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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 ANNUAL PLAN OF ACTION UNDER NATIONAL HORTICULTURE MISSION 2005-06............ 1 1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 STATUS OF HORTICULTURE IN ORISSA ................................................................................................... 1 1.2.1 Fruits ................................................................................................................................................ 1 1.2.2 Vegetables......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2.3 Plantation crops................................................................................................................................ 1 1.2.4 Spices ................................................................................................................................................ 2 1.2.5 Nurseries........................................................................................................................................... 2 1.2.6 Post Harvest Infrastructure .............................................................................................................. 2 1.2.7 Processing Industry .......................................................................................................................... 2 1.3 STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS (SWOT) ANALYSIS .................................. 3 1.3.1 Strengths ........................................................................................................................................... 3 1.3.2 Weaknesses ....................................................................................................................................... 4 1.3.3 Opportunities .................................................................................................................................... 4 1.3.4 Threats .............................................................................................................................................. 5 2 PROJECT DETAILS .................................................................................................................................. 6 2.1 PROJECT OBJECTIVE AND STRATEGY ...................................................................................................... 6 2.2 TECHNICAL SUPPORT GROUP ................................................................................................................. 7 2.3 METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................... 8 2.4 DETAILED ACTION PLAN 2005-06 ......................................................................................................... 8 2.5 MANGO .................................................................................................................................................. 9 2.5.1 Comparative advantage of Orissa mango ........................................................................................ 9 2.5.2 Concentrated pockets...................................................................................................................... 10 2.5.3 Constraints in production ............................................................................................................... 11 2.5.4 Development of nurseries ............................................................................................................... 11 2.5.5 Area Expansion............................................................................................................................... 11 2.5.6 Integrated nutrient and water management .................................................................................... 12 2.5.7 Integrated pest and disease management practices ........................................................................ 13 2.5.8 Research and Developmental efforts .............................................................................................. 13 2.5.9 Improved varieties of mango .......................................................................................................... 13 2.5.10 Organic farming ......................................................................................................................... 14 2.5.11 Management of spongy tissue, alternate-bearing and mango malformation ............................. 14 2.5.12 Standardization of post-harvest management ............................................................................ 14 2.5.13 Creation of water resources sources .......................................................................................... 14 2.5.14 Protected cultivation .................................................................................................................. 15 2.5.15 Post-harvest infrastructure......................................................................................................... 15 2.5.16 Marketing ................................................................................................................................... 15 2.6 CASHEW NUT ....................................................................................................................................... 17 2.6.1 Production of planting material...................................................................................................... 18 2.6.2 Area expansion ............................................................................................................................... 19 2.6.3 Rejuvenation ................................................................................................................................... 19 2.6.4 Post-harvest infrastructure ............................................................................................................. 19 2.6.5 Processing....................................................................................................................................... 19 2.6.6 Marketing........................................................................................................................................ 20 2.7 BANANA .............................................................................................................................................. 21 2.7.1 Crop production.............................................................................................................................. 22 2.7.2 Cultivars ......................................................................................................................................... 22 2.7.3 Price trend ...................................................................................................................................... 22 2.7.4 Production of planting material...................................................................................................... 23 2.7.5 Marketing........................................................................................................................................ 24 2.8 GINGER ................................................................................................................................................ 24 2.8.1 Constraints in Production............................................................................................................... 25 2.8.2 Varieties grown in India ................................................................................................................. 25 2.8.3 Integrated approach shall be followed for: .................................................................................... 25 2.8.4 Research and developmental efforts ............................................................................................... 26 2.8.5 Marketing........................................................................................................................................ 26 2.8.6 Exports and export potential........................................................................................................... 27
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2.9 TURMERIC............................................................................................................................................ 28 2.9.1 Varieties .......................................................................................................................................... 29 2.9.2 Constraints in Development............................................................................................................ 29 2.9.3 Marketing........................................................................................................................................ 30 2.10 FLORICULTURE .................................................................................................................................... 31 2.10.1 Marketing ................................................................................................................................... 32 2.11 SEED PRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 33 2.12 MARKET DEVELOPMENT...................................................................................................................... 34 2.13 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & MISCELLANEOUS PROGRAMMES ............................................... 35 2.14 MISSION MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................................................... 36 2.15 ECONOMICS OF THE PROPOSAL ............................................................................................................ 37 2.16 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................... 38

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1 MATRIX- DISTRICT & CROP IDENTIFIED ................................................................................................... 9 TABLE 2 AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MANGO IN INDIA .................................................................. 9 TABLE 3 SEASONAL MANGO AVAILABILITY .......................................................................................................... 10 TABLE 4 THREE CONCENTRATED BELTS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED IN THE STATE FOLLOWING THE CLUSTER APPROACH. ................................................................................................................................................... 10 TABLE 5 INTERVENTIONS FOR MANGO .................................................................................................................. 17 TABLE 6 STATUS OF CASHEW IN ORISSA VERSUS INDIA ........................................................................................ 18 TABLE 7 NURSERY DETAIL OF CASHEW ................................................................................................................ 18 TABLE 8 INTERVENTIONS FOR CASHEW ................................................................................................................ 21 TABLE 9 YEAR-WISE BANANA PRODUCTION IN ORISSA ........................................................................................ 21 TABLE 10 INTERVENTION OF BANANA .................................................................................................................. 24 TABLE 11 AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF GINGER ............................................................................ 25 TABLE 12 INTERVENTION OF GINGER .................................................................................................................... 28 TABLE 13 INTERVENTION OF TURMERIC ............................................................................................................... 31 TABLE 14 INTERVENTION OF FLORICULTURE ........................................................................................................ 32 TABLE 15 INTERVENTION OF SEED PRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 33 TABLE 16 INTERVENTION OF MARKETING INFRASTRUCTURE ............................................................................... 35 TABLE 17 INTERVENTION OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITY .......................... 36 TABLE 18 PRESENT PRODUCTION AND PROJECTION OF PRODUCTION AFTER IMPLEMENTATION OF NHM PROGRAMME ................................................................................................................................................. 38

LIST OF MAPS
MAP 1 IDENTIFIED CLUSTERS IN ORISSA ................................................................................................................. 8 MAP 2 SELECTED MANGO DISTRICTS IN ORISSA .................................................................................................... 10 MAP 3 SELECTED CASHEW DISTRICTS IN ORISSA................................................................................................... 20 MAP 4 SELECTED BANANA DISTRICTS IN ORISSA .................................................................................................. 23 MAP 5 SELECTED GINGER DISTRICTS IN ORISSA .................................................................................................... 27 MAP 6 SELECTED TURMERIC DISTRICTS IN ORISSA................................................................................................ 29

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The state of Orissa having diversified agro-climatic conditions is much suited for the development horticulture based economy that has ample scope for its growth. Presently, horticultural crops are grown over an area of 12 lakh hectares having potential up to 20 lakh hectares. The productivity particularly that of fruits, is quite low (5.93) as compared to national average (10.7) and much more less than world average. The main reason is the prevalence of old and senile orchards, lack of improved planting material of high yielding varieties/hybrids, inadequate post-harvest infrastructure and relative backward ness of the state farmers and tribal groups. The launching of National Horticulture Mission has come as an opportunity for the state to develop concentrated pockets of plantation, rejuvenation of old orchards and creation of post-harvest and marketing infrastructure. Accordingly, concentrated pockets of major crops have been identified in four clusters of fourteen districts in the first year of implementation of the mission programme. As such, the developmental strategy designed is based on present crop versus area matrix. The cluster of areas and crops selected are: Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 : : : : Mayurbhanj, Koenjhar, Balasore Cuttack, Khurda, Puri, Nayagarh Gajapati, Rayagarha, Koraput, Malkangiri Kalahandi, Balangir, Nuapara

Crops identified for implementation under mission programme are mango and Banana in fruits, Cashew and Beetle vine in plantation crops, Ginger and Turmeric in Spices, and floricultural crops like marigold, tuberose, rose, gladioli all of which enjoy comparative advantage. Summary of the physical and financial programmes of plantation / rejuvenation of orchards and creation of post-harvest infrastructure is given in ensuing table. The total outlay proposed for annual action plan 2005-06 is Rs. 75.00 crores. As good planting material is the first and foremost need for exploration of the commercial horticulture, nursery development has been proposed on 80 ha that will be sufficient for 30,000 ha even if we follow the approach of high density concept. Area expansion / rejuvenation overran area of 21,800 ha would lead to production of 1.23 lakh tonnes valuing Rs. 140 crores. Similarly, vegetable seed production of improved varieties and hybrids over 400 ha would cover additional area of 26,000 ha yielding 520,000 tonnes of vegetables which will cater to the vegetable requirement, partly, without importing from other states. Likewise, development of post-harvest infrastructure and organized marketing through modernization of rural and urban markets would lead to the prevention of post-harvest losses up to 5 per cent of the production. Although it is difficult to quantify the actual financial
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gains yet economic benefits by creating infrastructure and marketing system shall earn an economy worth saving to rupees 60 crores. Besides, additional production of spices and flowers meeting the state requirement shall further add to the exchequer of the state. As such estimated return from implementation of the project would be around Rs. 200 crores. Generation of employment with area expansion, rejuvenation and creation of post harvest infrastructure would be 21.50 lacs man days. having multiplier effect.
S. No 1. A B C 2. Component Unit Physical Financial (Rs Lakh) 243 45 8

Capacity building of the local human resource

shall further trigger the mechanism of doubling the production of horticulture produce and

Planting material Model nursery-big Model nursery-small Tissue culture unit Establishment of new gardens/ rejuvenation A Mango B Cashew C Banana D Flowers E Ginger F Turmeric G Beetle vine 3. Organic cultivation 4. Production foundation/ certified seed of vegetables 5. Seed infrastructure, Protective cultivation, IPM/INM, low cost onion storage 6. Post-harvest infrastructure (Pack house, functional infrastructure, cold storage, refer vans) 7. Marketing infrastructure A Modern terminal markets B Up-gradation rural markets C Market intelligence and market led activity 8. Miscellaneous programmes A HRD- Training of farmers/supervisors/ gardeners/state & distt level shows /publicity material etc. B Beekeeping C Front line demonstration 9. Mission management Grand total

Nos Nos Nos

15 20 1

Ha Ha Ha Ha Ha Ha Ha Ha Ha

8,000+2,500 5,000+2,000 1,300 2,400 500 500 200 100 400

2175 862.5 195 307.15 112.5 112.5 45 29 200 143.07 336.78

Nos 3 Nos 28 Project based Nos

1500 105 66 157.7

Nos

1,500

1.2 15 840 7499.40 Say 7500.00

1 1.1

ANNUAL PLAN OF ACTION UNDER NATIONAL HORTICULTURE MISSION 2005-06 Backg round Information

Geography & Climate: Located on the east coast, Orissa with a geographical area of 1,55,707 sq km (4.7% of the country) lies between 17 31 to 20 31 North latitude and 81 31 to 87
0 0 0 0

30 East longitude. The population of the state of Orissa is 36 million as per the

census 2001. The climate of the state is tropical, characterized by high temperature, high humidity, medium to high rainfall and a mild winter. The normal rainfall is 1482.2 mm distributed over 72 rainy days. South West monsoon contributes about 81-83 % of the annual rainfall in 53-57 days during June-September. The mean annual temperature of the State is 26.89 21.30
0 0

C with mean annual maximum of 32.56

C and mean annual minimum of

C. From the physio-graphic point of view, the State consists of four Zones, viz. (i) Eastern Ghat zone (iii) Central Table lands, and (iv) Coastal zone.

Northern Plateau (ii)

However, on the basis of climate, soil, rainfall, topography and crops suitability, the state has been divided into ten Agro- Climatic zone as given in Annexure I. 1.2 Status of Horticulture in Orissa

Horticulture crops are currently grown over an area of 12.0 lakh hectares consisting of 2.3 lakh hectares (ha) under fruits, 6.3 lakh ha under vegetables, 1.70 lakh ha under coconut and cashew, 1.70 lakh ha under spices. 1.2.1 Fruits

Major fruits grown in the state are Mango, Guava, Citrus, Sapota, Banana, Litchi, Papaya and Ber. While mango is grown all over the state, prime growing areas are Keonjhar, Banana is mainly Sapota is Mayurbhanj, Angul, Sambalpur, Rayagada, Phulbani and Sundergarh.

grown in Khurda, Puri, Cuttack, Nayagarh, Rayagada, Koraput and Balasore. 6.8 tons/ha against national average of 11.9 tonnes per ha. 1.2.2 Vegetables

grown in Ganjam, Puri Cuttack and Balasore. The productivity of fruits in the state is only

Vegetables are grown all over the state on an area of 6.28 lakh ha producing 77.10 lakh tonnes during 2003-04. Major vegetables are Brinjal, Tomato, Cole crops, Pea, Okra. Potato is also grown over an area of 13000 hectares. The productivity of vegetable in the state is 12.27 tons/ha against National average of 13.92 tonnes per ha. 1.2.3 Planta tion crops

Major plantation crops in Orissa are cashew and coconut. While coconut is grown in costal areas, cashew is grown all over the state expect districts of Phulbani, Kalahandi and Bolangir. While coconut is grown over 50438 ha, cashew covers 1.24 lakh ha.
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1.2.4

Spices The

Orissa is one of the most important states in the country in production of spices. over an area of 1.70 lakh ha with production of 4.33 lakh tonnes. 1.2.5 Nurseries

important spices are Ginger, Turmeric, Chilly, Coriander, Garlic and Onion presently grown

There are 167 nurseries in Orissa for supply of planting material, out of these 125 nurseries are in public sector and 42 nurseries are available in private sector. There are also 3 tissue culture laboratories in the state. The availability of planting from these nurseries is as under:S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1.2.6 Crop Mango graft Cashew grafts Banana (Suckers) Banana (TC) Availability of plant ing material in Lakhs 15.06 12.00 36.00 0.50

Post Harvest Infrastructure

Cold Storage: There are 66 cold storages in the state having storage capacity of 172183 MT annually. Sector wise details are as under: S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Sector Government Seed Corporation Cooperative Private Total Numbers 4 4 20 38 66 Capacity 5250 3950 37850 125133 172133

1.2.7

Process ing Industry

There are four major food processing industries in the state located three in the Khurda and one in the Keonjhar district. There are also 18 cashew processing units in the state, out of which 7 in Gunjam district, three in Dhenkanal and two each in Kendrapada, Khurda, Puri and Swambalpur. Potential for Horticulture: The agro-climatic diversity in the State with its high rainfall distributed over a five-month monsoon and a reasonably long and moderate winter allows for a variety of horticultural crops to be grown. The agro-climatic conditions are eminently suitable for perennial fruit crops like mango, litchi, guava, oranges and limes; annual fruit crops like banana, pineapple and papaya; spices like ginger, turmeric and chilly, a variety of roots and tubers and a whole range of vegetables. The low-temperature hilly areas offer ideal conditions for growing off-season vegetables. Of late, floriculture is also showing excellent prospects. The potential belts under horticultural crop i.e. fruits, vegetables,
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floriculture and spices have been shown in the map given at figure-I.

The State thus enjoys a

natural comparative advantage for horticulture with possibilities for growing a diversified basket of fruits, vegetables, spices, tubers and flowers; whose potential has not been fully exploited. S. Crop No. Fruits 1. Mango 2. Banana Plantation Crops 3. Cashew Spices 4. Turmeric 5. Ginger Flowers 6. Marigold 7. Rose 8. Tube rose 9. Gladiolus Exist ing Area (03-04) (ha) 98,000 20,000 124,000 23,000 15,000 194 41 33 11 Potential for area expans ion (ha) 2,00,000 1,00,000 20,0000 40,000 4,0000 1,0000 100 200 100

Land Availabi lity: The state has a total cultivable area of 61.65 lakh ha. Out of this, 15.55 lakh hectares are low lands, 19.15 lakh hectares are medium lands and 26.95 lakh hectares are high lands. Horticultural crops are currently grown only in an area of 12.0 lakh hectares (2.8 lakh Ha fruits and 6.3 lakh Ha Vegetables, spices 1.70 lakh hectares and cashew 1.24 lakh hectares (2003-04). Out of the high lands,8.0 lakh ha are used for rice cultivation in the most traditional manner which is less remunerative and the crop is always at risk. These high lands are most suitable for growing horticultural crops and the State Government has set up an ambitious target of bringing 7 lakh hectares out of these high lands including some other marginal medium paddy lands under horticultural crops with a view to enhance the income of the agricultural households owning these lands. The launching of the National Horticulture Mission has come as an opportunity for achieving this. At the same time, the availability of such vast quantities of cultivable lands with the farmers of the state affords the Mission an opportunity of achieving its objectives. 1.3 1.3.1 Strengths, Weakness es, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis Strengths

Ten agro-climatic zones of the State are quite diverse and suitable for growing different types of fruits, vegetables, spices and flowers. The high land and medium lands are abundantly available which can be diverted to horticultural crops.

State has got agencies like Orissa State Seeds Corporation, Agriculture Promotion and Investment Corporation Ltd., Orissa State Agricultural Marketing Board to support the horticultural programmes. Access to metropolises like Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi etc. and other big cities enhances the possibilities for export to other States. Good co-ordination and linkage with the State Agriculture University. Enactment of Fruit Nursery Act-1999 ensures control over producing QPM in the Private Sector. Availability of abundant and cheap manpower. 1.3.2 Weaknesses

Non-availability of adequate quality planting material. Inadequate staff strength and weak extension network in the Horticulture Directorate. Existence of large number of old and senile fruit orchards most of which have lost even the capacity to rejuvenate. Poor marketing linkage and poor market infrastructure. Lesser irrigation facility. Incidence of pest and diseases many a times becomes unmanageable. Absence of Air connection to major cities other than the metros. Poor post-harvest management infrastructure. Aspect of updating knowledge and skill of staff regarding recent advancements in the field of horticulture is highly neglected. Poor economic condition of the farmers. 1.3.3 Oppo rtunities

There is tremendous demand for fruits, vegetables and flowers in the State which otherwise is being met by import from other States. There is scope for introduction and expansion of new crops and varieties. Tremendous scope for establishment of processing units. Availability of abundant suitable land for growing horticultural crops. Scope for protected cultivation of flowers, vegetables and also planting materials. Scope for enhancing the availability of fruits and vegetables to the people for consumption as per national recommendations. Scope to generate marketable surplus and also surplus for export.

1.3.4

Threats

Uncertainty in weather conditions and frequent occurrence of natural calamities like flood, cyclone and drought. Uncertainty about market stability and farmers do not get remunerative price. Exploitation by middlemen in the market chain. High incidence of pest and diseases.

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PROJECT DETAILS Project objective and strategy

In implementing the National Horticulture Missions programmes in the State, the Govt. will aim to achieve an integrated development of the Horticulture sector with a balanced growth of its several sub-sectors. While area expansion and enhancement of production and productivity of perennial fruits and non-perennial fruits like mango, cashew, banana, spices, flowers & vegetables will form the core of the programme; development of nurseries to support the area expansion, including creation of infrastructure for infusion of modern micropropagation technologies, and the development of marketing & storage infrastructure, processing industries and proper market linkages will also be aimed to be achieved. The endeavor will be to double the production of horticultural crops in coming seven years. In the first place the attempt will be to minimize the import of fruits and vegetables from other states and thereafter the marketable surplus will be organized for export. In achieving the targeted area expansion under different crops the following strategies will be adopted. Awareness building through extension and information dissemination on crop

possibilities and market demand. The State Horticulture extension machinery as well as private sector extension will have a role to play in this. Quality planting material grafts, gootees (air layers), seedlings, micro-propagules - will be made available for orchard development both through the Govt. machinery as well as through private sector participation. This will include seed material for tubers and spices, and certified seeds of vegetables and spices. Technical support services will be made available at the doorstep of farmers to ensure adoption of appropriate crop production and PHM technologies by farmers. The role of the private sector will be encouraged through contract farming arrangements. The State machinery as well as the private sector, through contract farming arrangements, will have a role in extension, supply of quality planting material and provision of technical support services. Special thrust will be laid on Hilly areas, including the KBK region, which have tremendous potential vegetables. Thrust will be laid on floriculture that is doing very well over the last few years. The State will strive to emerge as a major producer of cashew. Organic farming in production of vegetables and spices will be encouraged. Since much of traditional horticulture in Orissa has relied on organic methods; the state has strength in this area.
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for mango, cashew, and a host of spices and off-season

Since marketing has been identified as the primary constraining factor in development of the Horticulture sector a well-coordinated strategy will be followed for development of marketing infrastructure and market linkages. The following strategic interventions have been planned: In promoting area expansion, choice of crops and of varieties will be geared to the market and to the needs of the processing units and exporters Development of market linkages through promotion of a chain of marketing operators viz. consolidators, traders, and commission agents will be attempted. For this purpose the necessary regulatory framework will be put in place through amendment of the APMC Act so that value chain is maintained. Establishment of appropriate Post Harvest Management Infrastructure will be accorded priority. While the private sector will be assigned primary role,, the existing public sector agencies will also play a major role as catalyst. Market development will be based on a market study and a comprehensive Master Plan has been assigned to a consultant. For Improvement of the supply chain facilities for sorting / grading / packaging/ storage and transportation will be promoted. Provision will be made for development of collection centers and transportation to local markets. A chain of cold storages and a network of reefer vans will be promoted at all important centers identified through the above study in the cooperative/private/ public sector. For exploiting Industrial / Urban markets of neighboring States, development of trade channels will be encouraged. Close link with APEDA for export potential. 2.2 Technical Support Group

A Technical Support Group (TSG) consisting of Scientists of OUAT, Deptt. Officers and members of the Central Govt. Research Institutes located at Bhubaneswar have been constituted for advising the Govt. in developing a strategy and preparing the Action Plan. An Order (no. 17083/Ag. dt. 26.5.2005) in this connection has been issued by the state government. The input from the Group has been used in identification of areas and crops for each area. The Groups inputs have also helped in identification of suitable varieties for different agro-climatic zones. The cost norms for production of different crops adopted in this Action Plan have also been developed with the help of this Group.

2.3

Methodo logy

In developing the Action Plan, the thrust has been on area approach and promotion of Horticultural crops in compact patches and in cluster villages. While selecting the clusters, comparative advantage of crops like marketing opportunities, seasonal advantage, local consumption, export/import substitution scope for intensification and productivity improvement have been taken into consideration. Besides contiguity of the potential area for expansion has also been kept in view so that enhanced production and productivity in these regions is taken care of. The methodology of selecting clusters of contiguous areas and potential crops shall entail focused approach as this will integrate all the activities for commercial uptake of the horticulture in that area. This will lead to economic development of the area as the crops selected have comparative advantages. The activities identified for this mission shall be implemented in project mode rather than generic developmental programme of state. 2.4 Detai led Action Plan 2005-06

Based on geographical and climatic conditions of the growing belts, potential for expansion following 14 districts have been identified in clusters: Cluster-l Cluster-ll Cluster-lll Cluster-lV : : : : Myurbainj, Keonjhor and Belasore Cuttack, Khurda, Puri and Nayagarh Naupara, Bolangir, Kalahandi Gajapati, Rayagada, Koraput and Malkangiri

Map 1 Identified clusters in Orissa 8

The crops selected are Mango and Banana in fruits, cashew in plantation crops, Ginger and Turmeric in spices and floriculture. The Beetle vine also good in Orissa and as such 200The integrated approach would be hectare area has also been proposed under the crop.

adopted for development of plantation, creation of post harvest system and development of marketing Infrastructure in identified crop to make them hubs of activities for doubling the production and enhancing marketing as per the matrix below:
Table 1 Matrix- District & Crop Identified S. No 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. District Mayurbhanj Keonjhar Balasore Cuttack Khurda Puri Nayagarh Naupara Bolangir Gajapati Rayagada Kalahandi Koraput Malkangiri Status Tribal Tribal Gen Gen Gen Gen Gen Tribal Tribal Tribal Tribal Tribal Tribal Tribal Mango Cashew Banana Ginger Turmeric Flower Betel vine

Crop wise strategy proposed to be adopted in the action plan 2005-06 is discussed below. 2.5 Mango

Mango is grown almost in all the states of India. Andhra Pradesh tops the list of mangoproducing states, with highest acreage as well as production. Other major mango -producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Gujarat. Uttaranchal, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab have very low production.
Table 2 Area, production and productivity of mango in India State Andhra Pradesh Bihar West Bengal Orissa Area (ha) 2000-01 3,06,200 1,39,068 62,500 1,03,800 2001-02 3,41,200 1,39,300 65,400 1,07,300 Production tonnes 2000-01 24,49,536 11,12,662 3,80,300 3,63,300 2001-02 24,45,800 12,53,500 5,85,000 4,02,400 Productivity (tonnes/ha) 2000-01 2001-02 8.00 7.20 8.00 9.00 6.10 8.94 3.50 3.80

It is clear from the data that Orissa productivity is much less than the bordering or nearby states, though it has almost same agro climatic condition. 2.5.1 Comparative advanta ge of Orissa mango

Orissa has distinctive comparative advantage of producing good quality mango in respect of certain varieties like Deshari, Langra have maturity by mid May in some of the districts when crop of major producing states like U.P is not available and thereby fetches higher prices in the market. Similarly certain areas in KBK region like Rayagada, Kashipur etc have distinctive advantage where the ripening of mango is delayed beyond June due to cooler
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climate and as such produce from these areas have marketable advantage. New plantations of 7 to 8 years that have started commercial production and others coming up for area expansion indicate the trend towards new hybrids that serve the markets in July-August and fetch very good price
Table 3 availability Seasonal mango

State Orissa

Season of availability May to July

Important cultivars Amrapalli, Beganpalli, Totapuri, Dasheri, Mallika, Neelam etc.

Additionally, the thrust on mango shall have multiplier effect to increase its productivity which is the biggest concern in the state. Demand for mangoes is increasing day-by-day. It is going to further increase in future due to population growth, urbanization and increased use in processing. 2.5.2 Concen trated pockets

Table 4 Three concentrated belts have been identified in the state following the cluster approach. Identified Cluster Cluster-I Cluster-II Cluster-II District Mayurbhanj, Keojhar & Sundergarh Cuttack, Khurda, Nayagarh Gajapati, Rajagada, Koraput, Kalahandi, Malkangiri Area (ha) 17287 8414 24997 Production tones 61531 30966 87296 Productivity (tonnes/ha) 3.5 3.7 3.5

Map 2 Selected mango districts in Orissa 10

2.5.3

Constraints in production

There are several constraints in mango production. Some of them are region- specific, while others are common to all the regions. Common constraints which are experienced in most of the regions are described below: Inadequate availability of disease-free planting material, especially new hybrid cultivars Predominance of senile and unproductive orchards Poor management, especially pest infestations and nutrient deficiencies Absence of technology for control of complex problems Slow adoption of improved cultivars 2.5.4 Development of nurseries

As the availability of quality planting materials is the paramount need to increase productivity, six model nurseries (4 ha each) and 8 small nurseries (one ha each) have been proposed out of which only 4 small nurseries shall be in the private sector and rest all in public sector. Total plant production capacity is 24 lakh annually. Model nursery will have facilities like shed net, improved irrigation system, mother trees, propagation chambers etc and utilized for other related crops propagation also. As far as possible, the general approach followed shall be to have these units on the land of public sector farms that have developed some basic facilities like well, lift-pump and its house, developed land, fencing etc. so the incremental facilities out of mission funds shall focus on their infrastructure up-gradation like efficient irrigation system through sprinkler/ fertigation, net-houses, propagation tools and spray equipment etc. that shall help produce quality produce. For the scientific development of nurseries, the modern concept shall be employed wherein The foundation trees shall be maintained under the supervision of university experts whether the trees exist in the university compound or the progeny-cum-demonstration farms with the department that exist in most of the states. Mother trees so raised shall be in the compound of private registered nursery men to match their production capacity in relation to the demand of the area so that these may sustain. Department shall work as the certification agency to check the authenticity of the plants so produced, instead of becoming the sale agent itself. 2.5.5 Area Expansion

Mango in Orissa is cultivated in 1,15,000 ha, but its productivity is only 3.5 tonnes/ha. Even neighbouring state like Andhra Pradesh and Bihar have more than 8MT/Ha. The approach is to use modern cultivation practices as some orchardists are harvesting yields up to 15-20
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tonnes/ha depending upon plant spacing used. Thus, there is an urgent need to adopt better growing practices like use of inputs, balanced nutrition, IPM practices, in the mango pockets. New plantations shall cover 3500 ha with high-density concept, hybrid varieties coupled with modern system of irrigation, management etc. Simultaneously, activities of rejuvenation shall be started to increase productivity of the existing orchards of three thousand five hundreds ha. Rejuvenation of old and senile orchards shall include top-working, fertigation and gap filling in the existing plantations. Before all such intended areas are covered with plants that are available in the state (15.06 lakhs, presently), as nurseries shall take minimum two years to yield salable plants, evaluation of the existing planting material shall be undertaken by a committee of local representatives of ICAR, NHB and state government with the following mandate Quantity of the plants available Authenticity to prove true-to-type weather the scion material have been taken from the trees exhibiting true characters of the intended variety Status of disease freeness from the general conditions of the area Probable time of their availability. For processing purposes, especially for puree-making solid plantations of 500-1,000 ha of Totapuri, Banganpalli, etc. need to be planted so that proper management of such plantations is taken up and yield are upgraded. This approach of increasing production through area expansion and new hi-tech plantations of disease-free quality planting material coupled with appropriate inputs will lead to increased productivity. There are certain common constraints in mango production and for alleviating these, action on following is required to be taken up in all the regions: Making disease-free quality planting material of improved cultivars available. Upgrading efficiency of orchards by gap filling and rejuvenation Providing required nutrients based on leaf analysis. 2.5.6 Integ rated nut rient and water management

For achieving higher productivity balanced nutrition is important and single most important factor having bearing on improving productivity and setting in the bi-ennial bearing tendency. Critical nutrient levels of N, P and K have already been fixed for cultivars like Dashehari and Alphonso by CISH, Lucknow, and BSKKV, Dapoli respectively. It will be prudent to maintain those levels of nutrients. Preferably these nutrients particularly N and K if applied through drip (partly) especially in high-density planting of orchards will help in enhancing productivity. The critical levels for Dashehari mango are 1.23 % for N 0.06% for P and 0.54% for K.
12

2.5.7

Integ rated pest and disease mana gement practices

Integrated pest management practices for controlling mango-hopper, mealy bug, fruit fly, leaf-hopper, shoot-borer, bark-eating caterpillar and scale insects have been standardized by CISH, Lucknow, IIHR, Bangalore and SAU,s need to be adopted. Details of various practices can be obtained from CISH, Lucknow, Similarly for diseases and mango malformation, IPM practices have been already standardized need to be adopted. Post-harvest management steps that have been found useful in improving fruit quality Harvesting at right stage of maturity in the early morning hours or evening hours De-sapping in shade at farm level or at pack house Sorting at pack house Washing and treatment with fungicide (Procloroz or TBZ 0.1% ) or 520C for 3 minutes to control anthracnose disease Grading Packing in cardboard boxes Pre-cooling and cold storage at 130 C (for export) INM and IPM shall be practiced both in new high density plantations as well for rejuvenation of old orchards 2.5.8 Resea rch and Devel opmental efforts

Research and developmental efforts need to be intensified to make its cultivation more remunerative. Following areas require specific thrusts by SAUs and State Horticulture Departments: Improvement work on mango has been taken up in all the regions and many improved cultivars have been released. Some of them are very useful and have been reported to give a fillip to mango cultivation and exports. Most superior useful selections and hybrids for which further adaptive trials need to be laid out to popularize them in different regions are: . 2.5.9 Improved varieties of mango

Eastern Region Sunder Langra (Langra x Sunder Pasand) Jawahar (Gulab Khas x Mahmud Bahar) Research shall take up need based R and D activities on the recommendations of the state level mission management committee Coloured mangoes like Ambika, Arka Anmol, Pusa Arunima and Pusa Surya, need to be evaluated in large-scale trials and need to be further tested for their acceptability in foreign markets. Research shall be involved in different aspects, however, some of the most important areas necessitating focused approach are given below.
13

Identification of mother plants Micro-propagation Availability of disease-free planting material Optimum planting densities Fertigation and high density planting Disease for fore-casting systems Integration pest and disease management Bio fertilizers 2.5.10 Organ ic farming There is a great demand for organic products the world over. The standardization of biological control of pests and diseases, substitution of N, P and K requirements with organic fertilizers like, FYM and bio fertilizers etc., will ultimately lead to standardization of agrotechniques for organic farming of mango. This aspect of research needs to be given priority. 2.5.11 Manageme nt of spongy tissu e, alternate-bea ring and mango malformation Research work on problems like spongy tissue, alternate - bearing and mango malformation is going on for the last 50 years. However, still we have not been able to work out any practical method to eliminate these maladies. It is therefore very important to intensify efforts and come out with practical management measures. 2.5.12 Stand ardization of post-ha rvest management Standardizing pre-harvest practices for production of quality mangoes of different exportable varieties Trial shipments to foreign countries for acceptability of highly coloured cultivars like Ambika, Arka Anmol, Pusa Arunima and Pusa Surya, need to be taken up on priority. Because of recent WTO norms, we have to come up with plant-protection practices employing more of biological control and IPM practices to minimize pesticide residues Protocol for shipping mangoes by sea for different cultivars needs to be perfected. Facilities of pack-houses for post-harvest treatment like grading, fungicide treatment, packing, etc. need to be upgraded, so that quality of export worthy fruits is maintained. 2.5.13 Creation of water resources sources State is developing community water resources out of the National Food Programme that have ample funding and some headway has also been made. Such facilities shall be shared between neighbouring farmers, no additional funds are required under NHM.

14

2.5.14 Protected cultivation Plastic tunnels can be used for the production of the vegetable seedlings earlier in the season to utilize the build up heat and protect them from the insects that work as vectors of many virus and virus like diseases at nursery stage. Seedlings of tomato, pepper, brinjal etc are quite susceptible. Likewise, low tunnels shall also be utilized to produce off-season vegetables, practically advancing the season to catch the market of produce like cucurbits, tomato etc. Integrated pest management spreading over 200 ha will form part of the area expansion wherein such practices shall induce trends of quality production with minimal pesticide load. 2.5.15 Post-harvest infrast ructure With the anticipated increase in production volumes, quality at the consumer level can be increased with appropriate post-harvest infrastructural facilities. Therefore, plan envisages infrastructure like; Nine pack-houses: two in the general areas and seven in the tribal areas where production has already started but infrastructure is needed badly to prevent post-harvest losses, partially due to hilly terrain. Two coldstorages coupled with two refrigerated van in Mayurbhanj and Koraput districts, basically for flowers, to be shared with other crops like potato which is imported from W Bengal and shall also help to extend the post-harvest life of mango for some time. Almost all the districts have come to a level of reasonable production and needs better handling in terms of functional infrastructural facilities like sorting, grading, packing, auction plate form, temporary storage etc at the rate of two groups of units in each of the district. This will be undertaken in the existing markets to improve upon the existing marketing systems wherein basic facilities of land, regulated market committee/ panchayat control already exist. These facilities at 28 places shall virtually lead to market up-gradation and efficiency improvement. But one basic parameter of complimentarity shall be followed wherein infrastructural facilities shall be shared between various crops of the command area as crops are seasonal and management of facilities shall also be easy and economically viable. 2.5.16 Marketing Entire produce of mango is marketed as fresh fruit and only a limited quantity is given postharvest treatment for export purposes. There is a difference in ripening time of mangoes due to differences in geographical location of mango-producing districts. Approximately 60% of the horticultural produce are consumed by the local population or marketed in the nearby
15

markets and only 40% of the produce is channelised in the regulated markets for the consumption of the urban population in big cities. In case of mango, since it is available from May to July in the state, it is better to sell early or late crops in distant markets when availability of this crop is lower side so that good prices could be fetched. Marketing of Mango should be taken as under: State terminal markets like Cuttact, Sambalpur, Early / Late Crops Berhanpur Distant markets like Delhi, Kolkata Export markets like SAARC & Gulf countries

60% local consumptions Main Crops 40% urban marketing District markets Terminal markets The marketing channels in mango are as follows:

Producer

Village Merchant

Commission Agent

Whole Seller

Producer

Commission Agent

Whole Seller

Producer

Commission Agent in Assembling market

Commission Agent in other markets

Producer

Whole Seller

Commission Agent in other markets

Producer

Consumer

Besides, there is export potential from the state to the SAARC and Gulf countries as provisions have been made for adequate post harvest infrastructure through this intervention. Beganpalli and Amarapali have qualitative advantage of shelf life for the export and these are grown in the KBK region. The proposed marketing system would enhance marketing period as well as avoid gluts in the market.

16

The interventions proposed for mango under NHM are given below:
Table 5 Interventions for mango S.N0. 1. (a) Component/Activity Location Rate of assistance per Unit (Rs.) 18.0 lakh 9.0 lakh 3.0 lakh 1.5 lakh Rs. 22500/- ha. 1800.00 (50% will be released in first year) 375.0 18.0 Total Cost (Rs. in lakh) 90.00

(b)

2.

3.

4.

Production of planting material Model Nursery -each 4 ha- Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Balasore, No.-6 Bolangir, Kalahandi, Malkangiri Public sec: 04 Private Sec: 02 Small Nursery (8 nos. each Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Balasore, 1 ha) Naupara, Bolangir, Public sec: 04 Rayagada, Koraput, Kalahandi Private: 04 Plantation of new Orchards Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar & Balasore (8000 hectares) (800 ha.each) Bolangir, Naupara (1000 ha each) Rayagada, Kalahandi & Malkangiri (900 ha. each) Rejuvenation of old Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Balasore, orchards (2500 ha.) Kalahandi, Koraput, Rayagada, Malkangiri Post-harvest infrastructure Pack-Houses (9 Nos.) G- Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Balasore, 2,T-7 Naupara, Bolangir, (sorting/ grading line) Rayagada, Koraput, Kalahandi, Malkangiri Cold Storage (2 Nos.) T-2 Mayurbhanj, Koraput

15000/- ha

5.

Rs 2.5 lakh each. Subsidy @ 25% for general area and 33.33% for hilly areas) Rs 2.0 crores each subsidy @ 25% of the capital each for general area and 33.33% for Hilly/Tribal areas

7.00

132.00

6.

Refrigerated vans (2 Nos.) T-2

Mayurbhanj, Koraput

7.

Functional Infrastructure Collection/Grading Centers28 Nos.

2 each in the selected districts

Rs. 24.0 lakh each subsidy @ 25% for general area and 33.33% for Hilly areas Rs. 15 lakh 25% -Gen 33.33%- Tribal

15.84

126.60

9.

IPM ( 200 ha)

Keonjhar, Rayagarh

(Rs. 1000/ ha)

2.0

Total

2566.44

2.6

Cashew nut predominant horticultural crops of commercial importance in India, cashew

Among

continues to maintain the second position in terms of export earnings, besides providing vocational avenues to nearly a million rural families in India in farming sector and nearly half a million labour families in industrial sector. In the context of Orrisa, it has further value for
17

putting vegetative cover while producing nuts, in the denuded areas wherein the practice of slash and burn has removed good lot of forest cover.
Table 6 Status of cashew in Orissa versus India State Pre 1966 era 2004-05

Andhra Pradesh Orissa West Bengal Total

Area (000 ha) 21 6 2 241

Production (000 tonnes) 7 2 1 104

Kg/ha 360 360 400 400

Area (000ha) 150 126 9 820

Production (000tonnes) 105 80 9 595

Productivity (Kg/ha) 840 850 1000 580

2.6.1

Production of planting material

Four model nurseries have been proposed out of which three shall in public sector and one in private sector. These nurseries will primarily accommodate the nucleus material of varieties recommended to the state and build-up sufficient infrastructure for irrigation and nursery activity to propagate clones of such varieties in the form of soft wood grafts. The nurseries shall be strengthened out of the ones given in the table below, instead of spreading too thinly. The nurseries under the corporation and SAU have been left out as corporation shall concentrate more on processing part and SAU shall focus on tissue culture of banana. All India Coordinated Cashew Improvement Project conceived by ICAR since 1972, resulted in evolution of many high-yielding-varieties conforming to export specifications of international acceptance out of which two, namely, BPP 8 and Bhubaneswar have been found of promise for Orissa. State has a total of ten nurseries, as discussed below.
Table 7 Nursery Detail of Cashew

State

Pvt.

Deptt.

SAU/R.I

Corpn.

Total

Multiplication Capacity

Orissa

10

10

Potential area(lakh coverage) (Ha) p.a 5,000

The indigenous production and participation of indigenous production for export has been centering around 20% on an average. The indigenous consumption is found to center around 44% on an average of total raw nuts processed in Orissa. Market absorbability therefore continues to be strong which can encourage further development of cashew in India. Another area of market absorbability is the exploitation of our traditional markets for export.

18

2.6.2

Area expansion

At present, a little over 30% of the total area of cashew in India is under clones and even lesser in Orissa. The area expansion activity simultaneously is now getting shifted to nontraditional areas and non-traditional tracks. Under such circumstances, our dependence on area expansion should be limited to clones. State has twelve lakh grafts that shall cover 4,200 ha (@275 plants /ha and some fillers), therefore, 5,000 ha have been proposed for new orchards although the potential is 25,000 fresh area coverage. This cautious approach shall cover limited area but leading to good productivity. 2.6.3 Rejuvenation

Declining productivity of cashew falling under senility stage with least economic advantage is a big concern. The potentially for senile area replanting is 50,000 ha against which only 2,000 ha, being a cumbersome process, have been proposed for this year. Packages of clonally propagated materials, being quite new to the farming sector, need extension practices by way of demonstrations, campaigns and training. 2.6.4 Post-harvest infrast ructure

Pack house for cashew shall consists of collection, drying floors, manual splitting and then making it ready for processing plant. It shall cater to the needs of other crops also in that area. Out of five such numbers, four shall be in general areas and one in tribal belt. Other areas of production shall be attended by the pack houses proposed in mango belts. Other functional infrastructure in relation to cashew shall be made available to the community from the ones proposed under mango. 2.6.5 Processing

The processing is an important aspect in cashew production. Accordingly, two processing units of 500 MT each at Khurda and Koraput are proposed to be established for cashew. The project based financial assistance would be forth coming from the Ministry of Food Processing after feasibility study, taking into consideration the capacity utilization of the existing plants.

19

Map 3 Selected Orissa

cashew

dist ricts in

2.6.6

Marketing

Marketing of cashew is also linked with processing. Raw cashew are collected / purchased from growers by local traders who in turn either sale it to whole sellers or processing units. Processing units established in producing areas also purchase directly from growers. As such, processing plants proposed at Khurda and Koraput would enhance the marketability of cashew in the state. Producers Local Traders

Processing Units

Local Traders

Domestic Market

Export

Domestic Market

Export

20

The interventions proposed for cashew under NHM are given below:
Table 8 Interventions for Cashew S.N0. 1. (a) Component/Activity Production of planting material Model Nursery 4 Nos.(4 ha each) Public Sector-3 Private Sector-1 Small Nursery 4 Nos. (1 ha.each) Public Sector-2 Private Sector-2 Plantation of new Orchards (5000 hectares) Rejuvenation of old orchards (2000 ha.) Post-harvest infrastructure Pack-Houses* (5 Nos.) Gen:4 Tribal: 1 *In other cashew selected clusters facilities for mango pack house will be used Functional infrastructure (2 Nos.) Processing Unit (2 Nos.) One general area & one In Hilly/Tribal Location/District Rate of assistance/ Unit (Rs.) Rs. 18.0 lakh(Public) Rs. 9.0 lakh(Private) Rs. 3.0 Rs. 1.5 lakh each Rs. 11250/- hac. 15000/- hac. Total Cost (Rs. in lakh)

Cuttack, Puri, Koraput, Rayagada

63.0

(b) 2. 3.

Khurda, Nayagarh, Gajapati, Malkangiri Cuttack, Puri, Khurda, Nayagarh, Gajapati, Rayagada, Koraput and Malkangiri Cuttack, Puri, Khurda, Nayagarh, Gajapati, Rayagada, Koraput, and Malkangiri Cuttack , Khurda, Puri, Nayagarh, Gajapati

9.0

562.50 300.0

4.

Rs 2.5 lakh each. Subsidy @ 25% for general area and 33.33% for Tribal/Hilly areas

3. 32

5. 6.

Facilities proposed in Mango would be used as common facilities for all selected crops Khurda & Koraput Project based assistance would be obtained from MFPI Total 937.85

2.7

Banana

The major banana growing states in India are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Tripura and Manipur. In case of Orissa, Banana is grown over an area of 18427 ha and production is 209428 MT. Growth pattern from 1991-92 to 2001-2002 is given below in the table.
Table 9 Year-wise Banana production in Orissa Year 1991-1992 1992-1993 1993-1994 1994-1995 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 Area (in ha) 28043 31073 34123 36251 21734 23234 23896 21 Production (in MT) 275000 292000 322000 345800 253000 257400 257430 Productivity (MT/ha) 9.81 9.40 9.44 9.54 11.64 11.0 11.8

Year 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002

Area (in ha) 24700 16350 18250 18427

Production (in MT) 276800 193540 204234 209428

Productivity (MT/ha) 11.2 11.83 11.19 11.36

Source: Indian Horticulture Database, NHB-1998

The area and production of Banana in Orissa is substantially fluctuating particularly in the years of 95-96 and 99-2000. It is mainly because of frequent cyclonic weather, drought and floods occurring in the state. This is major draw back in development of Banana in the state. Even otherwise, productivity is quite low (11.36 MT/ha) in comparison of national average (33.3 MT/ha). 2.7.1 Crop production

In Orissa, sowing time is May-June & September-October and harvesting takes place around the year. Banana is grown in the districts of Angul, Bolangir, Ganjam, Puri, Sundergarh, Nayagada, Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar. Fertility of soil is very important for successful cultivation, as banana is a heavy feeder. Banana is essentially tropical plant requiring a warm and humid climate that is available in the state. 2.7.2 Cultivars

There are two groups of this crop viz. (a) culinary type (plantation) and (b) table type grown in the state. (a) Culinary Type: Mendhi, Bantal, Gaja Bental, Batisa and some extand Ghirta Sagar come under this type. The green fruits are used for vegetable curry. This fruit is also used for all religions ceremonies and in temples in preparation of Prasad for offering to deities. As such, there is great demand of this type of Banana in the state. (b) Table Type: Varieties like Patakapura (Amritpani), champa (Poovan) Muguni, Dwraft Cavindissi, Robasta (draft type) are in this type. In Orissa, the patakapura variety is highly prized for its size and pleasant flavour, taste and quality. However, the champa variety is preferred for its wider range of adaptability and is suitable for handling and transport. Other local varieties are Rasthali, Amrit Sagar and Giant Governor also. 2.7.3 Price trend

Banana is available for harvesting almost throughout the year in the state of Orissa. The price trend available for Bhubneswar market (published by NHB) from 1991 to 1999 reveals that price and arrival in the market does not fluctuate significantly in most of the months of the year. The average yield of banana in Orissa is 11.0 tons/hectares.
22

Since fruit demand is increasing day by day and there is not much fluctuation indicating no extra surplus and productivity is low following interventions are proposed under the mission. 2.7.4 Production of planting material

Tissue cultured raised plants are not available owing to infrastructural inadequacies, it is proposed to strengthen the existing tissue culture lab in the Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology and skill up-gradation. New Plantatio ns. With improved varieties and those traditional varieties that are vanishing, new plantations on 1300 ha in the districts of Balasore, Khurda Puri, Keonjhar, Nayagarh, Rayagarha, Kalahandi, Koraput and Mayurbhanj shall be undertaken. Functio nal infrast ruct ure: These districts comprising of specific pockets shall also have nine ripening chambers that shall necessitate sorting / grading and packing for local markets, just for inter-districts imports substitution.

Map 4 Selected Orissa

banana

districts in

23

2.7.5

Marketing

The production of banana in the state is only 2.4 lakh tonnes which is just enough to meet the requirements of state population. Moreover, banana production is available throughout the year. As such, marketing of banana is undertaken in rural / district markets of producing areas from where it is sent to terminal / big markets of the state. The marketing channel for banana is as under: Producer Village Merchant Commission Agent Whole Seller for assembling in rural market

Producer

Whole Seller

Commission Agent in Assembling Market

Producer

Commission Agent

Assembling Market

Producer

Consumer

The interventions proposed for banana are given below in the table:
Table 10 Intervention of Banana S.No 1. 2. Component/Activity Production of planting/material Re-habitation of existing Tissue culture lab Plantation of new orchard (1300 ha) Location Khurda (OUAT) Balasore, Khurda, Puri, Keonjhar, Nayagarh, Rayagada, Kalahandi, Koraput, Mayurbhanj -d0Rate of assistance per unit (Rs) Rs. 8.0 lakh/unit Rs. 15000/ha Total Cost (Rs in lakh) 8.0 195.0 (only 50% subsidy to be decrease in first year 12.57

3.

Functional infrastructure (Ripening chamber : 9 Nos) Gen:4 Tribal:5

5.0 lakh /unit Subsidy @ 25% for General area and 33.33% for Tribal/Hilly areas Total

215.57

2.8

Ginger

Ginger, one of the earliest known oriental spices, is being cultivated in India, both as a fresh vegetable and as a dried spice since time immemorial. It is obtained from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Ginger is not known in a wild state and has been cultivated for so long, both in China and India, that its exact origin is not clear. It is believed to be a native of Southern Asia.
24

It grows well in warm and humid climates. It is being cultivated both as a fresh vegetable and a dried spice. The main ginger-producing states are Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Kerala and Sikkim. The area production and productivity of ginger in different states during 2001-02 is given in below:
Table 11 Area, production and productivity of Ginger States Assam Kerala Meghalaya Mizoram Sikkim Area (000 ha) 17.6 10.7 7.8 7.3 5.1 2001-02 Prod. (000 tonnes) 113.0 40.2 44.9 46.7 25.0 Yield (tonnes/ha) 6.4 3.8 5.7 6.4 4.9

Production of ginger in Orissa is concentrated in the district of Koraput, Keonjhar and Gajapati, where soils are predominantly acidic. 2.8.1 Constraints in Produ ction

The only constraint in ginger production is that post-harvest management of ginger is not of international standards. Soft rot affects ginger production. 2.8.2 Varieties grown in India

Several varieties of ginger are grown in different ginger-growing areas in the country. They are generally known after the area where they are grown. Some of the prominent indigenous cultivars are: Maran, Kuruppampadi, Ernad, Wynad, Himachal and Nadia. Exotic cultivars, Rio-de-Janeiro, have also become very popular among cultivators.In the specific context of Orissa three variety brought out by the Regional Research and Technology station are: Suprabha, Suruchi and Surbhi. Sruchi have low fibre and high gingerin/oleoresin content. However, concentrated pockets need to be adopted in these areas. 2.8.3 Integ rated app roach shall be fol lowed for: Their effect have been

demonstrated to framers are adopting them with the recommended package of practices.

Use of high-yielding and high-quality varieties Integrated management technologies for rhizome rot disease involving solarization of seed-beds, phytosanitation, cultural methods, bio-control agents and chemicals should be adopted. Strategies for the management of shoot-borer by pruning infested shoots and application of chemicals and bio-pesticides (Bacillus thuringiensis product) should be used. Postharvest management is the most significant operation in ginger, since always prefer healthy, tender, disease insect-pest attack free ginger of attractive appearan ce.
25

Technological uses based on the recommendation of the state level project committee following aspect shall be approached for 2.8.4 Resea rch and deve lopmental efforts

Varieties tolerant or resistant to rhizome rot Enhancing yield potential, quality and productivity Alleviation of biotic and abiotic constraints through integrated constraint alleviation programmes Evolving and popularizing very efficient post-harvest technology programmes including product diversification Tailoring production to meet export needs and international requirements. Intervention recommended under national horticulture mission is establishment of three model nursery (4ha) all in public sector as good quality seed is the basic need and being heavy feeder, average growers can not produce good quality rhizomes. Model nurseries shall be in the new producing district discussed earlier, 4 small nurseries, two each in private as well as public sectors are proposed in the district of Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Nayagarh and Cuttack. Area expansion shall take place in 1000 ha and organic farming on a limited area of 50 ha with a provision of certification shall be established with vermin-compost units. 2.8.5 Marketing

Ginger is marketed mainly in fresh form. Since, it is less perishable; it is marketed to distant markets also. The production of ginger in Orissa is mainly confined to tribal districts. Village merchant generally collect the produce from farmers and market it either to commission agent or whole seller in the assembling market. The marketing channels in ginger are as under: Producer Village Merchant Commission Agent in Assembling Markets Whole Seller

Producer

Village Merchant

Whole Seller

Commission Agent in Distant Markets

Producer

Whole Seller

Commission Agent in other Assembling Markets

Producer

Commission Agent

Whole Seller in other markets

26

The wholesale price of ginger in wholesale market of Bhubneshwar was Rs. 2,434 /- per quintal in Feb2005.

Map 5 Selected ginger districts in Orissa

2.8.6

Exports and expo rt potential

During the last decade, its exports have been fluctuating. The export increased to 28,000 tonnes in 1997-98 from 6,000 tonnes in 1990-91 but it suddenly fell to 8,000 tonnes in 199899 and declined further to 6,500 tonnes in 2000-01. This sharp decline in export of ginger is because of unorganised production due to lack of suitable varieties, post-harvest practices and inadequate infrastructure.

27

The interventions proposed for ginger are given below in the table:
Table 12 Intervention of Ginger

S.N0.

Compon ent/Activity

Location

Rate of assistance per Unit (Rs.) 18.0 lakh

Total Cost (Rs. in lakh) 54.00

1. (a)

(b)

2.

1.

Produc tion of planting material Model Nursery -each 4 Keonjhar, Koraput, Gajapati ha-3 No Public sec: 03 Private Sec: 00 Small Nursery (4 nos. Balasore, Mayurbhanj, each 1 ha) Nayagarh, Cuttack Public sec: 02 Private Sec: 02 Plantation of new Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar , area(1000 hectares) Balasore, Gajapati, Koraput,Nayagarh, Cuttack Post-harvest infrastructure Pack-Houses (8 Nos.) Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar , Gen-4,Tri-4 Balasore, Gajapati, (sorting/ grading line) Koraput,Nayagarh, Cuttack

3.0 lakh 1.5 lakh Rs. 11250/ha

9.0

112.50

Rs 2.5 lakh each. Subsidy @ 25% for general area and 33.33% for hilly areas)

5.53

1. 2. 3.

Organic Cultivation Area-50 ha Vermi Compost Certification

Koraput Koraput Koraput Total

5.00 4.50 5.0 195.53

2.9

Turmeric

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a native to Asia and India. Its tuberous rhizomes or underground stems have been used as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several food items and medicines. Turmeric is a very important spice in India, which virtually produces entire global crop and consumes 80% of it. Its area, production and productivity during the last 30 years have shown an increasing trend with some fluctuations. Turmeric can be grown in various climatic conditions, and as an intercrop in coconut and arecanut plantations.

28

Map 6 Selected Orissa

turmeric districts

in

2.9.1

Varieties

Owing to good agro-climatic condition, Orissa has better productivity of 2.4 than the neighbouring state, yet it is much below than the other state. There are about 30 turmeric varieties grown in India. Among them, Madras and Alleppey are of great commercial significance. India keeps most of its Madras turmeric for domestic use and Alleppey turmeric for exports. Local research efforts in Orissa, basically in Koraput have resulted in the evolution of 4 high yielding varieties with good bright colour and high cucumin content viz Rango, Reshmi, Roma, Surma that have become popular. 2.9.2 Constraints in Development

Non- availability of quality planting material Lack of drying yards Lack of scientific cleaning and processing facilities Lack of storing, packing, curing and processing infrastructure Lack of adequate post-production infrastructure for value-addition Supply of healthy rhizome is intended to be from the two proposed model nurseries in the public sector to supply the basic seed and 4 small nurseries ( 2 in public and 2 in private ) to
29

further multiply the rhizome so that constant supply of rhizome is available. The large nurseries shall be in Koraput and Nayagad where as small shall be in the Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Kalahandi and Cuttack. Area expansion over 1000 ha spread over different pockets in these districts is also proposed. Organic farming like ginger shall also be practised over an area of 5o ha with certification provision to enforce the good agricultural practices. As organic manure is important part of it fifteen units are also proposed. In order to increase the productivity following shall be integrated with farming in these areas. Seed material should be selected from disease-free areas. Seed material should be treated with Dithane M-45 @ 3g/litre of water or Bavistin @ 1g/litre of water. Seed material should be dipped for 30 minutes in the fungicidal solution and be shadedried before sowing. Treating seed- rhizomes with 0.25% of Agallot for 30 minutes prior to storing and also at the time of sowing prevent the disease When the disease is noticed in the field, the beds are drenched with cheshnut compound (0.3%) and Agallol (0.1%) Use of improved cultivars, Suvarna, Suguna, Sudharshana, Prabha and Prathibha. Organic farming of turmeric utilizing various organic cakes as nutrient sources should be used. For control of shoot-borer, application of insecticides and bio-pesticides (Bacillus thuringiensis product) to be used. Proper technologies for storage of seed rhizomes involving seed treatment with fungicides and insecticides and use of leaf mulches should be adopted. For providing a constant boost in production, following shall also made and research provision of ICAR. Development of varieties with resistant to biotic and abiotic stress and high cucumin content Development of technologies for growing turmeric in coconut plantations. 2.9.3 Marketing

Farmers producing turmeric are generally small and marginal. As such, producers with small quantity of produce are not in bargaining position and gets minimum share of ultimate consumer price. Lack of grading / sorting and curing facilities also add to the problem of marketing. The marketing channels followed in ginger are also applicable to turmeric.

30

The interventions proposed for turmeric are given below in the table:
Table 13 Intervention of Turmeric S.N0. 1. (a) Component/Activity Location Rate of assistance per Unit (Rs.) 18.0 lakh Total Cost (Rs. in lakh) 36.00

(b)

2.

1.

Production of planting material Model Nursery -each 4 ha-2 Keonjhar, Nayagarh No Public sec: 02 Private Sec: 00 Small Nursery (4 nos. each Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Nayagarh, 1 ha) Cuttack Public sec: 02 Private Sec: 02 Plantation of new area(1000 Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar , Balasore, Koraput,Nayagarh, Cuttack, hectares) Kalahandi, Nayagarh Post-harvest infrastructure Pack-Houses Ginger facility would be utilised (sorting/ grading line) as common facility

3.0 lakh 1.5 lakh Rs. 11250/ha

9.0

112.50

Rs 2.5 lakh each. Subsidy @ 25% for general area and 33.33% for hilly areas) 5.00 4.50 5.0 172.00

1. 2. 3. Total

Organic Cultivation Area-50 ha Vermi Compost Certification

Nayagarh Nayagarh Nayagarh

2.10 Floriculture The state has mixed kind of scenario in respect of development of floricultural crops of traditional types, cut flowers, dry flowers and green fillers. Traditional flowers comprises of rose (petals), marigold, jasmine and others whereas roses, carnation, tuberose, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, gerbera, lillium, anthurium and orchids constitute the cut flowers. Present area under lowers is 300 ha which is quite insignificant in view of the area and religious importance of the state. Therefore there is huge potential to meet the local demand, especially around big cities. Besides this demand for religious and other social purpose, potential of exploring other commercial avenues is also required at this stage to add diversification in floriculture. The most important crop in this regard is the marigold on larger tracts whose flowers are dried for further processing to extract xanthophylls followed by super extraction plants for medicinal values, besides exportable ingredient of poultry feed. As such, rose for cut flower production shall be popularized on 50 ha area each for small and other farmers in Khurda, Puri, Keonjhar, Cuttack and Rayagarha districts. Likewise, bulbous flowers like tuberose and gladioli is proposed to be encouraged on 150 ha each. More important shall be contract farming of marigold on 2000 ha in Koraput and Rayagarha.
31

Such large scale production will be tied up by exploring the private investment in processing once the trends of such production starts to attract entrepreneurs. Production alone can not be complete without sufficient provision of post-harvest

infrastructural facilities. The provision of cold store and refer van already provided under development program shall also be used flowers and processing-cum-extraction plant will be posed for techno-economic feasibility study initially. Two pre-cooling units (mobile processing) have been planned for Koraput and Puri districts. 2.10.1 Marketing The production of flowers is proposed to raised from 300 ha to 2400 ha. Out of which this, 2000 ha would be under marigold which will mainly be used by proposed processing-cumextraction plant. Since, the major production of marigold would be taken through contract farming, there would not be any problem in marketing of marigold .As regards, cut flowers like Rose and Bulbous flowers i.e. gladiolus and tuberose, there would be used locally for religious and social purposes as well as find way to the market of Kolkata. The interventions proposed for floriculture are given below in the table:
Table 14 Intervention of Floriculture S.No A 1. (a) Component/Activity Production Cut Flowers (Rose) Small farmers-50 ha. Other farmers-50 ha. (b) (i) (ii) Bulbous Flowers Small farmers Tube Rose-100 ha. Gladiolus 100 ha Other farmers Tube Rose-50 ha. Gladiolus 50 ha Contract Farming Marigold 2000 ha Post harvest Infrastructure a. Cold storage b. Refer van c. Processing cum Extraction Plant (Initially for Technofeasibility study during 200506) d. Mobile Processing Unit (Pre-cooling) (two Unit) Location Rates of assistance (Rs.) 50% of the cost @ Rs. 35000/ha 33% of the cost @ Rs. 23100/ha 50% of the cost @ Rs. 45000/ha 33% of the cost @ Rs. 29700/ha 33% of the cost @ Rs. 7920/ha Total Cost (Rs in lakh)

Khurda, Puri, Keonjhar, Cuttack, Rayagada Khurda, Puri, Keonjhar, Cuttack, Rayagada

17.50 11.55

Puri, Khurda, Cuttack, Keonjhar & Koraput Puri, Khurda, Cuttack, Keonjhar, Koraput & Rayagada Koraput & Rayagada Proposed for Mango would be used in floriculture also Do Koraput

90.00 29.70

(c) B.

158.40

Project based

20.00

Koraput,Puri

25%-Gen 33. 3 Total

13.92 341.07

32

2.11 Seed Production Vegetables are grown allover the state. Majority of vegetables (59%) produced are consumed within the district and only one fifth of it is sent to outside the districts (21%) or other states. The present area under vegetables is 6.20 lakh ha producing of vegetable at par national average but lower they neighboring state wWst Bangal. As such, to increase the production, supply of seeds of high yield verities particularly hybrids and disease free & seedlings are very important aspect of increasing production to produce foundation / certified seed of vegetables, like Brinjal, Okra, tomato, pea, Beans, Radish, Tuber crops etc. through OSSC/ OUAT/CTCRI/ NSC/ NHRDF Over an area of 400 heaters under the mission programme during 2005-06.It is proposed to supply such seeds in the from of minikits to the farmers including BPL at subsidized rate. The seed produced over are area of 400 ha will be able to cover 26000 ha area under high yielding / hybrids of vegetables. To strengthen the production of vegetables seeds,. seed infrastructure like godown, drying platform, storage bins etc. would also be provided Districts like Koreput, part of kelahands, Keonjher, Mayorbhing are founs goodfor growing off season vegetables due to mild tempters climate requirement in vegetable seed production, isolation distanceto avoid undesirable cross pollination is very important. As such, it is also proposed provide facility of protected cultivation like green house, disease detecting unit, plant health clinic,leaf tissue analysis laboratory are also proposed to be set up supporting infrastructure. Besides, Low cost onion storage developed programmes and financial requirements are given below in the table.
Table 15 Intervention of seed production
S.No 1. Component/Activity Production of foundation/Certified seeds of vegetables (Area 400 ha through Public Sector /ICAR/SAU, Deptt. Of Horticulture) Seed infrastructure (Godown, Weighing machine, Drying/Plat form/Storage bay Packing unit etc) Public Sector -5 Private Sector -4 Low cost Onion Storage Nos-800 Protected cultivation a. Normal greenhouse Nos14. (other farmers) (1000 sq. m each) Mulching 170 ha Shade Net Nos. 14 Plastic Tunnel Nos. 28 Location Balasore, Cuttack, Gajapati, Keonjhar, Kalahandi, Koraput, Mayurbhanj, Khurda Cuttack, Balasore, Gajapati, Keonjhar, Kalahandi, Koraput, Mayurbhainj, Khurda, Bolangir Balasore, Bolangir, Cuttack, Mayurbhanj, Kalahandi, Koraput, Koenjhar, Nayapara All selected district Rate of assistance Unit Cost Rs. 50000/ha. Total Cost (Rs in lakh) 200.00

as

by NHRDF are also

proposed to be established is onion growing areas. The component-wise details of physical

2.

Project based (100% of assistance) Project based (25% of Subsidy) Rs. 8000/unit (50 % ) 33.3% of the cost limited to Rs. 67/ sq.m 7000/ha 50% of the cost limited to Rs. 3500 per 500 sq. m 50% of the cost limited to Rs. 5000

12.00

3.

64.0

4.

9. 38

5. 6. 7.

Do Do Two in each district

9.80 0.49 1.4

33

S.No 8.

Component/Activity Promotion of INM/IPM a. Disease forecasting unit (one unit) b. Plant health clinic (one unit) c. Leaf Tissue Analysis Lab (one unit)

Location

Rate of assistance Unit Cost per 1000 sq. m a. b. c. Total Rs. lakh unit Rs. lakh unit Rs. lakh unit 4.0 per 20.0 per 20.0 per

Total Cost (Rs in lakh) 4.0 20.0 20.0 341.07

Crop based

2.12 Market Development Marketing is most important aspect of post-harvest management of horticultural crops. The economy of the grower depends on the return per unit area of his produce. This, however, more difficult in case of horticultural crops which are perishable in nature and usually cannot be retained for longer period after harvest like other cereal crops. As such special attention needs to be given on creating/strengthening marketing infrastructure particularly for horticultural produce. In Orissa, the marketing system is quite peculiar. The small and marginal farmers own 77.5 percent of all operational holdings. As such, quantum of produce is very small for marketing for which proper packing and transportation is not economically viable. Producers generally take head-load to the village / rural market where they can not stand against price bargaining resulting low returns. The marketing channels generally exist are: Producer Village Merchant Commission Agent Whole Seller in Assembling Markets

Producer

Village Merchant

Assembling Markets

Producer

Commission Agent

Assembling Markets

Producer

Whole Seller

Commission Agent

Producer

Consumer

In the process of marketing, producer gets only 30-40% of the consumer price while

middleman in the chain of marketing gets major share of 60-70% of the consumer price.
34

In Orissa there are 76 wholesale markets (mandi) out of which only in 14 markets deal in horticultural produce. There are also six terminal markets at Cuttack, Berharmpur, Rourkela, Puri, Bhubaneswar and Sambalpur. lacking. The infrastructural facilities in these market are totally It is therefore, proposed to develop terminal markets at Sambalpur, Berharmpur

and Cuttack with all modern facilities of marketing. There is need to have detailed feasibility study of these markets initially. As such token provision for acquisition of land and feasibility study has been suggested in the Mission programme. Similarly rural markets in the producing area are not having even basic facilities of grading/sorting/packing for distant marketing. and quality certification. It is therefore proposed to strengthen two rural markets in each selected districts with focus on promotion of grading standardization Steps would also be taken to develop network of market intelligence including market arrivals, price trend of markets in cluster and in distant markets. Specific project would also be prepared for quality awareness and market led activities for which a promotion of 10.00 lakh has been proposed in the programme. These facilities would provide producers to improve the marketing of their produce, thereby getting higher returns. The component-wise programme of marketing infrastructure is given below in the Table:
Table 16 Intervention of Marketing Infrastructure

Marketing Infrastructure I Component Location Rate assistance unit 100 crore Project based Project based Project based Total of per Total Cost

Ii iiii iv v vi

Establishment of modern terminal 3 no. Up gradation of rural market28 Market Intelligence Extension, quality awareness and market led activity

Sambalpur, Behrampur, Cuttack All selected 14 district

1500.00 105.0 56.00 10.00 1671.00

2.13 Human Resource Development & misce llaneo us programmes Human resource development through training and demonstration is an integral first of Mission. It is therefore, proposed to take up training of 2000 farmers in related fields. Training of supervision entrepreneurs & training on Organic Farming, hi-tech horticulture / INM/ 1PM would also be provided to field l functionaries; even officer farmers and field level functionaries would also be trained abroad in reputed institution. States / district level should seminars would also be arranged for to dissemination latest knowledge in the field of horticulture. Information education and communication material will also be produced for distribution among the farmers. Supporting infrastructure like computer, library, and drinking water facilities would also be provided at school of horticulture khurda.
35

Table 17 Intervention of Human Resource Development & miscellaneous activity HRD including Horticulture Institute i. Training of farmers (Nos. 2000 farmers) All the 14 districts proposed to be covered under NHM programmes during 2005-06 -do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do100% assistance 40.0

ii. Trainers Training Programme iii. Training of Supervisors iv. Training of Gardeners (50 Nos) v. Training of Entrepreneurs (25 Nos.) vi. Spl. Training on INM/IPM vii. Training abroad (10 Nos.) viii. State Level Shows (One Nos.) ix. District Level Shows 14 Nos. @ Rs. 50,000/- each x. Publicity Literature xi. Other trainings/ facilities like development of library at school of Horticulture, Khurda 6. Pollination support through Bee keeping (1500 units)

-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-doSub. Total 50% of the cost limited to Rs. 800 per colony

5.0 18.12 27.05 4.51 3.00 30.0 3.0 7.0 5.0 15.0 157.70 1.20

All the 14 districts proposed to be covered under NHM programmes during 2005-06 All the 14 districts 200 ha -

7. 8. 9.

Front line demonstration through ICAR/OUAT Betel vine Mission Management i. State & District Mission structure (LS) ii. Institutional Strengthing (LS) iii. TSG- Institutional Strengthening (LS)

75% of the cost of demonstration

15.0 45.0 70.00 170.00 5.0

Sub. Total Grand Total

245 463.90

2.14 Missi on Management For implementing the Missions programmes in the State, a special purpose vehicle has been created as a registered society designated the Orissa Horticulture Development Society (OHDS). The OHDS has a General Body headed by the Minister, Agriculture and an Executive Committee headed by the Chief Secretary. There is a Project Implementation Committee headed by the APC to take all day-to-day decisions. The Society has branches in every District for implementation of the programmes in the Districts. The State has a promotional agency, the Agriculture Promotion and Investment Corporation (APICOL) which will be entrusted the promotion of processing units and private sector investment in PH infrastructure. The State Agriculture Marketing Board will play a significant role in the creation of marketing infrastructure under the Mission. The Orissa Seed Corporation Ltd. and Orissa Cashew Development Corporation Ltd. will play vital role in supplying quality planting material / seed.
36

The Director Horticulture who is the Member-Secretary of the OHDS is the Principal Cocoordinator for all activities of the Mission. The agencies identified for implementation of various programmes under mission will prepare their respective detailed programmes and submit to executive committee for approval and release of funds. The executive committee while sanctioning the programmes within the approved budgets will issue guidelines to be followed for carrying out activities and implementation of the programmes. The executive committee will also make periodic review of the activities and monitor the progress of programmes and projects taken up under the mission. The executive committee will keep informed Orissa Horticulture Development Society about the progress of implementation of various programmes time to time. The mission management programme would include creation of state and district mission structure, support to cooperative infrastructure and institutional strengthening. Keeping in view the role of Technical support group in mission programmes , provision of Rs.500 lacs has been kept in the annual action plan 2005-06. Conta ct Address, Phone & E-mail ID of Imp lementing Agencies
Implementing Agency Director, Horticulture & Member Secretary, Orissa Horticulture Development Society Managing Director, Agriculture Promotion & Investment Corporation Ltd. Managing Director, Orissa State Agriculture Marketing Board Managing Director, Orissa State Seed Corporation Ltd. Managing Director, Orissa State Cashew Development Corporation Ltd. Address Udyan Bhawan, IRC Village, Bhubaneswar 751015 326, Baramunda, Bhubaneswar 751003 Plot No. A/126, Sahid Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751007 Santarapur, Bhubaneswar 751002 nd 2 Floor, F-4 Block, Indradhanu Market, IRC Village, Bhubaneswar 751015 Phon e 0674-2551831 E-mail ID udyanhort@sify.com

06742561203

apicol96@sancharnet.in

0674-2542749

www.osmb.org

0674-2340573 0674-2340170 0674-2555532 0674-2550855

osscbbs@ori.nic.in

2.15 Econom ics of the proposal The programmes proposed under the action plan 2005-06 for implementation are for integrated development of the selected crops like increase availability of good planting material / seed, expansion of area / rejuvenation of crops with recommended package of practices, provide post-harvest infrastructure and marketing facilities. This would lead to increase production and productivity of each selected crops.

37

Under the action plan, 18,300 ha have been proposed for area expansion and 4,500 ha for rejuvenation in mango and cashew. This would provide additional production of 1.23 lakh MT of Mango, Cashew, Banana, Ginger, Turmeric and Marigold. Thus, the total production of these crops would increase from 8.32 lakh MT to 9.54 lakh MT after commercial production of new plantation / rejuvenation. The details are given in the table below:
Table 18 Present production and projection of production after implementation of NHM programme S. No Crop Present Status Area (ha) Productio n (MT) Scenario after commercial production of new plantation / rejuvenation Area Yield from Yield from Expansio area rejuvenatio n (ha) expansion n after (MT) deducting existing yield (MT) 8000 56000 2500 8700 1300 26000 5000 5000 2000 420 1000 3000 1000 3400 2000 20000 18300 113400 4500 9120 Rejuvenati on (ha) Total additional produ ction (MT) Total produ ctio n of the state (MT)

1 2 3 4 5 6

Mango Banana Cashew Ginger Turmeric Marigold Total

115107 20126 124000 15475 23778 195 298681

405169 240361 98400 30019 56417 1458 831824

64700 26000 5420 3000 3400 20000 122520

469869 266361 103820 33049 59817 21458 954374

The gross value of additional production with average price of these selected crops workout to Rs. 140 crores per annum. Post-harvest infrastructure and marketing facilities proposed for creation under the action plan would also add to this value by saving at least 5% of the produce of which value would be around Rs. 60 crores. Thus, the total gross income from the project would be Rs. 200 crores per annum on its implementation. 2.16 Conclusion The programme formulated in the annual action plan 2005-06 are need based for integrated development of horticulture in selected district and fulfill the objective of the National Horticulture Mission . These programmes are to be implemented in a project mode so that clear impact of these interventions is visible in the state. The total outlay proposed for annual action plan 2005-06 comes to Rs. 75 crores only .The details of physical programmes and financial outlays are given in Annexure II.

38

ANNEXURE - I
Agro Climatic Zones of Orissa S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Agro-climatic Zone Northern Plateau North Central Plateau North Eastern Coastal Plain East and Eastern Coastal Plain 5. North Eastern Ghat Part of Mayurbhanj, part of Keonjhar districts Part of Keonjhar district, Balasore, Bhadrak, part of Jajpur district South- Part of Cuttack, district Khurda, Nayagarh, part of Ganjam, Gajapati, 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Eastern Land South Eastern Ghat Western Undulating Western Central Table Land Mid Land Central Ghat High Part of Rayagada, Koraput, Phulbani, part of Boudh district Nawarangpur district Part of Koraput, Malkangiri Kalahandi, Padmapur, Khariar, part of Nawarangpur Sambalpur, Sonepur Table Dhenkanal, Angul, part of Cuttack, part of Jajpur district Bargarh, Bolangir, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Puri, part of Ganjam Districts

Western Sundargarh, part of Sambalpur

39

Annexure-II Physical and Financial Outlay Proposed for Annual Plan of Action 2005-06, Orissa
(Rs.in Lakh) Sl. No. A Implementing Physical Unit Agency Programme Plantation Development inculd ing suppo rting Infrastructure 1. Production of Planting Material i. Public Sector a. Model Nursery Dir. Horticulture Nos. 12 (4ha.) b. Small Nursery Dir. Horticulture Nos. 10 (1 ha.) c. Rehabilitation of existing Tissue Culture OUAT No. 1 Unit ii. Private Sector Component a. Model Nursery (4ha.) b. Small Nursery (1 ha.) c. Rehabilitation of existing Tissue Culture Unit d. Vegetable Seed Prodn. APICOL Nos. 3 Rate of Asst./Unit Financial Outlay

Max. of Rs.18.00 lakh/nursery Max. of Rs.3.00 lakh/ nursery Rs.8.00 unit lakh per

216.00 30.00 8.00

APICOL

Nos.

10

50% of cost to Rs.9.00 nursery 50% of cost to Rs.1.5 nursery

limited lakh / limited lakh /

27.00

15.00

APICOL

No.

Rs. 8.00 lakh per unit

Public Sector, ICAR, SAU, State Deptt.

OSSC / OUAT/ CTCRI / NSC

ha.

Prodn. of foundation / certified vegetable seeds over 400 ha. (Brinjal, Tomato, French Bean, Palak, Radish, Chilly, Bottlegourd, Ridgegourd, Garden pea, Okra, Yam, EFY, Onion)

Rs.50,000/- per ha.

200.00

e. Seed Infrastructure Asst. for drying platform, storage bin, storage godown & packaging unit Asst. for drying platform, storage bin,

Public Sector

OSSC / OUAT

LS

100% of cost

10.00

Private Sector

APICOL

LS

25% of cost as credit linked back ended subsidy

2.00

40

storage godown & packaging unit 800 nos Low cost onion storage Rs. 8000/- per no (50%)

Private Sector 2. Establishment of New Gardens

Onion Storage

64.00

i. Fruits (Perennial)

Dir.Horticulture / OSCDC

ha.

Mango- 8000, Cashew-5000 = 13000 ha.

75% of cost limited to Rs.22,500/ ha. in 3 installments of 50 : 20 : 30 subject to survival of 75% in nd 2 year & 90% in rd 3 year Max. of Rs.15000/per ha. limited to 4ha./beneficiary

2362.50

ii. Fruits (NonPerennial)

Dir. Horticulture

ha.

Banana Sucker-1200, Banana T.C. 100 = 1300 ha. 200 ha

195.00

iii. Betel vine iv. Flowers a. Cut Flowers Small & Marginal Farmers Dir. Horticulture ha.

45.00

Rose - 50 ha.

Other farmer b. Bulbous Flower Small & Marginal Farmers

Dir. Horticulture

ha.

Rose - 50 ha.

50% of the cost @ Rs.35000/ha. limited to 2 ha. per beneficiary 33% of the cost @ Rs.23100/ha. limited to 4 ha. per beneficiary 50% of the cost @ Rs.45000/ha. limited to 2 ha. per beneficiary 33% of the cost @ Rs.29700/ha. limited to 4 ha. per beneficiary 33% of the cost @ Rs.7920/ha. limited to 4 ha. per beneficiary Techno-Econo feasibility study 75% of the cost subject to a max. of Rs. 11,250/ha. limited to 4 ha. per beneficiary

17.50

11.55

Dir. Horticulture

ha.

Tuberose 100, Gladioli 100 = 200 ha. Tuberose - 50, Gladioli - 50 = 100 ha.

90.00

Other farmer c. Loose Flower Other farmer (Contract Farming)

Dir. Horticulture

ha.

29.70

Dir. Horticulture

ha.

Marigold-2000 ha

158.40

Establishment of Processing cum Extraction Plant iv. Spices, Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Ginger - 1000, Turmeric-1000 = 2000 ha.

20.00

Spices

Dir. Horticulture

ha.

225.00

Medicinal Plant

41

a. Small & Marginal Farmers

Orissa State Med. Plant Board Orissa State Med. Plant Board

ha.

b. Other farmer

ha.

75% of the cost limited to 2 ha. per beneficiary Rs.11250 / ha. 75% of the cost subject to a max. of Rs. 11,250/ha. limited to 4 ha. per beneficiary

v. Plantation Crops including coastal Horticulture a. Small & Marginal Farmers Dir. Horticulture ha. 75% of the cost limited to 2 ha. per beneficiary Rs.11250 / ha. 75% of the cost subject to a max. of Rs. 11250/ha. limited to 4 ha. per beneficiary 50% of the total cost subject to a max. of Rs.15,000/ ha. limited to 2 ha. per beneficiary -

b. Other farmer

Dir. Horticulture

ha.

3. Rejuvenation / replacement of senile plantations 4. Creation of water resources i. Community tanks ii. Ponds

Dir.Horticulture / OSCDC (for cashew)

ha.

Mango-2500, Cashew 2000 = 4500 ha.

675.00

Upto Rs.10.00 lakh/unit of 10 ha. Upto Rs.10.00 lakh/unit of 10 ha. Upto Rs.10.00 lakh/unit of 10 ha.

iii. On farm water reservoirs with use of plastic lining 5. Protected Cultivation (Part of Production-Foundation/Certified Seed) i. Green House

Other farmer

APICOL

Nos.

All selected districts

ii. Mulching

All selected districts (10 ha)

iii. Shadenet House

APICOL

Nos.

One in each selcted districts

iv. Plastic Tunnel

APICOL

Nos.

Two in each selected districts

33.3% of cost subject to a max. of Rs.215/Sq.m for hitech and Rs.67/Sq.m for normal GH limited to 1000 sq.m 50% of the total cost subject to a max. of Rs.7000/ha. limited to 2 ha. per beneficiary 50% of cost subject to a max. of Rs.3500 / 500 sq.m limited to 2 ha. per beneficiary 50% of cost subject to a max. of Rs.5000/ 1000 sq.m limited to 5 ha. per beneficiary

9.38

9.80

0.49

1.40

6. Promotion of
42

INM/IPM i. Sanitary and Phytosanitary ii. Promotion of IPM

Project Based 50% of cost subject to a max. of Rs.1000/ ha. limited to 4 ha./beneficiary Up to Rs.4.00 lakh / unit Up to Rs.40.00 lakh / unit Up to Rs.80.00 lakh / unit Up to Rs.20.00 lakh / unit Up to Rs. 10.00 lakh / unit

Dir.Horticulture

ha.

200ha. Mango

2.00

iii. Disease fore casting units (PSUs) iv. Bio control Labs Private Sector Public Sector v. Plant Health Clinic Public Sector Private Sector vi. Leaf Tissue Analysis Labs Public Sector Private Sector 7. Organic Farming i. Adoption of Organic Farming

OUAT

Nos.

4.00

OUAT -

Nos. -

1 -

20.00 -

OUAT -

Nos. -

1 -

Up to Rs.20.00 lakh / unit Up to Rs.10.00 lakh / unit 50% of cost subject to a max. of Rs.10000 / ha. limited to 4 ha. per beneficiary 50% of cost subject to a max. of Rs.30000 / unit Rs.5.00 lakh in cluster of 50 ha.

20.00 -

Dir. Horticulture

ha.

Ginger - 50, Turmeric - 50 = 100 ha.

10.00

ii. Vermi Compost Units iii. Certification

Dir. Horticulture APICOL

Nos. ha.

30 100

9.00 10.00

43

8. HRD including Hort. Institute

Dir. Horticulture

LS

a) Trg. of farmers inside the State for 1000no. @Rs.1500/each for 5 days = Rs.15.00 lakh (b) Trg. of farmers outside the State for 1000 no. @ Rs.2500/- each for 7 days = Rs.25.00 lakh (c) Trainers Trg. Prog. @ Rs.50000/- per participants in ICAR institutes = Rs.5.00 lakh (d) Trg. of supervisors for 25nos. for 1yr. @ Rs.18.125 lakh/grp (e) Trg. of Gardener for 50nos. for 6months @ Rs.13.525 lakh for 25 trainees = Rs.27.05 lakh (f) Trg. of entrepreneurs for 25nos. for 3months @ Rs.18.125 lakh/yr = Rs.4.531lakh (g) Specialised Trg. on IPM/INM, Organic Farming, Hightech Hort. for field level functionaries for 2nos. for 7days/grp. to be imparted through SAU @ Rs.1.5 lakh/grp. of 30 = Rs.3.00 lakh (h) Trg. Abroad for 10 Officers @ Rs.3.00 lakh each = Rs.30.00 lakh (i) State Level Shows 1no. @ Rs.3.00 lakh (j) Dist.

100% assistance

157.70

44

Level Shows for 14 districts. @ Rs.0.50 lakh each = Rs.7.00 lakh (k) Preparation of Information, Education & Communication material (Leaflet, Booklet, Video film etc.) Rs.5.00 lakh

(l) Interface workshop of extention staff / Scientists / farmers / entrepreneurs for 1 day prog for 2nos. @ Rs.0.25 lakh each = Rs.0.50 lakh (m)Plantation Trg. to the farmers for 1 day prog. @ Rs.5000/- per 50 persons in each grp for 150 grps = Rs.7.50 lakh (n) PreSeasonal Workshops of extention workers and Scientists for 1no. @ Rs.0.50 lakh (o) IPM/INM Trg. for farmers for 1day @Rs.5000/- for 50 persons in a grp for 30 grps = Rs.1.50 lakh (p) Support to Infrastructure
45

Devt. (Drinking water facilities, I.T devt., Library at School of Hort., Khurda Rs.5.00 lakh

Khadi Board / OUAT

no.

1500

50% of cost subject to a max. of Rs.800 / colony with bee hive Project Based

1.20

10. Technology Dissemination through OUAT / KVK Demon. / Front line demon. Post Harvest Infrastructure and Management

LS

15.00

1. Pack House

APICOL

Nos.

14 (6Gen. + 8Hilly & Tribal) (Capital cost is Rs.2.5 lakh per unit) 2 (2 Hilly & Tribal) (Capital cost is Rs.2.0 crore per unit) 2 (Hilly & Tribal ) (Capital cost is Rs.24.0 lakh per unit) 2 (1 Gen + 1Hilly & Tribal ) (Capital cost is Rs.24.0 lakh per unit) 28 Mkt

Credit linked backended subsidy @ 25% of the capital cost of project in general case and 33.33% in the case of hilly, backward States

15.85

2. Cold Storage Units

APICOL

Nos.

- do -

132.00

3. C.A. Storage 4. Refrigerated Van./Containers

- do -

APICOL

Nos.

- do -

15.84

5. Mobile Pre cooling Unit

APICOL

Nos.

- do -

13.92

7. Market intelligence 8.Estt. of marketing infrastructure for horticultural produce in Govt. / Private / Cooperative sector

OSAM Board

LS

Project based Credit linked backended subsidy @ 25% of the capital cost of project in general case and 33.33% in the case of hilly, backward States 25% of the capital cost of project

56.00

i. Whole sale Market

46

3 Nos.

1500.00

ii. Upgradation of rural market iii. Functional infrastructure for collection, grading etc.

OSAM Board

No.

28 (Capital cost is Rs.15.0 lakh per unit) 28 (Capital cost is Rs.15.0 lakh per unit) Project based in connection with processing of fruits in the existing units / Canning centres

33.33 % Tribal/Hilly

105.00

OSAM Board

No.

25% of the capital cost of project

139.17

iv. Quality awareness, market led extension activities for fresh & processed products

OMFED

LS

100% assistance

10.00

Mission Management 1. State & District Mission Structure including additional manpower & project preparation cost 2. Support to cooperatives for infrastructure requirement Preparation of Action Plan, monitoring report, Additional man power, mobility etc. Vehicle - 28 nos., Hardware / software - 28 nos., Contractual appointment of staff & hiring of Tech. Services at Mission HQ organising visit, meeting and other assigned programmes of TSG -

Dir. Horticulture

LS

5% of total annual expnd. on the basis of appraised needs

70.00

Project based

100.00

3. Institutional strengthening, hire/purchase of vehicles, hardware / software

Dir. Horticulture

LS

Project based

170.00

4. Technical support group (TSG) Institutional Strengthen 5. Collaboration with information agencies like FAO, World Bank etc. Grand Total

Dir. Horticulture

LS

Project based subject to a ceiling of Rs.5 crore per annum

500.00

Project based

7499.40

47