This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
now forms a viable flow measurement technique compare to other methods such as turbine and electromagnetic type system. The first Doppler Ultrasonic flow meter units became available in early 70’s. To begin with, as with all new technologies the were not very accurate, difficult to install and cost effective. Due to malfunctioning incorrect application and as a result a feeling of uncertainty, it was need for good flow measurement techniques. It is now used only in a few special measurements. However, the newest Time of Flight ultrasonic flow meter is proving to be most reliable and accurate. Accuracy has improved significantly with most ultrasonic flow manufacturers claiming 0.5 % accuracy if the meters are correctly installed. Transit time Concept: The flow meter has an advantage that the fact of sound travels at different velocity depending on medium it used to travel. We know that sound travels faster in water then through air. On these physical characteristics, the difference of sound travel can be found. When these media are also in motion with respect to observer the velocity of sound relative to that observer changes as well. Transit time flow meter is based on property of sound travel. Acoustic Properties of Liquid: Ultrasound is sound with frequencies above the limit audible to man (typically 20 KHz). The sound frequencies occurring in nature and those used for ultrasonic flow metering are shown below: Gases Air Chlorine Methane Hydrogen 330 m/s 210 m/s 430 m/s 1280 m/s Liquid Water Methanol Kerosene Glycerine 1480 m/s 1100 m/s 1320 m/s 1900 m/s Solid Steel Beryllium 5900 m/s 12900 m/s
Therefore as long as we know the time of flight both downstream and upstream. The transducers are mounted in Z-method so that the transducers come on opposite side of pipe and ultra sound travel only once. When the flow is still. When the flow meter works. _D _ = L Sin α . the two transducers transmit and receive ultrasonic signals which travel first downstream and then upstream (figure 1). and then the flow velocity (V) and flow volume (Q) with the formula. The selection of mounting method depends on pipe and liquid characteristics.V Cos α Where C – velocity of sound in medium Usually C = 1480 m/s in liquid α – angle made by pipe surface and distance between two probes Usually α = 450 D – Diameter of pipe in mm where. Because ultrasound travels faster downstream than upstream. 1 Sin α C + V Cos α TB→A = D . we can work out the time difference. 1 Sin α C . The pulse travelling with the current from piezo A to B needs a transit time of: TA→B = D . the time difference (∆t) is zero. The transducers are insertion type on a closed pipe at a specific distance from each other. there will be difference in time of flight say (∆t).Principle of Measurement Transit type Ultrasonic Flow meter utilises two transducers that functions as both Ultrasonic transmitters and receivers.
Table: Survey of similar product in India and abroad .V – Velocity of fluid in pipe in m/s Now. 1 Sin α C . TA→B TB→A D V = ____∆t____ TB→A · TA→B Where K= D sin2α K usually depends on instrument calibration factor meter factor. Cos α . Thus one transducer is installed at upstream point and other is installed at down stream point. ____1____ ] Sin α C + V Cos α ∆t = 2 V .V Cos α ] x [ D . ∆t = TB→A – TA→B =[ D . Sin α. Flow Rate q is determine from the mean flow velocity. Thus it forms a Z-method where they come opposite side of each other and sound crosses the pipe once. In a pipe line with circular section the following applies: q = V ·A = V π D2 4 q = π · D3 ____∆t_____ 4 sin (2α) TB→A TA→B The transit time is therefore a precise linear measurement of mean flow velocity V along the measuring path of Ultrasonic beam. ___D___ Sin (2α) . . Construction: The transducer is insertion type on the outside of close pipe at a specific distane from each other. The selection of mounting depends on pipe and liquid characteristics.
So that accurate time conversion is achieved. Definition of Project Work Circuit tracing on paper of a given module board Modifying and designing of new circuit using TDC on paper Schematic of new circuit of signal conditioning & controller section in logic power PCB designing and Footprints of IC’s in Pad’s software Waveform tracing and Analysis of Flow meter Calculation based on TDC resolution for different pipe size Survey of different kind of similar product in Indian & abroad market benchmark Literature study & Designing of TDC configuration Sensor: .Benchmark and Specification Based on above benchmark of different Industrial standard of Flow meters. we are decide which timer mode and its resolution is to be select for proper time measurement and building up the hardware design.
An ultrasonic transducer converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.1) breaks down sound into 3 ranges of frequencies. . in the form of sound. A transducer is any device that converts one form of energy to another. The Acoustic Spectrum in Figure (1. and vice versa. it has a much shorter wavelength. The Ultrasonic Range is then broken down further into 3 sub sections.Sound generated above the human hearing range (typically 20 kHz) is called ultrasound. It is this property that makes ultrasound useful for nondestructive testing of materials. Although ultrasound behaves in a similar manner to audible sound. This means it can be reflected off very small surfaces such as defects inside materials.
Block diagram: Excitation Circuit: .
phase and number of pulses. The MOSFET driver can easily switch 1000 pF gate capacitances in under 30nsec. The circuit design uses 18v dc for sensor with a resonant frequency of 1MHz. and provide low enough impedances in both the ON and OFF states They are not subject to damage when up to 5V of noise spiking (of either polarity) occurs on the ground pin. The output of TC 4427 is given to both sensors by the two antiparallel diodes are IN914. . A single pulse power generating device is employed to excite the transducers the device being coupled through respective gates to the transducer. whereby the turn-on characteristics of the gate have no effect on excitation of the transducer.5V to + 18V or a single supply between +9V and +36V. each gate being activated by an associated gate drive. they changes the polarity during the excitation and gives the 36 Vp-p to the sensors. Also included are logic means to periodically activate the device to produce power pulses and to alternately activate the gate drivers to cause the power pulses to pass through the alternate gates to excite one transducer and then the other. The diodes are in reverse polarity of each other. The MAX4632 has two NO/NC single pole-double throw (SPDT) switches. The switching of this IC is carried out by using microcontroller. These pulses are needed to actuate piezoelectric elements provided by TDC. each gate being activated before the power pulse appears.The excitation circuits is capable to supply the high voltage for ultrasonic transducer. The Fire Pulse Generator is a high voltage DC pulse generator that generates the sequence of pulses which is highly programmable in frequency. For this we have used an IC MAX4632 which is a high voltage dual analog switch. These CMOS switches operate with dual power supplies ranging from + 4. For this circuit we have used the IC TC 4427 which is a dual high speed MOSFET driver. Switching Circuit: Switching circuit is basically required for switching both the transducers in receive mode alternately.
to 120-dB range. In MUX. there are control signals S0 S1 S2 which are controlled by microcontroller for automatic gain control. we have used MC1350 which is an integrated circuit featuring wide range AGC for use as an IF amplifier in radio and TV over an operating temperature range of 0° to +75°C. a high-gain narrow bandwidth amplifier. AGC techniques used in circuit: In this circuit we used two Mux 4053 which is a 14 pin high speed CMOS IC and one op-amp TLC 2274 which is a dual op-amp IC.Amplifier Circuit: Most of the gain and selectivity of a superheterodyne radio receiver are in the intermediate frequency (IF) amplifier. Typically. The op-amp Ic TLC2274 works as a integrator. IF power gains run in the 60. For another time duration the first op-amp goes in Off state while another goes in On state. depending on the receiver design. The two op-amp of TLC 2274 works alternately on switching MUX. For time instant say for few microseconds the switching of mux took place so that the op-amp which is used as an integrator connected to Mux works alternately. Integrator is dependent on RC time Constant. In such applications it is desire to have an electronic circuit whose gain can be automatically adjusted. The IF amplifier is therefore. . If the strength of input signal is less than the gain of amplifier should increased. The purpose of the IF amplifier is to provide gain and selectivity to the receiver. While another integrator is in Off state. Automatic Gain Control: In Ultrasonic flow meter we have to deal with the input signal whose signal strength changes frequently. signals are very weak while sometime signals are very strong. then the gain should be reduce. So for short duration the first integrator is on state & other integrator is in OFF state. Its AGC Range is 60dB with frequency upto 45MHz. Sometime. In On state the charging of capacitor is done to a certain voltage level. The output of integrator is given to Low pass filter (LPF) to control AGC of MC 1350. In this circuit. and if conversely the strength of input signal is more.
Time Measurement Circuit using TDC Introduction: Digital TDC use the internal propagation delays of signal through gates to measure time intervals with high precision. Fig clarifies the principle structure of such an absolute – .
Based on the position of oscillator and course counter the time interval between Start and Stop is calculated with 20-bit measurement range. The measuring unit is calculated by Start signal and Stop by stopped signal. 50ps RMS resolution LSB width typ 65ps 4 fold multihit capability for each Stop channel Measurement range 3. 50ps RMS resolution 2 x Tref pulse pair resolution 3 fold multihit capability Measurement Range 2 x Tref to 4ms @4MHz Selectable rising/falling edge sensitivity . General feature: Measurement mode 1 • • • • • • • 2 Stop channels referring to one Start channel Each of typ.5ns to 1.8 us Selectable rising/falling edge sensitivity for each channel Windowing for precise Stop channel Measurement mode 2 • • • • • • 1 stop channel referring to 1 start channel Typ. The maximum resolution strongly depends on the maximum possible gate propagation delay on chip.time TDC.
etc. The SPI master logic in microcontroller takes care of SPI clock generation and data transfers. Upon interrupt microcontroller reads TDC data. . TDC waits for start and stop pulses. TDC now needs to be reinitialized to accept new inputs. calculate time difference and sends results to PC. It generate interrupt when Alu is ready with data or if no stop pulse arrives (within measurement range limits) after the occurrence of start pulse. While communicating over SPI bus Microcontroller has to generate slave select. send opcode byte followed by this are more read and write byte transfers.Measurement flow: Microcontroller Firmware for TDC Readout The TDC measurement was done using flow chart presented. The configuration is done for selection of measurement range. time difference to be measure. initialisation of TDC is done by sending an opcode. calibration or no calibration. so that the TDC accepts new start and stop pulses for measurement. number of hits expected.
Literature study of TDC: .
Block Diagram of TDC-GP2 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.