (U.A large part of our relationship with the world around us is our relationship with the physical world. While we have always sought to be sensitive to the environment.S. We want the world we share to be clean and beautiful. we must use our significant resources and capabilities to provide active leadership on environmental issues.
COMPANY REPORTS: The Coca-Cola Company publishes several reports throughout the year regarding our business and our business practices. These publications provide our consumers and
. and environmental management initiatives. The links to the left provide a sample of what we're doing in different communities around the world regarding the conservation of water and natural resources. down to very local neighborhood collection and beautification efforts.) a year in recycled content and suppliers. climate change. particularly those relevant to our business. We are always innovating to bring you different delicious beverages.
Our reports are completed at different times of the year.shareowners with information regarding our operations as well as our citizenship. The most recent publications are available here
» Annual and Other Reports » Citizenship Report » Environmental Report » HIV/AIDS Report » Task Force Report » Workplace Report
. environmental and workplace principles.
Coca-Cola India won two Gold Lions at the Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival for Thanda Matlab Coca-Cola cross-media campaign.).
The Coca-Cola Company named Advertiser of the Year for 2002 "For Everyone" campaign (INTE Awards for Spanish-language television in Latin America.
Coca-Cola Spain named 2002 Advertiser of the Year by the Spanish Association of Advertising Agencies (AEAP).
Resta Award for creative local advertising in Panama. 2001 Advertiser of the Year in Media Use in Asia for the Coca-Cola Hong Kong region's creative campaign featuring the Sprite Green Man. Coca-Cola has been voted one of Hong Kong's 'Platinum Superbrands' for the third time in a survey conducted throughout Asia by Reader's Digest magazine.•
Coca-Cola Nigeria awarded "Best Use of New Media" and "Best Use of Outdoor Media"at BRANDFaces Marketing Awards for biggest outdoor billboard in Africa.
Silver Aquarius Outdoor and the Gold Sun Aquarius Outdoor awards for advertising in Spain from the International Advertising Festival at Cannes.
Coca-Cola India awarded "The Advertiser of the Year" and "Campaign of the Year" for "Thanda Matlab Coca-Cola" campaign (Advertising Agencies Association of India).S. Spain and the U.
Best 2001 Web page in Spain (I-best).
Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages in India honored as "best private company" in the state by Government of Tamil Nadu for providing employment opportunities to physically challenged people.
Coca-Cola in Vietnam awarded prestigious 2004 Golden Dragon Prize for contributions to development of Vietnam's economy (Vietnam Economic Times).
Coca-Cola India ranked as top 10 most respected company in India.
Coca-Cola India recognized by Rajiv Gandhi Foundation (RGF) for participation in motorized triwheeler scheme for the disabled.COMPANY
Coca-Cola Vietnam received Award of Recognition from Ho Chi Minh City's Women's Union for its Pushcart Program (2005). Coca-Cola India received Bhagidari Award from Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit for Company's efforts and contributions towards community development programs.
Coca-Cola India placed in top ten of most respected companies survey (Business world. India's only business weekly). took second place at prestigious Golden Peacock National Quality Awards. Hyderabad.
Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Dasna plant in India received Golden Peacock Environment Management Award 2004. 17
The Coca-Cola Company placed first in Food and Beverages segment of "World's Most Respected Companies Survey 2004" and fifth overall (Financial
Coca-Cola India plant in Ameenpur.
an annual survey).
Coca-Cola Nigeria recognized by Hope Worldwide for its humanitarian involvement in fighting the HIV/AIDS epidemic (January 2003). by the World Council for Corporate Governance (India.
• • •
Corporate Citizenship Award for "Schools for a Change" program.
The Coca-Cola Company ranked #3 for Best Repution 2002 by the Harris Interactive Inc.
The Coca-Cola Company named "Most Admired" company by South African consumers (Sunday Times survey)
Coca-Cola Amatil received AA rating in social responsibility (RepuTex index. In Argentina (American Chamber of Commerce in Argentina). survey. 2002). 18
. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Achievement Award.
Coca-Cola India received a water conservation and pollution control award from Andhra Pradesh Government on World Environment Day (June 2003). 2003). Mori National Survey. for the second year in a row (National Customer Satisfaction Index. International Standardization Organization (ISO) 14001 certificate to Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia for environmental protection programs at its plants. 2002.•
The Coca-Cola Company ranked most respected food/beverage company of 2003 (Financial Times).
Golden Peacock Award for Global Excellence in Corporate Governance. 2002).
Most admired company in Argentina (Clarín Newspaper. Leader in consumer satisfaction in Korea.
Coca-Cola Chile awarded "Most Socially Responsible Company in Chile" (third consecutive year). 2002.S.
2001 Corporate Citizenship Award from the United States Chamber of Commerce for working with Reading is Fundamental (RIF) to improve literacy across the United States
Number-three ranking in the third annual reputation survey (2001) by Harris Interactive and the Reputation Institute.
Recognition from the environmental division of The Society of Plastics Engineers for responsible stewardship of the environment.•
2002 Corporate Excellence Award in Egypt by the US State Department for the company's involvement in community initiatives. near Hyderabad.
Coca-Cola Fountain's Lehigh Valley Syrup Plant was recently honored with the 2001 Governor's Award for Environmental Excellence for outstanding achievement in the area of resource protection.
Golden Peacock Award from the World Environment Foundation for effective environmental management at the Hindustan Coca-Cola plant at Ameenpur Village.
Legendary Impact on Sports Award from the Atlanta Sports Council.
Anti-Muslim messages appear in graphics (No Mohammed. Boycotting Coca-Cola makes a statement against America and American (foreign) policies. Coca-Cola contains material making it unsuitable for vegetarians and Muslims.and the facts. No Mecca). Some rumors and variations of those rumors concern The Coca-Cola Company. A few have been around for several years in one form or another and have recently had resurgence. Here are some rumors you may have seen or heard . Coca-Cola contributes profits to Israel.
The Coca-Cola Company is a Jewish company. Coca-Cola runs advertising that is offensive to Muslims.)
. (Variations of this rumor suggest that the company is affiliated with
the Mormon religion.COMPANY RUMOURS MIDDLE EAST RUMORS
Many companies are finding themselves the subject of various rumors that attempt to draw the companies and their products into the conflict in the Middle East.
Warning not to buy Coca-Cola due to possible contamination by terrorists.
an organization need to understand consumer behaviour and their influence on sales from time to time to achieve targeted sales. Here the Consumers of soft drinks are included in the survey.availability. OBJECTIVES To study and evaluate the behaviour of consumers of soft drinks. The information is gathered through survey method.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY NEED FOR THE STUDY Consumers tastes and Preferences are dynamic in nature.pomotion. While answering. an organization need to identify and analyze the various factors that governs the selection soft drinks by consumers.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY `
The methodology that is adopted for the study is such that it facilitates the data accumulation. To identify and analyze various factors that influence the selection of soft drinks. Soft drink is an low involvement purchasing product which an individual consume sales are influenced by habits.hence a study has been undertaken on consumer behaviour. administering the questionnaires to the respondents and asking them to fill the questionnaire collected the data.tastes.occasions. They influence the sales of any organization by adopting distinct and varying buying patterns.etc. the respondents were explained clearly about any ambiguities faced by them. This is carried through personally contacting them.
The data is mainly collected through primary sources and secondary sources.Generally the research design is of three types. It is a plan of organizing framework. The research design for this research is descriptive in nature and for data collection survey method.
Survey method is used in the collection of needed information from the respondents. viz. Descriptive research marked by the prior formulations of specific research questions.
PRIMARY DATA: It consists of original information gathered for a specific purpose. without demonstrating that some relationship exists between variables.
The major purpose of this descriptive studies are intended to produce accurate descriptions of variables relevant to the decision being faced. Exploratory. Descriptive and causal. The investigator already knows a substantial amount about the research problem before the project is initiated.
SECONDARY DATA: 22
. for doing the collection of data. Research design is defined as the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. The research design is descriptive in nature and study is mainly based on the data collected from primary as well as secondary sources. It is collected through administering the questionnaire by direct contact method and through informal meetings and observation..
the main intention is to obtain a proper cross section of the population. 2. It is collected through company previous records. they are: 1. Probability Sampling Probability methods are those in which the population elements have a known chance of being selected for the inclusion in the sample. By deliberate choice of the sample.It consists of information that already exists. members according to a plan. SAMPLE UNIT Here the sampling unit comprises Consumers of soft drinks in different areas of Hyderabad. Such sampling is called Non-probability sampling and in specific convenience sampling has been adopted for the research. have been collected for another purpose. These are mainly two types of sampling. SAMPLING PROCEDURE The sampling procedure determines how the respondents are chosen. The sample is taken without any known probability concerning the inclusion of individual units in the population. 23
. SAMPLE SIZE It was decided to choose 300 sample respondents through purposive-cum-convenient sampling and administer the questionnaire for the respondents. Non-probability sampling 1. SAMPLING PLAN As it is not practical to attempt a survey of the entire population. Probability sampling 2. Non-Probability Sampling Non-probability methods are those that purposefully or accident tally select the specific members of the sample in a non-random manner. a limited number of people have been surveyed owing to the time and money constraints. Randomness select the sample by chance.
this is carefully developed.RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Marketing researches have a choice of two main research instruments in collecting primary data. The response was overwhelming. analysis includes views. This questionnaire pertains to the aspects of Coca-Cola Company and its competitors having around 14 questions. structured and well designed. closed end and dichotomous types. Here the researcher used questionnaires as a research instrument. They are questionnaires and mechanical devices. complaints and suggestions given by the Consumers
THEORiETICAL FRAME WORK
. The questions were of open end.
promotion. a firm has to be constantly innovating and understanding latest consumer trends and tastes. income. to survive in the market. This hoarding provides you a stimuli to stop at the nearest cool drink shop and drink a cola. Consumers differ in terns of sex.Consumer behavior is helpful in understanding the purchase behavior and preferences of different consumers. You buy a particular brand of cola and consume it. Which promises to be cool. social. In today’s world of rapid changing technology. refreshing and tasteful. which they should explore. amy be the result of repeated satisfaction with other products produced by the same company at the same time of receiving the marketing stimuli. The initial stimuli for this purchase and consumption was provided by the hoarding. family and psychological background. You can recall some association with each of the three brands from the advertisements you have seen on T. Their favorable attitude towards the brand name originally a neutral stimuli. nationality and social status. These factors affect their needs and purchasing patterns either directly or indirectly.. The consumer already has a certain mental. For instance. Consumers often purchase new products that are associated with favorable viewed brand name. The starting point of the decision process is provided by the company’s marketing stimuli in the shape of product.emotional and psychological frame of mind developed over years by cultural.. religious. consumer”s tastes are also characterized by fast changes. point of purchase. cutouts and magazines and hoarding. Consumer behavior provides invaluable clues and guidelines to marketers on new technology frontiers. All three brands(THUMS UP. family setup. PEPSI) are available at the shop at a certain price. education. you see a hoarding for a cola drink. age. You buy particular brand of cola and consume it. price and distribution strategy.
.V. A MODEL OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: A consumer’s decision to purchases particular product or service is the result of complex interplay of a number of variables. COCA-COLA. occupation. promotional materials and earlier satisfaction with a given brand etc. This was backed up other stimuli such as product display in the shop watching other consumers buy a particular brand. religion. the initial stimuli for this purchase and consumption was provided by the hoarding.
interests and behavior. which are hierarchically ordered. Social class: social classes are relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society.Marketing Stimuli Product Price Place Promotion
other stimuli Economic
Consumer Characteristics Cultural Social
Consumers Decision process Problem Recognition Information Search Evaluation Decision Post purchase behavior
Consumer Decision Product choice Brand Choice Dealer choice Purchasing Timing Purchasing Amount
Technological Personal Political Psychological Cultural
CULTURAL FACTORS: Culture: culture is the most fundamental determinant of a person wants and behavior like set of values. religions. social class includes upper class. preferences and behaviors through his or her family member. middle class and lower class.
. and whose members share similar values. racial groups and geographical regions.
Subculture: subculture includes nationalities. perceptions.
life style and personality and self-concept. They arise from psychological state of tension such as hunger and discomfort.REFERENCE GROUPS: a persons reference group consists of all the groups that have a direct (face to face) or indirect influences on the persons attitude or behavior. Some needs are biogenic. occupation.
PHYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS: Motivation: a person has many needs at any given time. economic circumstances. 27
Types of reference group: Primary group: a) Family b) Friends c) Neighbors and co-workers d) Roles e) Status f) Conformity g) Opinion leaders h) Diffusion and innovation
PERSONAL FACTORS: a consumer decisions are also influenced by personal characteristic notably the buyer’s age and life cycle stage.
people acquire beliefs and attitudes. inputs to create a meaningful picture of world. Belief is a descriptive though that a person holds about some thing. emotional feelings.
Beliefs and attitudes: By doing and learning.
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRITION
1.Perception: perception is defined as “the process by which an individual selects.Preference of soft drinks based on Age Group
. Learning: when people act. These in turn influence consumer behavior. Learning describes changes in an individual behavior rising from experience. An attitude describes a person enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluation. process of applying results of past experiences to evaluate a new situation or modify future. they learn. organizes and interprets information.
AGE(Years) 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-76 43 150 50 32 13 12
Number of Respondents
Percentage 14% 50% 17% 11% 4% 4%
preference of soft drinks based on age group
200 150 100 50 0 5-14Y 43
Inference: Sample comprises of 14 % respondents with in age of 5-14 years. 4%between 4554years. 50% between 15-24 years.Preference of soft drinks based on occupation
.4%between 55-76 years.17% between25-34years. 11%between 35-44years.
6% are business.3% are teachers.Occupation students Employees House wives Business Teachers
No of respondents 181 61 30 19 9
Percentage 61 20 10 6 3
preference of soft drinks based on occupation s t n200 e150 d n100 o 50 p 0 s e r
181 61 s t n e d u t s 30 19 s s e n i s u B 9 s r e h c a e T
s e s e s e e u v y o i o H w l p m E occupation
Inference: Of the respondents seleccted61% are student.
.20% are house wives.
.3.Number of consumers consume soft drinks:
Response Number of respondents percentage
Of the respondents selected 98% of the respondents consume soft drinks and 2% doesn’t prefer soft drinks.
Companion when consuming soft drinks:
Companion Friends Family others
Number of respondents 187 97 10
64 33 3
Companion when consuming soft drinks: 200 150 100 50 0 Friends Family others 187 97 10
64% Of the Respondents Drinking With Friends.4. 33% are Drinking With Family and 3% are Drinking With others
.5.Choice of consuming Soft Drinks: Choice Snacks Food General Number of respondents 73 32 189 Percentage 25 11 64
Choice of consuming Soft Drinks 200 150 100 50 0 Respondents 189 73 32 Snacks Food Choice General
25% of the respondents take soft drinks with snacks.11% with food and 64% general user.
6. 305 drink during afternoon. 11% drink during night
.Timings of Consume a soft drinks: Number of respondents 19 89 154 32
Timings Morning Afternoon Evening Night
Percentage 6 30 53 11
Timings of consume a soft drinks
s 200 t n 150 e d n 100 o p 50 s e r 0
154 89 19 Morning Afternoon Evening 32 Night
6% of respondents drink during morning. 53% drink during evening.
22% are occasionally.Frequency Of Consuming Soft Drinks:
Regularly Seasonally Occasionally
Number of Respondents 176 56 62
Percentage 59 19 22
Frequency of consuming a soft drinks
s 200 t n e 150 d n 100 o p s 50 e r 0 176 56 62
59% of respondents drink soft drinks regularly.19% are drink seasonally.7.
Respondents Based On flavor $ Brand:
Flavor&brand Number of Respondents
Cola Flavor Pepsi Thumsup Coca-Cola 95 130 69 Orange flavor Mirinda Fanta 123 171 Lemon Flavor 7Up Sprite 137 157 Fruit Flavor Slice Mazza 133 161 45 55 47 53 42 58 32 44 24
44% prefer “thums up”24% prefer “coca-cola” .Cola Flavor 150 100 50 0 Pepsi Thumsup Coca-Cola 95 69 130
Orange flavor 200 150 100 50 0 Mirinda Lemon Flavor 160 150 140 130 120 7Up Fruit Flavor 200 150 100 50 0 Slice Mazza 133 161 Sprite 137 157 Fanta 123 171
Of the cola flovor 32% of respondents prefer “pepsi”. of the orange flavor 42% prefer
of the fruit flavor 45% “slice”.55% prefer “maaza”.
9. of the lemon flavor 47% prefer :”7up”.Choice of venue For having Soft Drinks: Place Of Buying Number Of Respondents Percentage
. 58% prefer “fanta”.53% prefer “sprite”.“mirinda” .
80% consume at icecream parlora.5% consume at fat food centers.5% consume at super market.25 consume others.Availability Of Soft Drinks :
.105 consume at hotels.455 consume at bakeries.General stores Ice-Cream Parlors Super Market Hotels Bakeries Fast Food Centers Others
74 24 14 28 132 15 7
25 8 5 10 45 5 2
Choice of venue for having a soft drinks
140 120 100 s t 80 n60 e d40 n20 o 0 p s e r
132 74 24 l a r e n e G s e r o t s 14 r e p u S t e k r a M 28 s e i r e k a B place of buying 15 7 s r e h t O
Inference: 25% of respondents consume at general stores. 10.
Package convenience of a Soft Drinks:
11.Respondents Good Not good 280 14 95 5
95% of respondents said that availability of soft drinks is good.5% of respondents said that availability of soft drinks is not good.
500ml 1lts Package
Inference: 67% of respondents prefer 200ml.
12.5lts.13% prefer 300ml.5% prefer 500ml.Response Of Consumers to brand loyality: Response Yes No Number Of Respondents 186 108 Percentage 63 37
.2% prefer 1lts.Package 200ml 300ml 500ml 1lts 1.3% prefer 2lts.10% prefer 1.5lts 2lts
Number Of Respondents 197 37 15 6 29 10
Percentage 67 13 5 2 10 3
package convienence of a soft Drinks
250 s t 200 n e 150 d n o 100 p s 50 e r 0
37 200ml 300ml
Influence Of Advertising On Brand Shifting Influence Yes No Number Of Respondents Percentage 124 170 42 58
.37% of respondents are not loyal to one brand.
13.Inference 63% of respondents are loyal to one brand.
Inference: 42% of respondents opined that advertisement influence brand shift and remaining 58% said that advertisement do not influence brand shift.
14.For Various Advertising Sources of Awareness:
Sources Television Magazines
Number Of Respondents Percentage 185 7 63 2
.4%said that hoardings.2% said that magazines.50% between 15-24 years.News papers Hoardings Truck Boards Paintings All
17 11 26 27 21
6 4 8 10 7
For various advertising sources of awareness
s t 200 n e 150 d 100 n o 50 p 0 s e r
185 7 17 11 26 27 21
63% of respondents said that television advertisement is most effective.6%said that news papers.7% said that all.11% between 35-44 years.4% between 55-76 years.4% between 45-54 years.17% between 25-34 years.10% said that paintings.8% said that truck boards. Sample comprises of 14% respondents with in age of 5-14 years.
.20% are employees.58% prefer “fanta”. 53% prefer “sprite”. and 64% general user.30% drink during afternoon.24% prefer “coca-cola”.5% consume at fast food centers. 10.5% of the respondents said that availability of soft drinks is not good. 4.45% consume at bakeries. 6. 7. 59% of the respondents drink soft drinks regularly. 95% of the respondents said that availability of soft drinks is good.11% drink during night. 8. Of the respondents selected 98% of the respondents consume soft drinks and 2% doesn’t prefer soft drinks. 5.22% are occasionally. Of the respondents selected 61% are students.11% with food. Of the fruit flavor 45% prefer “slice”.
9. of the lemon flavor 47% prefer “7up”. 25% of respondents consume at general stores. 6% of the respondents drink during morning. 19% are drink seasonally. 64% of respondents drinking with friends.55% prefer “Maaza”.8% consume at ice-cream parlors .6% are business.10% consume at hotels.44% prefer “thumsup”. Of the cola flavor 32% of respondents prefer “pepsi”.5% consume at super market.33% are drinking with family and 3% are drinking with others. of the orange flavor 42% prefer “mirinda”.53% drink during evening.2. 25% of the respondents take soft drinks with snacks.3% are teachers.10% are house wives.2% consume others.
63% of the respondents are loyal to one brand. 5% prefer 500ml. 63% of the respondents said that television advertisement is most effective.8% said that truck boards.10% said that paintings. 13.10% prefer 1.
• company need to understand Influence of seasonal variations on sales of soft drinks and take steps to synchronize demand and supply .5lts.6% said that news papers. 14. where as remaining 58% said that advertisement do not influence brand shift.4% said that hoardings.2% said that magazines.2% prefer 1lts. 67% of the respondents prefer 200ml. 12. 46
.13% prefer 300ml. 42% of the respondents opined that advertisement influence brand shift.7% said that all.37% of the respondents are not loyal to one brand. so that availability of the product improves. 3% prefer 2lts.11.
Company may take steps to redesign its packing sizes in according with the proverb “small is beautiful”. So that the market coverage can be increased. planning for specific adds for different segments etc. While Preferred Soft Drinks based on Age groups ? 47
QUESTIONAIRE Name: Address: Phone no: 1.•
Company should adopt measures to develop brand loyal consumers as it is low involvement purchasing product to achieve targeted sales. The measures may include increasing availability .
Which flavor do you prefer? a. When do you normally consume? a) With snacks c) general [ [ ] ] b) with food [ ]
6. Cola flavor 48
. At what time of the day do you consume? a) Morning c) evening [ [ ] ] b) afternoon d) night [ [ ] ]
7. How often do you take soft drinks? a) Regularly c) occasionally [ [ ] ] b) seasonally [ ]
8. While Preferred Soft Drinks based on occupation ? a) Students [ ] b) Employees [ ] c) House Wives [ ] d) Business [ ] e) Teachers 3.a) 5-14 [ ] b) 15-24 [ ] c) 25-34 [ ] d) 35-44 [ ] e) 45-54 [ ] f) 55-76 [ ]
2. Do you consume soft drinks? a) Yes [ ] b) no [ ] [ ]
4. With whom do you drink most? a) Friends c) others [ [ ] ] b) family [ ]
5lts f) 2lts [ [ ] ]
[ ] 49
. What do you think of the availability of the soft drinks in you area? a)Good [ ] b) Not Good [ ]
11. Orange flavor a) Miranda c. Lemon flavor a) 7 up d) Fruit flavor a) Maaza
] c) thumps-up
9. Where do you usually buy a soft drink? a) General stores c) Super market e) Bakeries g) Others [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] b) ice cream parlor d) hotels f) fast food centers [ [ [ ] ] ]
10.a) Pepsi b. Which package do you prefer? a) 200ml c) 500ml e) One lts [ [ [ ] ] ] b) 300ml d) 1.
Do you stick to one brand? a) Yes [ ] b) no [ ]
13. Schiffman Leslie Lazar kanuk 50
. Which media advertisements would you say is most effective? a) Television c) newspapers e) truck boards g) all [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] b) magazines d) Hoardings f) paintings [ ] [ ] [ ]
Leon G. Will advertisements make you to shift from one brand to other? a) Yes [ ] b) no [ ]
business today magazines.PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING:
OTHER SOURCES: Advertising and marketing.