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Introduction to Topic Ultrasonic flow meter technology has much improved over the last few years and

now forms a viable flow measurement technique compare to other methods such as turbine and electromagnetic type system. The first Doppler Ultrasonic flow meter units became available in early 70s. To begin with, as with all new technologies the were not very accurate, difficult to install and cost effective. Due to malfunctioning incorrect application and as a result a feeling of uncertainty, it was need for good flow measurement techniques. It is now used only in a few special measurements. However, the newest Time of Flight ultrasonic flow meter is proving to be most reliable and accurate. Accuracy has improved significantly with most ultrasonic flow manufacturers claiming 0.5 % accuracy if the meters are correctly installed. Transit time Concept: The flow meter has an advantage that the fact of sound travels at different velocity depending on medium it used to travel. We know that sound travels faster in water then through air. On these physical characteristics, the difference of sound travel can be found. When these media are also in motion with respect to observer the velocity of sound relative to that observer changes as well. Transit time flow meter is based on property of sound travel. Acoustic Properties of Liquid: Ultrasound is sound with frequencies above the limit audible to man (typically 20 KHz). The sound frequencies occurring in nature and those used for ultrasonic flow metering are shown below: Gases Air Chlorine Methane Hydrogen 330 m/s 210 m/s 430 m/s 1280 m/s Liquid Water Methanol Kerosene Glycerine 1480 m/s 1100 m/s 1320 m/s 1900 m/s Solid Steel Beryllium 5900 m/s 12900 m/s

Principle of Measurement Transit type Ultrasonic Flow meter utilises two transducers that functions as both Ultrasonic transmitters and receivers. The transducers are insertion type on a closed pipe at a specific distance from each other. The transducers are mounted in Z-method so that the transducers come on opposite side of pipe and ultra sound travel only once. The selection of mounting method depends on pipe and liquid characteristics. When the flow meter works, the two transducers transmit and receive ultrasonic signals which travel first downstream and then upstream (figure 1). Because ultrasound travels faster downstream than upstream, there will be difference in time of flight say (t). When the flow is still, the time difference (t) is zero. Therefore as long as we know the time of flight both downstream and upstream, we can work out the time difference, and then the flow velocity (V) and flow volume (Q) with the formula.

The pulse travelling with the current from piezo A to B needs a transit time of: TAB = D . 1 Sin C + V Cos TBA = D . 1 Sin C - V Cos Where C velocity of sound in medium Usually C = 1480 m/s in liquid angle made by pipe surface and distance between two probes Usually = 450 D Diameter of pipe in mm where, _D _ = L Sin

V Velocity of fluid in pipe in m/s Now, t = TBA TAB =[ D . 1 Sin C - V Cos

D . ____1____ ] Sin C + V Cos

t = 2 V . Cos . Sin . TAB TBA D V = ____t____ TBA TAB Where K= D sin2 K usually depends on instrument calibration factor meter factor. . ___D___ Sin (2)

Flow Rate q is determine from the mean flow velocity. In a pipe line with circular section the following applies: q = V A = V D2 4 q = D3 ____t_____ 4 sin (2) TBA TAB The transit time is therefore a precise linear measurement of mean flow velocity V along the measuring path of Ultrasonic beam. Construction: The transducer is insertion type on the outside of close pipe at a specific distane from each other. Thus one transducer is installed at upstream point and other is installed at down stream point. Thus it forms a Z-method where they come opposite side of each other and sound crosses the pipe once. The selection of mounting depends on pipe and liquid characteristics.

Table: Survey of

similar product in India and abroad

Benchmark and Specification

Based on above benchmark of different Industrial standard of Flow meters, we are decide which timer mode and its resolution is to be select for proper time measurement and building up the hardware design. So that accurate time conversion is achieved.

Definition of Project Work Circuit tracing on paper of a given module board Modifying and designing of new circuit using TDC on paper Schematic of new circuit of signal conditioning & controller section in logic power PCB designing and Footprints of ICs in Pads software Waveform tracing and Analysis of Flow meter Calculation based on TDC resolution for different pipe size Survey of different kind of similar product in Indian & abroad market benchmark Literature study & Designing of TDC configuration


Sound generated above the human hearing range (typically 20 kHz) is called ultrasound. Although ultrasound behaves in a similar manner to audible sound, it has a much shorter wavelength. This means it can be reflected off very small surfaces such as defects inside materials. It is this property that makes ultrasound useful for nondestructive testing of materials. The Acoustic Spectrum in Figure (1.1) breaks down sound into 3 ranges of frequencies. The Ultrasonic Range is then broken down further into 3 sub sections.

A transducer is any device that converts one form of energy to another. An ultrasonic transducer converts electrical energy to mechanical energy, in the form of sound, and vice versa.

Block diagram:

Excitation Circuit:

The excitation circuits is capable to supply the high voltage for ultrasonic transducer. A single pulse power generating device is employed to excite the transducers the device being coupled through respective gates to the transducer, each gate being activated by an associated gate drive. Also included are logic means to periodically activate the device to produce power pulses and to alternately activate the gate drivers to cause the power pulses to pass through the alternate gates to excite one transducer and then the other, each gate being activated before the power pulse appears, whereby the turn-on characteristics of the gate have no effect on excitation of the transducer. The circuit design uses 18v dc for sensor with a resonant frequency of 1MHz. For this circuit we have used the IC TC 4427 which is a dual high speed MOSFET driver. The

MOSFET driver can easily switch 1000 pF gate capacitances in under 30nsec, and provide
low enough impedances in both the ON and OFF states They are not subject to damage when up to 5V of noise spiking (of either polarity) occurs on the ground pin. The output of TC 4427 is given to both sensors by the two antiparallel diodes are IN914. The diodes are in reverse polarity of each other, they changes the polarity during the excitation and gives the 36 Vp-p to the sensors. The Fire Pulse Generator is a high voltage DC pulse generator that generates the sequence of pulses which is highly programmable in frequency, phase and number of pulses. These pulses are needed to actuate piezoelectric elements provided by TDC. Switching Circuit: Switching circuit is basically required for switching both the transducers in receive mode alternately. For this we have used an IC MAX4632 which is a high voltage dual analog switch. The switching of this IC is carried out by using microcontroller. The MAX4632 has two NO/NC single pole-double throw (SPDT) switches. These CMOS switches operate with dual power supplies ranging from + 4.5V to + 18V or a single supply between +9V and +36V.

Amplifier Circuit:

Most of the gain and selectivity of a superheterodyne radio receiver are in the intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier. The IF amplifier is therefore, a high-gain narrow
bandwidth amplifier. Typically, IF power gains run in the 60- to 120-dB range, depending on the receiver design. The purpose of the IF amplifier is to provide gain and selectivity to the receiver. In this circuit, we have used MC1350 which is an integrated circuit featuring wide range AGC for use as an IF amplifier in radio and TV over an operating temperature range of 0 to +75C. Its AGC Range is 60dB with frequency upto 45MHz. Automatic Gain Control: In Ultrasonic flow meter we have to deal with the input signal whose signal strength changes frequently. Sometime, signals are very weak while sometime signals are very strong. In such applications it is desire to have an electronic circuit whose gain can be automatically adjusted. If the strength of input signal is less than the gain of amplifier should increased, and if conversely the strength of input signal is more, then the gain should be reduce. AGC techniques used in circuit: In this circuit we used two Mux 4053 which is a 14 pin high speed CMOS IC and one op-amp TLC 2274 which is a dual op-amp IC. In MUX, there are control signals S0 S1 S2 which are controlled by microcontroller for automatic gain control. For time instant say for few microseconds the switching of mux took place so that the op-amp which is used as an integrator connected to Mux works alternately. The op-amp Ic TLC2274 works as a integrator. The two op-amp of TLC 2274 works alternately on switching MUX. So for short duration the first integrator is on state & other integrator is in OFF state. For another time duration the first op-amp goes in Off state while another goes in On state. Integrator is dependent on RC time Constant. In On state the charging of capacitor is done to a certain voltage level. While another integrator is in Off state. The output of integrator is given to Low pass filter (LPF) to control AGC of MC 1350.

Time Measurement Circuit using TDC Introduction: Digital TDC use the internal propagation delays of signal through gates to measure time intervals with high precision. Fig clarifies the principle structure of such an absolute

time TDC. The maximum resolution strongly depends on the maximum possible gate propagation delay on chip. The measuring unit is calculated by Start signal and Stop by stopped signal. Based on the position of oscillator and course counter the time interval between Start and Stop is calculated with 20-bit measurement range.

General feature: Measurement mode 1 2 Stop channels referring to one Start channel Each of typ. 50ps RMS resolution LSB width typ 65ps 4 fold multihit capability for each Stop channel Measurement range 3.5ns to 1.8 us Selectable rising/falling edge sensitivity for each channel Windowing for precise Stop channel Measurement mode 2 1 stop channel referring to 1 start channel Typ. 50ps RMS resolution 2 x Tref pulse pair resolution 3 fold multihit capability Measurement Range 2 x Tref to 4ms @4MHz Selectable rising/falling edge sensitivity

Measurement flow:

Microcontroller Firmware for TDC Readout The TDC measurement was done using flow chart presented. The configuration is done for selection of measurement range, calibration or no calibration, time difference to be measure, number of hits expected, etc. initialisation of TDC is done by sending an opcode, so that the TDC accepts new start and stop pulses for measurement. TDC waits for start and stop pulses. It generate interrupt when Alu is ready with data or if no stop pulse arrives (within measurement range limits) after the occurrence of start pulse. Upon interrupt microcontroller reads TDC data, calculate time difference and sends results to PC. TDC now needs to be reinitialized to accept new inputs. While communicating over SPI bus Microcontroller has to generate slave select, send opcode byte followed by this are more read and write byte transfers. The SPI master logic in microcontroller takes care of SPI clock generation and data transfers.

Literature study of TDC:

Block Diagram of TDC-GP2