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= I am determined You shall not (shan’t) say a word until I ask you. • promise: If you finish your work you shall get a reward. • offer: Shall I help you with that? • suggestion: Shall we invite them round for dinner? • refusal: If you don’t hand in the paper in time you shall not be allowed to sit for the exam. • threat: If do that you shall be punished. Will can show: • willingness or determination: I will help you as much as I can. I will give you the book you asked for. • promise: I will visit you soon. • request: Will you open the window? • offer: I’ll look after the children for you. • refusal: He won’t come with me. • agreement: Yes, I’ll come with you. • threat: Stop, or I’ll call the police. • possibility or assumption: Somebody is ringing the doorbell, it will be the postman. • estimation of capacity: This bag will hold more than 10 kilos. • something unavoidable: Boys will be boys. • volition: If you will analyse the problem I presented to you I’ll be much obliged. FORMS AND TENSES OF MODERN FUTURE 1. Future Simple: shall/will + infinitive. It expresses: a) ● a neutral future event, a statement of fact: I shall go on camping next week. Your friend will see a good film tonight. Your friend will be here tomorrow. ● a formal announcement of future plans or to present weather: The President will move into the White House next week. Rain will fall heavily through the day. ● hopes, beliefs, expectations, thoughts, assumptions, and doubts about the future. Used after verbs like: assume, believe, doubt, expect, guarantee, hope, promise, reckon, suppose, think, be sure/ afraid and adverbs such as pehaps, possibly, probably, certainly, definitely: I expect they ‘ll be here soon. We’ll probably be late. b) ● a future action in the main clause of conditional sentences: I shall read this book if I have the time. If it stops raining they will pay us a visit. ● a future action in the main clause of time sentences: I’ll phone you when I get here. 2. Future Continuous: shall/will + be + vb.-ing. It expresses a) a future activity or state going on at a certain time in the future: I shall be travelling to Braşov at six p.m. tomorrow/at this time next week. b) an activity or state (sometimes as routine) which will extend over a whole future period: He will be working on the essay all day long. c) future events that are planned/ deliberate intention/ inevitable event: We shall be spending our next holidays in the mountains. I’ll be seeing him at the club tonight.
whatever. 5. by that time: I ‘ll have finished my work by next week/ by the time she comes. It expresses a future continuous seen from a past perspective: He told his father that in less than an hour he would be doing his homework. you spend the first night of the trip in a hotel in London. anything. Future Perfect Continuous: shall/will + have + been + present participle. 4. (incorrect: we do not use the Present continuous to make a prediction based on present evidence). markers: by Sunday. d) calendar references: Christmas is on a Tuesday next year. by tomorrow. It expresses: a) an action which will be finished before a certain moment or another action in the future. a personal arrangement: We are visiting London next week. It is rather informal. b) the duration up to a certain time in the future. b) prediction due to relevant evidence: We are going to graduate in June. an official trip by a member of a government): The museum opens on Monday at 5 o’clock. markers: for two years: Next month we shall have worked in this factory for three weeks. d) what we assume someone else is doing at the moment: She is not home now. etc: Everything that you say will be recorded. I’m writing a letter to my parents. She ‘ll be picking up the children from school. g. d) planned actions/decisions (usu. (incorrect: no arrangement is necessary. b) in time clauses: You will like her as soon as you see her. e) casual question about future events (sometimes more polite than the will-future) : Will you be coming to the meeting tonight? Future Perfect: shall/will + have +past participle. It’s landing in a minute. 3. Present Simple is used to express future actions a) that are part of an official time table (e. BE GOING TO (near future) is used to express: a) intention: They are going to throw a party. c) in conditional clauses: They will miss the train if they don’t hurry. . c) an assumption on the part of the speaker: You won’t have heard the news. They are coming tomorrow. we use be going to instead: I’m going to write a letter o my parents). It’s going to be dark in half an hour. Future in the Past Continuous: should/would + be + present participle. It expresses: the duration of an action up to a certain moment in the future: At 9 o’clock I shall have been watching TV for three hours. The sun’s going down. of course. It expresses a future action or state seen from a past perspective: They promised me that they would write to me soon. We’re going to the theatre tonight. e) after everything. c) something that is about to happen: It is going to snow. a more distant point in the future): I am going to buy a car next year. a holiday itinerary. Present Continuous is used to express a planned action. 2. by 6 o’clock. g. Look at that helicopter coming down. other organized events. it is important/ essential/ strange. 6.3. WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURITY 1. the subject of the verb should be a person not an object. You will do whatever I ask you to. Future in the Past Simple: should/would+short infinitive (infinitive without the particle “to”). a travel timetable. NB e.
BE TO (= urmează să) + to-infinitive is used to express: a) something that is destined to happen: He is to be fired because of his inappropriate behaviour. (we use impending only in attibutive position: The sensation of doom was impending. to come – in the be going to future and prefer instead to use present continuous). 9.NB e. – incorrect). BE (JUST) ON THE POINT/ VERGE OF + gerund or noun is used to express something that will happen in the near future: Mary is on the point of resigning. We will return to the court law as soon as we have ny further news. 4. 7. He is sure not to find out the truth about his parents’ real identity. Past Tense Simple is used to express a future action in a time clause simultaneous to another future action expressed by the future in the Past: She promised she would visit us as soon as she finished her chores. Present Perfect is used to express a future activity in a time clause that will take place before another future action: The pupils will play in the courtyard after they have finished their classes. President (is) to hold a press conference. We’re going to go to the opera tonight. 10. 11. Many modal verbs can refer to the future. Ann’s flight is due to arrive at 4. They’re going to come back early tomorrow morning. A decision from the judges is imminent. Some adjectives contain the idea of “in the future”: imminent. BE LIKELY TO +infinitive to say that something in the future is probable: The parcel is likely to arrive in ten days. BE BOUND/ SURE/ CERTAIN TO + infinitive to say that something is definitely going to happen: The new timetable is sure to annoy some of the students when they see it. b) an official plan or arrangement: The minister is to arrive in our city tonight. usually expressing a degree of possibility or probability: Such opportunities may not be so readily available in the future. forthcoming. No one could shake off the sensation of impending doom. Past Continuous to express future arrangements from a viewpoint in the past: We were meeting them at the concert hall. NB We can use be sure to and be certain to as imperatives. (incorrect: we tend to avoid using verbs of motion – to go. we don’t use be bound to in this way. 6. g. BE (JUST) ABOUT TO + infinitive is used to express something that will happen in the immediate future: I am about to start a new job.we tend to use these adjectives in more formal English. The traffic is always awful on weekends. so we left early. He is bound not to succeed if he disdains everybody. 12. BE UNLIKELY TO + infinitive means that it is improbable that something will happen: They are unlikely to arrive before six. Please contact us if there are delays. 5. 15. BE DUE TO + infinitive is used to refer to scheduled/ fixed times: The play is due to start in five minutes. Do you envisage experiencing any difficulty with this machine? 16. e) prohibitions: You are not to cross the road without me. (in headlines) c) duty: What books are we to read? d) formal commands/ instructions: You are to be here by eight o’clock. Your brother is bound to fail if he doesn’t ask some adult’s advice on that matter. Certain verbs + to-infinitive: They plan/ intend/ expect/ are proposing/ hope/ swear/ have agreed/ have promissed/ have decided to build a new school. Be bound to call me. 13. impending.50. . (incorrect) 14. 8. Be sure/ certain to give me a call as soon as you arrive at the hotel. Certain verbs + verb +noun/ vb-ing : We predict/ anticipate congestion on all streets because of the snow. 17.
5. was /were due to have + past participle: I was due to have started the treatment last week. 9. 8. would be + vb-ing: We knew we would be waiting for ages before she came. she should have no difficulty in clinching the deal. was/ were to have + past participle: The Queen was to have accompanied the others. 3. would have + past participle: They thought the crisis would have finished before then. past continuous: We thought they were arriving before lunch. ADDENDA OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE IN THE PAST 1. would: I had hoped you would get back earlier. 2. Given her expertise and experience.Lodge’s latest novel might win the public’s admiration if it was written in the comic spirit of the others. was/ were due to : The match was due to start at 11. was/ were to: We were to leave at 10. was/ were going to: I was going to leave early in the morning. 4. . but she sprained her ankle. 6. but I didn’t have money to procure all my medicines. was/ were about to: I was about to tell you when you interrupted me that… 7. 10.
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