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All living plants, animals (organisms) on this earth require energy to perform any type of work. The capacity to do a work is energy. The energy may require in smaller amount or in larger amount depending upon the nature of work to be performed. The different things from which we get the energy are called as Energy Sources. This is the simplest meaning of energy sources. There are two types of energy sources: 1. Conventional OR Non-Renewable Energy Sources 2. Non-Conventional OR Renewable Energy Sources 1. Conventional OR Non-Renewable Energy Sources: The energy sources, which we are using from long time and which are in danger of exhausting, are called as Conventional OR Non-Renewable Energy Sources. They are not renewed by Nature and they are perishable, are going to get exhausted one day. e. g. coal, petroleum products, nuclear fuels etc. 2. Non-Conventional OR Renewable Energy Sources: These are the energy sources whose utilization technology is not yet fully developed. These are the sources, which can be recovered and reused. i. e. they can be used again and again to generate energy because of the renewal of their energy We are going to consider one of the ways of generation of energy from nonconventional energy namely hydroelectric energy. As name suggest, it is the energy obtained from water. The main principle used in this type is the kinetic energy of falling water is converted into electric energy using turbines.
History of hydro power development The first recorded use of water power was a clock, built around 250 BC. Since that time, humans have used falling water to provide power for grain and saw mills, as well as a host of other applications. The first use of moving water to produce electricity was a waterwheel on the Fox River in Wisconsin in 1882, two years after Thomas Edison unveiled the incandescent light bulb. The first of many hydro electric power plants at Niagara Falls was completed shortly thereafter. Hydro power continued to play a major role in the expansion of electrical service early in this century, both in North America and around the world. Contemporary Hydroelectric power plants generate anywhere from a few kW, enough for a single residence, to thousands of MW, power enough to supply a large city. Early hydro-electric power plants were much more reliable and efficient than the fossil fuel fired plants of the day. This resulted in a proliferation of small to medium sized hydro-electric generating stations distributed wherever there was an
a number of hydro power plants such as 48MW.the pace of growth has been rapid in post independence era.during period between two world wars. or granite block construction to collect water from rainfall and surface runoff into a reservoir. The advantages of hydroelectric power over such other sources as fossil fuels and nuclear fission are that it is continually renewable and produces no pollution.). Water is needed to run a hydroelectric generating unit. Water at a higher elevation flows downward through large pipes or tunnels (penstocks). As hydro-electric power it emerged in USA in1882. timber. The capability to produce and deliver electricity for widespread consumption was one of the most important factors in the surge of American economic influence and wealth in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.P.P.from installed capacity of 1362MW. It is becoming increasingly difficult for developers to build new dams because of opposition from environmentalists and people living on the land to be flooded. The majority of these power plants involved large dams which flooded vast areas of land to provide water storage and therefore a constant supply of electricity. China. among the first and simplest of the technologies that generated electricity.). The falling water rotates turbines. and the efficiency of coal and oil fueled power plants increased. was initially developed using low dams of rock. Norway. Russia.574MW. the environmental impacts of such large hydro projects are being identified as a cause for concern. As electricity demand soared in the middle years of this century.out of which hydropower was 508 MW in 1947. followed by sweeden and Japan. Most new hydroelectric development was focused on huge "mega-projects". Sweden. See also tidal power.adequate supply of moving water and a need for electricity. The U. In Recent years. Canada.S. The water was . the water reenters the river on the downstream side of the dam. The hydal install capacity by the end 2001 is 25. 38.17. and Switzerland rely heavily on hydroelectricity because they have industrialized areas close to mountainous regions with heavy rainfall. and Brazil get a much smaller proportion of their electric power from hydroelectric generation.75MWpykaraand 30MWmatter(Chnnai)were commissioned. The turbine is connected to the generator that produces electricity. This is shown by the opposition to projects such as Great Whale (James Bay II) in Quebec and the Gabickovo-Nagymaros project on the Danube River in Czechoslovakia.. which drive the generators. at Jogindernagar(H. out of total capacity of 102907MW.5MW plant at sivsamudram in Karnataka in 1902. which convert the turbines' mechanical energy into electricity. After passing through the turbine. Hydroelectric power. Hydroelectric power Electricity produced from generators driven by water turbines that convert the energy in falling or fast-flowing water to mechanical energy. hydropower plant OF 130kw installed capacity was commissioned in 1897 at sidrapong at Dargiling in West Bengal and followed by 4. In India. It’s held in a reservoir or lake behind the dam and the force of the water being released from the reservoir through the dam spins the blades of a turbine. small hydro plants fell out of favor.4MW ganga power plant(U. Hydropower generation is an improvarient of primitive water wheel for grinding cereals. India.
As a part of normal operations many hydroelectric facilities also provide flood control. irrigation. This stored water is released from the reservoir through turbines at the rate required to meet changing electricity needs or other needs such as flood control. high cost of fuels needed for many of the other plants made the engineers to pay attention to the naturally . the gates of the pumped-storage facility are opened and stored water is released from the reservoir to generate and quickly deliver electricity to meet the demand. Storage facilities use a dam to capture water in a reservoir. During the daytime when electricity demand suddenly increases.8 liters) of water falling 100 feet (about 30 meters) each second produced slightly more than 1. and recreational opportunities such as fishing. Hydroelectric developments provide unique benefits not available with other electricity generating technologies. Up to 1972. an innovation of the 1950s. Pumpedstorage facilities. These are also called as Small Scale Hydroelectric Power Plants. enough to power ten 100-watt light bulbs or a typical hairdryer. There are now three types of hydroelectric installations: storage.funneled into a pipe (or pen-stock) and directed to a waterwheel (or turbine) where the force of the falling water on the turbine blades rotated the turbine and its main shaft. Hydro electric power plant Installations (e. or ozone depletion. run-of-river. and do not produce toxic wastes.000 watts (or one kilowatt) of electricity. and the rotating generator produced electricity. water-skiing. picnicking. have specially designed turbines. One gallon (about 3. Operating in this manner. and recreation. where the economy of scale enabled the production of energy at a cost low enough to compete thermal power etc. this type of project can be constructed without a dam or with a low diversion structure to direct water from the stream channel into a penstock. and sightseeing. The total potential amount of such a resources is poorly documented but is apt to be large. They do not contribute to air pollution. acid rain. At night when electricity demand is lowest and there is excess electricity available from coal or nuclear electricity generating facilities the turbines are reversed and pump water back into the reservoir. But the shortage of fuel. water supply for drinking and irrigation. boating. Manufacturers have Been quick enough to develop package designs for small units. These facilities can supply in principle significant amounts of electricity for irrigation. navigation. If the conditions are right.g. Run-of-river facilities use only the natural flow of the river to operate the turbine. and pumped-storage facilities. or potable water pumping lighting or health or educational purpose. This shaft was connected to a generator. They can also be reversed and used as pumps to lift water from the powerhouse back up into the reservoir where the water is stored for later use. Dams) to a large extent. camping. swimming. a pumped-storage facility improves the operating efficiency of all power plants within an electric system. These turbines have the ability to generate electricity the conventional way when water is delivered through penstocks to the turbines from a reservoir. rafting. hydro engineers concentrated on developing the larger sites. fish passage.
and is therefore constantly being renewed. due to the several advantages offered by these plants. If small hydropower stations are set up all over the country. Traditionally thought of as a cheap and clean source of electricity. most large hydro-electric schemes being planned today are coming up against a great deal of opposition from environmental groups and native people. This is transformed into mechanical energy when the water rushes down the sluice . Some associate the concept of small hydro with low head say up to 15 m.occurring renewable sources which can be efficiently used as energy sources. In India. surplus power is diverted to a resistor and either wasted or used to heat water. & lesser gestation periods have lent added attraction. effects on stream ecology. Hydroelectric power plants convert the kinetic energy contained in falling water into electricity. Hydro power is currently the world's largest renewable source of electricity. Differences in land elevation result in rainfall runoff. Building up behind a high dam. Many countries now have active small hydro development and rural electrification programmes. accounting for 6% of worldwide energy supply or about 15% of the world's electricity. The energy in flowing water is ultimately derived from the sun. The advantage of Hydro Power Plants operation in hilly areas and remote areas and the elimination of long transmission system. Hydro-electric Power Plants Hydroelectric energy is produced by the force of falling water. It has little or no adverse environmental impact. and allow some of the original solar energy to be captured as hydro-electric power. In Canada. while further investigations and surveys are expected to indicate a higher potential. These controllers maintain a constant load on the turbine and hence constant flow. This may not generally be true as there is no restriction on head for these power plants. electronic load controllers have been developed to replace the governor. The capacity to produce this energy is dependent on both the available flow and the height from which it falls. Conceptually these power plants can be categorized into two types: 1) One utilizing small discharges but having high head 2) One utilizing large discharges but having comparatively smaller head. the remarkable advancement in the technology of development of turbines suitable for utilizing small falls and small discharges from RIVERS increased the chances of development of small hydral For many small hydro plants of less than 500 kW capacity. Small Hydropower is covered in renewable programme. the potential of small hydropower is estimated to be 5000 MW at present. Moreover. hydroelectric power is abundant and supplies 60% of our electrical needs. water accumulates potential energy. The alternate hydro-energy center at Roorki works on the development of solar hydropower system as well as Hybrid Hydro systems. decentralized availability of power will become possible. Energy contained in sunlight evaporates water from the oceans and deposits it on land in the form of rain. There is no formal definition of a small hydro plant but this may generally be taken as power station or plant having output up to 5000 kW. Stations up to output 1000 kW are called micro and up to 5000 kW as mini power plants.
High head plants with storage are very valuable to electric utilities because they can be quickly adjusted to meet the electrical demand on a distribution system. The rotation of the water turbines is transferred to a generator which produces electricity. The turbine's rotation spins electromagnets which generate current in stationary coils of wire. Heads for this type of power plant may be greater than 1000 m. The use of a dam to impound water also provides the capability of storing water during rainy periods and releasing it during dry periods. The following is an equation which may be used to roughly determine the amount of electricity which can be generated by a potential hydro-electric power site: POWER (kW) = 5. able to meet demand. falling water is channeled through a turbine which converts the water's energy into mechanical power.and strikes the rotary blades of turbine. The amount of electricity which can be generated at a hydro-electric plant is dependant upon two factors. "High head" power plants are the most common and generally utilize a dam to store water at an increased elevation. Finally. measured as volume per unit time. called the "head". This results in the consistent and reliable production of Electricity. Based on the facts presented above.9 x FLOW x HEAD In this equation. These factors are (1) the vertical distance through which the water falls. Hydro-electric power plants capture the energy released by water falling through a vertical distance. and (2) the flow rate. Hydroelectric power for the Nation . In general. The electricity produced is proportional to the product of the head and the rate of flow. Most large hydroelectric facilities are of the high head variety. FLOW is measured in cubic meters per second and HEAD is measured in meters. the current is put through a transformer where the voltage is increased for long distance transmission over power lines. and transform this energy into useful electricity. hydroelectric power plants can generally be divided into two categories.
Producing electricity using hydroelectric power has some advantages over other power producing methods. Since about 1980. hydroelectricity is still important to the Nation. but the number is down to about 10 percent today. Power is produced and is sent to homes and businesses. most of the good spots to locate hydro plants have already been taken. In fact. hydro power is better than burning coal. As this chart shows. oil or natural gas to produce electricity. many reservoirs were constructed to serve peoples' rising demand for water and power. hydroelectric power sounds great -. as about 10 percent of total power is produced by hydroelectric plants. some of which are just beginning to be understood. as it . Hydro-electric power plants do not emit any of the standard atmospheric pollutants such as carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide given off by fossil fuel fired power plants. time. The trend for the future will probably be to build small-scale hydro plants that can generate electricity for a single community. the rate of reservoir construction has slowed considerably. and construction. In the early part of the century hydroelectric plants supplied a bit less than one-half of the nation's power. which all takes a LOT of money. In the middle of the 20th Century. however. Until recently there was an almost universal belief that hydro power was a clean and environmentally safe method of producing electricity. when urbanization was occurring at a rapid rate. Environmental Impacts Hydro-electric power plants have many environmental impacts.so why don't we use it to produce all of our power? Mainly because you need lots of water and a lot of land where you can build a dam and reservoir. Nowadays. must be weighed against the environmental impacts of alternative sources of electricity. These impacts. Let's do a quick comparison: Reservoir construction is "drying up" Gosh.Although most energy in the United States is produced by fossil fuel and nuclear power plants. the construction of surface reservoirs has slowed considerably in recent years. In this respect. Water flowing through the dams spin turbine blades (made out of metal instead of leaves) which are connected to generators. huge power generators are placed inside dams.
The La Grande project in the James Bay region of Quebec has already submerged over 10. whose way of life has then been destroyed. The water quality of many reservoirs also poses a health hazard due to new forms of bacteria which grow in many of the hydro rivers. The mercury accumulates in the bodies of fish and poses a health hazard to those who depend on these fish for food. The size of reservoirs created can be extremely large. hydro-electric facilities such as the James Bay project in Quebec that flood large areas of land might be significant contributors to global warming. present in rocks underlying a reservoir. If this turns out to be true. may give off quantities of greenhouse gases equivalent to those from other sources of electricity. and recreation. Large dams and reservoirs can have other impacts on a watershed. much of it previously forested or used for agriculture. and by creating fish ladders which allow fish to move upstream past the dam. These impacts can be reduced by requiring minimum flows downstream of a dam.does not contribute to global warming or acid rain. decreasing the amount of water which can be stored and used for electrical generation. This silt can slowly fill up a reservoir. The most obvious impact of hydro-electric dams is the flooding of vast areas of land. submerged by flooding. A few recent studies of large reservoirs created behind hydro dams have suggested that decaying vegetation. Therefore. Many rare ecosystems are also threatened by hydro-electric development. into a form which is soluble in water. Run of the river hydro plants without dams and reservoirs would not be a source of these greenhouse gases. as well as preventing fish from migrating upstream to spawn. and if future plans are carried out. Similarly. The river downstream of the dam is also deprived of silt which fertilizes the river's flood-plain during high water periods.000 square kilometers of land. is trapped by a dam and deposited on the bed of the reservoir. Silt. Different classifications of Hydroelectric power plants: 1) Depending upon Capacity to generate power: Size unit size Installation Micro upto 100 kW 100 kW Mini 101 to 1000 kW 2000 kW Small 1001 to 6000 kW 15000 kW . but in several cases they have flooded the homelands of native peoples. the eventual area of flooding in northern Quebec will be larger than the country of Switzerland. run of the river type hydro plants generally have a smaller impact on the environment. Damming a river can alter the amount and quality of water in the river downstream of the dam. hydro-electric power plants do not result in the risks of radioactive contamination associated with nuclear power plants. Bacteria present in decaying vegetation can also change mercury. Reservoirs can be used for ensuring adequate water supplies. providing irrigation. normally carried downstream to the lower reaches of a river.
Large quantity of water at a reasonable head should be available 2. lighting and ventilation . 6. Basic components of a hydroelectric power plant: The basic and common components of a hydroelectric power plant are given below: a) Diversion and intake b) Desilting chamber c) Water conducting system d) Balancing reservoir e) Surge tank (if necessary) f) Penstock g) Power house: turbine. drainage system. 5. Medium head: Between 30 to 75 meters. emergency and standby power system. grounding. auxiliary. High head : Above 75 meters. Low head : Less than 30 meters. generator. protection and control equipment. power system. Selection of site for Hydro Power Plants: 1. The site should have firm rock for foundation. There should not be any possibility of leakage of water in future.2) Depending on head: Ultra low head: Below3 meters. The rainfall should be sufficient to maintain desired water level in the reservoir throughout the year. 3. The site should provide strong and high mountains on the two sides of the river reservoir with minimum gap for economical dam construction. The catchments area for the reservoir to collect rainwater should be large. dewatering. 4.
The material of construction should be such that loss due to seepage is also minimized. the power go use maybe located further downstream and fed through a tunnel branching into individual penstocks near the powerhouse. • Diversion structure: The diversion structure provided should be simple in construction as well as economical. The most commonly used channel section is trapezoidal.4 to 0. Sometimes penstock may be laid in trench excavated below the dam buried in concrete. so as to minimize the erosion damages to the turbine runner. the power house is separated from the dam founded on suitable location and fed by penstock s generally taken out from a tunnel earlier used as diversion tunnel. Types of powerhouses: Surfaces power house: It is the best choice when sufficient area is available to accommodate the powerhouse within economical and convenient excavation. It is usually constructed in re-enforced concrete or masonry. Layout of hydro power plants: The layout of hydro power plants envisages positioning of the various components of the plant to insure optimum use of available space for its efficient and convenient erection. Power house The power is positioned at the toe of the concrete masonry dam where the suitable rock to lay foundation is available each turbine is fed by a separate penstock which is embedded inside the non-overflow section of the dam. Depending upon the type of river bed the diversion structure may be of two-type viz. The horizontal flow velocity should not exceed 0. • Water conductor system: Water conducting system is the very important component of hydro-power plant. The depth of tank may be kept between 1. The power house separated from the dam expansion joints. The there are three types of surface powerhouse depending on superstructure are outdoor. operation and maintenance.5 to 4 m.5 mm and for high head it is from 0. semi out door.2 to 0. With a view to minimize the fluctuations in the tail water level.2 mm.1 to 0. The design of the water conduction system should ensure minimum head loss. The power house may be located below the ski jump bucket itself. It should involve minimum maintenance. indoor types Semi-underground power house The surface with setting of turbines below the minimum tail water level may . adequate velocity of flow so that silt does not settle down. The type of water conductor system depends on the site conditions and the materials available. Especially due to ski jump trajectory.Tail race channel. The powerhouse may be located at the underground. The size of silt particles to be trapped for medium head power stations is from 0. Boulder weir and Trench type weir. led through pressure shafts or pressure tunnels with surge tank. In the case of earth and rock fill dams. • Desalting tank : Desilting tank is provided usually in the initial reaches of water conductor to trap the suspended silt load and pebbles etc .6 m/s.
The dam stores lots of water behind it in the reservoir.involve substantial excavation and then backfilling with concrete to facilitate construction of high retaining walls for protections against floods. which is turned by the moving water. The head water elevation is maintained with the help of vertical lift crest gates. The results are the same. which then turns a metal shaft in an electric generator which is the motor that produces electricity. Take a look at this diagram (courtesy of the Tennessee Valley Authority) of a hydroelectric power plant to see the details: Francis turbine The theory is to build a dam on a large river that has a large drop in elevation (there are not many hydroelectric plants in Kansas or Florida). At the end of the penstock there is a turbine propeller. hydroelectric and coal-fired power plants produce electricity in a similar way. which produces the power. spiral casings turbines and generators. In this type vertical shafts are driven in rock for housing part of draft tube. Near the bottom of the dam wall there is the water intake. In both cases a power source is used to turn a propeller-like piece called a turbine. Hydroelectric power: How it works So just how do we get electricity from water? Actually. whereas a hydroelectric plant uses falling water to turn the turbine. A coal-fired power plant uses steam to turn the turbine blades. . The shaft from the turbine goes up into the generator. The head water elevation is incorporated in the body of spillway beneath the crest. It has advantages of economy because separate powerhouse structure is avoided in this arrangement. Submersible powerhouse: In this type of power plant which is incorporated in the body of spillway beneath the crest. Gravity causes it to fall through the penstock inside the dam.
in fact. Pelton also invented the split bucket. where pressure head was converted into kinetic energy. The modest lawn sprinkler comes to our aid. Water under pressure is introduced at the centre. it is not a good idea to be playing in the water right below a dam when water is released! Impulse Turbines: The Pelton Wheel The impulse turbine is very easy to understand. He used two jets at right angles to the radius. A nozzle transforms water under a high head into a powerful jet. In the impulse turbine. and jets of water that can cover the area necessary issue from the ends of the arms at zero gauge pressure. now universally used. which absorbs the resulting force. its energy output as a turbine serves only to move the sprinkler head. driven by such jets. they are leaving the runner. the pressure change occurs in the runner itself at the same time that the force is exerted. The momentum of this jet is destroyed by striking the runner. though this worked with steam. It will be our introduction to reaction turbines. which had the sole duty of turning momentum change into torque. in 1880. had been used since the '60's. and were never commercially offered. By the way. If you have such a sprinkler. Though the water is projected at an angle to the radius. The force still comes from rate of change of momentum. by all means observe it in action. but the term is now used generically for all similar impulse turbines. the water from an operating sprinkler moves almost along a radius. In the reaction turbine.Power lines are connected to the generator that carry electricity to your home and mine. If the velocity of the water leaving the runner is nearly zero. The pressure decrease occurs in the sprinkler arms. Barker's mills only appeared as models. reaction turbines are difficult to understand and analyze. There was no pressure change in the runner. Pelton (1829-1908) in California around 1870. The jets do not impinge on a runner. It is a descendant of Hero's aeolipile. the pressure change occurred in the nozzle. since it is both a reaction turbine. the rotating globe with two bent jets that was quite a sensation in ancient times. not water. all of the kinetic energy of the jet has been transformed into mechanical energy. A practical impulse turbine was invented by Lester A. Robert Barker's proposed mill of 1740. a mere rotating platform with vanes. Pelton is a trade name for the products of the company he originated. so the efficiency is high. especially the ones usually met with in practice. Reaction Turbines: The Lawn Sprinkler By contrast with the impulse turbine. and a primitive turbine called the hurdy-gurdy. The duty of the lawn sprinkler is to spread water. but not as obviously as in the impulse turbine. The lawn sprinkler seems directly descended from Rev. so their momentum is not converted into force as in the impulse turbine. There were high-pressure jets there used in placer mining. The flow of water in a lawn sprinkler is radially outward. A later improvement fed water from below to balance the weight of the runner and reduce friction. The water continues past the propeller through the tailrace into the river past the dam. The force on the runner must act in reaction to the creation of the . and easy to understand.
3. Transmission cost It covers the cost of transmission facilities to connect the power generated to the system load.5% of capital cost. Fixed charges it includes fixed charges on plant interest taxes insurances depreciation and obsolescence 2. the origin of the name of the reaction turbine. During periods of Peak electrical demand. Bulb-Type Generators . generally available at night. supervisory. and electricity is produced (Figure 2). although hydro-electric technology is basically the same regardless of generating capacity. to pump water from one reservoir to another reservoir at a higher elevation. which is. or no dam and simply use the "run of the river". Power plants of this type may utilize a low dam or weir to channel water.momentum instead. Their value is in their ability to store electricity for use at a later time when peak demands are occurring. fuel cost. Storage is even more valuable if intermittent sources of electricity such as solar or wind are hooked into a system. Hydroelectric facilities with a capacity of less than about 25 MW (1 MW = 1.they are a valuable addition to electricity supply systems. labor maintenance. Operation and maintenance cost It includes operating cost. water from the higher reservoir is released through turbines to the lower reservoir. "Pumped Storage" is another form of hydro-electric power. Although pumped storage sites are not net producers of electricity .the annual operation and maintenance cost is roughly proportional to the capacity of plant and the number of unit installed.000 Watts) are generally referred to as "small hydro". A large volume of water must pass through a low head hydro plant's turbines in order to produce a useful amount of power. Pumped storage facilities use excess electrical system capacity. repair and miscellaneous expenses . The annual maintenance cost is usually taken as 1. Run of the river generating stations cannot store water. Total annual cost of hydro power project: Total annual cost of hydro power project consists of three elements: 1. of course.000. thus their electric output varies with seasonal flows of water in a river. "Low head" hydroelectric plants are power plants which generally utilize heads of only a few meters or less.it actually takes more electricity to pump the water up than is recovered when it is released .
The DOE also recently identified more than 30 million kilowatts of untapped hydroelectric capacity that could be constructed with minimal environmental effects at existing dams that presently have no hydroelectric generating facilities.000 kW). unbalanced magnetic pull. frame stiffness and seal design. In addition to supplying low cost peaking capacity. Preliminary results from these efforts have improved the visibility of hydroelectric power and provide indications that the hydroelectric power industry will be vibrant and important to the country throughout the next century. distortion control. Future Directions for the Hydroelectric Industry The hydroelectric industry has been termed "mature" by some who charge that the technical and operational aspects of the industry have changed little in the past 60 years.400.000. Much of the remaining hydro potential in the world exists in the . Recent research initiatives counter this label by establishing new concepts for design and operation that show promise for the industry. small capacity. Straflo (Rim-Type) Generators These types of generators are designed for straight-flow turbine system applications to harness tidal flow effectively for the production of electric power as well as for low head applications. Conventional Generators Designed for all types of vertical axis applications. at existing hydroelectric projects with unused potential. In addition. conventional generators are installed in locations having a variety of head and flow conditions. Motors for Pumped Storage Many utilities lower system costs by adding pumped storage capacity. A multi-year research project is presently testing new turbine designs and will recommend a final turbine blade configuration that will allow safe passage of more than 98 percent of the fish that are directed through the turbine. pumped storage provides spinning reserve to the system. and economic constraints.GE has a strong background in building large slow-speed horizontal synchronous machines of this type. GE has supplied more than 50 units with a total capacity of over 7. In such applications. our experience focuses on air-gap stability. The theoretical size of the worldwide hydro power is about four times greater than that which has been exploited at this time.000 kVA (7. The actual amount of electricity which will ever be generated by hydro power will be much less than the theoretical potential. dispersed sites that could supply electricity to adjacent areas without connecting to a regional electric transmission distribution system are proceeding. This is due to the environmental concerns outlined above. ventilation. Follow-up studies will assess the economic issues associated with this untapped hydroelectric resource. and even at a number of sites without dams. studies to estimate the hydroelectric potential of undeveloped.
the World Bank has spent billions of foreign aid dollars on huge hydro-electric projects in the third world. lowers the costs of hydroelectric power at sites with Companies have to dig up the Earth or drill wells to get the coal. In the past. Displacement of large population from reservoir area and rehabilitation. and standardized turbine production. 7. 3.rainfall renews the water in the reservoir. Reliable energy source with approximately 90% availability. 5. 11. Increased fuel prices in the future could result in these facilities being refurbished. . Socio-economic benefits being located usually remote areas. 2. Non-polluting and hence environment friendly. 6. Plant equipment is simple. Opposition to hydro power from environmentalists and native people. 9. 4. 4. Water to run the power plant is provided free by nature 14. inexhaustible. Disadvantages: 1. Harnessing this resource would require billions of dollars. As well. 3. Susceptible to vagaries of nature such as draught. Advantages: 1.It's renewable . Public opposition to large hydro schemes will probably result in very little new development of big dams and reservoirs. In North-America and Europe. Low generation cost compared with other energy sources. 95%to98%. so the fuel is almost always there. Economical source of power. 12. 2. because hydro-electric facilities generally have very high construction costs. oil. many small hydro electric sites were abandoned in the 1950's and 60's when the price of oil and coal was very low. 8. Low operation and maintenance cost. New computerized control systems and improved turbines may allow more electricity to be generated from existing facilities in the future. Loss of large land due to reservoir. as well as new environmental assessments at the World Bank will restrict the amount of money spent on hydroelectric power construction in the developing countries of the world. and gas for nuclear power plants there are waste-disposal problems Low heads. a large percentage of hydro power potential has already been developed. Possible to build power plant of high capacity. Renewable source of energy thereby saves scares fuel reserves. 5. Higher efficiency. and their environmental impacts unrealized.developing countries of Africa and Asia. 10. Indigenous. Fuel is not burned so there is minimal pollution 13. Small scale and low head hydro capacity will probably increase in the future as research on low head turbines. perpetual and renewable energy source. Longer construction period and high initial cost. Non-availability of suitable sites for the construction of dam.
The dam supplies water to western Maharashtra as well as cheap Hydro electric power to the neighbouring areas with a capacity of 1.For nuclear power plants there are waste-disposal problems CASE STUDY EXAMPLE KOYNA DAM. The dam is blamed for the spate of earthquakes in the recent past. They can produce a lot of pollution 10.Companies have to dig up the Earth or drill wells to get the coal. The dam supplies water to western Maharashtra as well as cheap hydroelectric power to the neighbouring areas with a capacity of 1. 7.Maharashtra. The dam is blamed for the spate of earthquake in the recent past. Completed in 1963. The Koyna electricity project is run by theMaharashtra State Electricity Board. 8. The Koyna project is actually composed of four dams. Maharashtra. Most of the generators are located in excavated cavesa kilometre deep. Statistics . Completed in 1963. High cost of transmission system for remote sites. It is located in Koyna Nagar. nestled in the Western Ghats on the state highway between Chiplun and Karad. KOYNA NAGAR. inside the heart of the surrounding hills. In 1967 a devastating earthquake almost razed the dam.920 MW. with the Koyna dam having the largest catchment area. Geologists are still uncertain if the Koyna Dam is responsible for the spate in seismic activity. They use up valuable and limited natural resources 9. Most of the generators are located in excavated caves a kilometre deep. Geologists are still uncertain if the Koyna Dam is responsible for the spate in seismic activity. India. Koyna Dam is one of the largest dams in Maharashtra. Environmental aspect reservoirs verses river ecology. The Koyna electricity project is run by the Maharashtra State Electricity Board. and gas 11.6. it is one of the largest civil engineering projects commissioned after Indian independence.India. The catchment area dams the Koyna River and forms a huge lake — the Shivsagar Lake whose length is 50 kilometres. Koyna Dam is one of the largest damsinMaharashtra. nestled in the Western Ghats on the state highway between Chiplun and Karad.920 MW. It is located in Koyna Nagar. with the dam developing major cracks. with the Koyna dam having the largest catchment area. In 1967 a devastating earthquake almost razed the dam. with the dam developing major cracks. inside the heart of the surrounding hills. The Koyna project is actually composed of four dams. it is one of the largest civil engineering projects commissioned after Indian independence. oil. The catchment area dams the Koyna River and forms a huge lake — the Shivsagar Lake whose length is 50 kilometres.
which means that we can extract a great deal of energy from it.22 m • Height: 85.• Storage: o Gross storage: 98.125 TMC • Length: 1807. supplied much of the electricity for the city of Las Vegas. it will arrive at the turbines at high pressure. However with this arrangement the flow of the water cannot be controlled. on the Colorado river. and there is no waste or pollution. however now Las Vegas has grown so much. Gravitational potential energy is stored in the water above the dam. In mountainous countries such as Switzerland and New Zealand. Hydro-electric power stations can produce a great deal of power very cheaply. An alternative is to build the station next to a fast-flowing river. once the station is built. the water comes free of charge. and water cannot be stored for later use.65 TMC o Dead: 5.35 m • Year of completion: 1963 The Koyna Dam in Maharashtra The resovoir behind the dam is 50 km in length. hydro-electric dams are very expensive to build. There's a good explanation of how hydro power works at Although there are many suitable sites around the world. . hydro-electric power provides more than half of the country's energy needs. The water then flows away downriver as normal. Because of the great height of the water. However. When it was first built.78 TMC o Live: 93. the huge "Hoover Dam". the city gets most of its energy from other sources.
1962 .000 m³ Width of dam: 808 m Slope at water side: 24:1 Length of 60 km Lake tapping at Koyna ________________________________________ In a major technological breakthrough.400 km³ Volume of dam: 1. chief engineer of the Koyna Hydel project.1963 Height of dam: 103 meters Water storage: 2.797. the engineers of Koyna hydroelectric project today successfully performed the `lake tapping' operations at Shivaji Sagar reservoir of the dam. people were all ears to the announcements made by Shrikant Huddar.555. And as Huddar instructed his subordinates to switch on the Konsbergs underwater cameras. the countdown for the million dollar blast had begun. Beginning from 10. the first of its kind in Asia. Huddar launched his countdown and just after he had . This operation or `lake tapping' using Norwegian technology will pave the way for the commissioning of the 1.920 MW by this year end. as people from neighbouring villages flocked the lake to witness the `lake tapping'. Enthusiasm reigned on the banks of Shivaji Sagar reservoir.000 MW stage four of the Koyna hydroelectric project. which would take total generation capacity to 1. Standing on the hilly terrain of the Koyna backwater.
villagers standing on the banks lifted the water from the reservoir and gently applied it to their foreheads.Munde. Rural Development Minister Anna Dange actually coined a couplet describing the event. Planned for 1000 MW power generation. and ripples after ripples hit the banks. but they had certainly felt it deep inside their hearts. expressed his gratitude to irrigation department for inviting him to witness the `lake tapping'.25 km-long head race tunnel into the underground power house.Anna Dange. Soon after the ripples hit the banks.announcedzero. the fourth stage of Koyna hydro electric project.'' he said. He also said the `event' was a major leap towards the State Government's dream to be self-sufficient in power generation. The Rs 1. ministers Eknath Khadase. Its Shivaji Sagar reservoir has a capacity of 2. who also holds the energy portfolio. The water will be finally released in Kolkewadi Lake of stage III. Harshvardhan Patil. Speaking on the occasion after the blasts had been conducted. following which it will be carried through a 4. Deputy Chief Minister Gopinath Munde and Chief Minister Narayan Rane were all praise for the State irrigation department. a mushroom flower-like cloud of water erupted from Shivaji Sagar reservoir. No one could hear the sound of the blasts. envisages that the water will be tapped by piercing the Koyna reservoir. Chief Minister was also all praise for the irrigation department and said this development would go a long way in providing excess power for the State.300 crore stage-four project is a World Bank funded project having commenced in 1992 . within a fraction of a second after Chief Minister Narayan Rane had switched knobs activating the blastings. Suddenly. ``At present there is a shortage of nearly 1000-1500 MW of power in the State. The Koyana dam is at Koynanagar in Patan tehsil of Satara district in theSahyadaris. While Irrigation Minister Khadse said such blasts could be replicated in future to generate more power. Certainly it was a moment to cherish. hundreds of people felt waves of tremors passing under their feet.797 million cubic metres of water. This difference will be reduced after the Koyna fourth stage starts generating 1000 MW power.
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