Buckling Analysis of Woven Glass epoxy Laminated

Composite Plate



A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the degree of




Master of Technology
In
Civil Engineering
(Structural Engineering)



By
ARUN KUMAR R
Roll No-207CE208











Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Rourkela-769008,
Orissa, India
May, 2009
Buckling Analysis of Woven Glass epoxy Laminated
Composite Plate



A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the degree of




Master of Technology
In
Civil Engineering
(Structural Engineering)



By
ARUN KUMAR R
Roll No-207CE208

Under The Guidance of
Prof. S. K. Sahu
and
Prof. A. V. Asha






Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Rourkela-769008,
Orissa, India
May, 2009
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ROURKELA – 769008, ORISSA
INDIA





CERTIFICATE





This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF
GLASS EPOXY LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES” submi t t ed by Mr. Arun
Kumar R in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Master of
Technology Degree in Civil Engineering with specialization in Structural
Engineering at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University)
is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been
submitted to any other University/ Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.






Date: May 30, 2009 Prof. S. K. Sahu
Place: Rourkela Prof. A. V. Asha
Dept of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela – 769008

Acknowledgments
I would like to express my gratitude to my guide, Dr. S K Sahu and Prof. A V Asha, for
their encouragement, advice, mentoring and research support throughout my studies. Their
technical and editorial advice was essential for the completion of this dissertation. Their
ability to teach, depth of knowledge and ability to achieve perfection will always be my
inspiration.

My sincere thanks to Dr. S. K. Sarangi, Director and Prof M. Panda, Head of the
Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, for his advice and
providing necessary facility for my work.

I am very thankful to all the faculty members and staffs of civil engineering department
who assisted me in my research, as well as in my post graduate studies. I would also like to
thank Prof. B. B. Verma and other supporting staff in the Metallurgical & Materials
engineering for their help.

I also thank all my batch mates, who have directly or indirectly helped me in my project
work and in the completion of this report. I also thank to Shuvranshu, Ravi, and all first year
students for their friendly environment in civil computer laboratory.

Finally, I am grateful to my parents K.G Radhakrishnan Nair and Suchetha. V for their
love, support and guidance. They have always been supportive of my academic pursuit.

Arun Kumar R








CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................ 2
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................ 3
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................................. 4
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 6
Review of literature ............................................................................................................................. 7
Aim and scope of study ..................................................................................................................... 11
THEORETICAL FORMULATION .................................................................................................... 13
Theory of bending of thin plates ....................................................................................................... 13
Buckling of composite plate ............................................................................................................. 14
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ................................................................................................................. 23
Numerical Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 32
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................... 35
CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................... 57
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 60



Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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ABSTRACT
There have been numerous studies on the composite laminated structures which find many
applications in many engineering fields namely aerospace, biomedical, civil, marine and
mechanical engineering because of their ease of handling, good mechanical properties and
low fabrication cost. They also possess excellent damage tolerance and impact resistance.
The mechanical behaviour of composite structures is of particular interest to engineers in
modern technology. Buckling of plates is a well-established branch of research in composite
structures stability. It has a wide range of applications in engineering science and technology.
Buckling behaviour of laminated composite plates subjected to in-plane loads is an important
consideration in the preliminary design of aircraft and launch vehicle components. The sizing
of many structural subcomponents of these vehicles is often determined by stability
constraints. Plates with circular holes and other openings are extensively used as structural
members in aircraft design. The buckling behaviour of such plates has always received much
attention by researchers. These holes can be access holes, holes for hardware to pass through,
or in the case of fuselage, windows and doors. In some cases holes are used to reduce the
weight of the structure. In aerospace and many other applications these structural components
are also made up of composite material to further reduce the weight of the structure. The
outstanding mechanical properties of composite structures, such as durability and corrosion-
resistance characteristics combined with low density, make it more attractive compared to
conventional materials.

In this study, the influence of cut-out shape, length/thickness ratio, and ply orientation and
aspect ratio on the buckling of woven glass epoxy laminated composite plate is
examined experimentally. Clamped –free -Clamped-free boundary condition is considered
for all case. Experiments have been carried out on laminated composites with circular,
square and rectangular cut-outs. The thickness of the plate was changed by increasing the
number of layers. After the buckling experiments micro electroscopic scanning was
performed for the failed specimens. Comparisons are made between the test results, by using
two different approach. The results shows effect of various cut-out shapes, orientation of
fiber, aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the buckling load.
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure1.a :The thin plate notation ........................................................................................53
Figure 1.b: Laminated composite plate under in-plane compression . ..................................16
Figure 2.: Inplane forces and moments on laminae ............................................................... 17
Figure3: Geometry of N layered laminate ..............................................................................19
Figure4: Instron testing machine ............................................................................................24
Figure5: Glass epoxy composite plate casting ....................................................................... 25
Figure 6: Plate with different cutout shapes........................................................................... 27
Figure 7: Test setup for clamped composite plate ...................................................................30
Figure 8: Scanning electron microscope .................................................................................31
Figure 9: Microscopic image of failed sample .......................................................................31
Figure 10: Applayed boundary condition and load.............................................................32
Figure 11: Buckled shape of aluminium plate ......................................................................36
Figure12-37: Load v/s displacement graph for composite plates ................................... 37-50
Figure 38: Buckled load v/s length to thickness ratio graph ...............................................52
Figure 39: Buckling load v/s aspect ratio graph .................................................................. 53

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 : Plate tested in the present study. 28
Table 2 : Buckling Results of Aluminium Plate 35
Table 3 : Effect of Length to Thickness Ratio (L/t) 51
Table 4 : Effect of aspect ratio (a/b ratio) 53
Table 5 : Effect of Orientation 54
Table 6 : Effect of cut out shape 55

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National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 5

CHAPTER-1




INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION
In many engineering structures such as columns, beams, or plates, their failure develops
not only from excessive stresses but also from buckling. Only rectangular thin plates are
considered in the present study. When a flat plate is subjected to low in-plane compressive
loads, it remains flat and is in equilibrium condition. As the magnitude of the in-plane
compressive load increases, however, the equilibrium configuration of the plate is eventually
changed to a non-flat configuration and the plate becomes unstable. The magnitude of the
compressive load at which the plate becomes unstable is called the “critical buckling load.”
A composite material consist of two or more materials and offers a significant weight
saving in structures in view of its high strength to weight and high stiffness to weight ratios.
Further, in a fibrous composite, the mechanical properties can be varied as required by
suitably orienting the fibres. In such material the fibres are the main load bearing members,
and the matrix, which has low modulus and high elongation, provides the necessary
flexibility and also keeps the fibres in position and protect them from the environment.
Development of new applications and new composites is accelerating due to the
requirement of materials with unusual combination of properties that cannot be met by
conventional monolithic materials. Actually, composite materials are capable of covering this
requirement in all means because of their heterogeneous nature. Properties of composite
arise as a function of its constituent materials, their distribution and the interaction among
them and as a result an unusual combination of material properties can be obtained .
Laminated composites are gaining wider use in mechanical and aerospace
applications due to their high specific stiffness and high specific strength. Fiber-
reinforced composites are used extensively in the form of relatively thin plate, and
consequently the load carrying capability of composite plate against buckling has been
intensively considered by researchers under various loading and boundary conditions.
Due to the excellent stiffness and weight characteristics, composites have been receiving
more attention from engineers, scientists, and designers. During operation the composite
laminate plates are commonly subjected to compression loads that may cause buckling if
overloaded. Hence their buckling behaviours are important factors in safe and reliable design
of these structures.
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National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 7

In view of difficulty of theoretical and numerical analysis for laminated structure
behaviours, experimental methods have become important in solving the buckling
problem of laminated composite plates. This work deals with buckling analysis of
symmetrically and laminated composite plates under clamped -free –clamped- free
boundary condition. The effects on buckling load by cut out size, length/thickness ratio,
ply orientation, and length/breadth ratio are investigated.
Review of literature
Fiber-reinforced composites are used extensively in the form of relatively thin plate, and
consequently the load carrying capability of composite plate against buckling has been
intensively considered by researchers under various loading and boundary conditions. Thus
far, there have been numerous studies on the fabric woven composite laminated structures
which find widespread applications in many engineering fields namely aerospace,
biomedical, civil, marine and mechanical engineering because of their ease of handling, good
mechanical properties and low fabrication cost. They also possess excellent damage tolerance
and impact resistance.
The initial theoretical research into elastic flexural- torsional buckling was preceded by
Euler’s (1759) treatise on column flexural buckling, which gave the first analytical method
of predicting the reduced strengths of slender columns, and by Saint-Venant’s 1855 memoir
on uniform torsion, which gave the first reliable description of the twisting response of
members to torsion. However, it was not until 1899 that the first treatments were published of
flexural-torsional buckling by Michell and Prandtl, who considered the lateral buckling of
beams of narrow rectangular cross-section. Their work was extended by Timoshenko to
include the effects of warping torsion in I-section beams. Most recently the invention of high-
speed electronic computers exerted a considerable influence on the static and dynamic
analysis of plates.
Chen and Bert (1976) investigated optimal design of simply supported rectangular
plates laminated to composite material and subjected to uniaxial compressive loading.
Numerical results are presented for optimal-design plates laminated of glass/epoxy,
boron/epoxy, and carbon/epoxy composite materials.
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Linear elastic buckling of plates that are subjected to in-plane forces is a problem of great
practical importance that has been extensively researched over the past 60 years. Elastic
instability of flat rectangular plates became an important research area when the design of the
lightweight airframes was introduced. Fok (1984), has been applied the theory of thin plates
to engineering structures. Some advantages of thin-walled structures are high strength
coupled with the ease of manufacturing and the relative low weight. However, thin-walled
structures have the characteristic of susceptibility of failure by instability or buckling. It is
therefore important to the design engineer that accurate methods are available to determine
the critical buckling strength.
Laminated plates with strip-type delamination under pure bending were investigated
analytically and experimentally by Yeh and Fang (1997). In the analysis, a two dimensional
nonlinear finite element code based on updated lagrangian formulation was developed to
analyze the bending behaviour of the laminated plates and the local buckling phenomenon of
the sub laminates in the delaminated region. The formulation includes large displacements
and large rotations needed to describe the local buckling phenomenon of the delaminated
region.
Radu and Chattopadhyay (2000) used a refined higher order shear deformation theory to
investigate the dynamic instability associated with composite plates with delamination that
are subject to dynamic compressive loads. Both transverse shear and rotary inertia effects are
taken into account. The theory is capable of modelling the independent displacement field
above and below the delamination. All stress free boundary conditions at free surfaces as well
as delamination interfaces are satisfied by this theory. The procedure is implemented using
the finite element method.
Hwang and Mao (2001) conducted the non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses to
predict the delamination buckling load and delamination growth load. In order to predict the
delamination growth load, the total strain-energy release rate criterion, criterion of strain-
energy release rate component, and inter laminar-stress criterion are used. Experimental
results are also provided to compare with the prediction.
A procedure for determining the buckling load of the aluminium rectangular plate is
presented by Supasak and Singhatanadgid(2002) .Buckling load of aluminum rectangular
plates are determined using four different techniques, i.e. (1) a plot of applied load vs. out-
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 9

of-plane displacement, (2) a plot of applied load vs. end shortening, (3) a plot of applied load
vs. average in-plane strain, and(4)the Southwell plot. In this study, buckling loads
determined from different experiment methods were compared with the theoretical buckling
loads.
A dynamic analysis model is proposed by Wen-pei and Lin Cheng (2003) to acquire
buckling load of plate. We used the dynamic measured data from selected test points and by
modal analysis got the modal parameters-mode shape and frequency; and then, derived a
flexible matrix with the above model parameters. Force analysis was used to get the flexible
matrix of equivalent force and the characteristic equation for determining the buckling load
of the member.
. Wang and Lu (2003) was carried out an investigation to understand the buckling
behaviour of local delamination near the surface of fiber reinforced laminated plates under
mechanical and thermal loads. The shape of the delaminated region considered is rectangular
and triangular. The displacement expression is composed of items with the effect of tension-
shear coupling and the effect of bend-torsion coupling. The critical strains of laminated plates
with various shaped local delamination and different stacking patterns are obtained by
making use of the energy principle.
Shukla and Kreuzer (2005) proposed a formulation based on the first-order shear
deformation theory and von-Karman-type nonlinearity to estimates the critical/buckling
loads of laminated composite rectangular plates under in-plane uniaxial and biaxial loadings.
Different combinations of simply supported, clamped and free boundary conditions are
considered. The effects of plate aspect ratio, lamination scheme, number of layers and
material properties on the critical loads are studied.
Pannok and Singhatanadgid (2006) studies the buckling behaviour of rectangular and
skew thin composite plates with various boundary conditions using the Ritz method along
with the proposed out-of-plane displacement functions. The boundary conditions considered
in this study are combinations of simple support, clamped support and free edge. The out-of-
plane displacement functions in form of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions are
determined from the Kantorovich method.
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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Buket Okutan Baba (2007) studied the influence of boundary conditions on the buckling
load for rectangular plates. Boundary conditions consisting of clamped, pinned, and their
combinations are considered. Numerical and experimental studies are conducted to
investigate the effect of boundary conditions, length/thickness ratio, and ply orientation on
the buckling behaviour of E-glass/epoxy composite plates under in-plane compression load.
Buckling analysis of the laminated composites is performed by using finite element analysis
software ANSYS. Tests have been carried out on laminated composites with circular and
semicircular cut-outs under various boundary conditions. Comparisons are made between the
test results and predictions based on finite element analysis.
Pein and Zahari (2007) studied the structural behaviour of woven fabric composites subject
to compressive load which is lacking. The main objective of this study is to carry out the
experiment analysis for the 800gm woven glass-epoxy composite laminated plates with and
without holes subjected to quasi-static compressive load. The ultimate load and the structural
and material behaviour of the composite laminated plates under compression have also been
studied. Finally, a parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of varying the fibre
orientations and different central hole sizes onto the strength of the laminates.
A progressive failure analysis algorithm has been developed by . Zahari and Azmee
(2008) and implemented as a user subroutine in a finite element code (ABAQUS) in order to
model the non-linear material behaviour and to capture the complete compressive response of
woven composite plates made of glass-epoxy material. Tsai-Hill failure theory has been
employed in the progressive failure methodology to detect failure of the woven composite
laminates.
Murat Yazici (2008) studied the influence of square cut-out upon the buckling stability of
multilayered, steel woven fiber-reinforced polypropylene thermoplastic matrix composite
plates are studied by using numerical and experimental methods. The laminated plates under
uniform pressure are formed by stacking three composite layers bonded symmetrically. The
FE and experimental results are presented for various fiber orientation angles and plate
boundary conditions.

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National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 11

Aim and scope of study

Thus far, there have been numerous studies on the composite laminated structures which
find widespread applications in many engineering fields namely aerospace, biomedical, civil,
marine and mechanical engineering because of their ease of handling, good mechanical
properties and low fabrication cost. They also possess excellent damage tolerance and impact
resistance.
From the literature, it is evident that most of the studies are based on the numerical
approach. Less attention has been paid on the buckling of composite plates. Due to the
practical requirements, cutouts are often required in structural components due to functional
requirements, to produce lighter and more efficient structures. Most stability studies of
composite plates with cutout have focused on square plates under simply supported
conditions to minimize the mathematical complexities.
From the literature review it was found that most of the studies were focused on
unidirectional fibre. Industry driven woven fibers are being increasingly used in many
industries. Hence we have to give more importance on its structural behaviour. It also
indicate that the interaction among stacking sequence, cutout shape and length/thickness ratio
on the buckling behaviour of woven fiber laminated composites are needed to investigate in
more detail. The aim of performing this research is to extend the knowledge of the structural
behaviour of woven fabric composites subject to compressive load which is lacking. The
main objective of this study is to carry out the experiment analysis for the woven glass-
epoxy composite laminated plates with and without holes subjected to static compressive
load.
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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Chapter-2





THEORETICAL FORMULATION
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 13

THEORETICAL FORMULATION
The buckling of a plate involves two planes, namely, xz,yz and two boundary conditions
on each edge of the plate. The basic difference between plate and column lies in the buckling
characteristics. The column, once it buckles, cannot resist any additional axial load. Thus, the
critical load of the column is also its failure load. On the other hand, a plate, since it is
invariably supported at the edges, continues to resist the additional axial load even after the
primary buckling load is reached and does not fail even when the load reaches a value 10-15
times the buckling load.
Theory of bending of thin plates
The theory for thin plates is similar to the theory for beams. In pure bending of beams,
"the stress distribution is obtained by assuming that cross-sections of the bar remain plane
during bending and rotate only with respect to their neutral axes so as to be always normal to
the deflection curve." For a thin plate, bending in two perpendicular directions occur. A
rectangular plate element is shown below:



( fig.1.a) Thin plate notation



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The basic assumptions of elastic plate bending are:

1. Perfectly flat plate and of uniform thickness.
2. The thickness of the plate is small compared with other dimensions. For plate bending,
the thickness, t, is less than or equal to ¼ of the smallest width of the plate. For plate
buckling equations, the thickness, t, should be 1/10 of the smallest width of the plate.
3. Deflections are small, i.e., smaller or equal to 1/2 of the thickness.
4. The middle plane of the plate does not elongate during bending and remains a neutral
surface.
5. The lateral sides of the differential element, in the above figure, remain plane during
bending and rotate only to be normal to the deflection surface. Therefore, the stresses and
strains are proportional to their distance from the neutral surface.
6. The bending and twisting of the plate element resist the applied loads. The effect of
shearing forces is neglected.
Buckling of composite plate

Composite materials consist of two or more materials which together produce
desirable properties that cannot be achieved with any of the constituents alone. Fiber-
reinforced composite materials, for example , contain high strength and high modulus
fibers are the principal load carrying members, and the matrix material keeps the fibers
together, act as a load-transfer medium between fibers from being exposed to the
environment. The lay up sequence of unidirectionally reinforced “plies" as indicated in
Fig.1. Each ply is typically a thin (approximately 0.2 mm) sheet of collimated fibers
impregnated with an uncured epoxy or other thermosetting polymer matrix material.
The orientation of each ply is arbitrary, and the layup sequence is tailored to achieve
the properties desired of the laminate.
Fiber reinforced composite materials for structural applications are made in the form
of a thin layer, called lamina. A lamina is a macro unit of material whose material
properties are determined through appropriate laboratory tests. Structural elements such
as bars, beams and plates are then formed by stacking the layers to achieve desired
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 15

strength and stiffness. Fiber orientation in each lamina and stacking sequence of the
layers can be choosen to achieve desired strength and stiffness .
Governing equation
A laminated plate is made by using a lamina as the building block. Its stiffness is
obtained from the properties of the constituent laminae. To do this, we should know the
orientations of the principle material directions of the laminae with respect to the
laminate axis. Therefore , a knowledge of stress and strain through the laminate
thickness is necessary.
We shall make the following assumptions regarding the behaviour of a laminate:
1. It is made up of perfectly bonded laminae.
2. The bonds are infinitesimally thin and no lamina can slip relative to
the other. This implies that the displacements are continuous across the lamina
boundaries. As a result, the laminate behave like a lamina with special
properties.
3.After buckling, a line originally straight and perpendicular to the middle
surface of the laminate remains straight and perpendicular to the middle
surface.
4. The strain perpendicular to the middle surface of the laminate is ignored.


Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 16



(Fig.1.b) Laminated composite plate under in-plane compression.

Classical Laminate Theory, has been used to derive the governing buckling equations
for a plate subjected to in plane load. To derive the governing equations we have
considered first the equilibrium of force and then the equilibrium of moment in a way
as discussed below:

The equilibrium equations in terms of the forces (Fig. 2.a) are

0
0
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
N c
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
y xy
xy
x
.............(1)
Where Nx; Ny; and Nxy are the internal forces in normal and tangential direction.
Again, the equilibrium equation in terms of the moments (Fig. 2.b) is
) 2 ........( .......... ,......... 0 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
=
c c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c c
c
+
c
c
y x
w
N
y
w
N
x
w
N
y
M
y x
M
x
M
xy y x
y xy
x

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 17

where, Nx ;Ny; Nxy are the forces applied at the edges.


(fig 2.a) Inplane forces on laminate


(fig.2.b) Moments on a laminate
The resultant forces Nx; Ny and Nxy and moments Mx; My and Mxy acting on a
laminate are obtained by integration of the stress in each layer or lamina through the
laminate thickness. Knowing the stress in terms of the displacement, we can obtain the
stress resultants Nx; Ny; Nxy; Mx ; My ; and Mxy.
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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The stress resultants are defned as
}
÷
=
2
2
t
t
x x
dz N o
}
÷
=
2
2
t
t
y y
dz N o
}
÷
=
2
2
t
t
xy xy
dz N t
}
÷
=
2
2
,
t
t
x x
zdz M o
}
÷
=
2
2
t
t
y y
zdz M o
}
÷
=
2
2
.
t
t
xy xy
zdz M t ........(3)
Where
, x
o
y
o and
xy
t are normal and shear stress.

Actually, Nx ;Ny and Nxy are the force per unit length of the cross section of the laminate
as shown in Fig.2.a. Similarly, Mx ;My; and Mxy are the moment per unit length as
shown in Fig .2.b. Thus, the forces and moments for an N-layer laminate can be defined
as

,
2
2
1
1
dz dz
N
N
N
r
h
h
N
r
z
z
xy
y
x
r
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
r
r
}
¿
}
÷
=
÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
t
o
o
t
o
o
.........(4)

,
1
2
2
1
zdz zdz
M
M
M
N
r
z
z
r
xy
y
x
r
h
h
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
r
r
¿
} }
=
÷
÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
t
o
o
t
o
o
...........(5)


where,
r
z and
1 ÷ r
z are as defined in Fig. 3. Note that
2
0
t
z ÷ = Substituting for
y x
o o , and
xy
t
in equations (2) and (3) and integrating over the thickness of each layer and adding the results
so obtained for N layers, we can write the stress resultants as

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 19

,
,
66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
0
0
0
66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
0
0
0
66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
k
k
k
D D D
D D D
D D D
B B B
B B B
B B B
M
M
M
k
k
k
B B B
B B B
B B B
A A A
A A A
A A A
N
N
N
¸
c
c
¸
c
c
..........(6) and(7)
Where

( )
( )
( ) ( ).
3
1
), (
2
1
), (
3
1
3
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
÷
=
÷
=
=
÷
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
¿
¿
¿
r r
r
n
r
ij ij
r r
r
N
r
ij ij
N
r
r r
r
ij ij
Z Z Q D
Z Z Q B
Z Z Q A
..........(8)

fig (3) Geometry of an N-layered laminate

Here, Aij are the extensional stiffness, Bij the coupling stiffness, and Dij the flexural
stiffness. For antisymmetric angle-ply and cross-ply laminates stress resultants are
simplified in the following sections:

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In the case of angle-ply laminates where the fibre orientation ᶱ alternates from lamina to
lamina as +ᶿ/-ᶿ/+ᶿ/-ᶿ, the force and moment resultants are

,
,
0 0
0
0
66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
0
0
0
66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
66 26 16
26 22 12
16 12 11
0
0
0
66
22 12
12 11
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
k
k
k
D D D
D D D
D D D
B B B
B B B
B B B
M
M
M
k
k
k
B B B
B B B
B B B
A
A A
A A
N
N
N
¸
c
c
¸
c
c
.......(9) and (10)

Such a laminate is called an anti-symmetric angle-ply laminate. In this type of laminate, if
each lamina has the same thickness, it is then called a regular anti-symmetric angle-ply
laminate. For such a laminate, equations (6) and (7) reduce to


,
0 0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
,
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0
66
22 12
12 11
0
0
0
26 16
26
16
26 16
26
16
0
0
0
66
22 12
12 11
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
xy
y
x
k
k
k
D
D D
D D
B B
B
B
M
M
M
k
k
k
B B
B
B
A
A A
A A
N
N
N
¸
c
c
¸
c
c
...........(11) and (12)

Let the laminae are oriented alternatively at 0
0
and

90
0
. A laminate of this type is termed
as a cross-ply laminate. Such a laminate can, again, be either symmetric cross-ply or anti-
symmetric cross-ply.


Substituting for N
x
;N
y
;N
xy
;M
x
;M
y
;M
xy
from equations (9) and (10), after substituting for
0 0 0
,
xy y x
and¸ c c k
x
; k
y
; k
xy
in equations (1) and (2), we get the governing equations as
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0 ) 2 (
3 ) 2 ( ) (
3
3
26
2
3
66 12
2
3
16
3
3
11
2
0 2
66
2
0 2
26
0 2
2
0 2
16
0 2
66 12
2
0 2
11
=
c
c
÷
c c
c
+ ÷
c c
c
÷
c
c
÷
c
c
+
c
c
+
c c
c
+
c
c
+
c c
c
+ +
c
c
y
w
B
y x
w
B B
y x
w
B
x
w
B
y
u
A
y
v
A
y x
u
x
u
A
y x
v
A A
x
u
A
0 3 ) 2 (
2 ) (
3
3
22
2
3
26
2
3
66 12
3
3
16
2
0 2
22
0 2
26
2
0 2
66
2
0 2
26
0 2
66 12
2
0 2
16
=
c
c
÷
c c
c
÷
c c
c
+ ÷
c
c
÷
c
c
+
c c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c c
c
+ +
c
c
y
w
B
y x
w
B
y x
w
B B
x
w
B
y
v
A
y x
v
A
x
v
A
y
u
A
y x
u
A A
x
u
A

y x
w
N
y
w
N
x
w
N
y
v
B
y x
v
B B
y x
v
B B
x
v
B
y
u
B
y x
u
B B
y x
u
B
x
u
B
y
w
D
y x
w
D
y x
w
D D
y x
w
D
x
w
D
xy y x
c c
c
÷
c
c
÷
c
c
÷ =
c
c
÷
c c
c
+ ÷
c c
c
+ ÷
c
c
÷
c
c
÷
c c
c
+ ÷
c c
c
÷
c
c
÷
c
c
+
c c
c
+
c c
c
+ +
c c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
3
0 3
22
2
0 3
66 12
2
0 3
66 12
3
0 3
16
3
0 3
26
2
0 3
66 12
2
0 3
16
3
0 3
11
4
4
22
3
4
26
2 2
4
66 12
3
4
16
4
4
11
2 ) 2 (
) 2 ( ) 2 ( 3
4 ) 4 2 ( 4

For a general laminate, all the above three equations, have to be solved simultaneously as
they are coupled.

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Chapter-3






Experimental Study
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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

In view of difficulty of theoretical and numerical analysis for laminated structure
behaviours, experimental methods have become important in solving the buckling
problem of laminated composite plates. The experimental and numerical analysis done
on aluminium plate showed an appreciable match in the results. Taking the above proof
for the correctness of the experimental procedure. Here the same experimental
procedure was followed for a composite plate.

To understand the effect of cut out shape, length/thickness ratio, ply orientation, and
length/breadth ratio on the compressive behaviour of woven glass epoxy laminated
composite plates compression test was performed. The specimen was clamped at two side
and kept free at other two sides The specimens were loaded in axial compression by using a
tensile testing machine of 100 tonne load capacity.

The buckling load is determined from the load –displacement curve. In this study both
out of plane displacement and end shortening of the plate was plotted against the applied
load. Buckling load is determined from the intersection point of two tangent drawn from the
pre buckling and post buckling regions. In this study buckling load of composite plate
determined by using the above two method and compared with each other.

Buckling Experiment of aluminium plate
In this study buckling load of aluminium plates determined numerically and
experimentally. Two different plate length were used: 300mm and 200mm. The width
and thickness of the plates are 200mm and 1.7mm respectively. The Youngs modulus
value was 70000N/mm
2
and poissons ratio was taken as 0.3.
Test procedure
The specimen were loaded in axial compression using a Instron tensile testing machine
of 100 KN capacity. The specimen was clamped at two ends and kept free at the other two
ends. A dial gauge was mounted at the centre of the specimen to observe the lateral
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deflection. All specimen were loaded slowly until buckling. The experimental set up is
shown below. Clamped boundary conditions were simulated along the top and bottom
edges, restraining 40mm length .For axial loading, the test specimens were placed
between the two extremely stiff machine heads, of which the lower one was fixed
during the test, whereas the upper head was moved downwards by servo hydraulic
cylinder. All plates were loaded at constant cross-head speed of 1mm/min. The test
set up is shown below.

fig.(4.a) Instron testing machine
Fig. (4.b)
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As the load was increased the dial gauge needle started moving, and at the onset of
buckling there was a sudden large movement of the needle. The load corresponding to this
point will be the buckling load of the specimen. The load v/s displacement curve and load
v/s end shortening curve was plotted. The displacement is plotted on the x -axis and load was
plotted on the y- axis. The load, which is the initial part of the curve deviated linearity, is
taken as the critical buckling load. That point is determined from the intersection of two
tangent drawn from the pre-buckling and post-buckling regions.
Composite Specimen Preparation and Manufacturing
To meet the wide range of needs which may be required in fabricating composites, the
industry has evolved oven a dozen separate manufacturing processes as well as a number of
hybrid processes. Each of these processes offers advantages and specific benefits which may
apply to the fabricating of composites. Hand lay-up and spray-up are two basic moulding
processes. The hand lay-up process is the oldest, simplest, and most labour intense fabrication
method. The process is most common in FRP marine construction. In hand lay-up method
liquid resin is placed along with reinforcement (woven glass fiber) against finished surface of
an open mould. Chemical reactions in the resin harden the material to a strong, light weight
product. The resin serves as the matrix for the reinforcing glass fibers, much as concrete acts
as the matrix for steel reinforcing rods. The percentage of fiber and matrix was 50:50 in
weight.

(Fig.5.a) Glass fiber (fig. 5.b) Plate casting
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Contact moulding in an open mould by hand lay-up was used to combine plies of WR
in the prescribed sequence. A flat plywood rigid platform was selected. A plastic sheet was
kept on the plywood platform and a thin film of polyvinyl alcohol was applied as a releasing
agent by use of spray gun. Laminating starts with the application of a gel coat (epoxy and
hardener) deposited on the mould by brush, whose main purpose was to provide a smooth
external surface and to protect the fibers from direct exposure to the environment. Ply was cut
from roll of woven roving. Layers of reinforcement were placed on the mould at top of the gel
coat and gel coat was applied again by brush. Any air which may be entrapped was removed
using serrated steel rollers. The process of hand lay-up was the continuation of the above
process before the gel coat had fully hardened. Again, a plastic sheet was covered the top of
plate by applying polyvinyl alcohol inside the sheet as releasing agent. Then, a heavy flat metal
rigid platform was kept top of the plate for compressing purpose. The plates were left for a
minimum of 48 hours before being transported and cut to exact shape for testing. The
following constituent materials were used for fabricating the plate:
1. E-glass woven roving as reinforcement
2. Epoxy as resin
3. Hardener as catalyst
4. Polyvinyl alcohol as a releasing agent
After 48 hours curing the specimen were cut in to desired sizes ,with and without
cutout shown in fig. Circular, square, and rectangular cutout of same
area(9.62cm
2
)were made for the experiments. The specifications of plate tested in the
present study shown in the table-1 and the plate with various cut out shape was
shown in fig.6. The mechanical properties of the composite plates were determined
by Instron tensile testing machine of 100KN load capacity. A specimens whose
fiber direction coincide with the loading direction was used to obtain the
modulus of elasticity along the fiber direction. The specimen were loaded step-by-
step up to rupture by the test machine. Strains in the fiber (
1
c ) and transverse
directions ( ) (
2
c were measured,by using these strains E values are determined.
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The mechanical properties of the tested specimen obtained as E
11
=7.7Gpa,
E
22
=7.7Gpa, 12 . 0
12
= v and G
12
= 2.81Gpa.

circular square

Rectangular Rectangular
( Fig.6) The plate with different cutout shape tested in the present study

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Table 1 : Plate tested in the present study.
Plate no: Stacking sequence Length(mm) Thickness (mm) Width(mm)
Plate1 [0]
4
130 1.5 120
[0]
4
130 1.32 120
[0]
4
130 1.33 120
Plate2 [0]
6
130 2.25 120
[0]
6
130 2.23 120
[0]
6
130 2.21 120
Plate3 [0]
8
130 2.96 120
[0]
8
130 3.37 120
[0]
8
130 3.31 120
Plate4 [0]
8
175 3.31 120
[0]
8
175 3.2 120
[0]
8
175 3.15 120
Plate5 [0]
8
200 3.2 120
[0]
8
200 3.1 120
Plate6 [30/-30]
8
130 3.31 120
[30/-30]
8
130 3.28 120
[30/-30]
8
130 3.25 120
Plate7 [45/-45]
8
130 3.24 120
[45/-45]
8
130 3.24 120
Plate8 [0]
8
60 3.3 120
[0]
8
60 3.28 120
Plate9 [0]
10
130 3.65 120
[0]
10
130 3.65 120
Plate10 [0]
12
130 3.85 120
[0]
12
130 3.83 120
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Buckling Experiments for composite plates
The specimen were loaded in axial compression using a uniaxial tensile testing machine
of 100 tonne capacity. It is shown in fig.8.a. The specimen was clamped at two ends and kept
free at the other two ends. A dial gauge was mounted at the centre of the specimen to
observe the lateral deflection. All specimens were loaded slowly up to failure. Clamped
boundary conditions were simulated along the top and bottom edges, restraining 40mm
length .For axial loading, the test specimens were placed between the two extremely
stiff machine heads, of which the lower one was fixed during the test, whereas the
upper head was moved downwards by servo hydraulic cylinder. The shape of the plate
after buckling was shown in fig.8.b. All laminated plates were loaded at constant
cross-head speed of 200Kn/min. Finally the microscopic scanning was performed for the
failed samples by using the JEOL-JSM-6480LV Scanning Electron Microscopic device
shown in fig.9. The image of failed specimen obtained after scanning was shown in
fig.10.
As the load was increased the dial gauge needle started moving, and at the onset of
buckling there was a sudden large movement of the needle. The load corresponding to this
point will be the buckling load of the specimen. The load v/s displacement curve and load
v/s end shortening curve was plotted. The displacement is plotted on the x -axis and load was
plotted on the y- axis. The load, which is the initial part of the curve deviated linearity,is
taken as the critical buckling load. That point is determined from the intersection of two
tangent drawn from the pre-buckling and post-buckling regions.
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(fig.7) . Test set up for both side clamped boundary condition



(Fig 7.a)Before Buckling ( fig.7.b) After Buckling
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Scanning Electron Microscope (fig.8)



Microscopoic image of the failure ( fig.9)


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Numerical Analysis

ANSYS was used to carry out the finite element analysis in the work. ANSYS is
used to analyse the critical buckling load aluminium plates of different sizes. The
dimension of the specimen were 300*200* 1.7mm and 200*200*1.7mm in length, width
and thickness .Eigen value buckling analysis in ANSYS has four steps:
1.Build the model : It includes defining element type, real constants, material properties
and modelling. In this study shell ,Elastic 8node 93 selected as the element type.
2.Solution(Static Analysis): It includes applying boundary conditions, applying loads and
solving the static analysis. The applied boundary condition and load is shown below.


Fig.10

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3. Eigen buckling analysis: Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical
buckling strength of an ideal linear elastic structure.
4. Postprocessor: This steps includes listing buckling loads and viewing buckled
shapes. We can plot the deformed and undeformed shape of the plate.




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CHAPTER- 4




RESULTs AND DISCUSSION
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The buckling load for clamped- free aluminium plate determined. The results were
both experimental analysis and finite element analysis. The agreement between the
two method was generally good. The critical buckling loads obtained experimentally
and by ANSYS is shown in the table2 .

plate
No.
Length
mm
Width
mm
Thickness
mm
Experimental
Buckling
load(N/mm)
ANSYS
Buckling
load(N/mm)
Plate-1 300 200 1.7 11.75 13.44
Plate-2 200 200 1.7 24.25 30.55

Table 2 : Buckling Results of Aluminium Plate

It was observed that the buckling load of plate-1 obtained from experimental and
numerical analysis are identical and less than that of plate-2.The experimental
buckling loads for both specimens are less than the ANSYS results. The deformed and
undeformed shape of the aluminium plate was shown in the fig.12.



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Fig.11
It is observed that all the laminated plates buckled globally until complete failure occurred
as expected. Experimental buckling loads were identified from the load-displacement plots,
and load- end shortening graph. Following graphs shows the load versus end-shortening
curves and load versus out of plane displacement for the tested panels with and without
central holes, different angle orientations, different aspect ratio and different length/thickness
ratio. It is interesting to note that all the tested panels behave in a similar fashion where, their
behaviour is almost linear initially before reaching the peak loads. Beyond those peak points
of the load-displacement curves, majority of the laminates experienced large displacements
before failure.

From the electron microscopic scanning it was found that, the bonding between the
matrix and glass laminate was breaked during the failure. The glass fiber was came out
from the plate.


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The load v/s out-of-plane displacement (4layer,130*120*1.32mm, [0/0/0/0]
4
)

and load v/s
end shortening for Plate-1 are shown in fig.12 & 13 respectively. From the graph we can find
that the displacement of the plate started at a load of 14KN, after which the plate was
deflecting outward with an increase in the load. The thickness of the plate is very small.
Hence the plate shows a large deflection for small increment in the load. The critical
buckling load obtained from both the graphs was almost equal.


(Fig.12) Load versus out of plane displacement graph


(Fig.13) Load versus end shortening graph

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The load v/s out of plane displacement graph for Plate-2 (6 layer, 130*120*2.23mm.[0/0]
6
)
is shown in fig.14. The critical buckling load was determined from the intersection of
tangents drawn from the pre-buckled region and post buckled region. The load v/s end
shortening graph obtained from the test is shown in fig.15.The buckling load obtained
from both graphs was almost equal.


(Fig.14) Load-out of plane displacement


(Fig.15) Load- end shortening
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The load v/s out of plane displacement graph for Plate-3 (8 layer ,130*120*3.31mm
[0/0/0/0]
8
) is shown in fig.16. The displacement started at 15KN load and the buckling
occurred between 20 and 25KN. The load v/s end shortening graph is shown in fig. 17.
The buckling load obtained from the load v/s end shortening plot was slightly different
from load v/s out of plane displacement.


(Fig.16) Load v/s out of plane displacement



(fig.17) Load v/s end shortening
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In Plate-4(8 layer, 175*120*3.31mm, [0/0]
8
), the aspect ratio was changed by
varying the length. The plot of load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end
shortening is shown in fig. 18 & 19 respectively.



(fig.18) Load v/s out of plane displacement



(fig.19) Load-end shortening
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In Plate-5( 8layer, 200*120*3.2mm, [0/0/0/0]
4
),the length was again increased to study the
effect of aspect ratio on buckling load. The load v/s out of plane displacement and load
v/s end shortening plotted for plate 5 is shown in fig.20 & 21 respectively.


(Fig.20) Load –out of plane displacement


(fig.21) Load v/s end shortening
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In Plate-6 ( 8 layer,130*120*3.31 mm, [30/-30/30/-30]
8
) , the fiber orientation was
changed from 0
0
to 30
0
.The buckling load was determined from fig.22 & fig.23 . It was
found to be less compared to buckling load of plate with 0
0
orientation.


(Fig.22) Load v/s out of plane displacement




(fig.23) Load v/s end shortening
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In Plate:-7( 8layer, 130*120*3.24mm, [45/-45/45/-45]
8
) the orientation was
again changed to 45
0
. The corresponding variation in load displacement graph is shown
below.

(fig.23) Load-out of plane displacement



(fig.24) Load-end shortening
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In Plate-8 (10 layer, 130*120*3.5mm, [0/0/0/0]
10
) the number of layers
was increased to 10. Hence the thickness of the plate increased. The load v/s out of plane
displacement and load v/s end shortening is shown below. The buckling load obtained
from both graphs was nearly equal.

Load-out of plane displacement graph



Load v/s end shortening graph
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In Plate-9 ( 12 layer ,130*120* 3.8mm, [0/0/0/0]
12
) the thickness was again
increased by increasing the number of layers. Here 12 layers are used. The plots for load
v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening is shown in fig.27 and 28
respectively.

(Fig.27) Load- out of plane displacement


(fig.28) Load –end shortening graph

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For Plate-10 ( 8 layer,60*120*3.1mm, [0/0/0/0]
8
), it was difficult to fit the dial gauge
with the plate due to its short length. Hence only load v/s end shortening was plotted and is
shown in fig.29 .





( Fig.29) Load-end shortening










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Plate with circular cut out
In plate-11 (12 layer,130* 120*3.75mm, [0/0/0/0]
12
) a circular cutout was made at the
centre. It results in decrease in the buckling load. The load v/s out of plane displacement and
load v/s end shortening is shown in the fig.30 and 31respectively.


(Fig.30) Load v/s out of plane displacement


(fig.31) Load v/s end shortening
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Here the load v/s displacement graph for plate with square cut out is given. The buckling
determined from load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening for
Plate-12 (12 layer,130*120*3.65mm, [0/0/0/0]
12
) was almost equal .


(Fig.32) Load v/s out of plane displacement


(Fig.33) Load v/s end shortening
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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The load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening graph for plate 13 with
rectangular cut out is shown in the following figure. It was observed that buckling load for
this plate less as compared to the plate with circular cutout.

(fig.34) Load v/s out of plane displacement


(fig.35) Load v/s end shortening

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Plate-14 (12 layer,130*120*3.68mm , [0/0/0/0]
12
) having the rectangular cutout in the
transverse direction was subjected to compressive loading. The load v/s out of plane
displacement and load v/s end shortening was plotted and is shown in fig.36 and 37
respectively. It was observed that the plate 14 gives less buckling load as compared to
other plates with cutout.


(Fig.36) Load v/s out of plane displacement



(Fig.37) Load v/s end shortening
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Effect of Length to Thickness Ratio (L/t)

Plates with different thickness are used extensively due to design requirements. Thus, the
buckling response of plates with its length to thickness ratio must be fully understood in the
structural design. In this study the thickness of the plate was increased by increasing number
of layers. The experimental results shows that the variation in buckling load is very sensitive
to the thickness of the plate. The variation in buckling load with change in the thickness of
the plate is shown in fig.38. From the graph in it is observed that the buckling load decreases
with increase in length to thickness ratio.


Table 3: Effect of Length to Thickness Ratio (L/t)

Sl.
no
Length
mm
Width
mm
Thickness
mm
Buckling
Load(KN)
Graph1
Buckling
Load(KN)
Graph2
1 130 120 1.5 15.3 15.5
2 130 120 1.32 15.2 15.5
3 130 120 1.33 15.1 15
4 130 120 2.25 17.65 17.8
5 130 120 2.23 17.3 17
6 130 120 3.29 20 19
7 130 120 3.37 22.5 23
8 130 120 3.31 22 22.5
9 130 120 3.62 26.5 26
10 130 120 3.65 27 26.5
11 130 120 3.85 33.5 34.5
12 130 120 3.85 34 36
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(Fig.38) Buckling load v/s length to thickness ratio.

Effect of aspect ratio (a/b ratio)

In this study, the laminated plates are evaluated at four different aspect ratios. The tested
plate and their corresponding buckling load was shown in table-4.The buckling load
decreases continuously with increasing aspect ratio but the rate of decrease is not uniform.
In this study aspect ratio was changed from 0.5 to 1.67.It is observed that buckling load was
maximum for aspect ratio 0.5 and minimum for aspect ratio 1.67. When the aspect ratio
changed from 0.5 to 1, the variation in buckling load is almost 24%. There are loss of 21%
of buckling load between aspect ratios 1 and 1.5. The aspect ratio and buckling load was
plotted along x and y axis as shown in fig.39. From that graph, it is observed that the rate
of decrease in buckling load is decreasing with increase in aspect ratio.

Sl.
no
Length
mm
Width
mm
Thickness
mm
Buckling
Load(KN)
Graph1
Buckling
load(KN)
Graph2
1 130 120 3.29 20 19.8
2 130 120 3.37 22.5 23
3 130 120 3.31 22 23.5
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4 175 120 3.31 18.2 18.7
5 175 120 3.2 17.9 18.4
6 175 120 3.15 18.9 19
7 200 120 3.2 17 18
8 200 120 3.1 17.5 18.2
9 60 120 3.29 27
10 60 120 3.2 26

Table 4 : Effect of aspect ratio (a/b ratio)



(fig.39) Buckling load v/s aspect ratio graph.

Effect of fibre orientation

In this study the buckling load of composite plates with different fiber orientation
was determined. The result is shown in the Table-5 . The result shows that the
buckling load is decreasing with increase in fiber orientation angle. The maximum
buckling load was occurred at [0]
8.
When the orientation of the fiber changed from 0
0

to 30
0
, the corresponding change in buckling load was almost 20% . Reduction of 30%
in buckling load is observed as the ply orientation angle increases from 0
0
to 45
0
. The
variation of buckling load with fiber orientation shown in fig.40.
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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Sl.
no.
orientation Length

(mm)
Width

(mm)
Thickness

(mm)
Buckling
load(kn)
From graph1
Buckling
load(kn) from
graph 2
1 0 130 120 2.96 22.5 22
2 0 130 120 3.3 22 23.5
3 0 130 120 3.37 23 23.5
4 30 130 120 3.31 21.05 20.5
5 30 130 120 3.28 20.5 20
6 30 130 120 3.25 20.0 20.5
7 45 130 120 3.18 16.3 16
8 45 130 120 3.24 17.2 17.5

Table 5 : Effect of Orientation


(Fig.40) Buckling load v/s fiber orientation

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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Effect of cut out shape

Plates with different types of cut outs are used extensively due to design requirements.
Thus, the buckling response of plates with cut out must be fully understood in the structural
design. In this section, the effects of circular, square and rectangular shapes with same
areas are taken in to account. The experiments indicate that the variation of the
buckling loads is very sensitive to the presence of cut out. It can be seen that buckling

load generally decreases with presence of cutout. We can observe that the buckling
load for plate without cutout are about 25% and 30% higher than that of [0]
12
with
circular and square cutout. The plate with rectangular cutout gives the minimum
buckling load.


Sl.
no
No. Of
layers
Cutout
shape
Length
(mm)
Breadth
(mm)
Thickness
(mm)
Buckling
Load(kn)
Graph1
Buckling
load(kn)
Graph2
1 12 without 130 120 3.7 34.5 36
2 12 Circular 130 120 3.78 24.5 25.75
3 12 Square 130 120 3.81 23.75 24.5
4 12 Rectangular1 130 120 3.65 22 22.5
5 12 Rectangular2 130 120 3.7 23 23.8

Table 6 : Effect of cut out shape







Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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Chapter-5





CONCLUSION
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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CONCLUSION

This study considers the buckling response of laminated rectangular plates with
clamped-free boundary conditions. The laminated composite plates have varying L/T
ratio, aspect ratio, cut out shape and ply orientation. From the present analytical and
experimental study, the following conclusions can be made.

1. It was noted that different length to thickness ratio affected the critical buckling
load. The buckling load decreases as the L/t ratio increases. The rate of decrease of
buckling load is not uniform with the rate of increase of L/t ratio.

2. As the aspect ratio increases, the critical buckling load of the plate decreases. When
the aspect ratio changed from 0.5 to 1, the variation in buckling load is almost 24%. The rate
of change of buckling load with the aspect ratio is almost uniform.

3. It was seen that the different fiber orientation angles affected the critical buckling
load. When the fiber angle increases, the buckling load decreases. The plate with [0]
8

layup has the highest buckling load and the plate with [45]
8
layup has the lowest
buckling load.

4. The reduction of the buckling load due to the presence of a cutout is found to be
significant. It is noted that the presence of cutout lowers the buckling load and it
varies with the cutout shape. The plate with circular cutout yielded the greatest critical
buckling load.
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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Future scope of the work

In the present study the buckling load of the laminated plate was determined.
The effect of cutout shape, length to thickness ratio, aspect ratio and fiber orientation on
buckling load was studied. The future scope of the present investigation can be
expressed as follows,
(a) Buckling analysis of delaminted industry driven woven composite plates with and
without cutouts.
(b) Buckling analysis of laminated woven fiber composite plates with delamination by
numerical approach for different boundary conditions.
(c). Dynamic stability of woven fiber laminated and delaminated composite plates.
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

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Chapter-6




REFERENCES
Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Page 60

REFERENCES

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4. Chavanan supasak, A comparison of experimental buckling load of rectangular plates
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9. G. Garya and H. Zhao. Dynamic testing of fibre polymer matrix composite plates under in-
plane compression- Journal of Composites: Part A 31 (2000) 835–840.

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plates and sections, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures 44 (2006) 1118–1128.

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(2005) 149–155.

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laminated composite plates- journal of composite structures ,vol.63(2004), pages 69-74.
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19. N G R Iyengar . Structural stability of columns and plates, EWP pvt. Ltd.
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Buckling Analysis of Woven Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate

A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of

Master of Technology In Civil Engineering (Structural Engineering)

By ARUN KUMAR R Roll No-207CE208 Under The Guidance of Prof. S. K. Sahu and Prof. A. V. Asha

Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela Rourkela-769008, Orissa, India
May, 2009

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA – 769008, ORISSA INDIA

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF GLASS EPOXY LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES” s u b m i t t ed by Mr. Arun Kumar R in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Master of with specialization in Structural

Technology Degree in Civil Engineering

Engineering at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/ Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Date: May 30, 2009 Place: Rourkela

Prof. S. K. Sahu Prof. A. V. Asha Dept of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela – 769008

G Radhakrishnan Nair and Suchetha. Director and Prof M. I also thank all my batch mates. for their encouragement. for his advice and providing necessary facility for my work. advice. B. V for their love. National Institute of Technology Rourkela. S. K. Ravi. Their technical and editorial advice was essential for the completion of this dissertation. A V Asha. depth of knowledge and ability to achieve perfection will always be my inspiration. Finally. Verma and other supporting staff in the Metallurgical & Materials engineering for their help.Acknowledgments I would like to express my gratitude to my guide. Their ability to teach. Panda. I also thank to Shuvranshu. I am grateful to my parents K. Head of the Civil Engineering Department. S K Sahu and Prof. support and guidance. They have always been supportive of my academic pursuit. I would also like to thank Prof. mentoring and research support throughout my studies. B. I am very thankful to all the faculty members and staffs of civil engineering department who assisted me in my research. as well as in my post graduate studies. and all first year students for their friendly environment in civil computer laboratory. Dr. who have directly or indirectly helped me in my project work and in the completion of this report. My sincere thanks to Dr. Sarangi. Arun Kumar R .

............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Review of literature.......................................... 4 INTRODUCTION ..................... 13 Theory of bending of thin plates ............................................................................................................... 23 Numerical Analysis............................................................................................ 7 Aim and scope of study................. 60 .............. 11 THEORETICAL FORMULATION ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 57 REFERENCES .. 32 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Buckling of composite plate .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY........CONTENTS ABSTRACT................................ 35 CONCLUSION ................................. 3 LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................................................

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 ABSTRACT There have been numerous studies on the composite laminated structures which find many applications in many engineering fields namely aerospace. good mechanical properties and low fabrication cost. biomedical. National Institute of Technology. They also possess excellent damage tolerance and impact resistance. In this study. Clamped –free -Clamped-free boundary condition is considered for all case. or in the case of fuselage. The thickness of the plate was changed by increasing the number of layers. In aerospace and many other applications these structural components are also made up of composite material to further reduce the weight of the structure. Buckling behaviour of laminated composite plates subjected to in-plane loads is an important consideration in the preliminary design of aircraft and launch vehicle components. the influence of cut-out shape. civil. square and rectangular cut-outs. length/thickness ratio. marine and mechanical engineering because of their ease of handling. Comparisons are made between the test results. It has a wide range of applications in engineering science and technology. such as durability and corrosionresistance characteristics combined with low density. by using two different approach. Buckling of plates is a well-established branch of research in composite structures stability. The results shows effect of various cut-out shapes. These holes can be access holes. The mechanical behaviour of composite structures is of particular interest to engineers in modern technology. make it more attractive compared to conventional materials. Experiments have been carried out on laminated composites with circular. The outstanding mechanical properties of composite structures. In some cases holes are used to reduce the weight of the structure. Plates with circular holes and other openings are extensively used as structural members in aircraft design. Rourkela Page 2 . The sizing of many structural subcomponents of these vehicles is often determined by stability constraints. and ply orientation and aspect ratio on the buckling of woven glass epoxy laminated composite plate is examined experimentally. After the buckling experiments micro electroscopic scanning was performed for the failed specimens. holes for hardware to pass through. The buckling behaviour of such plates has always received much attention by researchers. aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the buckling load. orientation of fiber. windows and doors.

....................................... 25 Figure 6: Plate with different cutout shapes.........19 Figure4: Instron testing machine ......................... 17 Figure3: Geometry of N layered laminate .16 Figure 2.......................................................................................................................................... Rourkela Page 3 .......................................................24 Figure5: Glass epoxy composite plate casting ............................ ......................................................................30 Figure 8: Scanning electron microscope ........................................................32 Figure 11: Buckled shape of aluminium plate ....................b: Laminated composite plate under in-plane compression .......31 Figure 9: Microscopic image of failed sample ................................................................................................................................................. 53 National Institute of Technology...............................36 Figure12-37: Load v/s displacement graph for composite plates ..........................: Inplane forces and moments on laminae ..........................................................31 Figure 10: Applayed boundary condition and load.. 37-50 Figure 38: Buckled load v/s length to thickness ratio graph ...........Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 LIST OF FIGURES Figure1..................................................................................................................................................... 27 Figure 7: Test setup for clamped composite plate .................................53 Figure 1..................................................a :The thin plate notation .......................52 Figure 39: Buckling load v/s aspect ratio graph .............................

Table 2 : Table 3 : Table 4 : Table 5 : Table 6 : Buckling Results of Aluminium Plate Effect of Length to Thickness Ratio (L/t) Effect of aspect ratio (a/b ratio) Effect of Orientation Effect of cut out shape 28 35 51 53 54 55 National Institute of Technology.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 : Plate tested in the present study. Rourkela Page 4 .

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION National Institute of Technology. Rourkela Page 5 .

Due to the excellent stiffness and weight characteristics. their distribution and the interaction among them and as a result an unusual combination of material properties can be obtained . and the matrix. Development of new applications and new composites is accelerating due to the requirement of materials with unusual combination of properties that cannot be met by conventional monolithic materials. The magnitude of the compressive load at which the plate becomes unstable is called the “critical buckling load. Laminated composites are gaining wider use in mechanical and aerospace applications due to their high specific stiffness and high specific strength. composites have been receiving more attention from engineers. the mechanical properties can be varied as required by suitably orienting the fibres. however. In such material the fibres are the main load bearing members. or plates. beams. Only rectangular thin plates are considered in the present study. During operation the composite laminate plates are commonly subjected to compression loads that may cause buckling if overloaded. scientists.” A composite material consist of two or more materials and offers a significant weight saving in structures in view of its high strength to weight and high stiffness to weight ratios. National Institute of Technology. provides the necessary flexibility and also keeps the fibres in position and protect them from the environment. and designers. Fiberreinforced composites are used extensively in the form of relatively thin plate. composite materials are capable of covering this requirement in all means because of their heterogeneous nature. As the magnitude of the in-plane compressive load increases. When a flat plate is subjected to low in-plane compressive loads.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 INTRODUCTION In many engineering structures such as columns. in a fibrous composite. the equilibrium configuration of the plate is eventually changed to a non-flat configuration and the plate becomes unstable. and consequently the load carrying capability of composite plate against buckling has been intensively considered by researchers under various loading and boundary conditions. their failure develops not only from excessive stresses but also from buckling. Rourkela Page 6 . Hence their buckling behaviours are important factors in safe and reliable design of these structures. Further. which has low modulus and high elongation. it remains flat and is in equilibrium condition. Actually. Properties of composite arise as a function of its constituent materials.

However. Numerical results are presented for optimal-design plates laminated of glass/epoxy. and consequently the load carrying capability of composite plate against buckling has been intensively considered by researchers under various loading and boundary conditions. marine and mechanical engineering because of their ease of handling. biomedical. and length/breadth ratio are investigated. experimental methods have become important in solving the buckling work deals with buckling analysis of plates under clamped -free –clamped. and by Saint-Venant’s 1855 memoir on uniform torsion. boron/epoxy. This symmetrically and laminated composite boundary condition. Thus far. who considered the lateral buckling of beams of narrow rectangular cross-section. ply orientation. They also possess excellent damage tolerance and impact resistance. which gave the first reliable description of the twisting response of members to torsion.torsional buckling was preceded by Euler’s (1759) treatise on column flexural buckling. The effects on buckling load by cut out size. it was not until 1899 that the first treatments were published of flexural-torsional buckling by Michell and Prandtl. Most recently the invention of highspeed electronic computers exerted a considerable influence on the static and dynamic analysis of plates. civil. The initial theoretical research into elastic flexural. Chen and Bert (1976) investigated optimal design of simply supported rectangular plates laminated to composite material and subjected to uniaxial compressive loading. there have been numerous studies on the fabric woven composite laminated structures which find widespread applications in many engineering fields namely aerospace. length/thickness ratio. good mechanical properties and low fabrication cost. which gave the first analytical method of predicting the reduced strengths of slender columns. Rourkela Page 7 . Their work was extended by Timoshenko to include the effects of warping torsion in I-section beams.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 In view of difficulty of theoretical and numerical analysis for laminated structure behaviours. Review of literature Fiber-reinforced composites are used extensively in the form of relatively thin plate.free problem of laminated composite plates. National Institute of Technology. and carbon/epoxy composite materials.

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Linear elastic buckling of plates that are subjected to in-plane forces is a problem of great practical importance that has been extensively researched over the past 60 years. and inter laminar-stress criterion are used. i.e. thin-walled structures have the characteristic of susceptibility of failure by instability or buckling. Hwang and Mao (2001) conducted the non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses to predict the delamination buckling load and delamination growth load. Experimental results are also provided to compare with the prediction. outNational Institute of Technology. Some advantages of thin-walled structures are high strength coupled with the ease of manufacturing and the relative low weight. The theory is capable of modelling the independent displacement field above and below the delamination. It is therefore important to the design engineer that accurate methods are available to determine the critical buckling strength. The procedure is implemented using the finite element method. Fok (1984).Buckling load of aluminum rectangular plates are determined using four different techniques. However. criterion of strainenergy release rate component. The formulation includes large displacements and large rotations needed to describe the local buckling phenomenon of the region. All stress free boundary conditions at free surfaces as well as delamination interfaces are satisfied by this theory. Laminated plates with strip-type delamination under pure bending were investigated analytically and experimentally by Yeh and Fang (1997). Both transverse shear and rotary inertia effects are taken into account. Rourkela Page 8 delaminated . A procedure for determining the buckling load of the aluminium rectangular plate is presented by Supasak and Singhatanadgid(2002) . the total strain-energy release rate criterion. has been applied the theory of thin plates to engineering structures. Elastic instability of flat rectangular plates became an important research area when the design of the lightweight airframes was introduced. (1) a plot of applied load vs. Radu and Chattopadhyay (2000) used a refined higher order shear deformation theory to investigate the dynamic instability associated with composite plates with delamination that are subject to dynamic compressive loads. In order to predict the delamination growth load. In the analysis. a two dimensional nonlinear finite element code based on updated lagrangian formulation was developed to analyze the bending behaviour of the laminated plates and the local buckling phenomenon of the sub laminates in the delaminated region.

We used the dynamic measured data from selected test points and by modal analysis got the modal parameters-mode shape and frequency. end shortening. Shukla and Kreuzer (2005) proposed a formulation based on the first-order shear estimates the critical/buckling deformation theory and von-Karman-type nonlinearity to loads of laminated composite rectangular plates under in-plane uniaxial and biaxial loadings. Rourkela Page 9 . . National Institute of Technology. lamination scheme. The effects of plate aspect ratio. Pannok and Singhatanadgid (2006) studies the buckling behaviour of rectangular and skew thin composite plates with various boundary conditions using the Ritz method along with the proposed out-of-plane displacement functions. Different combinations of simply supported. buckling loads determined from different experiment methods were compared with the theoretical buckling loads. clamped support and free edge. In this study. (2) a plot of applied load vs. The displacement expression is composed of items with the effect of tensionshear coupling and the effect of bend-torsion coupling. and(4)the Southwell plot. Force analysis was used to get the flexible matrix of equivalent force and the characteristic equation for determining the buckling load of the member. average in-plane strain. Wang and Lu (2003) was carried out an investigation to understand the buckling behaviour of local delamination near the surface of fiber reinforced laminated plates under mechanical and thermal loads. The critical strains of laminated plates with various shaped local delamination and different stacking patterns are obtained by making use of the energy principle. The shape of the delaminated region considered is rectangular and triangular. The boundary conditions considered in this study are combinations of simple support. number of layers and material properties on the critical loads are studied. (3) a plot of applied load vs. clamped and free boundary conditions are considered. and then. derived a flexible matrix with the above model parameters.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 of-plane displacement. The out-ofplane displacement functions in form of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions are determined from the Kantorovich method. A dynamic analysis model is proposed by Wen-pei and Lin Cheng (2003) to acquire buckling load of plate.

Murat Yazici (2008) studied the influence of square cut-out upon the buckling stability of multilayered. and ply orientation on the buckling behaviour of E-glass/epoxy composite plates under in-plane compression load. Boundary conditions consisting of clamped. Tests have been carried out on laminated composites with circular and semicircular cut-outs under various boundary conditions. The laminated plates under uniform pressure are formed by stacking three composite layers bonded symmetrically. Rourkela Page 10 . Numerical and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the effect of boundary conditions. A progressive failure analysis algorithm has been developed by . Finally. The main objective of this study is to carry out the experiment analysis for the 800gm woven glass-epoxy composite laminated plates with and without holes subjected to quasi-static compressive load. and their combinations are considered. Comparisons are made between the test results and predictions based on finite element analysis. steel woven fiber-reinforced polypropylene thermoplastic matrix composite plates are studied by using numerical and experimental methods. Zahari and Azmee (2008) and implemented as a user subroutine in a finite element code (ABAQUS) in order to model the non-linear material behaviour and to capture the complete compressive response of woven composite plates made of glass-epoxy material. pinned. Buckling analysis of the laminated composites is performed by using finite element analysis software ANSYS. National Institute of Technology. The FE and experimental results are presented for various fiber orientation angles and plate boundary conditions.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Buket Okutan Baba (2007) studied the influence of boundary conditions on the buckling load for rectangular plates. Pein and Zahari (2007) studied the structural behaviour of woven fabric composites subject to compressive load which is lacking. a parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of varying the fibre orientations and different central hole sizes onto the strength of the laminates. Tsai-Hill failure theory has been employed in the progressive failure methodology to detect failure of the woven composite laminates. length/thickness ratio. The ultimate load and the structural and material behaviour of the composite laminated plates under compression have also been studied.

Less attention has been paid on the buckling of composite plates. They also possess excellent damage tolerance and impact resistance. The main objective of this study is to carry out the experiment analysis for the woven glassepoxy composite laminated plates with and without holes subjected to static compressive load. marine and mechanical engineering because of their ease of handling. From the literature. cutouts are often required in structural components due to functional requirements. The aim of performing this research is to extend the knowledge of the structural behaviour of woven fabric composites subject to compressive load which is lacking. Due to the practical requirements. to produce lighter and more efficient structures. National Institute of Technology. cutout shape and length/thickness ratio on the buckling behaviour of woven fiber laminated composites are needed to investigate in more detail. good mechanical properties and low fabrication cost. Most stability studies of composite plates with cutout have focused on square plates under simply supported conditions to minimize the mathematical complexities. From the literature review it was found that most of the studies were focused on unidirectional fibre. civil.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Aim and scope of study Thus far. Industry driven woven fibers are being increasingly used in many industries. there have been numerous studies on the composite laminated structures which find widespread applications in many engineering fields namely aerospace. it is evident that most of the studies are based on the numerical approach. Rourkela Page 11 . biomedical. It also indicate that the interaction among stacking sequence. Hence we have to give more importance on its structural behaviour.

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Chapter-2 THEORETICAL FORMULATION National Institute of Technology. Rourkela Page 12 .

once it buckles. since it is invariably supported at the edges." For a thin plate.a) Thin plate notation National Institute of Technology. cannot resist any additional axial load.1. Theory of bending of thin plates The theory for thin plates is similar to the theory for beams. continues to resist the additional axial load even after the primary buckling load is reached and does not fail even when the load reaches a value 10-15 times the buckling load. a plate. "the stress distribution is obtained by assuming that cross-sections of the bar remain plane during bending and rotate only with respect to their neutral axes so as to be always normal to the deflection curve. The column. In pure bending of beams.yz and two boundary conditions on each edge of the plate. On the other hand. Rourkela Page 13 . the critical load of the column is also its failure load. xz. A rectangular plate element is shown below: ( fig. namely. bending in two perpendicular directions occur.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 THEORETICAL FORMULATION The buckling of a plate involves two planes. Thus. The basic difference between plate and column lies in the buckling characteristics.

A lamina is a macro unit of material whose material properties are determined through appropriate laboratory tests. The lay up sequence of unidirectionally reinforced “plies" as indicated in Fig. is less than or equal to ¼ of the smallest width of the plate.1. Each ply is typically a thin (approximately 0. 6. in the above figure. effect of neutral Buckling of composite plate Composite materials consist of two or more materials which together produce desirable properties that cannot be achieved with any of the constituents alone. Perfectly flat plate and of uniform thickness. the stresses and strains are proportional to their distance from the neutral surface. smaller or equal to 1/2 of the thickness. Rourkela Page 14 . act as a load-transfer medium between fibers from being exposed to the environment. Deflections are small. The shearing forces is neglected. The lateral sides of the differential element. remain plane during bending and rotate only to be normal to the deflection surface. Fiberreinforced composite materials. The bending and twisting of the plate element resist the applied loads. The orientation of each ply is arbitrary. 3. The thickness of the plate is small compared with other dimensions.. Structural elements such as bars. the thickness. and the layup sequence is tailored to achieve the properties desired of the laminate. contain high strength and high modulus fibers are the principal load carrying members. For plate bending. 4. the thickness. should be 1/10 of the smallest width of the plate. Therefore. and the matrix material keeps the fibers together. The middle plane of the plate does not elongate during bending and remains a surface. 5. i. t.2 mm) sheet of collimated fibers impregnated with an uncured epoxy or other thermosetting polymer matrix material. t. called lamina. Fiber reinforced composite materials for structural applications are made in the form of a thin layer.e.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 The basic assumptions of elastic plate bending are: 1. For plate buckling equations. beams and plates are then formed by stacking the layers to achieve desired National Institute of Technology. 2. for example .

2. To do this. a knowledge of stress and strain through the laminate thickness is necessary. Rourkela Page 15 . We shall make the following assumptions regarding the behaviour of a laminate: 1. 3. Therefore .After buckling. a line originally straight and perpendicular to the middle surface of the laminate remains straight and perpendicular to the middle surface. we should know the orientations of the principle material directions of the laminae with respect to the laminate axis. 4. Its stiffness is obtained from the properties of the constituent laminae. Governing equation A laminated plate is made by using a lamina as the building block. As a result. The strain perpendicular to the middle surface of the laminate is ignored. National Institute of Technology. Fiber orientation in each lamina and stacking sequence of the layers can be choosen to achieve desired strength and stiffness . the laminate behave like a lamina with special properties. The bonds are infinitesimally thin and no lamina can slip relative to the other.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 strength and stiffness. It is made up of perfectly bonded laminae. This implies that the displacements are continuous across the lamina boundaries.

To derive the governing equations we have considered first the equilibrium of force and then the equilibrium of moment in a way as discussed below: The equilibrium equations in terms of the forces (Fig...... 2.. the equilibrium equation in terms of the moments (Fig.... Rourkela Page 16 .(2) xy xy x 2 y 2 x y National Institute of Technology...... and Nxy are the internal forces in normal and tangential direction. has been used to derive the governing buckling equations for a plate subjected to in plane load...(1) Where Nx... Ny..1. 2......a) are  x N xy  0 x y N xy N y  0 x y .. Again......b) Laminated composite plate under in-plane compression.....Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 (Fig..b) is  2 M xy  2 M y 2M x 2w 2w 2w 2   N x 2  N y 2  2 N xy  0... Classical Laminate Theory...

Ny. National Institute of Technology. Nxy are the forces applied at the edges. we can obtain the stress resultants Nx. and Mxy.Ny.2. Nxy.a) Inplane forces on laminate (fig. Rourkela Page 17 . My .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 where. Mx . Ny and Nxy and moments Mx. My and Mxy acting on a laminate are obtained by integration of the stress in each layer or lamina through the laminate thickness. Knowing the stress in terms of the displacement.b) Moments on a laminate The resultant forces Nx. (fig 2. Nx .

.a... r 1 z r 1  M   h     xy  2  xy   xy  r r .. we can write the stress resultants as National Institute of Technology. .. 3....... r 1 z r 1   N   h     xy  2  xy   xy  r r .My..(3)  t 2  t 2 t 2 t 2 Where  x .. Nx . Mx . Similarly. Note that z 0   Substituting for  x .. Rourkela Page 18 .(4)  M x  h  x   x  N zr   2     M y     y  zdz     y  zdz.2.. the forces and moments for an N-layer laminate can be defined as  N x  h  x   x  N zr   2     N y     y  dz     y  dz. z r and z r 1 are as defined in Fig...b. Thus.....  y and  xy are normal and shear stress. t  2 t 2 M y    y zdz M xy    xy zdz.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 The stress resultants are defned as t 2 t 2 t 2 N x    x dz t 2 N y    y dz t  2 N xy    xy dz  t 2 M x    x zdz.2.. and Mxy are the moment per unit length as shown in Fig .(5) t where....Ny and Nxy are the force per unit length of the cross section of the laminate as shown in Fig. Actually.  y and  xy 2 in equations (2) and (3) and integrating over the thickness of each layer and adding the results so obtained for N layers.

.. Aij are the extensional stiffness. For antisymmetric angle-ply and cross-ply laminates stress resultants are simplified in the following sections: National Institute of Technology......... Rourkela Page 19 . N r 1 Bij  Dij  1 N  Qij  (Z r2  Z r21 ).(8)   fig (3) Geometry of an N-layered laminate Here.  B66  k xy    D16   k x    D26   k y .. and Dij the flexural stiffness.....(6) and(7) Aij   Qij r ( Z r  Z r 1 ).Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009  N x   A11     N y    A12 N   A  xy   16  M x   B11     M y    B12 M   B  xy   16 Where A12 A22 A26 B12 B22 B26 0 A16    x   B11  0 A26    y    B12   0 A66   xy   B16    0 B16    x   D11  0 B26    y    D12   0 B66   xy   D16    B12 B22 B26 D12 D22 D26 B16   k x    B26   k y . 3 r 1 r n . 2 r 1 r 1  Qij  Z r3  Z r31 .  D66  k xy    . Bij the coupling stiffness....

kxy in equations (1) and (2). we get the governing equations as National Institute of Technology. For such a laminate.  D66  k xy    .. Such a laminate can..  D66  k xy    . the force and moment resultants are  N x   A11     N y    A12 N   0  xy    M x   B11     M y    B12 M   B  xy   16 A12 A22 0 B12 B22 B26 0 0    x   B11  0 0    y    B12   0 A66   xy   B16    0 B16    x   D11  0 B26    y    D12   0 B66   xy   D16    B12 B22 B26 D12 D22 D26 B16   k x    B26   k y .Mxy from equations (9) and (10).. In this type of laminate. A laminate of this type is termed as a cross-ply laminate.Mx.Nxy. again. it is then called a regular anti-symmetric angle-ply laminate...Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 In the case of angle-ply laminates where the fibre orientation ᶱ alternates from lamina to lamina as +ᶿ/-ᶿ/+ᶿ/-ᶿ..My.. Substituting for Nx.  y and xy kx.. Rourkela Page 20 .  0  k xy    0  k x    0   k y . after substituting for 0 0 0  x . if each lamina has the same thickness.. be either symmetric cross-ply or antisymmetric cross-ply.(11) and (12) Let the laminae are oriented alternatively at 00 and 900....  B66  k xy    D16   k x    D26   k y ....Ny. ky. equations (6) and (7) reduce to  N x   A11     N y    A12 N   0  xy   Mx   0    M y    0 M   B  xy   16 A12 A22 0 0 0 B26 0 0  x   0  0 0  y    0   0 A66   xy   B16    0 B16    x   D11  0 B26    y    D12   0 0   xy   0    0 0 B26 D12 D22 0 B16   k x    B26   k y ..(9) and (10) Such a laminate is called an anti-symmetric angle-ply laminate.

all the above three equations. National Institute of Technology.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 A11  2u 0  2v0  2u 0  2u 0  2v0  2u 0 3w 3w  ( A12  A66 )  A16 ( 2  2 )  A26  A66  B11 3  3B16 2 xy xy x 2 x y 2 y 2 x x y  ( B12  2 B66 ) 3w 3w  B26 3  0 xy 2 y A16  2u 0  2u 0  2u 0  2v 0  2v 0  2v 0 3w  ( A12  A66 )  A26  A66 2  2 A26  A22  B16 3 xy xy x 2 y 2 x y 2 x  ( B12  2 B66 ) 3w 3w 3w  3B26  B22 3  0 x 2 y xy 2 y D11 4w 4w 4w 4w 4w  3u 0  4 D16 3  (2 D12  4 D66 ) 2 2  4 D26  D22 4  B11 3 x 4 x y x y xy 3 y x  3B16  3u 0  3u 0  3u 0  3v 0  3v 0  ( B12  2 B66 )  B26  B16 3  ( B12  2 B66 ) x 2 y xy 2 y 3 x xy 2  3v 0  3v 0 2w 2w 2w  B22 3   N x 2  N y 2  2 N xy xy xy 2 y x y  ( B12  2 B66 ) For a general laminate. have to be solved simultaneously as they are coupled. Rourkela Page 21 .

Rourkela Page 22 .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Chapter-3 Experimental Study National Institute of Technology.

and length/breadth ratio on the compressive behaviour of woven glass epoxy laminated composite plates compression test was performed. length/thickness ratio. Buckling load is determined from the intersection point of two tangent drawn from the pre buckling and post buckling regions. Taking the above proof for the correctness of the experimental procedure. In this study both out of plane displacement and end shortening of the plate was plotted against the applied load.3. A dial gauge was mounted at the centre of the specimen to observe the lateral National Institute of Technology. In this study buckling load of composite plate determined by using the above two method and compared with each other. The specimen was clamped at two ends and kept free at the other two ends. The width and thickness of the plates are 200mm and 1. experimental methods have become important in solving the buckling problem of laminated composite plates.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY In view of difficulty of theoretical and numerical analysis for laminated structure behaviours. Test procedure The specimen were loaded in axial compression using a Instron tensile testing machine of 100 KN capacity. To understand the effect of cut out shape. Two different plate length were used: 300mm and 200mm. The specimen was clamped at two side and kept free at other two sides The specimens were loaded in axial compression by using a tensile testing machine of 100 tonne load capacity. Here the same experimental procedure was followed for a composite plate. Buckling Experiment of aluminium plate In this study buckling load of aluminium plates determined numerically and experimentally. Rourkela Page 23 . The buckling load is determined from the load –displacement curve.7mm respectively. The Youngs modulus value was 70000N/mm2 and poissons ratio was taken as 0. The experimental and numerical analysis done on aluminium plate showed an appreciable match in the results. ply orientation.

(4. All specimen were loaded slowly until buckling. fig.(4. The test set up is shown below. restraining 40mm length .a) Instron testing machine Fig. The experimental set up is shown below.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 deflection. whereas the upper head was moved downwards by servo hydraulic cylinder. Clamped boundary conditions were simulated along the top and bottom edges. of which the lower one was fixed during the test.For axial loading. the test specimens were placed between the two extremely stiff machine heads. All plates were loaded at constant cross-head speed of 1mm/min.b) National Institute of Technology. Rourkela Page 24 .

The resin serves as the matrix for the reinforcing glass fibers. Hand lay-up and spray-up are two basic moulding processes.axis.5. which is the initial part of the curve deviated linearity. That point is determined from the intersection of two tangent drawn from the pre-buckling and post-buckling regions. (Fig. Chemical reactions in the resin harden the material to a strong. The percentage of fiber and matrix was 50:50 in weight. The load v/s displacement curve and load v/s end shortening curve was plotted. The process is most common in FRP marine construction. Composite Specimen Preparation and Manufacturing To meet the wide range of needs which may be required in fabricating composites. is taken as the critical buckling load. and at the onset of buckling there was a sudden large movement of the needle. Rourkela (fig. The load corresponding to this point will be the buckling load of the specimen. light weight product. The displacement is plotted on the x -axis and load was plotted on the y. Each of these processes offers advantages and specific benefits which may apply to the fabricating of composites.b) Plate casting Page 25 . The load.a) Glass fiber National Institute of Technology. 5. simplest. and most labour intense fabrication method. The hand lay-up process is the oldest.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 As the load was increased the dial gauge needle started moving. the industry has evolved oven a dozen separate manufacturing processes as well as a number of hybrid processes. much as concrete acts as the matrix for steel reinforcing rods. In hand lay-up method liquid resin is placed along with reinforcement (woven glass fiber) against finished surface of an open mould.

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Contact moulding in an open mould by hand lay-up was used to combine plies of WR in the prescribed sequence. and rectangular cutout of same area(9. The plates were left for a minimum of 48 hours before being transported and cut to exact shape for testing. a plastic sheet was covered the top of plate by applying polyvinyl alcohol inside the sheet as releasing agent. Strains in the fiber (  1 ) and transverse directions ( ( 2 ) were measured. A specimens whose fiber direction coincide with the loading direction was used to obtain the modulus of elasticity along the fiber direction. Rourkela Page 26 . The specimen were loaded step-bystep up to rupture by the test machine. square. The specifications of plate tested in the present study shown in the table-1 and the plate with various cut out shape was shown in fig. A plastic sheet was kept on the plywood platform and a thin film of polyvinyl alcohol was applied as a releasing agent by use of spray gun. Hardener as catalyst 4. Circular. Then. Laminating starts with the application of a gel coat (epoxy and hardener) deposited on the mould by brush. National Institute of Technology. a heavy flat metal rigid platform was kept top of the plate for compressing purpose. Any air which may be entrapped was removed using serrated steel rollers. The following constituent materials were used for fabricating the plate: 1. Again. whose main purpose was to provide a smooth external surface and to protect the fibers from direct exposure to the environment. Polyvinyl alcohol as a releasing agent After 48 hours curing the specimen were cut in to desired sizes . E-glass woven roving as reinforcement 2. The mechanical properties of the composite plates were determined by Instron tensile testing machine of 100KN load capacity.with and without cutout shown in fig.by using these strains E values are determined.6. Epoxy as resin 3. Layers of reinforcement were placed on the mould at top of the gel coat and gel coat was applied again by brush.62cm2)were made for the experiments. The process of hand lay-up was the continuation of the above process before the gel coat had fully hardened. Ply was cut from roll of woven roving. A flat plywood rigid platform was selected.

6) The plate with different cutout shape tested in the present study National Institute of Technology.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 The mechanical properties of the tested specimen obtained as E11=7.12 and G12 = 2.  12  0. Rourkela Page 27 .7Gpa. E22=7.7Gpa. circular square Rectangular Rectangular ( Fig.81Gpa.

28 3.96 3.31 3.2 3.23 2.65 3.85 3.5 1.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Plate no: Plate1 Stacking sequence [0]4 [0]4 [0]4 Length(mm) 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 175 175 175 200 200 130 130 130 130 130 60 60 130 130 130 130 Thickness (mm) 1.83 Width(mm) 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 Plate2 [0]6 [0]6 [0]6 Plate3 [0]8 [0]8 [0]8 Plate4 [0]8 [0]8 [0]8 Plate5 [0]8 [0]8 Plate6 [30/-30]8 [30/-30]8 [30/-30]8 Plate7 [45/-45]8 [45/-45]8 Plate8 [0]8 [0]8 Plate9 [0]10 [0]10 Plate10 [0]12 [0]12 Table 1 : Plate tested in the present study.65 3. Rourkela Page 28 .37 3.3 3.25 3.31 3.25 2.2 3.32 1.21 2.24 3.15 3.31 3.28 3.33 2.24 3.1 3. National Institute of Technology.

Clamped boundary conditions were simulated along the top and bottom edges. The image of failed specimen obtained after scanning was shown in fig. Rourkela Page 29 . The specimen was clamped at two ends and kept free at the other two ends. which is the initial part of the curve deviated linearity. The load corresponding to this point will be the buckling load of the specimen.8. A dial gauge was mounted at the centre of the specimen to observe the lateral deflection.8.axis. The shape of the plate after buckling was shown in fig. whereas the upper head was moved downwards by servo hydraulic cylinder. All specimens were loaded slowly up to failure. of which the lower one was fixed during the test.a. The load v/s displacement curve and load v/s end shortening curve was plotted. The displacement is plotted on the x -axis and load was plotted on the y. The load. Finally the microscopic scanning was performed for the failed samples by using the JEOL-JSM-6480LV Scanning Electron Microscopic device shown in fig. All laminated plates were loaded at constant cross-head speed of 200Kn/min.10.For axial loading.9. and at the onset of buckling there was a sudden large movement of the needle. That point is determined from the intersection of two tangent drawn from the pre-buckling and post-buckling regions.b. the test specimens were placed between the two extremely stiff machine heads. It is shown in fig. restraining 40mm length .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Buckling Experiments for composite plates The specimen were loaded in axial compression using a uniaxial tensile testing machine of 100 tonne capacity.is taken as the critical buckling load. National Institute of Technology. As the load was increased the dial gauge needle started moving.

7) .7.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 (fig.a)Before Buckling ( fig.b) After Buckling National Institute of Technology. Rourkela Page 30 . Test set up for both side clamped boundary condition (Fig 7.

Rourkela Page 31 .9) National Institute of Technology.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Scanning Electron Microscope (fig.8) Microscopoic image of the failure ( fig.

2. ANSYS is used to analyse the critical buckling load aluminium plates of different sizes.Solution(Static Analysis): It includes applying boundary conditions.Elastic 8node 93 selected as the element type.Eigen value buckling analysis in ANSYS has four steps: 1. Rourkela Page 32 .10 National Institute of Technology.7mm and 200*200*1. material properties and modelling. The applied boundary condition and load is shown below. applying loads and solving the static analysis. Fig.7mm in length.Build the model : It includes defining element type.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Numerical Analysis ANSYS was used to carry out the finite element analysis in the work. width and thickness . In this study shell . real constants. The dimension of the specimen were 300*200* 1.

4. We can plot the deformed and undeformed shape of the plate. Eigen buckling analysis: Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal linear elastic structure. Postprocessor: This steps includes listing buckling loads and viewing buckled shapes.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 3. National Institute of Technology. Rourkela Page 33 .

Rourkela Page 34 .4 RESULTs AND DISCUSSION National Institute of Technology.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 CHAPTER.

44 30.25 Table 2 : Buckling Results of Aluminium Plate It was observed that the buckling load of plate-1 obtained from experimental and numerical analysis are identical and less than that of plate-2. The results were both experimental analysis and finite element analysis. The agreement between the two method was generally good. Length mm Width mm Thickness mm Experimental Buckling load(N/mm) ANSYS Buckling load(N/mm) 13.75 24.7 1.12.free aluminium plate determined.55 Plate-1 Plate-2 300 200 200 200 1. Rourkela Page 35 . National Institute of Technology. The deformed and undeformed shape of the aluminium plate was shown in the fig.The experimental buckling loads for both specimens are less than the ANSYS results.7 11. The critical buckling loads obtained experimentally and by ANSYS is shown in the table2 .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The buckling load for clamped. plate No.

their behaviour is almost linear initially before reaching the peak loads. the bonding between the matrix and glass laminate was breaked during the failure. Following graphs shows the load versus end-shortening curves and load versus out of plane displacement for the tested panels with and without central holes. It is interesting to note that all the tested panels behave in a similar fashion where. The glass fiber was came out from the plate.11 It is observed that all the laminated plates buckled globally until complete failure occurred as expected.end shortening graph. different angle orientations. Rourkela Page 36 . and load.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Fig. From the electron microscopic scanning it was found that. majority of the laminates experienced large displacements before failure. Beyond those peak points of the load-displacement curves. Experimental buckling loads were identified from the load-displacement plots. different aspect ratio and different length/thickness ratio. National Institute of Technology.

12) Load versus out of plane displacement graph (Fig. Hence the plate shows a large deflection for small increment in the load. after which the plate was deflecting outward with an increase in the load.32mm. [0/0/0/0]4 ) and load v/s end shortening for Plate-1 are shown in fig.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 The load v/s out-of-plane displacement (4layer.13) Load versus end shortening graph National Institute of Technology. The thickness of the plate is very small. The critical buckling load obtained from both the graphs was almost equal. From the graph we can find that the displacement of the plate started at a load of 14KN. (Fig.12 & 13 respectively.130*120*1. Rourkela Page 37 .

The buckling load obtained from both graphs was almost equal. 130*120*2. (Fig.15.23mm.14.15) Load.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 The load v/s out of plane displacement graph for Plate-2 (6 layer. The critical buckling load was determined from the intersection of tangents drawn from the pre-buckled region and post buckled region. The load v/s end shortening graph obtained from the test is shown in fig. Rourkela Page 38 .end shortening National Institute of Technology.14) Load-out of plane displacement (Fig.[0/0]6) is shown in fig.

130*120*3.16) Load v/s out of plane displacement (fig. Rourkela Page 39 . The load v/s end shortening graph is shown in fig. 17. (Fig.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 The load v/s out of plane displacement graph for Plate-3 (8 layer .17) Load v/s end shortening National Institute of Technology. The buckling load obtained from the load v/s end shortening plot was slightly different from load v/s out of plane displacement. The displacement started at 15KN load and the buckling occurred between 20 and 25KN.31mm [0/0/0/0]8 ) is shown in fig.16.

(fig. The plot of load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening is shown in fig. the aspect ratio was changed by varying the length. Rourkela Page 40 .19) Load-end shortening National Institute of Technology.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 In Plate-4(8 layer. [0/0]8 ).18) Load v/s out of plane displacement (fig. 175*120*3.31mm. 18 & 19 respectively.

(Fig.20) Load –out of plane displacement (fig. Rourkela Page 41 .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 In Plate-5( 8layer.20 & 21 respectively.21) Load v/s end shortening National Institute of Technology. The load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening plotted for plate 5 is shown in fig.the length was again increased to study the effect of aspect ratio on buckling load. 200*120*3. [0/0/0/0]4 ).2mm.

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 In Plate-6 ( 8 layer. (Fig. [30/-30/30/-30]8 ) . Rourkela Page 42 . the fiber orientation was changed from 00 to 300 .31 mm.22) Load v/s out of plane displacement (fig.23) Load v/s end shortening National Institute of Technology.The buckling load was determined from fig.130*120*3.22 & fig. It was found to be less compared to buckling load of plate with 00 orientation.23 .

23) Load-out of plane displacement (fig. Rourkela Page 43 . [45/-45/45/-45]8 ) the orientation was again changed to 450.24) Load-end shortening National Institute of Technology. (fig.24mm.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 In Plate:-7( 8layer. 130*120*3. The corresponding variation in load displacement graph is shown below.

Rourkela Page 44 . Hence the thickness of the plate increased. [0/0/0/0]10 ) the number of layers was increased to 10. 130*120*3.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 In Plate-8 (10 layer.5mm. Load-out of plane displacement graph Load v/s end shortening graph National Institute of Technology. The load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening is shown below. The buckling load obtained from both graphs was nearly equal.

28) Load –end shortening graph National Institute of Technology.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 In Plate-9 ( 12 layer . (Fig.8mm. Here 12 layers are used. The plots for load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening is shown in fig.130*120* 3. [0/0/0/0]12 ) the thickness was again increased by increasing the number of layers. Rourkela Page 45 .out of plane displacement (fig.27 and 28 respectively.27) Load.

it was difficult to fit the dial gauge with the plate due to its short length. Rourkela Page 46 .1mm.29) Load-end shortening National Institute of Technology. Hence only load v/s end shortening was plotted and is shown in fig.60*120*3.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 For Plate-10 ( 8 layer. [0/0/0/0]8 ). ( Fig.29 .

(Fig.130* 120*3. It results in decrease in the buckling load.30 and 31respectively. The load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening is shown in the fig.30) Load v/s out of plane displacement (fig.31) Load v/s end shortening National Institute of Technology. [0/0/0/0]12) a circular cutout was made at the centre. Rourkela Page 47 .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Plate with circular cut out In plate-11 (12 layer.75mm.

32) Load v/s out of plane displacement (Fig.65mm.33) Load v/s end shortening National Institute of Technology. The buckling determined from load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening for Plate-12 (12 layer. (Fig.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Here the load v/s displacement graph for plate with square cut out is given. Rourkela Page 48 .130*120*3. [0/0/0/0]12 ) was almost equal .

35) Load v/s end shortening National Institute of Technology. It was observed that buckling load for this plate less as compared to the plate with circular cutout. (fig.34) Load v/s out of plane displacement (fig. Rourkela Page 49 .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 The load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening graph for plate 13 with rectangular cut out is shown in the following figure.

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate

2009

Plate-14 (12 layer,130*120*3.68mm , [0/0/0/0]12 ) having the rectangular cutout in the transverse direction was subjected to compressive loading. The load v/s out of plane displacement and load v/s end shortening was plotted and is shown in fig.36 and 37 respectively. It was observed that the plate 14 gives less buckling load as compared to other plates with cutout.

(Fig.36) Load v/s out of plane displacement

(Fig.37) Load v/s end shortening

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Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate

2009

Effect of Length to Thickness Ratio (L/t)

Plates with different thickness are used extensively due to design requirements. Thus, the buckling response of plates with its length to thickness ratio must be fully understood in the structural design. In this study the thickness of the plate was increased by increasing number of layers. The experimental results shows that the variation in buckling load is very sensitive to the thickness of the plate. The variation in buckling load with change in the thickness of the plate is shown in fig.38. From the graph in it is observed that the buckling load decreases with increase in length to thickness ratio.

Sl. no

Length mm

Width mm

Thickness mm

Buckling Load(KN) Graph1

Buckling Load(KN) Graph2 15.5 15.5 15 17.8 17 19 23 22.5 26 26.5 34.5 36

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130

120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120

1.5 1.32 1.33 2.25 2.23 3.29 3.37 3.31 3.62 3.65 3.85 3.85

15.3 15.2 15.1 17.65 17.3 20 22.5 22 26.5 27 33.5 34

Table 3: Effect of Length to Thickness Ratio (L/t)

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Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate

2009

(Fig.38) Buckling load v/s length to thickness ratio.

Effect of aspect ratio (a/b ratio)

In this study, the laminated plates are evaluated at four different aspect ratios. The tested plate and their corresponding buckling load was shown in table-4.The buckling load decreases continuously with increasing aspect ratio but the rate of decrease is not uniform. In this study aspect ratio was changed from 0.5 to 1.67.It is observed that buckling load was maximum for aspect ratio 0.5 and minimum for aspect ratio 1.67. When the aspect ratio changed from 0.5 to 1, the variation in buckling load is almost 24%. There are loss of 21% of buckling load between aspect ratios 1 and 1.5. The aspect ratio and buckling load was plotted along x and y axis as shown in fig.39. From that graph, it is observed that the rate of decrease in buckling load is decreasing with increase in aspect ratio.

Sl. no

Length mm

Width mm

Thickness mm

Buckling Load(KN) Graph1

Buckling load(KN) Graph2 19.8 23 23.5

1 2 3

130 130 130

120 120 120

3.29 3.37 3.31

20 22.5 22

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15 3. the corresponding change in buckling load was almost 20% .9 17 17. The variation of buckling load with fiber orientation shown in fig.40. The result is shown in the Table-5 . Effect of fibre orientation In this study the buckling load of composite plates with different fiber orientation was determined.5 18.2 3.2 3.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 175 175 175 200 200 60 60 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 3.2 17.1 3. When the orientation of the fiber changed from 00 to 300 .9 18.39) Buckling load v/s aspect ratio graph. The result shows that the buckling load is decreasing with increase in fiber orientation angle. The maximum buckling load was occurred at [0]8.29 3.2 18.31 3.2 27 26 Table 4 : Effect of aspect ratio (a/b ratio) (fig.7 18. Rourkela Page 53 . National Institute of Technology. Reduction of 30% in buckling load is observed as the ply orientation angle increases from 0 0 to 450.4 19 18 18.

5 22 23 21. orientation Length Width Thickness Buckling load(kn) Buckling load(kn) from graph 2 22 23.0 16.31 3.96 3.25 3. no.18 3.5 23.28 3. Rourkela Page 54 .5 20 20.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Sl.5 (mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 0 30 30 30 45 45 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 (mm) 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 (mm) 2.40) Buckling load v/s fiber orientation National Institute of Technology.5 16 17.5 20.24 From graph1 22.05 20.3 3.3 17.5 20.37 3.2 Table 5 : Effect of Orientation (Fig.

7 3.5 24.8 1 2 3 4 5 12 12 12 12 12 without Circular Square Rectangular1 Rectangular2 130 130 130 130 130 120 120 120 120 120 3. the buckling response of plates with cut out must be fully understood in the structural design. square and rectangular shapes with same areas are taken in to account.78 3. the effects of circular.7 34. Of layers Cutout shape Length (mm) Breadth (mm) Thickness (mm) Buckling Load(kn) Graph1 Buckling load(kn) Graph2 36 25. Thus. no No. In this section.5 23. The experiments indicate that the variation of the buckling loads is very sensitive to the presence of cut out.65 3.5 23. Rourkela Page 55 .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Effect of cut out shape Plates with different types of cut outs are used extensively due to design requirements.75 22 23 Table 6 : Effect of cut out shape National Institute of Technology.81 3. The plate with rectangular cutout gives the minimum buckling load.5 22. It can be seen that buckling load generally decreases with presence of cutout.75 24. Sl. We can observe that the buckling load for plate without cutout are about 25% and 30% higher than that of [0]12 with circular and square cutout.

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Chapter-5 CONCLUSION National Institute of Technology. Rourkela Page 56 .

the critical buckling load of the plate decreases. The plate with circular cutout yielded the greatest critical buckling load. aspect ratio. the following conclusions can be made. The rate of decrease of buckling load is not uniform with the rate of increase of L/t ratio. The buckling load decreases as the L/t ratio increases. 1. 4. The rate of change of buckling load with the aspect ratio is almost uniform. As the aspect ratio increases. It is noted that the presence of cutout lowers the buckling load and it varies with the cutout shape.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 CONCLUSION This study considers the buckling response of laminated rectangular plates with clamped-free boundary conditions. 3. When the fiber angle increases. Rourkela Page 57 . The plate with [0] 8 layup has the highest buckling load and the plate with [45]8 layup has the lowest buckling load.5 to 1. It was noted that different length to thickness ratio affected the critical buckling load. National Institute of Technology. 2. When the aspect ratio changed from 0. From the present analytical and experimental study. The laminated composite plates have varying L/T ratio. It was seen that the different fiber orientation angles affected the critical buckling load. the buckling load decreases. The reduction of the buckling load due to the presence of a cutout is found to be significant. cut out shape and ply orientation. the variation in buckling load is almost 24%.

Rourkela Page 58 . (c). (a) Buckling analysis of delaminted industry driven woven composite plates with and without cutouts. (b) Buckling analysis of laminated woven fiber composite plates with delamination by numerical approach for different boundary conditions. length to thickness ratio. The future scope of the present investigation can be expressed as follows. aspect ratio and fiber orientation on buckling load was studied. The effect of cutout shape. Dynamic stability of woven fiber laminated and delaminated composite plates. National Institute of Technology.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Future scope of the work In the present study the buckling load of the laminated plate was determined.

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 Chapter-6 REFERENCES National Institute of Technology. Rourkela Page 59 .

Buckling analysis of composite laminate rectangular and skew plates with various edge support conditions. Zahari. 7. Laminated composite plates. A comparison of experimental buckling load of rectangular plates determined from various measurement method-. R. A. Chavanan supasak. Ser.David Roylance. Experimental and theoretical investigations of glass-fibre reinforced composite subjected to uniaxial compression for a wide spectrum of strain rates.Bangok. PecherskI and S.. Pein and R. Math. A K Sreevastva. Buket Okutan Baba and Aysun Baltaci. (2007)Vol.2547 5. Buckling analysis of plates of arbitrary shape.260-265 4. Journal of Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 439-445 2. Bucco and J.Applayed Composite Materials – 14(2007):265–276 3. C.International Journal of Engineering and Technology. Gadaj . journal of Austral. Soc. Experimental investigation of the damage behaviour of woven fabric glass/epoxy laminated plates with circular cut-outs subjected to compressive force. 3. 6. Pieczyska. B. No.(2006)18-20. 58 (2006). (2000) MA 02139. Rourkela Page 60 .P. Effect of aspect ratio on buckling of composite plates-. pp. .Department of mechanical engineering.The 20th Conference of Mechanical Engineering Network of Thailand (2006)18-20. 273–291. R. 77-91 8. pp. D. Arch. Mech.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 REFERENCES 1.W. Chainarin Pannok and Pairod Singhatanadgid . Buckling characteristics of symmetrically and anti-symmetrically laminated composite plates with central cutout. Mazumdar. E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge. B 26 (1984).K Singh. 4.. 2. National Institute of Technology..

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27. Ming-hsiang and Cheer-germ. Failure of Delaminated Carbon/Epoxy Composite Plates under Compression.1513–1527 24. National Institute of Technology. 21. Composite Structures 69 (2005) 209–217. 25. Abdul Hannan Azmee and Faizal Mustapha. Wang and G. N. Chen and Charles W.June 2008. Design of composite-material plates for maximum uniaxial compressive buckling load . 20. Q. Stephen p. 23. Rourkela Page 62 . Timoshenko and Kriger. Siddiqui and S. (2007) 39: 839–848. Local buckling of composite laminar plates with various delaminated shapes – Journal of Thin-Walled Structures 41 (2003) 493–506. Shun-Fa Hwang and Ching-Ping Mao. EWP pvt. Mech.Proc. Jurnal Mekanikal . Buckling analysis of angle-ply composite and sandwich plates by combination of geometric stiffness matrix. Journal of Zhejiang University science 2005 6A(2):132-140. X. Jia Xie and Masaharu Iwamoto.Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 19. Okla.Theory of plates and shells-McGraw-Hill tnternational editions. A. Rizal Zahari . Prediction of progressive failure in woven glass/epoxy composite laminated panels.Composites Science and Technology 61 (2001). Cheng. Journal of Comput. C. Lu .91 22. N G R Iyengar . S. (1976)56: 104-107. Wu Zhen and Chen Wanji. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 4 (2007) 267-297. Wen-pei. 28. Structural stability of columns and plates. A. No. Buckling analysis of laminated composite plates with arbitrary edge supports. Acad. Sci. Bert. 26. Qing-Qing Ni . Timothy L. 80 . Ltd. Analysis modeling for plate buckling load of vibration test. 25. M. A simple procedure for reliability assessment of thin composite plates against buckling. Ibrahim. Naqvi.

National Institute of Technology. 685. A Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Critical Buckling Load of Rectangular Laminated Composite Plates with Strip Delamination -. Yeliz Pekbey. Rourkela Page 63 .Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 29. (2006)25. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites.

Buckling Analysis of Glass epoxy Laminated Composite Plate 2009 National Institute of Technology. Rourkela Page 64 .

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