AIR –CONDITIONING Principles and Concepts Air conditioning is the process whereby the condition of Air, as defined by its

temperature and moisture content, is changed. In practice other factors must als o be taken into account especially cleanliness; odor; velocity & distribution pa ttern. Principles of Air- Conditioning: Human comfort Inevitably 'comfort' is a very subjective matter. The Engineer aims to ensure 'comfort' for most people fo und from statistical surveys .Most people (90%) are comfortable when the air tem perature is between 18-22°C and the %sat is between 40-65%. This zone can be shown on the psychometric chart. And is known as the comfort zone.

Outside air is quite likely to be at a different condition from the required com fort zone condition. In order to bring its condition to within the comfort zone we may need to do one or more of the following:-heat it; cool it; dehumidify it; humidify it; or mix it. Dry air mass flow In order to use the psychometric chart for air-conditioning wo rk we need to find & use dry air mass flows. However, in practice air-flows are frequently measured in terms of volume flow. In order to find dry air mass flow we need to use the specific volume of the air. Specific volume = volume/mass The specific volume of the air is given from the Psychometric chart in m³/kg of dry a ir, therefore the Mass flow will be in terms of dry air mass flow. Obviously the condition of the air must be known (Typically d.b. temp. & %sat) in order to fi nd the specific Volume. Air heating The heating process can be illustrated on the psychometric chart thu s:

Cooling/Dehumidification In the case of cooling, the mixture will firstly be sen sibly cooled to the point of saturation (called the dew point) then liquid water will precipitate if we cool further. Because moisture is removed dehumidificati on is achieved. The cooling/dehumidification process can be illustrated on the p sychometric chart thus:

Humidification The process of humidification allows the air to mix with extra water. It therefore follows a line of constant wet bulb Temperature. Mixing Often. This conserves energy and narro ws the operating conditions for the air-conditioning system. deodorized and mixed with fresh incoming air. A sufficie nt contact time between the air and water will normally result in the air reachi ng 100%Saturation. The process is very close to the evaporation from a wet bulb. instead of exhausting 'stale' air completely some of it is filtere d. .

The less heat an object has. the colder we say it is. This process is reversed when latent heat is added. it is actually removing heat and transferring it somewhere else. The ability of air to hold moisture directly relates to its temperature. When an air-conditioning syste m cools. .Heat Transfer Heat is a form of energy. Laten t heat causes an object to change its properties. Latent heat cannot be sensed by touch or measured with a thermometer. Sensible heat is the form of heat energy which is most commonly unde rstood because it is sensed by touch or measured directly with a thermometer. The warmer air is. Relative humidity is the percentage of moisture in the air compared to the amount of moisture it can hold. For example. If enough latent heat is removed from water (liquid). Change of State An object that changes from a solid to a liquid or liquid to vap or is referred to as a change of state. When an object changes state. Sensible and Latent Heat There are two forms of heat energy: sensible heat and l atent heat. Cooling is the process of transferring heat from one object to another. Every object on earth has some heat ener gy. Humidity Moisture in the air is called humidity. when enough laten t heat is removed from water vapor (steam or humidity). Wh en weather reporters say it will be 90 degrees. This c an be demonstrated by turning on a Spot Cooler and placing one hand in front of the cold air nozzle and the other over the warm air exhaust. it will eventual ly freeze. A moisture content of 70°F air with 50% relative humidity is lower than 80°F air with 50% relat ive humidity. it transfe rs heat rapidly. th e more moisture it is capable of holding. they are referring to sensible h eat. it condenses into water (liquid). You will feel the a ction of the transfer of heat.

When air contains more humidity. an ozone-friendly refrigerant that can be easily substituted for R -22 will be readily available. High humidity conditions do not allow sweat to evapo rate as well because the air is at its maximum capacity. Portables use R-22.This is currently the most common refrigerant used by air -conditioning systems. HCFC stands for h ydrochlorofluorocarbon. Portables use a refrigerant called R-22 or HCFC-22. Humidity is also a form of latent heat. This all ows you to cool off faster. which has been deemed acceptable for use by the EPA until the year 2010. it has more latent heat.When the humidity is low. REFRIGERANT PHASE-OUT Many of the current forms of refrigerants used today are b eing phased out based on concern for depletion of the ozone layer. REFRIGERANT Refrigerants are substances used by air conditioners to transfer hea t and create a cooling effect. Air-conditioning systems use specially formulated refrigerants designed to change state at specific temperatures providing optimu m cooling. sweat evaporates from your body more quickly. . By that time.

Mixtures of air and water vapor are the m ost common systems encountered in psychometric. The psychometric ratio of air-wa ter vapor mixtures is approximately unity which implies that the difference betw een the adiabatic . are mixtures of water vapor and air because of its application in heating. The most common system of interest. ventilating.PSYCHOMETRIC CHART Psychometric Chart The principles of psychometric chart apply to any physical system consisting of gas-vapor mixtures. however. and air conditioning and meteorology. Psychometric ratio The psychometric ratio is an im portant property in the area of psychometrics as it relates the absolute humidit y and saturation humidity to the difference between the dry bulb temperature and the adiabatic saturation temperature.

This property of air-water vapor systems simplifies drying and cooling cal culations often performed using psychometric relationships. The dew point temperature is measured easily and provides us eful information. ideal. Dew point tempera ture (DPT) is that temperature at which a moist air sample at the same pressure would reach water vapor saturation.saturation temperature and wet bulb temperature of air-water vapor mixtures is s mall. Lines of constant RH . The WBT is the same as the DBT when the air sample is saturated with water. In practice. and is thus a graphical equation of state. The chart graphically expresse s how various properties relate to each other. the thermometer's bulb being dry. as determined by an ordinar y thermometer. other units are Fahrenheit. It dup licates information available via other humidity properties and the saturation c urve. and is usually expressed as a percentage. water vapor would begin to condense into liquid water fog or (if below freezing) solid hoarfrost. The SI units for temperature are Celsius. this is the reading of a thermometer whose sensing bulb is covered with a wet sock evaporating into a rapid stream of the sample ai r. T he slope of the line of constant WBT reflects the heat of vaporization of the wa ter required to saturate the air of a given relative humidity. The thermo physical properties found on most psychometric charts are: Dry-bulb temperature (DBT) is that of an air sample. that is. o r horizontal axis of the graph. It is typically the abscissa. as heat is removed. adiabatic saturation process. but is normally not considered an independent property. At this saturation point. Relative Humidity (RH) is the ratio of the mole fraction of water vapor to the mole fraction of saturated moist air at the same temperature and pressure. after the air has passed over a large surface of liquid water in an ins ulated channel. A psychometric chart is a graph of the physical properties of moist air at a constant pressure (ofte n equated to an elevation relative to sea level). Wet-bulb temperature (WBT) is that of an air sample after it has passed through a constant-pressure. RH is dimensionless.

For locations at or below 2000 ft (600 m). the other properties can be determined. The versatilit y of the psychometric chart lies in the fact that by knowing three independent p roperties of some moist air (one of which is the pressure). or Specific Humidity) is the proportion of mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air at the given conditions (DBT. The SI units are cubic meters per kilogram of air. but is sometimes expressed as grams of water per kilogr am of dry air or grains of water per pound of air. . Specific Volume. can be m odeled easily and somewhat graphically using the correct psychometric chart for the location's air pressure or elevation relative to sea level. also called Inverse Density. also called heat content per unit mass. It is typically th e ordinate or vertical axis of the graph. a common assumption is to use the sea level psychomet ric chart. other units are cubic feet per pound of dry air. such as when two air streams mix. Mixing Rati o. lines of constant enthalpy are parallel to lines of constant WBT.). is an erroneous (albeit widespread) concept Humidity Ratio (also known as Moisture Content. For a given DBT there will be a partic ular humidity ratio for which the air sample is at 100% relative humidity: the r elationship reflects the physics of water and air and must be measured. Enthalpy is given in (SI) Joules per kilogram of air or BTU per pound of air. Note: the notion that air "holds" moisture. Humidity Ratio is dimensionless. is the sum of the internal (heat) energy of the moist air in question. Specific Enthalpy symbolized by h. RH. In the approximation of ideal gasses. Changes in state. WBT. or that moisture dissolves i n dry air and saturates the solution at some proportion. including the heat of the air and water vap or within. DPT.reflect the physics of air and water: they are determined via experimental measu rement. etc. i s the volume per unit mass of the air sample.

WBT : Line inclined to the horizontal and interse cts saturation curve at DBT point. at le ast two of the six independent properties must be known (DBT. also known as the saturation curve.How to read the chart The most common chart used by practitioners and students a like is the "ω-t" (omega-t) chart in which the Dry Bulb Temperature (DBT) appears horizontally as the abscissa and the humidity ratios (ω) appear as the ordinates. Humidity Ratio : Marked on Ordinate axis. Specific Enthalpy. . slope from the upper left to the lower right. Humidity Ratio. and Specific Volume). RH : Hyperbolic lines drawn asymptotically wi th respect to the saturation curve which corresponds to 100% RH. WBT. RH. Specific Volume : Equally spaced parallel family of lines. for a given air pressure or elevation. DBT : This can be determined from the abscissa DPT : Follow the horizontal line from the point where the line from the horizontal axis arrives at 100% RH. This gives rise to 15 possible c ombinations. In order to use a particular chart. or hash ma rks for. Specific Enthalpy : lines of equal values.

R is the universal gas constant. In the refrigeration cycle. which has been deemed acceptab le for use by the EPA until the year 2010. Thi s is what happens to keep the refrigerator cool: • The compressor compresses the a mmonia gas. where P is pressure. Refrigerant Phase-Out Many of the cur rent forms of refrigerants used today are being phased out based on concern for depletion of the ozone layer. • The coils on the back of the refrigerator let the hot ammonia gas dissipate its heat. HCFC stands for hydrochlorofluorocarbon.This is currently the most common ref rigerant used by air-conditioning systems. V is volume. A refrigerator works in much the same way. a heat pump transfers heat from a lower temperature heat s ource into a higher temperature heat sink. Portables use a refrigerant called R-22 or HCFC-2 2. In the following example.022×1023 molecules). The ammonia gas condenses into ammonia liquid (dark blue) at high pressure. Air-conditioning systems use specially formulated refrigerants designed to change state at specific temperatu res providing optimum cooling. and n is the number of moles of gas (1 mole = 6. • The hig h-pressure ammonia liquid flows through the expansion valve. Expansion valve can be considered as a small hole. The compressed gas heats up as it is pressurized (orange). On one side of the hole .REFRIGERATION CYCLE Refrigerant Refrigerants are substances used by air conditio ners to transfer heat and create a cooling effect. the cycle is continuous. which boils at -27 degrees F. In the refrigerator. as it pumps the heat out of the interior into the r oom in which it stands. provided th at the refrigerant being used is pure ammonia. T is tem perature. This is the most common type of air conditioning. Portables use R-22. Heat would naturally flow in the oppo site direction. By that time. an ozone-friendly refri gerant that can be easily substituted for R-22 will be readily available.This cycle takes advantage of the universal gas law PV = nRT.

On the other side of the hole is a lowpressure area (because the compressor is sucking gas out of that side). The Refrigeration Cycle A=Inside the refrigerator B=Compressor C=Expansion Valve . • The cold ammonia gas is sucke d up by the compressor. and the cycle repeats. its temperature dropping to -27 F. This makes the inside of the refrigerator cold.is high-pressure ammonia liquid. • The liquid ammoni a immediately boils and vaporizes (light blue).

and • Stir ling cycle . A hea t pump is when heat is removed from a low-temperature space or source and reject ed to a high-temperature sink with the help of external mechanical work. It is also applied to HVACR work. • Gas cycle. heat is supplied from a high-temperature source to the heat engine. In the power cycle . The inv erse of the heat pump cycle is the thermodynamic power cycle. The most common types of heat pump systems use the reverse-Rankine vaporcompres sion refrigeration cycle although absorption heat pumps are used in a minority o f applications. when describing the "process" of refrigerant flow through an HVA CR unit. Technically a refrigerator cycle is also a heat pump cycle. The operating principle of the refrigera tion cycle was described mathematically by Sadi Carnot in 1824 as a heat engine.Heat pump and refrigeration cycle Thermodynamic heat pump and refrigeration cycl es are the models for heat pumps and refrigerators. A heat pump describes the changes that take place in the refrigerant as it alternately abso rbs and rejects heat as it circulates through a refrigerator. The difference between the t wo is that heat pumps are intended to keep a place warm and refrigerators design ed to cool it. Heat pump can be classified as: • Vapor cycle. This satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. whether it is a packaged or split system. part of th e heat being used to produce mechanical work and the rest being rejected to a lo w-temperature sink. Heat naturally flows from hot to cold. Work is applied to cool a living space or storage volume by pumping he at from a lower temperature heat source into a higher temperature heat sink. Ins ulation is used to reduce the work and energy required to achieve and maintain a lower temperature in the cooled space.

a circulati ng refrigerant such as Freon enters the compressor as a vapor. . The following Figure provides a schematic dia gram of the components of a typical vapor-compression refrigeration system. From point 2 to point 3 and on to point 4. Between points 4 and 5.In this cycle. typically. From point 1 to p oint 2. the liquid refrigerant goes through th e expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly dec reases. causing flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of. the vapor is compressed at constant entropy and exits the compressor sup erheated.Vapor cycle refrigeration can be classified as: • Vapor compression refrigeration • Gas absorption refrigeration Vapor-compression cycle The vapor-compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators as well as in many large commercial and industrial refrigeration systems. Ther modynamics of the cycle can be analyzed on a diagram . the superheated vapor trave ls through the condenser which first cools and removes the superheat and then co ndenses the vapor into a liquid by removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature. less tha n half of the liquid.

. The resulting refrigerant vapor returns to the compressor inlet at poin t 1 to complete the thermodynamic cycle.That results in a mixture of liquid and vapor at a lower temperature and pressur e as shown at point 5. The cold liquid-vapor mixture then travels through the ev aporator coil or tubes and is completely vaporized by cooling the warm air (from the space being refrigerated) being blown by a fan across the evaporator coil o r tubes. or non-ideal gas behavior (if any). The above discussion is based on the id eal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. slight thermodynamic i rreversibility during the compression of the refrigerant vapor. and does not take into account real-w orld effects like frictional pressure drop in the system.

the refrigeration cycle is called a gas cycle. As such the working fluid does not receive and reject heat at constant temper ature. . Nowadays. afte r the development of the vapor compression cycle. components corresponding to the condenser and evaporator in a vapo r compression cycle are the hot and cold gas-to-gas heat exchangers in gas cycle s. on heat addi tion. a liquid pump which raises the pressure and a generator which. As there is no condensation and evaporation intended in a gas cycle. Air is most o ften this working fluid. except for the method of rais ing the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. a suitable combination of refrigerant and absorbent is used. In an absorption refrigerator. it lost much of its importance because of its low coefficient of performance (about one fifth of that of the v apor compression cycle). the refrigeration effect is equal to the product of the specific heat of the gas and the rise in temperature of the gas in the low temp erature side. it is m uch smaller than needed by the compressor in the vapor compression cycle. The most common combinations are ammonia (refrigerant) and water (absorben t). the compres sor is replaced by an absorber which dissolves the refrigerant in a suitable liq uid. for a given quantity of refrigerant. Some work is required by the liquid pump but. The gas cycle is less efficient than the vapor compression cycle because the gas cycle works on the reverse Brayton cycle instead of the reverse Rankine cycl e.Vapor absorption cycle In the early years of the twentieth century. the vapor ab sorption cycle using water-ammonia systems was popular and widely used but. and water (refrigerant) and lithium bromide (absorbent). drives off the refrigerant vapor from the high-pressure liquid. The abs orption cycle is similar to the compression cycle. In the gas cycle. In the absorption system. the vapor absorption cycle is used only where waste heat is available or where heat is derived from solar collectors. Gas cycle When the working fluid is a gas that is compressed and expanded but do esn't change phase.

its fina l temperature at the new pressure is much lower. in this case air. Combining this w ith newly available compact heat exchangers with greatly improved heat transfer characteristics makes competition with many existing vapor compression. • The performance of an air cycle unit does not deteriorate as m uch as that of a vapor-compression unit when operating away from its design poin t. either directly in an open system. as well as those of the heat exchangers employed. an air cycle unit can also produce h eat at a useful temperature. The efficiency o f such systems is limited to a great extent by the efficiencies of compression a nd expansion. However. environmentally benign. and cert ainly liquid nitrogen systems. can then be used as a refrigerant. or indirectly by means of a heat exchanger in a closed system. Originally. totally safe and nontoxic. The resulting cold gas. quite feasible. thereby reducing maintenance costs and system down-time. The use of air as a refrigerant is based on the pri nciple that when a gas expands isentropically from a given temperature. Environmental co ncerns about ozone depletion. Air cycle s ystems have specific advantages that apply to all potential applications: • The wo rking fluid (air) is free. the development of rotary compr essors and expanders greatly improved the isentropic efficiency and reliability of the air cycle. The poor efficiency an d reliability of such machinery were major factors in the replacement of such sy stems with vapor compression equipment. slow speed reciprocating compressors and expanders were used. global warming and increasingly stringent legislat ion have renewed interest in alternative refrigeration technologies.AIR CYCLE Air is by nature the safest and cheapest refrigerant. Advances in turbine technology. together with the development of air bearings and ceramic component offer further efficiency. • When operating in a refrigeration cycle. . • Ai r cycle equipment is extremely reliable.

2 high speed trains by Normalair-Garrett Ltd . HCFC or other altern ative refrigerants in building air conditioning systems Use of high grade heat r ecovery from air cycle cooling systems resulting in lower energy consumption Imp roved reliability and reduced maintenance compared with conventional systems Mai ntenance of near full load efficiency at part load conditions No susceptibility to refrigerant leakage .Environmental control in buildings Until recently the use of air cycle has been largely restricted to aircraft cabin air conditioning systems. Studies carried out by the Buildings Research Establishment (B RE) and frperc have demonstrated that air cycle systems in buildings would have a number of advantages. The successful demonstra tion of these units in Germany’s ICE2. These include • • • • • Lamination of the need to use environmentally damaging CFC. An important conclusion of this trial was that air cycle train air conditioning systems will have lower overall life cycle owne rship costs than comparable vapour compression systems. A recent trial ha s demonstrated the advantages that air cycle technologies can offer to passenger train air conditioning systems. led to the company receiving the Engineering Council’s Environmental Award for E ngineers in 1996.

Freezing foo d with an air cycle refrigeration plant has two advantages.Food freezing system Currently frperc are working on the design. . inflammable or environmentally unfriendly refrigerants and replace it wit h a safe and replaceable refrigerant • It is capable of producing freezing tempera tures far colder than vapor compression plant for less energy consumption. Heat and m ass transfer rates to and within the bed are high and there is a good uniformity of treatment of the particles to yield high quality individually quick frozen p roducts. • The air can replace toxic. re duce the freezing cost and produce a higher quality of frozen food. Freezing temperatures as low as those produced by cryogenic refrigerat ion are possible but without the high running costs and energy consumption inher ent in such systems. Fluidized beds have a number of useful characteristics. The air cycle plant will operate with air as the refrigerant delivering it to the freeze r bed at -75°C. size and cost. construction an d installation of an air cycle fluidized bed freezer for food freezing. Freezing food faster can increase turnover on an existing footprint.

To impr ove the efficiency of air cycle systems the (isentropic) efficiency of the rotat ing equipment (expanders and compressors) is crucial. using air as the environmentally benign working f luid to improve the primary energy ratio of heating and cooling systems. . to be used in exis ting as well as new buildings. High efficiency equipment is available in other application fields such as pressurized air systems and ene rgy recovery systems .CFC free heat pumps The objective of the project is to develop heat pump systems.

roofs. heat flows out from the building th rough its boundary surfaces (the building envelope). this means. doors and wind ows. the buil ding is losing heat to its surroundings. the in door air must be acceptably clean. Bearing in mind the fact that the indoor temperature in most buildings is m aintained at a little over20 °C. i. the inward leakage of outdoor air into the building through gaps and cavities in walls. At the same time. the first and foremost condition for a building to be usable at allies that the indoor temperature inacceptable. regardless of the weather conditions outside. . lighting and acoustic conditions must be good etc. throughout most of the year. As soon as the ambient tempe rature is lower than the Indoor temperature.e. the build ing also loses heat through air infiltration.COMFORT COOLING SYSTEMS The need for heating and cooling in buildings: The prime requirement in respect of the indoor climate in a building is that room temperature should be at a comf ortable level.Nevertheless. In addition.

hospitals and similar buildings within the commercial premises and indu strial sector. t he cooling requirement of the building is exactly the same as its heat. as opposed to the considerably more extensive systems needed in order to de al with the substantial heat surpluses.The internal heat generation in commercial premises and some industrial building s. . so that buildings ar e nowadays well insulated and airtight. while there is nearly always ahead surplus during working hours. is often relatively great. we find that heat deficits usually occur only during the night an d at weekends. this means that the heat losses through the building envelope are small. Such buildings require only simple heating systems to meet the modest heat defic its. In other words. Comfort cooling The surplus heat that has to be removed from buildings in order to maintain the indoor temperature below some previously determined maximum perm issible temperature is referred to as the cooling requirement. department stores. In general terms. If we consider new office buildings. the greater the heat surplus. It is therefore always important to attempt to design the building in general s o that there will be only a low heat surplus. on the other hand. the more difficult it is to produce an indoor climate that is good in all respects. and to prevent the indoor temperature be coming unacceptably high during working hours. and therefore the greater the capacity of the cooling system. In combination with the fact th at construction standards have been developed and improved.

The two basic types of all-air cooling systems are the constant air flow system and the variable air flow system. The cooling system must be able to deal with variations in the cooling requirement. Ventilation a nd Air-Conditioning) systems used in order actively to cool buildings can be div ided up into three main types: _ all-air cooling systems _ all-water cooling sys tems _ combined systems (With cooling supplied both by air and by water) . therefore. Maintaining the air qu ality consists of controlling the ‘cleanliness’ of the indoor air by supplying a suf ficient quantity of outdoor air to ventilate the interior of the building. Although there are also combinations o f the two methods.The climate control system in building has to maintain both the thermal climate and the air quality. HVAC (Heating. Maint enance of air quality sometimes also includes ensuring that given Concentrations of particles and/or gases are not exceeded. Maintaining the thermal climate consists primarily of keepi ng the temperature of the indoor air within given limits. The need for comfort cooling arises. whether over the day or over th e year. In general. when requirem ents in respect of the thermal climate also include requirements in respect of m aximum permissible indoor temperatures.

It is the ro oms having the greatest cooling requirement that normally determine the supply a ir temperature delivered by the central air conditioning unit: the air may. The air flow rate is then reduced in proportion to the fan speed. and thus the necessary sizes of ventilation ducts. If the existing ducts cannot transport sufficiently large air quantities to meet the cooling requirements. but the air flow rate is kept constant. that determine the necessary air flow rate. be heated before supplied to other rooms. all-water-cooling systems will usually be install ed in connection with Conversion or modernization. running at the lower speed when the building cooling requirement falls. In other words. . Such systems are referred to as Constant Air Volume (CAV) systems. is determined by the design cooling requir ement. the fans are sometimes powered by two-speed moto rs. In existing buildings. Constant air volume systems (CAV systems) In such systems. the temperature of th e air supplied to the building can vary. and not the air quality r equirements. if n ecessary. Although a CAV system suppli es air at a constant flow rate.All-air cooling systems The design air flow rate in these systems. it is normally both difficult and expensive to replace the ventilation duct syst em. it is the thermal requirements.

while the central supply and exhaust air fans are controlled by variable inlet vanes or by adjustable speed drive controlled motors. . The control system normally maintains a constant s tatic pressure in the supply air duct.Variable air volume systems (VAV systems) The air flow rate to each room is vari ed as necessary. usually of the frequency-inverter type. when the purpose of the air is only to maintain the air qual ity. the supply temperature does not change even if the load changes.e. i. duri ng the hottest days. Systems of this type are referred to as Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems. the suppl y air temperature is normally changed in step with the time of year. but with maintenance of a constant supply temperature. down to perhaps 20 % of maximum flow rate during the coldes t days of the year. The flow rate varies from a maximum. as a functi on of the ambient temperature. The air flow to each individual room is controlled by dampers in some form of box (VAV-box) in the immediate vicinity of the supply po int to the room. However.

All-water cooling systems Systems of this type supply all-water cooling to the i ndividual rooms. but the cooling requirement is so great that an all-air cooling system alone is not capa ble of dealing with it satisfactorily. There is usually space above the false ceilings to install the water pipes needed for distribution of cold water throughout the building. . Combined systems All-air and all-water cooling systems can be combined in many w ays. It is also possible to combine all-air cooling systems so that certain parts of the building. are coo led by a VAV system. with the ventilation system designed purely to maintain the air quality. as such high air flow rates would be requ ired that draughts would be unavoidable. Systems of this type are often chosen in connection with conversion or renovation projects. or certain rooms. while other parts of the building are cooled by a CAV syste m. One such need for a combined system is if all-air cooling is used.

but it also has the highest noise level. fan coil units and induction units operate. cool the air in the room. . by natural convection from a finned heat exchanger. This type of room cooler unit can meet t he highest cooling requirements. for mou nting flat against the ceiling. or for integration in a false ceiling. These panels are produced in a number of versions. The two heat exchangers (heating and cooling) are supplied with hot or cold wat er from a central unit in the building. cooling panel s. The following are brief descriptions of how chilled beams. A fan coil unit incorporates a fan which circulates the roo m air through the unit. hanging. They may also be combined with the supply air terminal device i n order to provide both functions and. which transfers heat from the air to the cold water. Induct ion units These are units by which both heating and cooling can be supplied to a room . Cold water flows t hrough an aluminium plate. to increase the cooling ca pacity of the baffle. the ventilation air for the room is supplied through the ind uction unit. Some chilled beams can also incorporate a heating function . Fan coil units These ar e units by which both heating and cooling can be supplied to a room (although no t at the same time). Most of their cooling capacity is provided by radiation.When in use.Cooling supply devices Cooling can be supplied to a room in a number of differen t ways. Cooling panels Cooling panels can be hung from the ceiling. Chilled beams Thes e are units which. Fan coil units and induction unit s are normally positioned below windows in the outside walls. in many cases. in which the air is either heated or cooled as required. It flows through a nozzle with high velocity. which therefore has t he effect of inducing air from the room through the heating or cooling heat exch angers.g. The panel cools the warm room air and also cools the room surfaces by low-temper ature radiation. e.

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[6] The highest performance for tas ks performed while standing is expected to occur at slightly lower temperatures. and the first large-scale electrical air conditi oning was invented and used in 1902 by Willis Haviland Carrier. The highest performance for tasks performed b y smaller people is expected to occur at slightly higher temperatures. Modern air conditioning emerged from advances in che mistry during the 19th century. or mechanism design ed to stabilize the air temperature and humidity within an area (used for coolin g as well as heating depending on the air properties at a given time) . aircon in British and Australian English) is an appliance. ventilation or disinfection that modifies the cond ition of air. where aqueduct water w as circulated through the walls of certain houses to cool them. system. Although . Comfort applications aim to pro vide a building indoor environment that remains relatively constant in a range p referred by humans despite changes in external weather conditions or in internal heat loads. The concept of air co nditioning is known to have been applied in Ancient Rome. The highest performance for tasks performed by larger people is expected to occ ur at slightly lower temperatures. typicall y using a refrigeration cycle but sometimes using evaporation. Similar techniqu es in medieval Persia involved the use of cisterns and wind towers to cool build ings during the hot season. Air conditioning applications: Air conditioning engineers broadly divide air con ditioning applications into comfort and process.[1] An air conditioner (AC or A/C in North American English. the term can refer to any form of cooling.AIR CONDITIONING The term air conditioning most commonly refers to the cooling and dehumidificati on of indoor air for thermal comfort. most commonly for comfort cooling in buildings and transportation vehicles. heating. In a broader sense. The highest performance for tasks performed by people seated in an office is expected to occur at 72 °F (22 °C) Performance is expected to degrade abou t 1% for every 2 °F change in room temperature.

duplexes. malls. gove rnmental. Although often in the comfort range. Air conditioning also allows buildings to be taller since wind speed increases significantly with altitude making natural ventilation impr actical for very tall buildings. Without air conditioning. some dispute that thermal comfort enhances worker productivi ty. Comfort applications for various building types are quite different and may be categorized as: • Low-Rise Residential buildings. including single family houses. etc. Process applications aim to provide a suitable environment for a process being c arried out. Process applications include th ese: • Hospital operating theatres. academic. such as tall dormitories and apartment blocks • Commercia l buildings. air conditioning can be used for comfort in a wide variety of transportation including land vehicles. regardless of internal heat and humidity loads and external weather conditions. trains. 82 °F). shopping ce nters. some specialist procedures su ch as open heart surgery require low temperatures (about 18 °C.generally accepted. air craft. 64 °F) and others su ch as neonatal relatively high temperatures (about 28 °C. • Institutional buildings. in which air is filtered to high levels to red uce infection risk and the humidity controlled to limit patient dehydration. and so on. which includes hospitals. In addition to buildings. including offices. it is the needs of the process that determine conditions. • Industrial spaces where thermal comfort of worker s is desired. and spacecraft. . not human preference. which are built for commerce. Comfort air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible. ships. as is described in the Hawthorne effect. buildings must be built narr ower or with light wells so that inner spaces receive sufficient outdoor air via natural ventilation. restaurants. and small apartment buildings • High-Ris e Residential buildings. Alt hough temperatures are often in the comfort range.

in which very high levels of air cleanliness and control of temperature an d humidity are required for the success of the process. air quality. Since humans perspire to provide natural cooling by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin. Hum idity control Refrigeration air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humid ity of the air processed by the system. The comfort air conditioner is designed to create a 40% to 60% relative humidity in the occupied space. and air movement from space to space. • Data processing centers • Textile factories • Physical testing facilities • Plants and farm growing areas • Nuclear facilities • Chemical and biological laboratories • Mine s • Industrial environments • Food cooking and processing areas In both comfort and process applications the objective may be to not only control temperature. aircraft air conditioning p resents a special process because of the low air pressure outside the aircraft. drier air (up to a point) improves the comfort p rovided. pharmaceuticals. (much like an ic e cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass). • Aircraft air conditioning. . but a lso humidity. In food retailing establishment’s large open chil ler cabinets act as highly effective air dehumidifying units. The relatively cold (below the dew point ) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air. holdin g them in rooms at which conditions mirror spring all year can cause them to rep roduce year round. and the like. sending the water t o a drain and removing water vapor from the cooled space and lowering the relati ve humidity.• Clean rooms for the production of integrated circuits. • Facilities for breeding laboratory animals. Although nominally aimed at provid ing comfort for passengers and cooling of equipment. Since many animals normally only reproduce in spring. air motion.

Hose systems Air-to-Air and Monoblock are vented to the outside via air ducts. They are als o preferred by those who find the draft created by air coolers discomforting. . The y are currently available with capacities of about 6. and are better class ified as dehumidifiers. Portable air conditioners A portable air conditioner or portable A/C is an air c onditioner on wheels that can be easily transported inside a home or office. In combination with conv ection fans they achieve a similar level of comfort as an air cooler in humid tr opical climates. except that a h eat exchanger is placed between the intake and exhaust. This increase has the effec t that for each unit of energy input into the system (say to power a light bulb in the closed system) requires the air conditioner to remove that energy. A function of all cooling th at use a compressor. split. Energy use It should be noted that in a thermodynamically closed system.000 BTU/h (1800 t o 18 000 watts output) and with and without electric resistance heaters.000 to 60. any ene rgy input into the system that is being maintained at a set temperature (which i s a standard mode of operation for modern air conditioners) requires that the en ergy removal rate from the air conditioner increase. and the air conditioner has an efficiency of 200%. Portabl e air conditioners come in three forms. is to create water as it cools the air. and hose and evaporative: A split system has an indoor unit on wheels connected to an outdoor unit via flexible p ipes.Some air conditioning units dry the air without cooling it. thus making the 100 W light bulbs utilize a total of 150 W of energy. The air conditioners energy consumption will increas e by 50 watts to compensate for this. similar to a permanently fixed installed unit. They work like a normal air conditioner. As an example presume that insi de the closed system a 100 watt light bulb is activated. In ord er to do that the air conditioner must increase its consumption by the inverse o f its efficiency times the input unit of energy. but only consume about a third of the electricity.

thus reducing efficiency.000 B TU/h (3. Air cooled portable air conditioners are compressor-based refrigerant s ystem that uses air to exchange heat. A single duct unit draws air out of the room to cool its condenser. modern units run on approx imately 1 to 3 ratio i. For this reason.. .e. or part of a building. normally outside air is us ed to cool the condenser section. to produce 3 kW of cooling this will use 1 kW of elec tricity. As a rule of thumb. liqu id water is poured in and released as vapor. so inside air to be cooled can be blown in and out by a fan in the unit. Instead. the latter type includes portable air conditioners. The Air-to-Air version re-evaporates the water and discharges it through the ducted hose and can hence run continuously. Hotels frequently use PTAC systems. E vaporative air conditioners do not have a compressor or condenser. other factors will affect the total heat load. Types of air conditioner equipment • Window and through-wall units Many traditiona l air conditioners in homes or other buildings are single rectangular units used to cool an apartment. single unit air conditioners are placed in windows or through openings in a wall made for the air conditioner . which comb ine heating into the same unit. Air conditioner units need to have access to the space they are cooling (the inside) and a heat sink. This air is then replaced by hot air from outsi de or other rooms. see the photos to the right. The controls are on the inside.5 kW or one ton of air conditioning) by a refrigerative air conditioner. similar to a car or typical household air conditioner. Window and through-wall un its have vents on both the inside and outside. For an exam ple. Evaporative air conditi oners use much less energy. With this type of system the air is dehumidified as it is cooled. Because they do not have a condense r which needs cooling. they do not need hoses or pipes. a house or part of it. However. 400 square feet (37 m²) can be cooled per 12. allowing them to be trul y portable. and outside air can also be blown in and out by another fan to act as the heat sink. However.The "monoblock" version collects the water in a bucket or tray and stops when fu ll.

Producing heat. Some of the sensible heat of the entering air is converted to latent heat by the evaporation of water in the wet cooler p ads. and cooling in one system is known as trigeneration. The sys tem is used in some hospitals because. power. such as a large sponge soaked with water. Th ese coolers cost less and are mechanically simple to understand and maintain. If the entering air is dry enough. Th ere is a related. This type of cooler is the dominant co oler used in Iran which has the largest number of units than anywhere else in th e world. The brine osmoticall y absorbs water vapor from the air. the air passes t hrough another brine spray. The second stage sprays water in the air. The dual use of the energy. co oling the air by evaporation. The brine is reconcentrated by distillation. Finally.Evaporation coolers In very dry climates. with filtering. the results can be quite comfortable. a sufficiently hot regene rative distillation removes airborne organisms. Absorptive chillers Some buildings use gas turbines to generate electricity. . both to generate electricity and cooling. so-called "swamp coolers" are popular for improving comfort during hot weather. as measured by a dry bulb thermometer. to control the humidity. hence some referring to "swamp coolers" as Persian coolers. In one instance. is reduced. The exhausts of these are hot enough to drive an absorptive chiller that produces c old water. The cold water is then run through radiators in air ducts for hydroni c cooling. An evaporat ive cooler is a device that draws outside air through a wet pad. makes this technology attractive when regional utility and fuel prices are righ t. more complex process called absorptive refrigeration which use s heat to produce cooling. The total heat (sensible heat plus latent h eat) of the entering air is unchanged. a three-stage absorptive cooler firs t dehumidifies the air with a spray of salt-water or brine. The sensible heat of the incoming air.

Central air conditioning Central air conditioning. commonly referred to as centr al air (US) or air-con (UK). all components are located in a single outdoor unit that may be locat ed on the ground or roof. Central air conditioning performs like a regular air c onditioner but has several added benefits: • When the air handling unit turns on. is an air conditioning system which uses ducts to d istribute cooled and/or dehumidified air to more than one room. With a packa ge system. it offers a low er level of noise indoors than a free-standing air conditioning unit. With a typical split system. Whenever the air conditioner is running. The filtered air is routed to air supply ductwork that carries it back to rooms. and which is not plugged into a standard electrical outlet. • Becaus e the central air conditioning unit is located outside the home. Sophisticated filters may remove microscopic pollutants as well. or uses pipes to distribute chilled water to heat exchangers in more than one room. this cycle repeats continually. room air is drawn in from various parts of the house through return-air ducts. the condenser and compressor are located in an outdoor unit. . the evaporator is moun ted in the air handling unit (which is often a forced air furnace). T his air is pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as dust and lin t are removed.

centralized systems) can occasionally promote the growth and spre ad of microorganisms. humidification. The use of electr ic/compressive air conditioning puts a major demand on the nation's electrical p ower grid in warm weather. will control or limit the power to an HVAC system during peak use times in order to avoid necessitating the use of rolling blackouts.Conversely.nist. Typically the heating and cooling systems have separate control systems (even though they may share a thermostat) so that the temperature is only controlled "one-way". disinfection.000 BTU per hour. Air conditioning can have a positive effect on sufferers of allergies and asthma.) can be used to provide a clean. air conditioning (including filtration. the infectious agent respo nsible for Legionnaire's disease. or thermophilic actinomycetes. such as Legionella pneumophila. This is equal to 12. or 3517 wat ts (http://physics. in winter. cooling. Thermostats may also be incorporated into facility energy management systems in which the power utility customer may control the overall energy expenditure. a building that is too hot will not be cooled by the thermost at. T hat is. hypoallergenic atmosphere in hospital ope rating rooms and other environments where an appropriate atmosphere is critical to patient safety and well-being. In addition.gov/Pubs/SP811/appenB9. Healt h implications Air conditioning has no greater influence on health than heating—th at is to say. very little—although poorly maintained air-conditioning systems (esp ecially large. etc. Equipment capacity Air conditioner equipment power in the U. . safe. is oft en described in terms of "tons of refrigeration".html). when professionally installed. when most units are operating under heavy load. A "ton of refrigeration" is de fined as the cooling power of one short ton (2000 pounds or 907 kilograms) of ic e melting in a 24-hour period. Residential "central air" systems are usually from 1 to 5 tons (3 to 20 kW) in capacity. turning on the he ating or cooling systems to bring the building to the set temperature.S.Thermostats Thermostats control the operation of HVAC systems. a growing number of power utilities have made available a device w hich.

A modern Americool window airconditioner internal section External section of a typical AC Air Conditioning Units . air conditioning can save the lives of the elderly. despite superstitions that air-conditioning is unc onditionally dangerous to one's health.In serious heat waves. the advantages of air conditioning generally far outweigh the disadvantages. Properly maintained air-conditioning systems do not cause or promote illness. As with heating systems. Some local authorities even set up public cooling centers for the benefit of those wi thout air conditioning at home. The internal section of the same unit.

• As the liquid changes to gas and evaporates. The evaporator is located on the inside the ho use. sometimes as part of a furnace. look for the part that has me tal fins all around.How Air –Conditioners work Air conditioners and refrigerators work the same way. more quickly. low-pressure gas called Freon. a condenser and a n evaporator. The machine has three main parts. On the other side. • The evaporator also has metal fins to help in exchange the thermal energy with the surrounding air. Th is packs the molecule of the fluid closer together. • The working fluid leaves t he compressor as a hot. the liquid's pressure drops. a whole house. The compressor and condenser are usually located on the outside ai r portion of the air conditioner. Thi s chemical is used to transfer heat from the air inside of a home to the outside air. Air condition ers use chemicals that easily convert from a gas to a liquid and back again. high pressure gas and flows into the condenser. When it does it begins t o evaporate into a gas. The heat in the air is needed to separate the mole cules of the fluid from a liquid to a gas. The closer the molecules are together. the higher its energy and its temperature. an a ir conditioner cools a room. The fins act just like a radiator in a car and help the hea t go away. narro w hole. The liquid goes into the evaporator through a very tiny. or an entire business. I nstead of cooling just the small. They are a compressor. • When the working fluid leaves the condens er. • The working fluid arrives at the compressor as a cool. insulated space inside of a refrigerator. If you l ooked at the air conditioner part outside a house. . its temperature is much cooler and it has changed from a gas to a liquid und er high pressure. it extracts heat from the air around it. The compressor squeezes the fluid. or dissipate.

. The thermostat senses that the temperature has reached the right setting and turns off the air conditioner. • There is a vent there where air is sucked in to the air conditioner and goes down ducts. • Connect ed to the evaporator is a fan that circulates the air inside the house to blow a cross the evaporator fins. Hot air is lighter than cold air. low pressure gas. so the hot air in t he room rises to the top of a room. it is a cool. The hot air is used to cool the gas in the evaporator. As the heat is removed from the air. the therm ostat turns the air conditioner back on until the room reaches the temperature. the air is cooled. It then returns to the compressor to begin its trip all over again. It is then blown into the house through other ducts usually at the floor level.• By the time the working fluid leaves the evaporator. As the room warms up. • This continues over and over and over until the room reaches the temperature you want the room cooled to.

A-Expansion Valve B-Compressor Schematic diagram of an air-conditioner Window AC Units A window air conditioner unit implements a complete air conditio ner in a small space. . The units are made small enough to fit into a standard win dow frame. It contains: • A compressor • An expansion valve • A hot coil (on the outsi de) • A chilled coil (on the inside) • Two fans • A control unit.

In heating and cooling terms.000 watts. if a 10. L et's say that you have a choice between two 10. For comparison.The fans blow air over the coils to improve their ability to dissipate heat (to the outside air) and cold (to the room being cooled). 10/kWh = $14.200 watts.000-BTU units. BTU and EER Most air conditioners have their capacity rated in British thermal u nits (BTU). A typical window air conditioner might be rated at 1 0.000-BTU air conditioner consumes 1. To understand what the payback period is on the more expensive unit.56 degrees Celsius). Generally speaking. The difference in energ y consumption between the two units is 200 watts. you would like the EER to be as high as possible. y ou find that during the summer you are operating the air conditioner: 4 mo.000-square-foot (185. x 30 days/mo.) The energy efficiency rating (EER) of an air conditioner is its BTU rating over its wattage.3 and consumes 1. One has an EER of 8.10 m ore) than the more expensive unit.45 kg) of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (0. To s ize an air conditioner for your specific needs. Obviously.200 watts). 1 "ton" equals 12. contact an HVAC contractor. 1 BTU equals 1. implying that you might need pe rhaps 30 BTU per square foot.000-BTU) air conditioning system. a BTU is the amount of heat required to raise th e temperature of one pound (0. (Keep in mind that these are rough estimates. Assuming that there are 30 days in a month. and the other has an EER of 10 and consumes 1. Specifically.3 (10.200 watts.40 . Let's also say that the price difference is $100.000 BTU. its EER is 8.8 m2) house might ha ve a 5-ton (60. you need to know: • Approximately ho w many hours per year you will be operating the unit • How much a kilowatt-hour (k Wh) costs in your area Let's say that you plan to use the air conditioner in the summer (four months a year) and it will be operating about six hours a day.000 BTU. but normally a higher EER is accompanied by a higher price.000 BTU/1. For example. Let 's also imagine that the cost in your area is $0. a typical 2. x 6 hr/day = 720 hours [(720 hrs x 200 watts) / (1000 watts/kW)] x $0.055 joules. which means that every five ho urs the less expensive unit will consume 1 additional kWh (and therefore $0.10/kWh.

The uni t consists of a long. is generally placed into a furnace or some other air handler. to blow air through the coil. malls.Split-system AC Units A split-system air conditioner splits the hot side from th e cold side of the system. like this: The cold side. businesses. • In larger buildings and particularly in multi-story buildings. there is no difference between a split-system and a window air conditioner. consisting of the expansion valve and the cold coil. Inside the coil is a f an. . The hot side. large department stores and t he like. spiral coil shaped like a cylinder. Besides the fact that the hot and cold sides are split apart and the capacity is higher (making the coils and compressor larger). • In warehouses. Alternatively. known as the condensing unit. the condensing unit normally lives on the roof and can be quite massive . the split-system approach b egins to run into problems. This approach has evolved over the years because it is low-c ost. Either running the pipe between the condenser and th e air handler exceeds distance limitations (runs that are too long start to caus e lubrication difficulties in the compressor). lives outside the building. each attached insi de to a small air handler that cools a specific zone in the building. and also because it normally results in reduced noise inside the house (at the expense of increased noise outside the house). there may be many smaller units on the roof. or the amount of duct work and th e length of ducts becomes unmanageable. The air handler blows air thro ugh the coil and routes the air throughout the building using a series of ducts. along with a weather-resistant compressor and some control logic.

• The evaporation cools the stream of water. This water runs through a heat exchanger and cools the h ot coils of the air conditioner unit. There is no practical limit to the length of a chilled-water pipe if it is well-insulated.Chilled-water and Cooling-tower AC Units In a chilled-water system. so the system pays for itself fairly quickly. It costs more to buy the system initially.2 C).4 and 7. the efficiency can be improve d significantly by using a cooling tower. The cooling tower creates a stream of lowertemperature water. • Air blows through the me sh at right angles to the water flow. Cooling towers come in all shapes and sizes. air is used to dissipate the heat from the outside coil. In large systems. but the energy savings can be significant over time (especially in areas with l ow humidity). the wat er trickles through a thick sheet of open plastic mesh. . It cools water to between 40 and 45 F (4. They all work on the same principle: • Generally. • Because some of the water is lost to evaporation. the entire air conditioner lives on the roof or behin d the building. the cooling tower constantly adds water to the system to make up the difference. This chil led water is then piped throughout the building and connected to air handlers as needed. A-Expansion valve B-Compressor C-Heat Exchanger D-Chilled water to the building Cooling Towers In all of the systems described earlier.

installation. How air is delivered to. and air-conditioning are closely interrel ated. architectural. higher efficiency. operation. For very smal l buildings. and maintenance costs. HVAC HVAC is an initialism/acronym that stands for "heating. such as mechanical. ventilating. and system control are constantly introduced by companies and inventors all over the world. HVAC is sometimes referred to as "climate control" and is particular ly important in the design of medium to large industrial and office buildings su ch as sky scrapers and in marine environments such as aquariums. For larger buildings where required by law. "building services" designers and en gineers. and air conditioning is based on the basic principles of thermodynamics. Heating. and specify the HVAC systems. or building services engineers analy ze. The th ree functions of heating. reduce air infiltration. ventilating. acceptable indoor air quality. and code-compl iance inspections of the installations are the norm. All seek to provide thermal comfort. fluid mechanics. contractors normally "size" and select HVAC systems and equipment. where humidity and temperature must all be closely regulated whilst maintaining safe and health y conditions within. In modern buildings the design. ductwork. dampers etc.Air-Distribution Systems There are various types of air-distribution systems. filters. In all buildings. design. li ke fans. and air con ditioning". and re asonable installation. and removed from spaces is known as room ai r distribution. . and specialty mechanical contractors b uild and commission them. and heat transfer The inven tion of the components of HVAC systems goes hand-in-hand with the industrial rev olution. HVAC systems can provid e ventilation. ventilating. building permits for. outlets. and control system s of these functions are integrated into one or more HVAC systems. and maintain pressure relationships betw een spaces. and new methods of modernization.

The heated water can also be fed th rough another heat exchanger inside a storage cylinder to provide hot running wa ter. The forced air can also be f iltered or put through air cleaners. or resistance heating using a filament that glows hot when you cause ele ctricity to pass through it. Such a system contains a boiler. Heating can also be provided from el ectric. Central heating i s often used in cold climates to heat private houses and public buildings. Forced air systems send heated air through ductwork. Most ducts cannot fit a human being (as the y do in many films) since this would require a greater duct-structural integrity and create a potential security liability. Heating Heating systems may be classified as central or local.HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supp ly conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents. The system also contains piping or ductwork to distribute t he heated fluid. all but the simplest systems have a pump to circulate the water and ensure a n equal supply of heat to all the radiators. This type of heat can . The term radiat or in this context is misleading since most heat transfer from the heat exchange r is by convection. furnace. or air. The radiators may be mounted on walls or buri ed in the floor to give under-floor heat. and radiators to transfer this heat to the air. In boiler fed or radiant heating syste ms. or heat pump to heat water. not radiation. all in a central location such as a furnace room in a home or a mechanical room in a large building. steam. During warm weather th e same ductwork can be reused for air conditioning. and ducts that remove air through return-air "grilles. called " diffusers".

be found in electric baseboard heaters. rather than improving the heating of a room/ building. odors. smoke. Ventilation is used to remove unpleasant smells and excessive moisture. who installed a system of air ducts called "hypocaust" in the walls and floors of public baths and priv ate villas. Drafts contribute more to the subjective feeling of coldness than actual room temperature. Air-Handling unit . Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types. and as backup or supplemental heating for heat pump (or reverse heating) system. heat. dust and airborne bacteria. it is often more important to control the air leaks. The heating elements (radiators or vents) should be located in the coldest part of the room and typically next to the windows to minimize condensation. and to keep interior building air circulating. to prevent stagnation of the interior ai r. introduce outside air. Therefore. Generally. It is one of the most important factors for maintainin g acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Popular retail devic es that direct vents away from windows to prevent "wasted" heat defeat this desi gn parameter. Ventil ation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. Ventilating Ventilating is the process of "changing" or replacing of air in any space to remove moisture. The invention of central heating is often credited to the ancient Romans. a better physiologic approach to heating than conventiona l forced air convective heating. portable electric heaters. The ducts were fed with hot air from a central fire. thes e heated by radiation.

are reducing the cooling and heating loads they must han dle. even the bes t HVAC equipment and systems cannot compensate for a building design with inhere ntly high cooling and heating needs. ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can play several roles to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. or air handling unit (AHU) Central unit consist ing of a blower. Air Change per Hour (ACH) The number of times per hour that the volume of a spec ific room or building is supplied or removed from that space by mechanical and n atural ventilation. Thi s does not include the ductwork through the building. heating and cooling elements. The greatest opportunities to conserve nonrenewable energy are through architectural design that controls solar gain. efficient systems do this with mini mal non-renewable energy and air and water pollutant emissions.and capital cost . The critical factors in mechanical systems' energy consumpti on . However. natural ventilation and coo ling opportunities. dampers. humidifier. In the United States the power of HVAC systems (the ra te of cooling and dehumidifying or heating) is sometimes expressed in BTU/hour i nstead of watts. day lighting. but the many different types of BTU are based on different interpre tations of this “definition”. The primary function of HVAC systems is to provide healthy and comfortable inter ior conditions for occupants. One BTU is the energy required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.HVAC Systems Design and Safety Heating. whil e taking advantage of passive heating. each slightly more than 1 kJ. and other central equipment in direct contact with the airflow. Well-designed. Cooling equipmen t that avoids chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs and HCFCs) may eliminate a major cause of damage to the ozone layer. Air handler. . British thermal unit (BTU) Any of several units of energy (heat) in the HVAC industry. filter racks or chamber.

Most residential forced-air systems are s mall CAV systems with on/off control. valves. Most controllers are automatic but have user input such as temperature set p oints. fans. a body of water. or digital. as is often used in hotels. or pneumatic. air-cooled or water-cooled. pumps. Chillers are of two type s. and the li ke. Controller A device that controls the operation o f part or all of a system. This term is applied to HVAC systems that have variable supply-air te mperature but constant air flow rates. C onstant air volume (CAV) A system designed to provide a constant air volume per unit time. Controls may be analog. or air (as with cooling towers). Air-cooled chillers are usually outside and consi st of condenser coils cooled by fan-driven air. or it may mor e subtly modulate burners. e. fan-coil units. Fan-coil unit (FCU) A small terminal unit that is often c omposed of only a blower and a heating and/or cooling coil (heat exchanger). compressors. and can transfer heat to air or to an intermediate fluid (such as wa ter or an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol) to carry heat to a distant sink. Condenser A component in t he basic refrigeration cycle that ejects or removes heat from the system. such as ground (earth sink). . or other systems. The co ndenser is the hot side of an air conditioner or heat pump. It may simply turn a device on and off. Condensers are heat exchangers. and heat from these chillers is carried by recirculating wa ter to outdoor cooling towers. a thermostat.Chiller A device that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or abso rption refrigeration cycle. Water-cooled chillers are usuall y inside a building. coo ling and usually dehumidifying the air in the building. dampers. or a combination of these. condominiums.g. This cooled liquid flows through pipes in a building and passes through coils in air handlers. or apartments.

containing multiple parallel slots through which air may be delivered or withdrawn from a ventilated space. The term m ay also refer to blades in a rectangular frame placed in doors or walls to permi t the movement of air. placed in ducts or duct entries to control the volume of air flow. propane. . Heat load. or heat gain Terms for the amount of hea ting (heat loss) or cooling (heat gain) needed to maintain desired temperatures and humidities in controlled air. oil. This may be to replace air in the building that has been exha usted by the ventilation system. Evaporator A component in the basic refrigeration cycle t hat absorbs or adds heat to the system. Grille A facing across a duct opening. usually rectangular is shape. sometimes adjustabl e. Regardless of how well-insulated and sealed a building is. buildings gain heat from warm air or sunlight or lose heat to cold air and by radiation. heat loss. The ev aporator is the cold side of an air conditioner or heat pump. or other flammable substances) in a heat exchanger. Furnace A componen t of an HVAC system that adds heat to air or an intermediate fluid by burning fu el (natural gas. Evaporators can be used to absorb heat f rom air (by reducing temperature and by removing water) or from a liquid. or to provide fresh air for combustion of fuel.Damper A plate or gate placed in a duct to control air flow by introducing a con striction in the duct. butane. Engineers use a heat load calculation to determine the HVA C needs of the space being cooled or heated. Fresh air intake (FAI) An opening through which outside air is drawn into the building. Louvers Blades.

Makeup air unit (MAU) An air handler that conditions 100% outside air. MAUs are typically used in industrial or commercial settings, or in once- through (blower sections that only blow air one-way into the building), low flow (air handling systems that blow air at a low flow rate), or primary-secondary (air handling sy stems that have an air handler or rooftop unit connected to an add-on makeup uni t or hood) commercial HVAC systems. Packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC) An air conditioner and heater combined into a single, electrically-powered unit, ty pically installed through a wall and often found in hotels. Roof-top unit (RTU) An air-handling unit, defined as either "recirculating" or "once-through" design , made specifically for outdoor installation. They most often include, internall y, their own heating and cooling devices. RTUs are very common in some regions, particularly in single-story commercial buildings. Variable air volume (VAV) sys tem An HVAC system that has a stable supply-air temperature, and varies the air flow rate to meet the temperature requirements. Compared to CAV systems, these s ystems waste less energy through unnecessarily-high fan speeds. Most new commerc ial buildings have VAV systems. Thermal zone A single or group of neighboring in door spaces that the HVAC designer expects will have similar thermal loads. Buil ding codes may require zoning to save energy in commercial buildings. Zones are defined in the building to reduce the number of HVAC subsystems, and thus initia l cost. For example, for perimeter offices, rather than one zone for each office , all offices facing west can be combined into one zone. Small residences typica lly have only one conditioned thermal zone, plus unconditioned spaces such as un conditioned garages, attics, and crawlspaces, and unconditioned basements.

Coils The selection of hot and chilled water coils will have a substantial impac t on the fan energy use. Thin coil design Traditional AHU design specifies coil sizes assuming a face velocity of between 400 and 500 feet per minute. A new des ign technique called low face velocity, high coolant velocity or LFV/HCV has bee n researched at the University of Adelaide, Australia. This technique uses a "th in" coil design that is roughly half the number of tubes in depth as in conventi onal designs but double the coil face area. The net result is a face velocity in the range of 150 to 200 feet per minute (FPM) with much higher heat transfer ef ficiency and lower pressure drop than in conventional designs. Because the coil' s pressure loss is proportional to the velocity at a square rate, face velocity reduction can result in pressure drops of one-fourth or less compared to the equ ivalent, traditionally designed coil. Preheat coils A preheat coil is commonly used to control condensation inside the HVAC system for laboratories that use 100 percent outside air or when the outsi de air temperature falls below freezing. If a heating coil is used downstream, t he preheat coil should become inactive to save energy when outdoor temperatures reach 45 degrees F. Preheat coils are also used to warm the outside air stream, assuring better air stream mixing and providing free humidification.

Damper A damper is a valve or plate that stops or regulates the flow of air insi de a duct, chimney, VAV box, air handler, or other air handling equipment. A dam per may be used to cut off central air conditioning (heating or cooling) to an u nused room, or to regulate it for room-by-room temperature and climate control. Its operation can be manual or automatic. Manual dampers are turned by a handle on the outside of a duct. Automatic dampers are used to regulate airflow constan tly and are operated by electric or pneumatic motors, in turn controlled by a th ermostat or building automation system. In a chimney flue, a damper closes off t he flue to keep the weather (and birds and other animals) out and warm or cool a ir in. This is usually done in the summer, but also sometimes in the winter betw een uses. In some cases, the damper may also be partly closed to help control th e rate of combustion. The damper may be accessible only by reaching up into the fireplace by hand or with a wood poker, or sometimes by a lever or knob that sti cks down or out. On a wood burning stove or similar device, it is usually a hand le on the vent duct as in an air conditioning system. Forgetting to open a dampe r before beginning a fire can cause serious smoke damage to the interior of a ho me, if not a house fire. Opposed blade dampers in a mixing duct

A better lo cation is in the final branch near the connection to the trunk duct. Dampers have to withstand the maximum static pressure in a system. In large commercial installations. Maximum static pressure usually occurs when all dampers in a system are closed except those on one flow path. In this way. Use the UL approved alternative -. HVAC systems are commonly divided up into multiple zones. allowing the uno ccupied areas to cool down.a properly supported. The maximum static pressure is the maximum that can be exp erienced in a system. t he main floor may be served by one heating zone while the upstairs bedrooms are served by another. Automated zone dampers A zone damper (also known as a Volume Control Damper or V CD) is a specific type of damper used to control the flow of air in an HVAC heat ing or cooling system. in a fixed ceiling. Dampers should not be installed in hood exhaust systems even if the exhaust duct passes through a firewall.Dampers must be installed in places where airflow needs to be controlled and/or blocked. In either case. not simply the pressure introduced by the fan during norma l operation. • Power consumption. For example. Advantages: • Cost. an access door is needed. unobstructed duct. it should be accessible. . vacuum or compressed air may be used instead. Dampers located directly behind an outlet tend to be noisy. In order to improve efficiency and occupant comfort. in a house. Zone dampers as used in home HVAC systems are usuall y electrically powered. Wherever a balancing or volume damper is located. the motor is usually connected to the d amper via a mechanical coupling. Lay-in ceiling t iles provide good access. the heat can be directed principally to the main floor during the day and principally to the bedrooms at night. hea vy-gauge steel.

A system with zone dampers is dependent u pon a single furnace. The links are attached to the damper such that the dampers can be released manually for testing purposes. the system becomes completely inoperable. However. When subjected to heat. • The system can be harder to design. If it fails. The damper is provided wi th an access door in the adjacent ductwork for the purpose of inspection and res etting in the event of closure. • N o inherent redundancy for the furnace. zone dampers that are of the "No rmally Open" type are fail-safe. in that they will fail to the open condition. The motor-to-open/motor-to-cl osed style of electrically operated zone dampers aren't "fail safe" (that is. . th ey do not fail to the open condition).Disadvantages: • Zone dampers are not 100% reliable. requiring both “SPDT” thermostats (and relays) and the ability of the system to withstand the fault condition whereby all zone damp ers are closed simultaneously. In normal circumst ances. Fire dampers Fire dampers are fitted where ductwork passes through fire compartm ent walls / fire curtains as part of a fire control strategy. these links fracture and allow the damper to close under the influence of the integral closing spring. these dampers are held open by means of fusible links.

return ai r. Tin is more corrosion resistant than plain steel. As such. optimizing. Steel ducts are commonly wrapped or lined with fiberglass thermal insulation. like 'tin cans' were made for food. always more rectangular ducts are being manufactured from “duct board”. Galvanized steel Ducts are still most often made of galvanized steel. and exhaust air. steel 'sheet metal' has replaced tin in ducts as well as fo od cans. detailing. thanks to the fact that custom or special shapes and sizes of ducts can e asily be shop or field . Many factory-made shapes and sizes are available but galv anized steel can easily be cut and bent to form additional shapes when required. but is al so more expensive. air ducts are one method of ensuring acceptable indoo r air quality as well as thermal comfort. supply air. particularly duct liner. Various fittings allow transitioning between the various shapes and sizes. most commonly as part of the supply air. Duct materials Like moder n steel food cans. A "te e" connection. With improvements in mild steel production. A duct system is often called ductwork . for example. Planning ('laying out'). Both types of insul ation reduce 'breakout' noise through the ducts' sidewalls. b oth to reduce heat loss or gain through the duct walls and water vapor from cond ensing on the exterior of the duct when the duct is carrying cooled air. and finding the pressu re losses through a duct system is called duct design. sizing. Insulat ion. These needed airflows include. for example. and its galvaniza tion to resist rust. ventilation. and air conditioning (HVAC) to deliver a nd remove air. ventilation air.Ducts Ducts are used in heating. Ducts also deliver. Polyurethane duct bo ard (Preinsulated aluminum ducts) While as mentioned above. also reduces duct-borne noise. is where the air flow can be divided into two or mor e downstream branches.. galvanized steel is still very common. at one time air ducts were often made of tin.

Commonly available duct tape shou ld not be used on air ducts. they can easily be installed by using an invi sible aluminum flange system. . The duct board is formed by sliding a specially-designed knife along the board using a straightedge as a guide. fiberglass. HCFC..fabricated. providing a thin section that acts as a hinge. bent if necessary in order to obtain the different fittings. However. th e foaming process is obtained through the use of water instead of the CFC. the valley does not quite penetrate the entire depth of the du ct board. Having o btained the various duct sections. the knife automatically trims out a "vall ey" with 45° sides. have a variety of configur ations. Fiberglass duct board (Preinsulated non metallic d uctwork) Also the fiberglass panels provide built-in thermal insulation and the interior surface absorbs sound. Among the various types of rigid polyurethane foam panels available. e. with thicknesses that can vary from 50 micrometres for indoor use to 20 0 micrometres for external use in order to guarantee the high mechanical charact eristics of the duct. flexible duct. Flexible duct is very convenient for attaching supply air outlets to the rigid d uctwork. In addition to the fact that ducts made with “duct board” do not need an y further insulation. or otherwise. they are typically flexible plastic over a me tal wire coil to make round. As such. known as flex. the adhesive on so called 'duct tape' dries and releases with time. In this particular panel. and then a thin plastic layer protects the insulation. a new water formulated panel stands out. that are intended for long-term use. designers and installers attempt to keep their installed lengths (runs) short. The duct board can then be folded along the valleys to produce 90° folds. The duct is then closed with staples and sp ecial aluminum or similar 'metal-backed' tape. helping to provide quiet operation of the HVAC s ystem. metal. The foam panels are then coated with aluminum sheets on eith er side.g. but for HVAC applications. Flexible tubing Flexible ducts. making the rectangular duct sha pe in the fabricator's desired size. pressing and taping. The pieces are then cut from the panel (with a 45° cut as explained below). Most often a layer of fiberglass ins ulation covers the duct. and finally closed through an operation of gluing. The ducts construction starts with the plotting of the sin gle pieces on the panel. HFC and HC gasses. the pressure loss through flex is higher than for most other t ypes of ducts.

but it has more places where leaks can occur. SUPPLY DUCT SYSTEMS Supply ducts deliver air to the spaces that are to be condit ioned. proper air distribution. There are several variations of the trunk and branch system. a large main supply trunk is connec ted directly to the air handler or its supply plenum and serves as a supply plen um or an extension to the supply plenum. TRUNK AND B RANCH SYSTEM In the trunk and branch system. The two most common supply duct systems for residences are the trunk and branch system and the radial system because of their versatility. • Is sealed to provide proper air fl ow and to prevent air from entering the house or duct system from polluted zones . DUCT DESIGN OBJECTIVES The objectives of good duct design are occupant comfort. The outcome of the duct design process wil l be a duct system (supply and return plenums. ducts. economical heating and cooling system operati on. It provides air flows that are eas ily balanced and can be easily designed to be located inside the conditioned spa ce of the house. • Is properly sized so that the pressure drop across the air handler is w ithin manufacturer and design specifications. a nd economy. fittings. performance. grilles.less than 15 feet or so. Kinks in flex must be avoided. • Minimizes duct air temperature gains or losses between the air handler a nd supply outlets. F lexible duct is normally not used on the negative pressure portions of HVAC duct systems. The trunk and branch system is adaptable to most houses. boots. and between the return register and air handler. Smaller branch ducts and run outs are c onnected to the trunk. • Has balanced supply and return air flows to maintain a neutral pressure in the house. The spider and perimeter loop systems are other options. and economical duct installation. An extended . and registers) that • Provides conditioned air to meet all room heating and coolin g loads. and to minimize turns.

Traditionally. symmetry is not mandatory. but it is the most complex system to design. this duct system can be installed in homes up to approximately 50 feet long. Si milarly. RAD IAL SYSTEM In a radial system. branch ducts or ru n outs that deliver conditioned air to individual supply outlets are essentially connected directly to the air handler. installed above a dropped ceiling). The length of the trunk is usually limited to about 24 feet because otherwise the velocity of the air in the trunk gets too low and air flo w into branches and run outs close to the air handler becomes poor. Smaller branch ducts or ru n outs take air from the remote mixing boxes to the individual supply outlets. Ho wever. there is no main supply trunk. which improves air flow in branches and run outs closer to the air handler. Large supply trunks (usually large-diameter flexible ducts) connect r emote mixing boxes to a small. SPIDER SYSTEM A spider system is a more distinct variation of the trunk and bran ch system. w ith a centrally located air handler. this system is associated with an air hand ler that is centrally located so that ducts are arranged in a radial pattern. direct duct runs maximize air flow.. PERIMETER LOOP SYSTEM A perimeter loop system uses a perimeter duct fed from a central supply plenum using several feeder ducts. central supply plenum. . The short. This system i s typically limited to houses built on slab in cold climates and is more difficu lt to design and install.plenum system uses a main supply trunk that is one size and is the simplest and most popular design. T his system is difficult to locate within the conditioned space of the house. A reducing plenum system uses a trunk reductio n periodically to maintain a more uniform pressure and air velocity in the trunk . Therefore. usually using a small supply plenum. The radial system is most adaptable to single-story homes.g. a reducing trunk system reduces the cross-sectional area of the trunk a fter every branch duct or run out. and designs using parallel runouts can be desi gned so that duct runs remain in the conditioned space (e.

and is quiet. improves privacy. and higher friction losses can increas e blower requirements.g. under stairway) and often close to the air handler. To . In multi-story houses. minimizes pressure imbalances. MULTIPLE-ROO M RETURN SYSTEM A multiple-room return system is designed to return air from eac h room supplied with conditioned air. especially those that can be isolated from the rest of the house (except bathrooms and perhaps kitchens and mechanical roo ms).RETURN DUCT SYSTEMS Return ducts remove room air and deliver it back to the heat ing and cooling equipment for filtering and reconditioning. CENTRAL RETURN SYSTEM A central return system consists of one or more large grilles located in central areas of the house (e. design and installation costs of a multi-room return system are generally highe r than costs for a central return system. When properly designed and installed.. Return duct systems are generally classified as either central or multiple-room return. a ce ntral return is often located on each floor. this is the ultimate return duct syst em because it ensures that air flow is returned from all rooms (even with doors closed). However. hallway.

The wall cavity must be well sealed to prevent air leakage. Transfer grilles are through-the-wall vents that are often located above the interior door frames. transfe r grilles or jumper ducts must be installed in each room (undercutting interior doors to provide 1 inch of clearance to the floor is usually not sufficient by i tself).ensure proper air flow from all rooms. Jumper ducts are short ducts routed through the ceiling to minimize no ise transfer. . although they can be installed in a full wall cavity to reduce noise transmission. especially when doors are closed.

Outlet locations near interior walls can . These chases must be specially constructed. In hot climates. perimeter floor outlets that blanket portions of th e exterior wall (usually windows) with supply air are generally preferred. etc. outlet location is less critical. in today’s better insulated homes.. although air distribution may suffer. ceiling d iffusers or high wall outlets that discharge air parallel to the ceiling are typ ically installed. With this design. any duct leakage will be to the inside of the house.DUCT AND REGISTER LOCATIONS Locating the air handler unit and air distribution s ystem inside the conditioned space of the house is the best way to improve duct system efficiency and is highly recommended. There are several methods for locating ducts inside the conditioned space. Also. Howev er. Holes in the cavity for wiri ng. dropped ceiling in a hallway). must be sealed to prevent air exchange with unconditioned sp aces. smaller and less duct work.g. • Locate ducts in a specially-constructed sealed and insulated crawlspace (w here the walls of the crawlspace are insulated rather than the ceiling). and lower operating costs. i f any at all.. plumbing. In cold climates. ducts located ins ide the conditioned space need minimal insulation (in hot and humid climates). The exterior walls of these floor cavities must be insulated and seal ed to ensure they are within the conditioned space. a chase furred-up in the att ic. Occ upant comfort requires that supply register locations be carefully selected for each room. air-sealed . and insulated to ensure they are not connected to unconditioned spaces. In moderate climates. • Place the ducts in a furred-down chase belo w the ceiling (e. reduced du ct insulation. • Locate ducts between the floors of a multi-story home (run through the floor trusses o r joists). or other such chases. The cost of moving ducts into the conditioned space can be offset by smaller heating and cooling equipment. Ducts s hould not be run in exterior walls as a means of moving them into the conditione d space because this reduces the amount of insulation that can be applied to the duct and the wall itself. A supply outlet is positioned to mix conditioned air with room air and is responsible for most of the air movement within a room. It will not significantly affect the energy efficiency of the heating and cooling system because the conditioned air remains inside the house. the need to locate outlets near the perimet er where heat loss occurs is becoming less important.

upper stories tend to gain more heat in summer and lose more heat in winter. Do not locate ducts in exterior walls. consider using two or more separate he ating and cooling systems. The location of the return register has only a secondary effect on room air motion. and blower requirements. etc.. improve air circulation and mixin g of supply air. wall stud spaces. so the best comfort and performance is often achieved by using separate systems for the upper and lower stories. inclu ding returns (i.e. To prevent s upply air from being swept directly up by kitchen. bathroom. the location of the return register can be determined by what will minimize duct runs. raised-floor air handler plenums . or other exhaust fa ns.. In multi-story homes with both heating and cooling. building cavities. DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS AND K E Y D E S I G N E L E M E N T S In designing the ai r distribution the following recommendations before finalizing the design should be considered: • Design the air distribution system to be located inside the cond itioned space of the house to the greatest extent possible. and impact other considerations such as aesthetics. the distance between supply registers and exhaust vents should be kept as la rge as possible. .significantly reduce duct lengths (decreasing costs). • Consider installing volume dampers loca ted at the takeoff end of the duct rather than at the supply register to facilit ate manual balancing of the system after installation. should not be u sed). • The entire air distribution system should be “hard” ducted. upper-level returns should be placed high and lowerlevel r eturns should be placed low. platform returns. However. thermal losses (if ducts a re located outside the conditioned space). • Locate supply outlets as far away from exh aust vents as possible in bathrooms and kitchens to prevent supply air from bein g swept directly up by the exhaust fans. panned floor joists. • In two-story and very large houses. returns can help defeat stratification and improve mixing of room air if they are placed high when cooling is the dominant spaceco nditioning need and low when heating is dominant. fo r example. Volume dampers should hav e a means of fixing the position of the damper after the air distribution system is balanced. Otherwise. closets. In two-story homes. each with its own duct system. • Consider supply outlet locations near i nterior walls to reduce duct lengths.

(b) a specification to install transfer grilles or jumper ducts in each room with a door (undercutting interior doors to allow 1 inch of clearance to the floor is usually not sufficient). a return i n all rooms with doors that require two or more supply ducts. especially when vari able-speed air handling equipment is being used. Lower air flows provided by var iable-speed heating and cooling systems to improve operating efficiency increase the resident time of air within the air distribution system. especially i f ducts are unavoidably located in an unconditioned space. Attic insula tion placed over ducts helps where it is possible. Consider testing of ducts using a duct blower to ensure that the air distribution system is tight. A typical requirement is that duct leakage (measured using a duct blower in units of cubic feet per m inute when the ducts are pressurized to 25 Pascals) should not exceed 5% of the system air flow rate.• When using a central return system. • Specify higher duc t insulation levels in ducts located outside the conditioned space than those sp ecified by the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code. preferably with mastic and fiberglass mesh. . which in turn incr eases thermal losses in the winter and thermal gains in the summer. • Specify that all duct joints must be mechanically fastened and sealed prior to insulation to prevent air leak age. and (c) if at all possible. include (a) a return on each level of a mult istory house.

CONTENTS Principles of Air-Conditioning. Psychometric Chart Refrigeration Cycle Vapor Com pression cycle Vapor absorption cycle Air cycle Comfort cooling Cooling supply d evices Air conditioning • Application • Types of AC units • Central air-conditioning • W indow AC units • HVAC • Air distribution systems .

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