dxfk|nof+sf/L5fn

æ; 'gfdLÆ / a'4wd{
»» leIf' ;'hg

1

2

dxfk|nof+sf/L5fn

æ;'g fdLÆ / a'4wd {
» leIf' ;'hg

;dk {0f
æclgRrfjt ;+vf/f”
k"Ho u'?j/ leIf' ;'bz{g dxf:ylj/

a'4;Djt\ @%%%
k|yd ;+:s/0f M

3

4

ljifo ;"rL
!= e"ldsf
@= ;'gfdL
#= ;d'Gb|df kfgL ;'s]sf] z'e xf]Og
$= b]jbQ / sd{sf] kmn
%= ;d'2jfl0fh hfts
^= t'ngfTds cWoog

k|f0fLx? dg{] sf/0fx? M
!= ;d'b|df 8'a]/

@= ;d'b|L df5fåf/f

#= gbLdf 8'a]/

$= uf]xLåf/f

%= ?vaf6 v;]/

^= sf“6f ljem]/

&= ljleGg z:q k|of]uaf6

*= ljif vfP/

(= kmf“;Ldf r9]/

!)= k|kftaf6 v;]/

&= lgZsif{
*= ;'gfdLsf tL tLtf If0fx¿

!!= pu|zLt -clt zLt_ sf] sf/0f
!@= ljleGg /f]usf] sf/0f

(= d/0fwDd / d}lqefjgf

– ;Q'd:thfts $)@

5

6

dxfk|no+sf/L5fn æ;'gfdLÆ

3l8df nfvf}+n] Hofg u'dfP eg] nfvf}+ t'x'/f] klg eP . Tof] lbgn] ;f/f
;+;f/nfO{ g} ?jfPsf lyP .
o; 36\gfn] nfvf}+sf] Hofg lnof] eg] xhf/f}+nfO{ ;d'b|sf] ue{df g}
a]kQf u/fO{lbof] / sof}+sf] 3/af/ tx; gx; jf ;vfk eP t sof}+
aRrfx? 6'x'/f eP sof}+n] cfk\mgf Kof/f Kof/f d'6' ;dfgsf 5f]/f5f]/Lx?nfO{
u'dfpg' k/] eg] sof}+sf O{i6ldqx?sf] Hofguof] . o;aif{sf] of] ;'gfdLaf6 !
nfv $% xhf/eGbf a9Lsf] d[To' eof] eg] x/fpg]x?sf] ;+Vof sl/j !%
xhf/ /x]sf 5g\ . dlxgf}+ ;Dd dg]{x?sf nf;sf] vf]hL hf/L /x] .

e"ldsf

x/]s aif{sf] cGTolt/ jf gof“ jif{sf] k|f/Dedf w]/} dflg;x?
ljleGg :yfgdf gof“ jif{sf] :jfutfy{ hfg] ub{5g\ . o;/L gof“ jif{{
xiff]N{ nf;sf ;fy dgfpg]x?df o'/f]lkogx? Pl;ogx? eGbf cuf8L 5g\ .
sf]xL dgf]/Ghgsf] nfuL kxf8 r9\g t sf]xL /flk\m6gsf] nfuL hfG5g\ eg]
o'/f]k]lnx? w]/}h;f] Pl;ofsf] ;d'Gb|L lsgf/df uP/ gof“ jif{ dgfpg
?rfp5g\ . xhf/f}+sf] ;+Vofdf jif]{gL pgLx? 5'§Lsf] ;do ljtfpgsf] nflu
Pl;of leqg] ub{5g\ . t/ ;g @))$ ;fnsf] gof“ jif{sf] 5'§Lsf] tL
;'vbsf lbgx? ;'gfdL gfds dxfk|no+sf/L ;d'lb|5fnsf] sf/0f b'Mvdf
kl/0ft x'guof] . of] 36\gfsf] kl/lw /x]sf !# b]zx?df km}lnof] . Tof] b'vb

7

of] ;'gfdL eg]sf] s] xf] < s] sf/0faf6 ePsf] xf] eg]/ k'ms]6
af;L yfO{n}08df a:g'ePsf g]kfnLx?nfO{ ;'gfdL kZrft cfzf / e/f];f
lbgsf] nflu, a'emfpg / ;Demfpgsf] nflu of] n]v tof/ u/]sf] lyP .
o;df a'4wdn] s'g b[li6sf]0faf6 x]/]sf] 5 / s;/L b'lvtau{x?nfO{
pxfx?sf] cfZff / e/f];fnfO{ ;'gfdLsf] Tof] 5fn kl5sf] hLjgnfO{ ;'wfg{
s] ;Nnfx lbPsf] 5 eGg] ljifodf s]lx 5f]6f] 5nkmn k|Zt't u/]sf] 5' .
af}4u|Gysf] tYofs+ ;lxt of] ljifodf ;DalGwt cfjZos hfgsf/Lx? klg
ePsf] 5 . To;}u/L hltklg o; ;'gfdLsf 36\gfx?sf] jofg u/LPsf] 5
w]/}h;f] Toxf“ a:g' x'g] g]kfnLx?sf ;fydf 36\gf eO{/x]s} ;dosf]
l:yltaf6 kfOPsf cg'ejx? x'g\ . s]xL ;do kZrft\ ;f]lx n]vnfO{ ;a}sf]
hfgsf/Lsf] nflu cfgGbe"dL klqsfdfkm{t b'O{efudf -–aif{ ## c+s *
dfu{zLif{k"l0f{df / c+s ( df3z'Snk"l0f{df_ ljefhg u/L g]kfndf k|sfzg
u/]sf] lyP . To;}nfO{ k'gM ;+sng u/L s]xL s'/fx?nfO{ sf6s'6 tyf s]lx
8

;dPcg'?k yk u/L/fv]sf] lyP+ . s]xL ;do kZrft o; 36\gfdf k/]/

Ædxfk|no ;d'lb| 5fn ;'gfdLÆ

b'lvt x'g k'u]sL Pp6L pkfl;sf;+usf] aftf{nfk / pxfFn] JoQm u/]sf s]xL
;Demgfx?, pxfFdfly 36]sf tL tLvf tLtf If0fx?nfO{ klg ;+sngu/L
To; If0fnfO{ lhjGttf lbg] k|of; ;lxt o;df k|:t't ePsf] 5 . ;fy}
cGtdf s]xL dxTjk"0f{ ufyfx?nfO{ klg ;dfj]z u/]/ pSt 36\gfaf6
lkl8thgsf] nflu ;xof]u x'g]5 eGg] cfZffdf k|Zt't u/]sf] 5' . 36\gf u|i6
;a}sf] nflu d}qL efjgf u/Llbgsf] nflu klg ljgd| cg'/f]w ub{5' .

o; k':tssf] k|sfzgsf] nflu cfk\mgf] syfnfO{ k|sfzg ug{
cg'dlt lbg'x'g] ;f]dkmg dfnf Ho"nfO{ x[bob]lv g} wGojfb ug{ rfxG5' .
To;}u/L ;xof]u u/Llbg' x'g] efO{ c?0f dxh{g tyf ci6dfg u'efh' k|lt
xflb{s s[t1tf JoQm ug{ rfxG5' . o;/L g} pxfx?af6 eljiodf klg
;xof]usf] ck]Iff /fv]sf] 5' .

9

…;'gfdLÚ cyf{t ;d'Gb|L kfgLsf] dxf5fn, ;'Gbf g} 8/nfUbf] zAb
aGg k'Uof] . ;+;f/sf] rfnL; aif{otfsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] e"sDksf] ?kdf
lnPsf] of] 36\gfsf] sf/0f cfGb| dxf;fu/sf] kfgLnfO{ dxf5fnsf] ?kdf
kl/jt{g u/L of] eofgs 36\gf ePsf] xf] . of] 36\gfsf] kl/lw !# b]zx?df
dfq w]/} c;/ kf/]sf] geO{ ;f/f ;+;f/sf dflg;x?nfO{ g} c;/ kf/]sf] 5 .
of] dxf5fn jf ;'gfdL zAbn] ;f/f ;+;f/nfO{ ys{dfg agfO{lbof] . of]
36gfsf] ;dfrf/n] ;f/f ;+;f/ b'vL eP, ;f/f ;+;f/nfO{ ?nfO{ lbof] /
;a}sf] d'vdf Pp6} dfq zAb lyof] r' r' r'M= s;/L eof] of] < of] lsg eof]
t<
ut @^ tfl/v l8;]Dj/ @))$ ;fnsf] lbg ljxfgsf] ;do sl/j
&M%*M%) ah] -–yfO{ ;do cg';f/_ O{G8f]g]l;ofsf] ;'dfqf tfk"sf] blIf0f
cfGbfdfg dxf;fu/df *=( x]S6/sf] e"sDk cfPsf] lyof] . of] e'sDksf]
s]Gb|ljGb' aGbfcfr]x (Acheh) gfdsf] ;x/af6 sl/j @%) lsnf]ld6/sf]
b'l/df dxf;fu/sf] !) lsnf]ld6/sf] ue{df cfPsf] lyof] . of] e"sDksf]
s]Gb|ljGb' yfO{n}08af6 sl/j !,@^) lsnf]ld6/sf] b'l/df kb{5 . of] e"sDk
ljZjdf cfPsf e"sDkx?df a'=;= @$$# b]lvsf e"sDkx?df % cf}+ 7"nf]
e"sDksf] ?kdf lnOG5 tyf ljZj d} rfnL; aif{otfsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf]
e"sDksf] ?kdf dflgG5 . o; cfGbfdfg dxf;fu/sf] ue{df cfPsf]
e'sDksf] sf/0f pTkGg ePsf] æ;'gfdLÆ gfdf+lst dxfk|nfo+sf/L
10

;d'bL| 5fnaf6 blIf0f tyf blIf0fk"jL{ Plzofsf] efudf ;a}eGbf a9L k|efljt
eP . To;sf] kmntM ;d'b|sf] kfgL !% ld6/ prfO{+;Dd p7]sf] lyof] .
o;sf] k|efj hfgsf/L eP cg';f/ Plzofaf6 sl/j $ xhf/ % ;o
lsnf]ld6/ 6f9fdf kg]{ clk|msL d'n's ;f]dflnof;Dd klg k'u]sf] lyof] .
t/klg OG8f]g]lzof, ef/t, >Ln+sf / yfO{n}08df al9 k|efljt ePsf] tyf
;a}eGbf a9Lsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] .
nfvf}+sf] Hofg uof] s/f]8f}+sf] ;DklQx? gf; eof] eg] ;f/f
;+;f/af6 rfx] Tof] h'g;'s} wd{sf] wfld{s lsg gxf]; lxGb", l;v, lqmlZrog,
d'l:nd, af}4 cflb jf h'g;'s} ;+;f/sf] s'gfdf a;]sf dflg;x? lsg gxf];\
Pl;of, o'/f]k, cd]l/sf cflb o; 36\gfdf kg]{x?sf] ;xof]usf] nflu
pxfx?sf] pbf/ x[box? vf]Nof] / ;xof]usf wf/fx? aUf] . of] dxfe"sDkaf6
lkl8t :yfgx?sf] nflu ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3 nufotsf ljleGg ;/sf/L tyf
u}/;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfx?n] Oltxf; s} 7"nf] p4f/ ul//x]sf 5g\ .

11

;d'Gb|df kfgL ;'s]sf] z'e xf]Og .
g]kfnsf a'9fkfsfx? eGg] uy]{ ls …;d'Gb|df kfgL ;'s]sf] z'e
xf]OgÚ of] pvfgnfO{ ;'Gg] xfd|f g]kfnLx? ;fob sd} xf]nfg . xfn of]
pvfgnfO{ g]kfnsf] kl/j];df sd} k|of]udf NofOPsf] ePklg cfh cfP/
;Totfdf kl/jt{g eO{lbof] . zflAbs agfjlt tyf g]kfnsf] k|fs[lts
:j?knfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] of] jfSo ;fob c;xdltsf ljifo aGg afWo x'g
hfG5 lsgsL g]kfnsf] ;DaGw ;d'Gb| ;+u 5}g .
k[YjLsf] rf/efudf tLg efu ;d'Gb|n] 3]/]sf] 5 / k'/f kfgLn]
el/Psf] 5 . o:tf] lj;dtfo'Qm dxf;d'Gb|sf] kfgL slxNo} klg ;'Sg} ;Sb}g
eGg] efjgfx? xfdLdfly ;fg} pd]/ b]lv k|efj kl//x]sf] kfO{G5 . t/
k|fs[lts :j?kdf o;/L kl/jt{g x'g;Sbf /x]5g\ . To;sf] pbfx/0f xfdLn]
;g\ @))$ 36]sf] of] ;d'b|L dxf5fnnfO{ lng ;Sb5f}+ . of] 36\gfdf k/]/
Hofg arfpg ;kmn ePsfx? eG5g\ ls of] dxfk|no+sf/L ;d'bL| 5fn cfpg'
eGbf cuf8L ;d'Gb|sf] kfgL ;n{Ss ;'s]/ uPsf] lyof] . nf} † nf} † ;d'Gb|sf]
kfgL ;'Sof] eGbf eGb} ;d'Gb|df kfgL ;'s]/ uof] . 6f9f 6f9f;Dd klg kfgL
gb]v]sf] tyf ;d'Gb|sf] lxnf]df df5fx? 56kl6/x]sf] x]bf{x]b}{df s]lxl5g kl5
of] kfgL km]l/ kms]{/ cfof] . klxnf] k6ssf] kfgLsf] kmsf{O{ hldgsf] s]xL
dfly;Dd k'Uof] / csf]{ csf]{ ub}{ t]>f] k6sdf t ;a} 3/af/ wg;Dklt tyf
Hofg aufP/ nlu xfNof] .
12

klxnf] k6ssf] kfgLsf] em6\sf d} xf]z k'–of{P/ To; :yfgaf6
aflx/ cfpg]x? hLljt eP . To;}u/L Tof] 5fnaf6 s]xL x'b}g c? cfpb}g
eg]/ k|dfb k'j{s jf a]jf:tf u/L a:g]x?n] t]>f] kfgLsf] 5fn hf]8n]
cfPsf] b]v]/ efUbf efUb}df 5fn;+u} Hofg u'dfpg' k¥of] . nfvf}+sf] Hofg
uof] t s/f]8f}+sf] ;DklQ tx;gx; kfl/lbof] . t/ of] dxfk|no+sf/L 5fn g}
klxnf] k6ssf] xf] eGg cjZo ;lsb}g≤ lsgsL Ps tM a}1flgsx?n] o:tf]
w]/} k6s eO{;Sof] eg]/ 7f]s'jf u/]sf 5g\ eg], o:tf ;'gfdL 5fnaf6 o;
cl3 klg hgwgsf] 7"n} Iflt kf/]sf Oltxf;x? xfdL ;fd' 5g\ .
Oltxf;ljbx?sf] cfwf/df ;g\ #^% b]lv ;g\ @))^ ;Ddsf e"sDkx?df
#) k6s ;'gfdL k|sf]k ePsf] / To;af6 $ nfveGbf a9Lsf] d[To' ePsf]
cg'dfg 5 . o;k|sf/sf] ;d'b|L5fnnfO{ æ;'gfdLÆ eGg] eg]/ gfd klg klxn]
hfkfgdf cfPsf] 5fnnfO{ hfkfgsf a}1flgsn] lbPsf] gfd g} clxn] klg of]
gfd /fv]sf x'g\, elgG5 .

…;'gfdLÚ1 olb a'4wd{sf] -kfnL efiff_ zAbdf o;nfO{ lnof]+ eg] o:sf] cy{

csf]{ tkm{ x]g]{ xf] eg] g]kfn ;d'Gb|sf] lsgf/b]lv w]/} 6f9f eP klg
slxNo} ;d'Gb|sf] d'xf/ gb]v] klg æ;d'Gb|df kfgL ;'s]sf] z'e xf]OgÆ eGg]
egfO{ ;fob crDdsf] x'g ;Sb5 . t/ klg of] egfO{n] k|i6 kfb{5 ls o:tf
36gfx? klxn] klg 3l6;s]sf 5g\ . o:tf 36gfx? s;}n] e]6]sf] xf]nf jf
s;}n] ;'g]sf] xf]nf egL xfdL cg'dfg ug{ ;Sb5f} . To;}n] oL egfO{x?nfO{
hLljtfj:yfdf xfdL g]kfnsf s]xL ;Dk|bfox?df kfpg;Sb5f}{ . hxF“;Dd
nfU5, of] dxfk|nojfg 5fnnfO{ ;'gfdL eg]/ gfdfs/0f ug]{ Tof] hfkfgLh
a}1flgs kfnLsf] 1fgx'g] JolSt t xf]Og eg]/ z+sf x'ghfG5 lsgsL

kf/]sf] 5 . ;f/f ;+;f/nfO{ g} b'lvt agfO{lbPsf] 5 . ;d'Gb|df kfgL ;'s]/

13

…d}n] ;'g]Ú jf …d}n] o:tf] ;'g]Ú -–cx+ ;'gfld_ x'G5 . To;}n] ;fob p;n]klg
of] egfO{nfO{ g} cfwf/ agfP/ gfdfs/0f u/]sf] xf]Og t < eGg] z+sf lng
xfdLnfO{ afWo agfp5 . hfkfgLh efiffdf of] zAbnfO{ s;/L n]V5 /
o;sf] k"0f{ cy{ s] xf] Tof] t c1ft 5' -–of] n]v n]vgsf] ;do;Dd jf of]
;'gfdL 36gf 36\g' eGbf klxn] ;'gfdLsf] ljifodf klg cgle1 g} lyP ._
t/ c+u|]hLdf n]v]sf] cg';f/ …TsunamiÚ of] zAbdf …-T_ l6Ú cIf/ Pp6f
al9b]lvG5 t/ h;/L n]vf];\ pRrf/0fdf ;'gfdL g} x'g]5 . To;}n] efiffTds
:j/sf] ?kdf x]g]{ xf] eg] …d}n] ;'g]+Ú g} cy{ nfUb5 . rfx] Tof] gfdfs/0f ug]{
hfkfgLh xf];\ jf of] dxfk|no+sf/L ;d'b|Ldxf5fnsf] ;dfrf/ ;'Gg] xfdLx?
Gf} lsg gxf];\ ;a}n] o:tf] eof] eg]/ g} ;'g]sf 5f}+ . rfx] o'/f]k]nL xf];\ jf
Pl;ofnL g}, rfx] c+u|hL xf];\ jf hfkfgLhdf o;nfO{ laleGg gfdfs/0f lbP
klg of] ;d'lGb| k|nofTds dxf5fnsf] 36gfsf] ;dfrf/n] ;a}nfO{ k|efj
uof] / 5fncfP/ ;a} tx;gx; agfof] eGg] ;dfrf/n] xfdLx?nfO{ cgfo;
s] o:tf] x'g ;Snf / eGg] nfUg;Sb5 . t/ cfh ef]ln b"/;+rf/sf] ;'netf
/ cfw'lgs a}1flgs pknAwLx?sf] sf/0fn] To; 36gfsf s]xL If0fx? b]Vg
;S5f}+ eg] sfNklgs gSsnL 5fnx? agfP/ klg b]vfPsf] kfO{G5 . To:s}
1

hfkfgLhefiffdf ;'gfdL (Tsunami) b'O{ ;Ab Tsu / Nami xf] . ;' eGgfn] aGb/ufx
jf b'Ëf la;fpg] 7fpF xf] eg] gfdL eGgfn] 5fn jf lsgf/nfO{ gf3]/ cfPsf] 5fn jf
aGb/ufx ;Dd cfPsf] 5fn eGg] a'lemG5 .
14

cfwf/df xfdL of] dxfk|no+sf/L 5fnnfO{ ;'Gof}+ / x]¥of}+ tyf slt eofgs
lyof] eg]/ cg'dfg nufof}+ . h] xf];\, ;+;f/sf] h'g;'s} s'gfdf a;]sf] ePklg
of] ;dfrf/af6 sf]xL klg jl~rt x'g;s]gg\ . ;'gfdL cyf{t d}n] ;'g] eGg]
Ps jrgaf6 ax'arg ;'0ffd jf ;'0ff]d cyf{t xfdLn] ;'g]df kl/jt{g eof]
/ ;a}sf] nflu Tof] jif{sf] nflu c;x\o ;dfrf/ eO{lbof] .

t/ oxf“ csf]{ k|Zg p7\g;S5 ls ;d'Gb|b]lv sof}+ dfO{ndf kg]{
xfd|f] b]z g]kfndf of] egfO{sf] pTklQ s;/L eof], sxF“af6 of] egfO{ z'?
eof] t < of] Ps ljrf/l0fo ljifoa:t' xf] . g]kfnsf] ;dfh / kl/l:yltnfO{
s]Gb|ljGb' kf/]/ x]g]{ xf] eg] yf]/}n] dfq ;d'Gb|sf] bz{g u/]sf xf]nfg\ / sltn]
t lyof] /], 5 /] eGg] s'/f d} ljZjf; ul//x]sf x'G5g\ . o:tf] l:yltdf klg
of] egfO{sf] g]kfnsf s]xL ;d'bfodf hLjGQtf kfPsf] / ;fydf ;sf/fTds
ePsf]n] of] k|Zg p7\g' :jefljs klg xf] . o; k|Zgsf] pQ/ olb xfdLn]
g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns cfwf/nfO{ eGbf wfld{s u|Gyx?nfO{ cfwf/zLnf agfof}+
eg] ;fob of] k|Zgsf] pQ/ kfpg ;lhnf] x'g] b]lvG5 .
wfld{s u|Gyx? ljZjf; / k/Dk/fsf] cfwf/df ;+slnt eO/fv]sf
x'G5g\ . To;}u/L tL u|Gyx?df clttdf 36]sf 36\gf tyf O{ltxf;sf
s'/fx?klg ;+slnt ePsf x'G5g\ . To;}n] wfld{s u|GynfO{ cfwf/ lnP/ of]

To:t} k|sf/n] cfw'lgs a}1flgsx?n] klg of] 36gf klxn] klg w]/}
eO{;s]sf] / o;/L g} Ifltu|i6 agfPsf lyP elg o:sf] Oltxf;nfO{
b]vfPsf 5g\ . oL a}1flgsx?n] /flvPsf tL 36gfx?sf] ljj/0f eGbf klxn]
klxn] klg o:tf 36gfx? ePsf]nfO{ k'Vof}{nLx?n] hfg]/ jf ;'g]/ egfO{sf]
?kdf lg/Gt/tf lbb}+ NofPsf] b]lvG5 . sltnfO{ ljZjf; x'g klg ;S5,
ljZjf; gx'g'df klg 5Ss kg'{kg]{ klg 5}g tyfoj lxdfn / kxf8sf]
aLrdf /x]sf] g]kfndf of] egfO{nfO{ hLljt cj:yfdf /flv/fv]sf] lyof] eg]
cfh Tof] egfO{ ;sf/fTds ?k lnP/ lg:s]sf] 5 .
15

;d'Gb|df kfgL ;'s]sf] z'e xf]O{g eGg] sygdf zfob z+sfsf cf}+nfx? p7\g
;Snfg\ . oL t vfln s'/f / sxfgL dfq x'g\, s;/L o:tf s'/fx?nfO{
ljZjf; ug]{ < cflb ;+sf Pj+ pk;+sfx? pTklt x'g' :jefljs g} xf] .
t/klg ljZjf; gePdf klg 36\gfx?nfO{ gsfg{ gx'g] egfO{nfO{ klg xfdLn]
e'Ng gx'g] b]lvG5 . wfld{s u|Gyx?df o:tf klg 36gfx? 5g\, h'g
cfhef]ln ;sf/fTds eP/ g} lgl:s/x]sf 5g\, ljz]if u/]/ af}4u|Gyx?df
kfO{g] 36gfx?nfO{ lgofNg] xf] eg] w]/} h;f] ;Totf d} cwf/ ePsf] b]lvG5 .
a'4wd{ / o:sf] u|Gyx?df ljz]if u/]/ ;To / nfebfos s'/fx?sf] g}
;+slnt ul/Psf] x'G5 . To;}n] a'4wd{nfO{ k|fs[ltswd{ jf jf:tljswd{ klg
16

elgG5 . a'4wd{nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ ljrf/ ug]{ xf] eg] g]kfndf of] …;d'Gb|df
kfgL ;'s]sf] z'e xf]OgÚ eGg] egfO{sf] pTklt s;/L eof] / s;/L o;n]
hLjGQtf kfpb} cfO{/xof]] eGg] k|Zgsf] pQ/ kfpgdf ;'netf x'g] b]lvG5 .
;fy} g]kfndf ljleGg ;d'bfox?df a'4wd{sf] k|frLgtf / k|efj slQsf]
/lx/x]sf]5 eg]/ k'li6 ug{ klg of] sygn] 7"nf] ;xof]u k'of{Psf]5, lsgsL
a'4wd{df o;k|sf/sf] dxfk|nosf 36gfsf] ljifodf la:t[t ljj/0f ePsf]
b]lvG5 .
g]kfnsf] ;+:s[lt tyf k/Dk/fdf a'4wd{n] w]/} g} k|efj kf/]sf] 5
t/ ljleGg sf/0fjz a'4wd{ w]/} ;do ;Ddsf] nflu g]kfnsf] cfk\mg} wtL{df
g} n's]/ a:g' k/]tfklg a'4wd{nfO{ ljleGg ?kn] ;+/If0fu/L /fv]sf
pbfx/0fx? xfdL ;fd" k|z:t 5g\ . ha g]kfndf k'gM a'4wd{sf] k'g?Tyfg
eof] a'4wd{n] k'gM Ps k6s cfk\mg} cfugdf :jtGqtfsf] :jf; km]g{] df}sf
kfPsf lyP . ;fy} a'4wd{n] h;/L klxn] g]kfnsf] ;+:s[ltdf k|efj kf/]sf
lyP To;}u/L at{dfgdf klg o;n] emg emg}M k|efjkfg{ hdsf]{ ub}{uO{/x]sf]
k|i6 x'b} uO{/x]sf] 5 . To;}n] of] pvfgaf6 yfxf kfpg ;lsG5 ls g]kfndf
a'4wd{n] k|frLgsfn b]lv g} w]/} k|efj kfb}{ cfO/x]sf] / a'4wd{sf
pkb]zx?n] cem};Dd klg g]kfnL hghLjgdf hLjGQtf k|bfg ub}{
cfO{/fv]sf 5g\ . pxf“x?n] a'4wd{sf pkb]zx?nfO{ b]zdf cfPsf] ljleGg
kl/jt{g :j?k o:sf] >f]tnfO{ / jf:tljs cy{nfO{ e'lnlbg nfu] klg
;'lg/fv]sf 1fgx?nfO{ ljleGg ?kdf cfh;Dd o]gs]g k|sf/n] hLljt
cj:yfdf g} /fVg ;kmn ePsf 5g\ . To;}n] of] ;d'Gb|df kfgL ;'s]sf] z'e
17

xf]Og eGg] egfO{ w]/} ;do;Dd xfd|f] ;dfhb]lv x/fP/ uP h:tf] ePklg
s'g} g s'g} ?kdf ;dfh jf ufp“df cfhef]ln klg rNb} u/]sf] / cfk\mgf
5f]/f5f]/Lx?nfO{ l;sfpg] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . To;sf/0f g]kfndf of] cfVofgsf]
hLjGttfdf s'g} cfZro{ dfGg'kg]{ b]lv+b}g . To;}n] oxf“ a'4wd{df j0f{g
ul/Psf] dxfk|no+sf/L ;d'bL| 5fnsf] ljifodf ;'g]sf] -–kfnLdf ;'0ffld_
ePsf] ljifonfO{ k|:t't ub}{5' .

b]jbQ / sd{sf] kmn
eujfg a'4sf] cfk\mg} cfkmGt /fhs'df/ b]jbQ c? /fhs'df/ /
;fyLx? leIf' ePsf] b]v]/ ^ hgf cfk\mgf ;fyLx?;+u eujfg a'4sf] wd{df
leIf' ePsf lyP . s]xL ;do;Dd pxf“sf] 5q5fof“df a;]/ b]jbQn] s]xL
18

Wofgx? / cle1fx? klg k|fKt u/]sf lyP . tt\kZrft\ pm cToGt
dxTjfsf+IfL aGg k'Uof] . pgsf] dgdf a'4k|lt O{iof{ klg hfUof] . eujfg;+u
nfesf] nf]en] klg b]jbQn] pxfnfO{ ;tfof] . b]jbQn] eujfg zf:tfsf]
:yfg -clwsf/_ ;d]t x8Kg] k|of; u/sf] lyof] .
Ps lbg /fhf lalDa;f/sf ;fy w]/}hgf eujfg zf:tfsf]
wd{b]zgf ;'lg/x]sf] ;dodf, oxL ;do plrt 5 eg]/ b]jbQn] rLj/
kl/d08n u/L plrt :yfgdf a;L zf:tf¨ jGbgfu/L eujfg a'4;+u o:tf]
k|fy{gf uof]{ M
…eujfg zf:tf clxn] tkfO+{ zf/Ll/s ?kn] h/f hL0f{ cj:yfdf
k'lu;Sg' eof] . tkfO{+n] zf;gsf] nflu w]/} ef/ lnO;Sg' eof] . cab]lv
;a} ef/x? d]/f] lhDdfdf 5f]8Llbg' xf];\ / cf/fd lng'xf];\ . leIf';+3sf]
k|zf;gsf] /]vb]v tyf Jojxf/ d x]l/lbpnf .Ú
nf]e / O{iof{n] u|i6 eO;s]sf] b]jbQsf] pb]ZonfO{ a'emL pxfF
eujfg zf:tfn] zfGt eO{ tLg k6s;Dd b]jbQsf] k|fy{gfnfO{ gsfg{' eof] .
b]jbQsf] k'gM k|of;df cGtdf eujfg a'4n] o;/L cf1f x'g'eof] .
…b]jbQ, d}n] ;fl/k'q / df}b\uNofognfO{ t leIf';+3sf] cleef/
lbPsf] 5}g\ . To;}n] ltdLn] of] ;+3sf] k|zf;g rnfpg] ;f]r cfk\mgf] dgaf6
x6fg' .
eujfg a'4sf] gsf/fTds pQ/n] eujfg a'4k|lt b]jbQsf] dgdf
cem a9L s'efjgf pTkGg eof] . p;n] eujfg a'4sf] xTofu/L leIf';+3sf]
19

k|zf;gsf] cleef/ cfk\mgf] xftdf lng] pb]Zon] ljleGg pkfo / t/Lsfx?
ckgfof] . b]jbQn] /fhs'df/ chftzq'nfO{ cfk\mgf] xftdf lnP/ lkt'3ft
sd{ ;d]t u/fO{ /fHo ;d]t l5Gg nufP . a'4sf] xTofsf] nflu xTof/fx?
k7fP . u[ws"6 kj{6af6 9'¨fn] a'4nfO{ lyr]/ xTof ug]{ k|of; u/] .
gfnflu/L xfQLnfO{ dfbs kbfy{ lknfP/ a'4dfyL xdnf u/fP . t/
b]jbQsf tL k|oTgx? ;a} ljkmn eP/ uP .
;a} p:sf k|of;x?af6 cfk'm ljkmn ePkl5 cGtdf cfk\mgf ;fy
nfu]sf s]xL leIf'x?nfO{ lnP/ eujfgsf] ljkIfL eO{ ;+3e]b;Dd klg ug{
k'u] . To;/L ;+3e]b u/L 5'l6\6P/ hfg'eGbf cuf8L % k|sf/sf s'/fnfO{
p;n] eujfg a'4 ;dIf /fv]sf lyP . b]jbQsf] ljrf/df of] s'/f lglZrt
lyof] ls o; lsl;dsf] dfu a'4nfO{ :jLsfo{ x'g] 5}g / eujfgsf] zf;gdf
;a}sf] cEof;sf] nflu of] ;Dej klg x'g ;Sg] 5}g . tL % wd{x?nfO{
cNk1 >f]tfx?n] o;nfO{ 7Ls ;Demg] 5g\ / pgLx? p;sf] kl5 nfUg]5g\ .
To;}n] eujfgsf] cuf8L uP/ oL % wd{x?nfO{ cuf8L /fv]sf lyP . tL %
wd{x? x'g\ M
!= leIf'x? ;w}+ h+undf g} af; ug{' kg]{5 .
@= leIf'x?n] ;w}+ leIff6gaf6 lhjLsf]kfh{g ug'{kg]{5 .
#= leIf'x? ;w}+ kf+;'s"lns x'g'kg]{5 .
$= leIF'x? ;w}+ ?vd'lg j:g' kg]{5 .
%= leIf'x? df5f / df;' vfg'af6 cnu x'g'kg]{5 .

20

eujfg a'4n] b]jbQsf tL dfux?nfO{ b]jbQn] ;f]r] em} cg'dlt
lbg'ePg . pxfn] b]jbQsf] dfunfO{ cg'dlt glbg'sf] k|d'v sf/0f eGg' g}
leIF'x? ;w}+ csf{sf] ;xf/fdf afRg' kg]{ x'G5 . ljleGg b]z k|b]zx?df
ljr/0f u/L wd{;Gb]z k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{df ;+nUg /xg'kg]{ leIf'x?sf] bfloTj
ePsf]n] / leIff6gdf e/kg{'kg]{ hLjg ePsf]n] 7fp cg';f/ >4fn'x?n]
lbPsf] bfg k|bfgdf ;Gtf]if dfGg'kg]{ / hLjg ofkg ug{'kg]{ ePsf]n] tL
cg'ko'Qm dfux?nfO{ gsfg{' ePsf lyP .

cfhef]lnsf] kl/j];df x]g]{ xf] eg] leIf';+3sf] ;fd'lxs sfo{df eGbfklg
JolStut nfe / ef}lts ljsf;sf] nflu alb pGd'v ePsf] 5 eGbfklg
gsf/fSds ePsf] b]lvb}g . To;df ;fob leIf';+3sf] g} lga{ntf x'g ;S5
jf JolStut leIf'df ePsf] b]jbQsf h:tf ljrf/ wf/f klg x'g;S5g\ . of]
b'a} tkm{sf] nflu ljrf/l0fo ljifo j:t' x'g;S5 ;fy} eujfg a'4sf tL b'O{
cu|>fjs em} s'g} lbg ;To dfu{ b]vfP/ ;Dk"0f{ leIf'u0fnfO{ cjjf]w u/fpg]
Ps leIf'sf] klg pbo h?/ x'g]5 .

o;/L b]jbQn] eujfga'4sf] leIf';+3nfO{ b'O{6'qmfdf ljefhg u/]/

b]jbQn] gf} dlxgf;Dd O{iof{ / dxTjfsf+Iffsf] sf/0fn] eujfg
a'4sf] cgy{ rfxgf ub}{ ljleGg k|sf/n] si6 lbPsf] eP klg eujfg a'4n]
pm k|lt clnslt klg qmf]w / å]if pTkGg ug{'ePsf] lyPg . pxF“n]
b]jbQk|lt ;b}j d}qLefj g} /fVg'ePsf] lyof] . ha p;+u nfu]sf leIf'x?n]
cu|>fjsx?sf] wd{b]zgf ;'g]/ wd{rIf' k|fKt u/], ta pgLx?n] b]jbQnfO{
5f]l8lbP . eujfg a'4 k|d'v leIf';+3n] b]jbQsf] c1fgtfnfO{ ljgf å]if
d}qLk"j{s Ifdf lbg' eof] . cfk"m;+u nfu]sf leIf'x? ;a}n] 5f]8]/ uPkl5
b]jbQsf] dgdf 7"nf] rf]6 kZrftfk k¥of] / cfk\mgf] s'sd{nfO{ dx;"; ug{
yfNof] . o;} ;f]rdf pm lj/fdL k¥of{] . To;kl5 cfk\mgf] e"nnfO{ ;Dem]/
eujfg;+u dfkmL dfUg' k¥of]{ eGg] ;f]r]/ h]tjg ljxf/, hxf“ eujfg a'4
lj/fhdfg x'g'x'GYof], To;tkm{ n}hfg cfk\mgf ;xwdL{x?;+u cg'/f]w u¥of] /
Totflt/ nfu] . h]tjg ljxf/sf] 5]p5fpdf k'Ubf p:n] u/]/ cfPsf cs'zn
sd{x?sf] 38f el/;s]sf] lyof] . ToxL kfksf] sf/0f p;sf] z/L/df hng
eP/ cfof] . ;fy} nfdf] ofqf u/]/ cfPsf] eP/ eujfgsf] bz{gfy{ hfg' cl3

;+3e]b h:tf] h3Go ck/fw ug{ k'u]sf lyP . o;/L b]jbQn] cfk\mgf]
v'6\6fdf cfkm}n] aGr/f] xfGg] sfo{ u/] . eujfg a'4n] p;sf] o;tf sfo{
b]v]/ s?0ff ldl>t d}qL pTkGg ug{' ePsf] lyof] . b]jbQ;+u kl5 nfu]sf
gof“ leIf'x?nfO{ s] ;To xf] / s] c;To xf] s]xL yfxf lyPg . To;}n]
c1fgtfjz b]jbQsf] dfunfO{ ;xL dfgL p:sf] cg'udg u/]sf lyP .
pgLx?nfO{ ;To s] xf] e"m7 s] xf] eg]/ ;Demfpgsf] nflu eujfgn] pxf“sf
cu|>fjsx? leIf' ;fl/k'q / leIf' df}buNofog :ylj/x?nfO{ pgLx?sxf+
k7fpg' ePsf] lyof] / ;xL dfu{ bz{g -;DdflblTy_ df k|ltl:yt u/fO{
kmsf{Psf lyP . cfhef]ln klg b]jbQsf ljrf/wf/fx? lnP/ ;fd'lxs
ljsf;df eGbfklg cfk\mg} :jtGqtfsf ;fy Joxf]g]{ sfo{ gePsf xf]Ogg\ .

leIf';+3sf] ljefhg ug{' / eujfg a'4sf] z/L/df /ut hDg] u/L rf]6 k'of{pg' klg cfgGtl/o
sDd jf k~rdxfkfkdf kb{5 -–c+=k+~rs_. of] b'a}sfd b]jbQaf6 ePsf] lyof] .; Sanghabheda (Causing schism in
the order) Lohituppada (Causing a Buddha to suffer a contusion or to bleed) are parts of Anantariyakamma or pancamahapapa means
immediacy deeds (A.III. 146). Both offences were done by Devatatta.

21

22

Psk6s g'xfP/ s]xL kfgL lkP/ hfg'knf{ egL cfk"mnfO{ af]s]/
Nofpg]x?nfO{ cf]/fNg nufof] . p:sf] dgdf cfk\mgf] e"nsf] sf/0f zflGt
lyPg . b]jbQn] hdLgdf cfk\mgf] kfOnf /fVg] lalQSs}, elgG5, hldg
kmf6\of] / cjLlr gfdsf] g/ssf] Hjfnfn] 3]/]/ p;nfO{ la:tf/} lgNb} uof] .
To; ;do b]jbQn] …d]/f] cs/0fLo s's[Tosf] kl/0ffd oxL kf] /x]5, d]/f]
kfksf] 38f e¥of]Ú eg]/ zf]sfs'n x+'b} Ps ufyfåf/f eujfg a'4sf]
cgGtu'0f :d/0fub}{ pxF“sf] z/0fdf uP . of] ufyf ;+u;+u} leIf' b]jbQ
cfk'mn] u/]/ cfPsf] cs'zn s'sd{sf] sf/0f c;Lldt b'Mvsf] vfN8f] cjLlr
g/sdf ef]Ug hfg' kof{] .
o;/L eujfgsf cfk\mg} gftfkg]{ leIf' b]jbQsf] b'vb ?kn] d[To'
eof] . p:sf] d[To'sf] va/n] ;f/f leIf';+3 / pkf;s pkfl;sfx?sf aLr
ePsf] s'/fsfgLnfO{ lnP/ eujfg a'4n] pgLx?sf] z+sfnfO{ x6fpg jf
dgdf ePsf] v'nb'nLsf] lgjf/0ffy{ ;d'2jfl0fh hfts -$^^_ b]zgf ug'{eof]
. of] ;d'2jfl0fh hfts ;'gfdLsf] 36\gf a'Ef\mg Pp6f /fd|f] pbfx/0f klg xf]
. of] b]zgf pxf“n] h]tjg ljxf/df lbg'ePsf] lyof] .

Od]lx c6\7Llx t+ cUu k'Uun+
b]jltb]j+ g/bd;f/ly+ .
;dGtrSv'+ ;tk'~hnSv0f+ kf0f]lx a'4+ ;/0f+ pk]ld ..
23

;d'2jfl0fh hfts
k"j{ ;dodf jf/f0f;L gfdsf] b]zdf s]xL l;kfn' l;sdL{x?
a;f]af; u/]sf lyP . pgLx?sf] gfd w]/} 6f9f 6f9f;Dd km}n]sf lyP .
To;}sf] kmnfg';f/ æxfdL tkfO{+x?nfO{ o:tf] k|sf/sf] 3/fo;L ;fdfg
agfO{lbG5f}+ . p:tf] ;fdfgx? agfO{ lbG5f}+Æ eGb} gof“ gof“ ;fdfgx?sf]
nflu w]/} dflg;x?;+u C0f lngnfu] . t/ u|fxsx?sf] cfjZostfg';f/
;fdfg ;dodf g} agfP/ lbg ;s]gg\ . ;fdfg agfpg lbPsfx?n] pgLx?
sxf“ cfP/ af/af/ ;fdfg lbg' jf k};f lkmtf{ ug{ eg]/ cfp“g yfn] .
pgLx?nfO{ b]Vg]x?n] bf]iff/f]k0f ug]{ tyf si6 lbg] ug{ yfn] . /sd lkmtf{
lngsf] nflu dflg;x? lg/Gt/ ?kdf cfpg yfn]tf klg pgLx?;+u
r'Qmfug]{ k};f lyPg . To;}n] o:tf] ckdfg ;xg g;sL tL ckdfgaf6
aRgsf] nflu tL l;sdL{x? a;fO{+ ;/]/ ljb]z hfg] ljrf/n] Pp6f 8'+uf
24

agfP/ To; zx/af6 lg:s] . pgLx? vf]nf gfnfx? Kff/ ub}{ ;d'Gb|df k'u] /
xfjfsf] j]ufg';f/ otfptf x'b} Pp6f ;fgf] 6fk'df k'u] . of] 6fk' wfg, ?v,
pv', s]/f cflb gfgfk|sf/sf cGg tyf kmnk"mnx?n] el/e/fp lyof] . tL
;a} :jo+ pTkGg x'g] ub{y] . s;}n] v]tL ug'{ kb{}gYof] .
of] 6fk'df klxn] g} Pshgf dflg; cfP/ al;;s]sf lyP . Tof]
dflg; To; 6fk'sf] ;DkGgtfdf ;'v / cf/fd;fy a;]sf] lyof] . Tof] 6fk'df
s]xL klg sfd ug{'kb}{g lyof] . pm ToxF“sf] k|s[lt;+u ;dtfefjn] /x]sf]
lyof] . p;sf] z/L/ Xi6k'i6 / 7"nf]] lyof] . gof“ cfuGt'sx?n] klxn]
p;nfO{ /fIf; ;Dem]/ dfg{ tof/ eO;s]sf lyP, t/ pgLx? aLr ePsf]
s'zn jftf{nfk kZrft a;fO{+ ;/fO{df cfPsf pgLx?nfO{ To; 6fk'df
:jfut u¥of] . ;fydf eGof] “ltdLx? cfk\mgf] k'0osf] k|efjn] oxf“ cfO{
k'Uof} . of] 6fk'df s]xL klg sfdx? ug'{ kb}{g . ;a} cfkm} pTkGg ePsf 5g\
/ To;sf] cGTo eg]sf] klg 5}g .”
xfdL oxF“ a;]df s'g} k|sf/sf] eo t 5}g < eGg] k|Zgsf] pQ/df
c? t eo 5}g, t/ oxf“ cdg'io -–e"t, b]j Celestial deities_ x? af;
ub{5g\ . olb ltdLx?n] ox“f laufg]{ sfd uof]{, hyfefjL kmf]x/x? kmfNof],
a]jfZyf ufof]{, hyfefjL lbzflkzfjx? Uf/]/ 5f]8]/ uof} eg] pxf“x? ;fob
qmf]lwt x'g;S5g\ . To;}n] oxf“sf] jftfj/0fnfO{ ;DxfNg' kb{5 . kmf]x/
d}nf]nfO{ klg /fd|/L Jojl:yt ug'{ k5{, lbzflkzfa ubf{ klg 5]fk]/ cfpg
jf ;kmfO{ ug{'kb{5 . oxf“sf] jftfj/0fnfO{ ;Gt'ngdf /fVg' kb{5 . oxf“ oxL
g} Pp6f 8/ 5 c? 5}g\ . ck|dfbL eP/ a:g'kb{5 .
25

tL a;fO{+ ;/fO{df Tof] 6fk'df k'Ug' ePsf dflg;x? Toxf ;'vk"j{s
/xgyfn] . Toxfsf] ;f}Gbo{tf / ;DkGgtfdf /dfpb} Toxfsf] k|s[lt k|lt
lbgk|ltlbg a]jf:yf ug{ yfn]sf lyP . w]/} jif{kl5 pgLx?n] pv'sf] /;nfO{
;/at agfP/ vfgyfn] / kl5 ToxL dfbs kbfy{sf] ?kdf agfP/ lkpg
yfn] . dfbs kbfy{sf] ;]jg kZrft ug{ gx'g] sfo{x? klg ug{yfn] . gzfn]
dflQ+b} ufp“b} hyfefjL lbzflk;fj ug]{ / kmf]x/ ug]{ ug{ yfn] / k|dfbL eP/
a:g nfu] . ;/;kmfO{ b]lv 6fl9g yfn] / x'“bfx'“bF ;f/f 6fk' g} b"lift /
3[l0ft x'gyfNof] .
o;/L 6fk'nfO{ b"lift agfPsf] sf/0fn] ToxF“ af;a:g] cdg'iox?
lrlGtg x'g yfn] . cdg'iox?df sf]xL qmf]lwt eP / pgLx?sf] ;efdf
lg0f{osf] nflu hfx]/ uof]{ . pxf“x?sf] b]j;efdf 6fk'nfO{ ;d'b|L kfgLn] ca
cfpg] k"l0f{dfsf] /ftdf ;"o{sf] pbo ;+u} ;kmfug]{ lg0f{o eof] .
cdg'iox? dWo]df -–b]j jf oIf_ klg Ps bofn' b]j dflg;x?sf]
cuf8L cfP/ tL dflg;x?nfO{ 6fk' 5f]8]/ hfgsf] nflu o;/L ;'rgf lbg
cfP .
“ca cfpg] k"l0f{dfsf] /ftdf 7"nf] 5fn cfP/ of] 6fk'nfO{ ;kmf
ub{}5g\ . To;}n] of] 6fk'nfO{ 5f]8]/ hfpm” .
To:t}df csf]{ qmf]lw cdg'io cfP/ æklxn] cfP/ ;'rgf 7Ls xf]Og
. ltdLx? 8/fpg' kb}{g s]lx klg x'GgÆ eg]/ pgLx?nfO{ eGg cfP . oL b'O{
cdg'iosf] s'/fn] To; 6fk'df a:g]x? 7"nf] e]nf eof] / cGtdf b'O{ kIfdf
26

pxfFsf] s'/fdf ljZjf; u/]/ Ps ;d"x p;sf] kl5 nfu] . ;fydf ;a}nfO{
5f]8\gsf] nflu tof/L x'g cfu|x eof] . To;} u/L Ps s'znf]kfon] ;Aa]
;dfuDd s/f]d gfj+, bf]l0f+ bnx+ ;AaoGt"kkGg+ . cyf{t, xfdL ;a} ldn]/
oGqo'St b[9 Ps 8'+uf agfp5f}+ . olt eg]/ pxf“sf] ;fy lbg]x?nfO{ lnP/
Pp6f 8'+uf tof/ ug{ yfn] .

ljefhg eP . Ps ;d"x clN5, nf]eL / sfdef]udf /dfpg] JolStsf] ;fy
nfu]/ kl5 uP . p;n] o;/L ;a}nfO{ eg] æltdLx? 8/fpg' kb}{g, kl5
cfpg] b]jn] eg]sf] g} 7Ls 5, s]xL klg x'b}g . olx+ a:g], hfg]x?nfO{ hfg
b]pmg, a:g]x? a:5g\ .”
To;}u/L csf]{ ;d"xdf Pshgf ck|dfbL / kl08t JolQm lyof] .
p:n] b'a} b]jsf] s'/fnfO{ /fd|/L ljrf/ u/]/ To; 6fk'nfO{ 5f]8]/ hfg' g}
sNof0f x'g] ;f]r]/ 5f]8\g' kg]{ ;Nnfx lbP . ck|dfbL k"j{s b'a} cdg'ion]
eg]sf] s'/fnfO{ /fd|/L s]nfP/ larf/ u/]kl5 æb'a}n] Pp6} s'/f eGg cfPsf
5g\ . To;}n] ;d'b|L 5fn cfj;\ jf gcfj;\ k|dfbL x'g'x'b}g\ . ck|dfb k"j{s
tof/ eO{/fVg' g} pQd x'g]5 ” eg]/ cfk\mgf ldqx?nfO{ ;Demfpg' eof] .

k|dfbL ;d"xsf] k|d'vn] cf gf cg'ofoLx?nfO{ o:tf] eg] M
of] Tj]j co+ blSv0ffo+ lb;fo+, v]d+ kSsf]lt t:; ;Rr+ .
g pQ/f] j]lb eofeo:;, df e]y, ls+ ;f]ry, df]3Xjf] ..
cyf{t, blIf0fdf a;]/ eGg] b]j ;To xf], pQ/df a;]/ eGg] b]j eo /
ceonfO{ hfGb}g\ . To;}n] 8/fpg' kb}{g, s]xL ;f]Rg' kb}{g, k|;Gg eP/ a; .

27

k"l0f{dfsf] /ft lyof] . rGb|df cfsfzdf k"0f{?kn] d':s'/fpb} lyof] .
crfgs ;d'Gb|af6 7"nf] kfgLsf] 5fn lg:Sof] . klxn]f em6\sfdf kfgL
3'8“ f;Dd cfof] . of] em6\sfnfO{ b]v]/ ck|dfbL kl08tsf] s'/fdf ljZjf; u/]/
8'¨f agfpg] ;d"x To;} 8'+ufdf a;]/ To; :yfgaf6 lg:Sof] . t/
sfdef]udf ljlng ePsf k|dfbLsf ;fydf nfUg]x?n] of] s]xL xf]Og\ ca
cfp+b}g eg]/ Vofn u/]gg\ . ;d'Gb|sf] 5fn bf]>f] k6s sDd/;Dd cfof], /
k6s k6s ub}{ ;f/f 6fk'nfO{ ;d'Gb|sf] kfgLn] aufof] . sfdef]udf ljlng
;a}hgfn] of] 5fn b]v]/ efUbfefUb}df Hofg u'dfpg' k¥of] . o;/L k|dfb

ck|dfbL ;d"xsf] k|d'vn] cfˆgf cg'ofoLx?nfO{ o:tf] eg] M
oyf Od] ljKkjblGt oSvf, Psf] eo+ ;+;lt v]d+ Psf] .
tlb‹ do\x+ jrg+ ;'0ffd, lvKk+ nx'+ df ljg;x+ ;Aa] .!.
cyf{t, h;/L oL cdg'iox? k/:k/ lj/f]wL s'/f ul//x]sf] 5g\, Tof] Ps} ePsf] /
sNof0fsf] g} s'/f eGb}5 . To;}n] d]/f] s'/f ;'g / To;df xfd|f] lz3| ljgfz x'g]5}g .
To;}u/L k"gM csf]{ ufyfdf eG5g\ M
g j] ;'u0x+ k7d]g ;]6\7+, slg6\7+, cfkfyut+ ux]Tjf .
of] rf]w d~em+ kljr]o\o u0xlt, ; j] g/f] ;]6\7+ pk]lt 7fg+ ..
cyf{t, klxn] h:tf] h:tf] eGof] To;nfO{ g} >]i7 ;Demg' klg 7Ls 5}g / bf]>f]n] eg]sf]
klg . h:tf] ;'Gof] To;nfO{ ljrf/k"j{s ;TonfO{ h;n] u|x0f u5{, To; JolStn]
g} >]i7kbnfO{ k|fKtug{ ;Sb5 .
28

eP/ a:g]x? ;a}n] Tof] kfgLsf] dxf5fn;+u} Hofg u'dfpg' kof]{ . of]
b]zgfsf] cGtdf eujfg a'4n] leIf';+3nfO{ o:tf] cf1f ug{e
' of] .
cgfut+ kl6slo/fy lsRr+, df d+ lsRr+ lsRrsfn+ Jow]l; .
t+ tflb;+ kl6stlsRrsfl/+, g t+ lsRr+ lsRrsfn] Jow]lt ..
cyf{t\, eljiosf] nflu ug'{kg]{ -–sNof0fsf/L sfo{_ st{Jo u/ .
Tof] sfdubf{ s]xL afwfx? x'g] 5}gg\ . h;n] eljiosf] nflu sNof0fsf/L
sfo{ u5{, p;nfO{ sfo{sf] ;dodf Tof] sfo{n] afwf k¥'ofpb}g . To;}n]
ck|dfbk"j{s ;'g]sf s'/fnfO{ s]nfP/ Ps kl08tn] w]/} dflg;x?sf] Hofg
hf]ufP/ Ps ;'/lIft :yfgdf k'¥ofof] . To;}n] sNof0fsf/L sfo{x?sf] ;w}+
c;n kmn g} ldNg] ub{5 .
ljrf/l0fo /xf];\, xfd|f] sf7df08f}+ g]kfn klg k|flrgsfn b]lv g}
Ps ;Eo / ;DkGg b]zsf] ?kdf lrlgGYof] . 6f9f b]lv dflg;x?sf]
Jofkf/sf] gfddf tyf wfld{s?kdf cfjt hfjtsf ;fy} a;f]af; klg
ePsf] b]lvG5 . To;}sf] kmntM cfhef]ln of] b]z ax'hflto ;dfhdf kl/0ft
eO{;s]sf 5g\ . ;fob klxn]sf xfd|f k"vf}{lnx?n] klg of] k|fs[lts
;f}Gbo{;+u ldn]/ a:gsf] nflu ;a} k|lt cg'/f]w gu/]sf xf]O{gg\ xf]nf .
To;}n] ljleGg :yfg / 7fp+df k"hlgo :yfgsf] ?kdf ljsf; u/LlbP . t/
ckzf]hsf] s'/f cfh cfP/ of] b]z Ps kmf]x/ kmfNg] :yfg em} eO{;s]sf
5g\ . hyfefjL kmf]x/ cJojl:yt?kdf kmfn]/ c;Eotfsf] lrgf]x?
lbgk|ltlbg x]g{ gkfPsf] xf]Og . Tolt dfq geO{ 3/leqsf] kmf]x/nfO{ aflx/
laraf6f]df kmfn]/ Nofpg] sfo{ klg b}lgs sfo{ em} eO{;s]sf] 5 . To;}u/L
29

tL laraf6f]df kmfn]sf kmf]x/ p7fpgsf] nflu ;/sf/ jf gu/kflnsfn] Ps
b'O{ k};fsf] /sd hgtfx?af6 lng] eof] eg] Tolt lbgklg lxrlsrfpg'sf
;fy} ufnL ug{ klg kl5 gkg]{ xfd|f] aflg eO{;s]sf] 5 .
To;}u/L xfd|f] afudtL gbL klg klxn] Ps kljq gbLsf] ?kdf
lrlgGYof] . cfh cfP/ To; glbsf] kfgLnfO{ kljq eg]/ k|of]u ug]{ s'/fnfO{
tfwf g} /fvf}+ glhs hfgklg slyg cj:yfdf k'lu;Sof] . kmf]x/d}nf] Pj+
lbzf lkzfjsf] lgsf;sf] ?kdf of] glb kl/0ft eO{;Sof] . t/klg lbgx'+ Tof]
klaq glbdf kmf]x/ kmfNb}5f}, lbzflkzfksf] lgsf; x'b}5, xfd|f bfh'efO{ lbbL
alxgLx?sf] cf+vfdf ePsf] Tof] sfnf] rZdf lgsfn]/ Tof] glbnfO{ x]g{
;s]sf] b]lvb}g . sfnf] rZdf nufP/} afudtL glbnfO{ xfdL wf]Ub}5f}+ .
To;}u/L ;x/sf] s'g} Ps ;fgf] s'gfsfKrfdf klg kmf]x/n] 7fp lnO{;s]sf
5g\ . cfh xfd|f] sf7df08f+} ;x/n] k|fs[lts ;f}Gbo{tfnfO{ dfq u'dfpg'
k/]sf] xf]O{g\ kljq glb klg dnd'qsf] lgsf;sf] ?kdf ljsf; eO{;s]sf] 5
. o:t} k|sf/n] of] a9\b} uof] eg] ;d'lb| ;'gfdL cfpgnfO{ c;Dej g} xf]nf
t/ ;?jf /f]usf] af9L cfP/ nfvf}+n] cjZo Hofg u'dfpg' kg]{ l:ytL eg]
cfpb}g eGg ;ls+b}g . To;}n] o:sf] ljifodf k|zf;g If]qaf6 dfq geO{
cfdhgtf g} hflu|t eO{ z}lIfs If]qb]lv g} ;a}nfO{ g}ltslzIff /
Jojxf/LslzIffsf] ;fy} ;Eohgsf] klxrfg / Joj:yfx?sf] ljifodf 1ft
u/fO{ eflj k|no b]lv aRg] tyf Ps ;Eo gful/s eO{ ;Eotfsf] klxrfg
b]vfP/ lhpg] l;sfpg' h?/L eO;s]sf] 5. ;fy} ;a} cfk'm / cfk\mgf] ;dfh
/ b]zsf] ljifosf ljrf/ ug]{ ;do cfO{;s]sf] b]lvG5 .
30

t'ngfTds cWoog

7fp“df k'¥ofpg] sfo{nfO{ ;Dkfbg u/ .” of] dfld{s wd{ ;Gb]znfO{ /fd|/L
a'e\mg' / b}lgs hLjgdf ptfg{' clth?/L b]lvG5 .

af}4u|Gwdf k|:t't o; hfts syfg';f/ k|fs[lts lgodnfO{
pNn+3g ug{ / k|dfbsf] sf/0f ePsf] cs'zn sd{sf] kmn:j?k of]
k|no+sf/L 5fnsf] ;[hgf ePsf] 5 / k|dfbLx? ;a}n] of] 5fndf k/]/ hLjg
u'dfpg' k/]sf] 5 . o; hftsnfO{ xfdLn] of] xfn} ePsf] dxfk|no+sf/L
;d'bL| 5fn ;'gfdL;+u t'ngfTds cWoog ug{;Sb5f}+ . b'a} 36gfdf Ps}
k|sf/sf] k|no+sf/L5fnn] g} w]/} 6fk'nfO{ tx; gx; agfPsf lyP . df]h /
cf/fddf nl6\7Psf k|dfbLx?n] s]xL x'b}g eGb} Hofg u'dfpg' k¥of] eg]
ck|dfbk"j{s rf/}lt/ jl/kl/sf] ljrf/ u/]/ aflx/ cfpg]x?n] cfk\mgf] Hofg
hf]ufP . To;}u/L xfn} cfPsf] of] ;'gfdLdf klg klxnf] k6sdf cfPsf] 5fn
d} xf]z k'of{P/ pSt 7fp“af6 efUg]x?n] cfk\mgf] Hofg hf]ufpg ;kmn eP,
cfk\mgf] Hofg arfP . t/ wg ;DklQx? eg] tx; gx; eO{lbP . k|dfb
eP/ k"j{ ;"lrt ;+s]tnfO{ a]jf:tf u/L s]xL x'b}g eGb} sfd ef]udf dUg
ePsf ;a} hgf ToxL kfgLsf] 5fn b]vL c;kmn efUg] k|of; ug{' kof]{ .
;a}n] cfk\mgf] Hofg u'dfpg' kof]{ . cfkm}sf] a]xf]zLsf sf/0f ul/Psf cg}lts
tyf c;Eo sfo{x?, k|dfbL hLjg / cfk\mg} cljBfsf] sf/0f cfk\mgf]
Hofg;Dd klg n'tfP/ a:g'kof]{, Hofg u'dfpg'kof]{ . To;}n] eujfga'4n]
kl/lgjf{0f x'g' eGbf klxn] ;a}nfO{ ;Demfpg' ePsf] lyof] sL “cKkdfb]g
;Dkfb]y” cyf{t “;a}n] ck|dfb eO{ cf–cfk\mgf] cd"No hLjgnfO{ ;xL
31

5fncfPsf] b]vL efUg c;kmn k|of; ul//x]sf ko{6sx? .
t/ oxf“ xfn} ePsf] ;'gfdLdf kg]{x? g/fd|f jf cs'znsfo{ ug]{x?
ePsf]n] of] kl/0ffd ef]Ug'k¥of] eGg vf]lhPsf] eg] xf]Og . w]/} c;n
dflg;x? klg lyP / /fd|f JolStx? klg lyP xf]nfg\ . ;w}+ wd{ / /fd|f]
sfddf nfu]sfx? klg o;df k/]sf xf]nfg\ . t/ s;n] eGg ;S5 ls
pgLx?n] s] s:tf s'zn jf cs'zn sfo{x? ul//fv]sf lyP / 5g\ < of]
hGddf jf lat]sf hGdx?df slt /fd|f / g/fd|f sfdx? ul//fv]sf
x'g;S5g\ . To;sf] n]vfhf]vf xfdL ug{;Sb}gf}+ . t/ oxF“ ljrf/0fLo tYo s]
5 eg] of] ;'gfdLn] vfnL !! j6f b]zx?nfO{ Iflt k'¥ofPsf 5g\ . tL
b]zx?sf] wg;DklQ t w]/} g} Iflt ePsf b]Vgdf cfPsf] 5 eg] dflg;sf]
Ho"Hofgsf] rflx+ yf]/}dfqdf Iflt ePsf] b]lvG5 . cyf{t tL b]zx?sf
hgtfx? of] 36gfdf c? b]zaf6 cfPsfx?sf] t'ngfdf sd g} ePsf]
b]lvPsf] 5 . of] ;'gfdLsf] dxf5fnn] Ifltu|i6 :yfgx?df a:g]x? w]/}hgf
32

s'g} g s'g} sfd ljz]ifn] Toxf“af6 aflx/ lg:s]sf b]lvG5g\ / ;'lgG5g\ .
sf]xL PsxKtf klxn] t sf]xL Pslbg klxn], sf]xL Ps/ft klxn] t sf]xL
s]xL If0f klxn], lbgdf sfdug]{ sf]xL s]xL lbgsf] nfuL /ftsf] kfnf]df
;¥of] t ;w}+ ljxfg b]lv sfddf hfg'kg]{nfO{ labf k¥of] . o;/L tL
dflg;x? k|efljt If]qx?af6 s]xL g s]xL sf/0faf6 Toxf“ b]lv 6fl9P .
To;sf] 7Ls pN6f] ;w}+ ;'/lIft :yfgdf af; a:g]x?, ;d'Gb|sf]
lsgf/b]lv w]/} 6f9f a;]sfx? o; :yfgdf cfP/ of] 36gfdf Hofg u'dfP jf
3fOt] eP . ;'gfdLn] Ifltu|i6 :yfgx? eGbf xhf/f}+ dfO{nsf] b"/Ldf /x]sf
h:t} kf]n}08, O+0n}08, cd]l/sf, o'/f]k cflb b]zx?af6 tL :yfgx?df k'u] .
sf]xL labfsf] lbgnfO{ ;'vb ?kdf dgfpg cfP t sf]xL cfkmGtx?sf]
;Demgfdf e]6sf] nflu, sf]xL sfd ljz]ifn] t sf]xL dg]f/Ghgsf] nflu t/
tL ;a}n] of] eofgs k|no+sf/L ;d'b|L 5fnsf] ;fdgf ug{'k¥of] tyf dfl/g'
k¥of], rk]6fdf kg{', u|lxt x'g' kof]{ . tL ;'vsf If0fx? b'Mvdf kl/0ft
eO{lbof] .
o; 36gfdf k/]/ dg]{x?sf] ;Ldf /x]g . nfvf}+ dflg;sf] Hofg
uof], xhf/f}+ nfkQf eof] . xhf/f}+ 3fO{t] cj:yfdf k/] . csf]{ tkm{ of]
36\gfsf] s]xL lbg kZrft\ klg sf]xL hLljt cj:yfdf km]nf k/] eg] sf]xL
b'O{ tLglbg;Dd ?vsf] 6'Kkf]sf] ;xf/fdf t sf]xL s'g} s'gfdf k“m;]/ hLljt
cj:yfdf /x] . o;/L ljleGg k|sf/sf pbfx/0f / ;dfrf/x?n] dlxgf}+;Dd
;a}sf] dg Totflt/ cfslif{t eO{/x\of] . of] s:tf] la8Dagf lyof], o;sf]
zf]s ljXjntfsf] ;Ldf /x]g . h'g 36gfnfO{ cfhsf] of] a}1flgsx?sf]
33

k|Voft k|of]uzfnfx?af6 klg ;xL lgrf]8 lg:sg ;s]g . o;nfO{ g t
eujfgsf] g} s[kf xf] eg]/ ;x]/ 5f]8\g;s] . of] 36gfsf] b'Mvb ;dfrf/
;f/f ;+;f/sf] nflu g} c;x\o eof] . ;f/f ;+;f/af6 36gf u|i6 If]qx?sf]
nflu ;xof]usf] wf/f aUof] / alu g} /x]sf5g\ . To;}u/L ljleGg wfld{s,
;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfx?n] ;xof]usf ;dfgx? Ifltu|i6
:yfgx?df k'¥ofpgsf] nflu lbg/ft d]xgt u/]sf lyP / ub}{5g\ . Ifltu|i6
:yfgdf dfgl;s / zf/Ll/s ?kn] wSsf k'u]sfx?nfO{ /fxt / zfx;
lbg]sfo{x? eO{g} /x]sf 5g\ .
of] dxfk|no+sf/L 5fn ;'gfdL s;/L eof] / lsg eof] < lsg
o;/L 7"nf] Ifltk"0f{ b'3{6gf eof] eGg] k|Zgsf] pQ/df dxf;fu/sf] leqL
efudf cfPsf] 7"nf] e'O{+rfnf]n] dxf;fu/leqsf] r6\6fg rs]{sf] lyof] .
dxf;fu/sf] Tof] r6\6fgsf] rs{gaf6 Toxf“sf] e"ld tndfly eof] . ha
Toxf“sf] r6\6fg tn uof] ;f/f kfgLnfO{ ;f];]/ lnof] / dxf;fu/sf] kfgL
6f9f 6f9f;Dd ;'s]/ uof] . ha Tof] r6\6fg klxn]em}+ a/fa/Ldf cfP t ToxL
kfgLn] dxf5fnsf] ?k lnP/ kmSof]{ . o;/L dxf;fu/df cfPsf] e'O{+rfnf],
;d'bL| 5fn, r6\6fg kmf6]/ cfPsf] cflbsf] sf/0fn] g} of] 36gf 36\of],
b'3{6gf eof] eg]/ a}1flgsx?n] e"uf]nzfZqsf] cfwf/df oL k|Zgx?sf] pQ/
lbPsf] b]lvG5 . e"uf]nzfiqLx?n] ;'gfdLsf] Tof] 36gfsf] gSsnL ;'gfdLnfO{
sDKo"6/fO{h u/]/ h;/L cfPsf] xf] To:t} g} em} agfP/ ;f/f ;+;f/nfO{ klg
b]vfof] . km]l/ o:tf ;'gfdL eljiodf k'gM cfPdf ;ts{tf / ;fjwfgLsf

34

nflu tof/Lsf of]hgf / ljrf/ljdz{x? klg eP . To;}u/L o:sf]
cWoogsf] nflu cfw'lgs a}1flgs k|of]zfnfx? klg lgdf{0f eP .
of] 36gfnfO{ lnP/ a'4wd{ vfln ef}uf]lns ;Defjgfdf dfq
;Lldt /x]sf] kfO{+b}g . dfly k|:t't ul/Psf] ;d'2jfl0fh hftsaf6 s]xL
dfqfdf ePklg dflg;x?af6 NofPsf] jftfj/0fsf] kl/jt{g kof{j/0fsf]
x]/fkm]/L tyf jftfj/0fsf] lgodnfO{ pNn+3g ul/ a:g] u/]sf] sf/0f Ps
tkm{ b]lvG5 eg] csf]{tkm{ dflg;x?sf] zLnfr/0f cfrf/ Jojxf/df cfPsf]
kl/jt{g ;lxt cg}lts sfo{x?sf] kmnsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 . olb oL
sf/0fx?nfO{ s]Gb|laGb'df /fv]/ d"Nof+sg u/]df c;xdltsf kfOnfx? gxf]nf
eGg cjZo klg ;lsb}g . ;fydf w]/h
} ;f] af}4x?n] of] ;a} k"j{sd{sf]
kmnkfPsf] xf] eg]/ ljZjf; / wf/0ff lnPsf b]lvG5g\ . of] wf/0fx?n]
pgLx?sf] dgnfO{ s]xL zfGTjgf lbP xf]nfg\ tyf dgnfO{ zfGt kfl/ a:of]
xf]nfg\ t/ caf}4 jf a'4wd{sf] sd{sf] ljifodf ghfGg] jf yfxf gkfpg]x?sf]
nlfu of] sd{sf] kmn g} xf] eg]/ dgnfO{ zfGjgf lbg;Sg] b]lvb}g . k'gM
o;nfO{ vfln k"j{hGddf ul/Psf] jf klxn] ul/cfPsf] cs'zn sd{sf]
kmndfq eg]/ j:g klg a'4wd{sf] lz4fGt cg';f/ cg'lrt ePsf] klg
b]lvG5 . To;}u/L w]/} af}4 la4fgx?n] klg cfcfk\mg} ljrf/wf/f cg';f/
;'gfdLnfO{ a'4wd{sf] cfwf/df jofg u/]sf] klg b]lvG5 . tL lj4fgx?n]
cfk\mg} If]qaf6 j0f{g u/]sf 5g\ . wfld{s syg tyf u|Gyx?df ljZjf;
ug]{x?n] of] sd{sf] kmnsf] l;4fGtnfO{ cuf8L /fv]/ j0f{g u/] eg]
/fhg}lts If]qdf sfd ug]{x?n] /fhg}lts tkm{af6 g} o:sf] j0f{g u/] .
35

To;}ul/, cfw'lgs ;dfhdf 3'nldn x'g]x?n] cfw'lgstf / a}1flgs
9f“rfaf6 g} o:sf] j0f{g u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;f“Rr} g} a'4wd{n] o:tf] 36gfsf]
ljifodf s] eG5 t <
a'4wd{ Ps k/:k/ ;DaGwdf ljZjf; ug]{ / :jefljs ;TotfnfO{
l;sfpg] wd{ xf] . a'4wd{sf] k|d'v l;4fGtx? dWo] ;a} 36gfx?sf] s'g} g
s'g} sf/0f cjZo ePsf] x'G5 klg Ps xf] / s'g}klg 36gfx?sf] Ps eGbf
a9L sf/0f ePsf] x'G5 . kl6Rr;d'Kkfb / lgofd wd{ a'4wd{sf k|d'v
wd{x? dWo]df Ps xf] h'gwd{sf cg';f/ Ps cfk;df k/:k/ ;DaGw eP/
s'g} klg Ps a:t' jf 36\gf 36]sf x'G5g\ . of] k|fs[lts :jefj klg xf] .
To;}n] of] kl6Rr;d'Kkfbsf] cy{ w]/} g} ulx/f] / lj:t[t 5 . To;}tM of]
;'gfdL 36gfnfO{ s'g} Ps sf/0fn] 36]sf] eGg ;Sb}g . To;}n] of] k|fs[lts
k|sf]knfO{ a'4wd{fg';f/ % efudf ljefhg u/L ljrf/ ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . o:df
klg ljleGg sf/0fx? 5g\ . of] lgofdsf] cfwf/df j0f{g u/]df ;a}sf] nflu
;Gtf]ifhgs ePsf] tyf wfld{s?kn] klg ;xL g} ePsf] b]lvG5 . tL %
lgofdx?nfO{ s]Gb|ljGb' agfP/ xfdL of] ;'gfdLsf] ljifodf 5f]6f] rrf{ u/f}+ .
s= pt'lgofd

jftfj/0f ;DalGw k|fs[lts lgod

of] pt'lgofd cyf{t jftfj/0f ;DalGw k|fs[lts lgodn] jf Ct'
pTkGg gePsf]nfO{ pTkGg x'g] l:yltdf k'of{pg], c+s'l/t gePsf]nfO{
c+s'l/t u/fpg], c+s'l/t ePsf]nfO{ k|ult kydf n}hfg]nfO{ elgG5 . o;sf]
k|efjn] rf/k|sf/sf ;+j§, ;+j§7foL, ljj§ ljj§7foL sNksf ult qmdnfO{
lgwf{l/t ub{5 . oL ;a} wft'x?sf] cfcfk\mg} cj:yf / kl/jt{gsf]
36

sf/0faf6 x'g] xf] . ha oL wft'x?df a9\g] sf/0f ePsf] x'G5 . ta 7"nf]
kl/df0fdf a9\b5, To;}u/L 36\g] sf/0f ePdf 7"nf] kl/0ffddf 36\5 . o:tf]
x'g'sf] k|d'v sf/0f wft'x?df cfPsf] kl/jt{gsf cg';f/ ePsf] xf] . h:t}
kyjLwft'sf] ;DaGwdf hf]8\g] cfkf]wft'n] t/n?k ln+bf kyjLwft' kUng
;Qm5 . cfkf] wft'sf] ;DaGwdf, t]hf] wft' clUg Hjfnfdf kl/0ft x'g
;Sb5 t/ cfkf] wft'n] s]jn cfkf]wft'sf] sfo{ dfq ub{5 . oL wft'x?sf
pu|tf / ljzfntf rqmjfnx?sf] gfz / ljgfz x'g] l:ytLdf k'Ub5 .
To;sf/0fn] of] lgofdsf] cWoogaf6 x]dGt, u|Lid / jiff{sf
qmdnfO{ lgwf{/0f ug{ ;lsG5 . oL lgofd wd{x? :jfefljs wd{x? x'g\ . of]
s'g} b]j, O{Zj/ jf stf{sf] sf/0faf6 x'g] xf]O{g . o;/L :jefjwd{df
cljkl/t ?kdf cfwfl/t ePsf] x'gfn] pt' jf Ct' eg]sf] xf] . oxf“
pt'lgofdsf cg';f/ ;'gfdLnfO{ lnof}+ eg] w]/}n] ;sf/fTds ?k g} b]vfpg]
5 . cfw'lgs a}1flgsx?n] of] 36\gfnfO{ e"O{rfnf] / r6\6fgsf] km6fO{af6
cfPsf] kfgLsf] 5fnnfO{ sf/0f b]vfO{ lbg'af6 klg k|i6 x'g cfp“5 eg]
csf]t{ km{ jftfj/0fljbx?n] dflg;x?n] jftfj/0fdf NofPsf] kl/jt{gn] g} of]
;'gfdL cfPsf] s'/fnfO{ b]vfPsf] 5 . To;}n] of] ;'gfdLsf ljleGg sf/0fx?
dWo]df of] pt'lgofdn] k|ydf:yfg cf]u6]sf] b]lvG5 .

37

of] >t'lgofdsf] cfwf/df g} ;f/fn] of] ;'gfdLs]f 36gfnfO{
ljZjf; uof]{+ / dgnfO{ zfGTjgf lbPsf] h:tf] b]lvG5 . csf]{ tkm{, oL
Ifltu|i6 :yfgx? eg]sf] w]/}h;f] ko{tsLo :yfgx? ePsf] tyf tL If]qx?df
ko{ts cfs{if0fsf] nflu ljleGg ;fdfu|Lx?sf] k|of]u tyf k|fs[lts
:j?knfO{ ljuf/L gof“ :j?k lbb}+ uO{/fv]sf sf/0fnfO{ cuf8L ;f/]/
jf6fj/0fljbx?n] j0f{g u/]sf 5g\ . o;}nfO{ w]/}h;f]n] ;sf/fTds pQ/sf]
?kdf lnPsf b]lvG5g\ .

38

v= jLhlgofd aLh, pAhlgsf k|fs[lts lgod
jLhlgofd eGgfn] aLp jf aLh . ;fwf/0ftof aLh eGgfn] d"n
jf cfwf/sf] cy{df klg lng] ub{5 . h:tf] aLp /f]Kof] To:t} kmn kfpg]5
eGg] pvfgaf6 klg of] lgofdnfO{ /fd|/L k|i6\ofPsf] b]lvG5 . csf]{ zAbdf
ljk/Lt gx'g] :jefj ePsf] u'0fsf] wd{nfO{ aLh lgofd elgG5 . of] klg
k|fs[lts :jefj g} xf] h'g s'g} ;[li6stf{sf] v]n xf]Og\ . of] wd{nfO{ klg
s]xL xb;Ddsf] nflu cfhsf a}1flgsx?df ;xdlt ePsf] b]lvG5 .
pgLx?n] klg eGg] ub{5g\ sL dflg;x?n] jftfj/0fdf NofPsf] kl/jt{gsf]
Tof] aLp w]/} ;do b}lv g} ;+ro x'b}{ cfPsf] 5 . ToxL ;+lrt kl/jt{g
aLpsf] sf/0f g} of] dxfk|no+sf/L 36gf 36]sf x'g\ . To;}n] of] 36\gfnfO{
h:tf] aLp /f]Kof] To;t} kmn kfpg] wd{ sd{lgofd ;+u klg ldNg] x'g
cfp“5 . Tolt dfq geO{ of] lgofdn] dflg;x?sf] sd{ / sd{kmnnfO{ klg
b]vfpg] ub{5 . sd{lgofdsf] ljifodf cuf8L 5nkmn u/f}+ . oxf“ jLh jf
sf/0fsf] ljifodf 5f]6f] 5nkmn u/f}+ .
csf]{ zAbdf jLhnfO{ kRrosf] ?kdf klg lng ;lsG5 . kRro
eGgfn] sf/0f jf ;xof]uu/L pTkGg u/fpg' xf] . To;}n] of] jLhlgofdsf]
csf]{ cy{ s'g} klg 36gfsf] k5f8L Toxf w]/} g} kRro jf sf/0f ePsf] x'G5
. To;}n] of] dxfk|no ;'gfdLsf] ljifodf klg s'g} Pssf] sf/0faf6 dfq
ePsf] eGg g;s]sf] xf] . o:sf] k5f8L c? w]/} g} sf/0fx? jf jLhx?
cjZo ;dfj]z ePsf x'G5g\ .

xfdL dflg;x?n] ug]{ s'zn / cs'zn sfo{nfO{ sd{ elgG5 .
eujfg a'4sf cg';f/ r]tgfo'St sd{nfO{ g} s'zn jf cs'zn sd{ eg]sf
5g\ . h;sf] kmn ef]uL xfdL cfk}m x'g]5f} . To;}n] sfo, jrg / dg4f/f
ul/g] ;Dk"0f{ sd{x? r]tgfsf] sf/0f x'g] ub{5 . sDdlgofd eGgfn] s'zn
jf cs'zn sd{sf] kmn lglZrt ?kdf tbg'?k g} kl/0ffd lg:sg' xf] .
o; sd{lgofdsf] cg';f/ olb sf]xL ef}lts wg ;DklQsf]
cfh{gsf] nflu lbg /ft d]xgt u/]/ wfld{s ljrf/ / l;4fGtn] pT;flxt
eP/ s'znsd{x? ;+ro ub{5g\ / ;fy} wd{fr/0fdf nfu]sf x'G5g\ eg] tL
dflg;x?n] z'?df cg]s k|sf/sf b'Mvsi6x? e]fUg' k/]klg s'znsd{sf]
x]t'n] s]xL ;do kZrft\ cfgGb cg'ej ug]{5g\ . eujfg a'4n] c+u'Q/
lgsfodf eGg'ePsf] 5 M To:tf] 7fp“ jf :yfg sxL+ 5}g hxf“ cs'zn
sd{af6 lk|o, /fd|f], ;'Gb/ cflb kmn k|fKt x'g;S5 . o;}nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/
af}4x?n] of] ;'gfdLsf] sf/0f b'Mvsi6x? ePsf] klxn] u/L cfPsf] sd{sf]
kmnsf] ?kdf lnPsf] b]lvG5 / dgnfO{ zfGTjgf lbPsf] b]lvG5 . x'gtM of]
o;/L dgnfO{ zfGTjgf lbg' klg Ps lsl;dn] /fd|f] nIf0f g} xf] h:n] k'gM
hLjgnfO{ psf:g] sfo{ ub{5 . t/ sd{sf] ljifonfO{ a'4wd{n] w]/} g} ulx/f]
?kdf JofVof ub{5 / w]/} g} sl7g ljifo klg xf] . of] sDd lgofd
jLhlgofd;+u k/:k/ ;DaGw /x]sf] x'G5 . oL b'O{sf] k/:k/ ;DaGwsf]
sf/0faf6 g} s'g} Ps sfo{ x'g] ub{5 . of] sDdlgofd cfkm}df x]t' jf kRro
ePsf] x'G5 eg] cfkm}df kmnsf] ?kdf klg k|:t't eP/ cfpg] ub{5 . To;}n]

u= sDdlgofd sfd, sfo{ ;DaGwL k|fs[lts lgod
39

40

;'gfdL klg Ps o:tf] 36gf xf] h:df ljleGg kRrox?sf] ;DaGw /x]sf
5g\ . pSt 36gfdf k/]/ dg]{ jf 36gfu|i6 If]qx?df a:g]x?sf] cs'zn
sd{s} sf/0f pgLx?n] of] 36gfnfO{ ;fdfgf ug{'k/]sf] xf] eg]/ klg ljZjf;
ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ . h:t} cfgGb u'?h] >Ln+sfsf e"tk"j{ cd]l/sfdf /fhb'tn]
n;\ c+h]n]; 6fO{D;df sd{nfO{ g} cfwf/ agfP/ n]v]sf] b]lvG5 . To;}u/L
k"j{ sd{df dfq} klg ljZjf; ug{ gx'g] ts{df klg w]/} g} e]l6G5 . a'4wd{
cg';f/ ;a} sd{s} sf/0f ePsf] xf] eg]/ klg a:g x'b}g lsgsL eujfg
a'4n] ;a} k"j{sd{sf] sf/0f ePsf] xf] eGg] ljZjf; ldYof b[li6 xf] t/
ljl/ojflb x'g'k5{ eg]/ eGg' ePsf] 5 . To;}n] a'4wd{sf] cg';f/ of]
36gfnfO{ vfln sd{ / sf/0f jf jLhsf] sf/0f ePsf] xf] eg]/ ljZjf; ug{
;Sb}g .
3= lrQlgofd lrQn] sfdug]{ k|fs[lts lgod,
lrGtgzLn x'g' cyf{t s'g} klg ljifodf cg';Gwfg jf cGj]if0f
ug{nfO{ klg lrQlgofddf lng] ul/G5 . ljrf/ jf dg s} sf/0f ;Dk"0f{ sfo{
eO/x]sf] 5 . of] lj~`f0fsf] ;xof]udf pTkGg x'g] ub{5 . ToxL lj~`f0f
s]xL ;do kZrft sfo{df kl/0ft x'g] ub{5 .
ª wDdlgofd x]t' / kmn jf sf/0f / k|ltkmnsf] k/:k/
;DaGwsf] k|fs[lts lgod cyf{t wf/]tLlt wDdf] cfk\mgf] :jefjnfO{ oyfjt
wf/0f ug]{ :jefjnfO{ wd{ elgG5 . wd{n] s'g}klg sfo{;+u ;DalGwt x]t'nfO{

wf/0f ub{5 / sf/0f;+u ;DalGwt k|ToonfO{ wf/0f ub{5 . ;'ne cy{df
a'4sf] pkb]znfO{ o;/L k|Zt't ug{ ;lsG5 .
Tof] eP/ of] x'G5 . Tof] pTkGg ePsf]n] of] x'G5 .
Tof] gePdf of] x'g]5}g . Tof] cGt ePdf of] klg cGt x'g]5 .
bL3lgsfo c6\7syf DA. II. 432_
oxf“ of] ;'gfdLsf] 36gfnfO{ jLhlgofd, sDdlgofd /
lrQlgofdsf] cfwf/df lng] xf] eg] cln ca'e\mbf] jf kTof/ gnfUbf] tyf
z+sfsf cf}+nfx? p7\g] ;Defjgf ePklg pQ/ t sf/0fhgs g} x'G5g . of]
ts{df ljif]z u/]/ wfld{s AolQmx?df k|efj kf/]sf] / zfGTjgf /fv]sf
pbfx/0fnfO{ xfdL oxf lng ;lsG5 . h:t} yfO{n}08 tyf >Ln+sfdf cfk\mg}
sd{sf] kmn cflbnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ zfGTjgf lbPsf 5g\ . To;}u/L of]
36gfnfO{ sd{sf] kmn eGb} b'MvnfO{ ;Dxfn]sf lyP . of] b'MvnfO{ a'em]/ lng'
rf/cfo{;Tosf] klxnf] wd{ xf] . oxf sd{ / b'MvnfO{ a'lemlng] eGbf klg
36gf u|i6 dflg;x?sf] cg'ej / To;nfO{ ;DxfNg] tl/sf dxTjk"0f{ b]lvG5
. h]xf];\, oL pbfx/0f vfln af}4x?df dfq} nfu" x'g] b]lvPtf klg
sf/0fhgs / zfGTjgfhgs g} b]lvG5 .

rf/ ljklQx? cyf{t rf/k|sf/sf ck"0f{tf jf bf]if / rf/;DklQ cyf{t
rf/k|sf/sf k"0f{tf jf lgbf]{ifL wd{x?nfO{ klg o; 36\gf ;+u ;DjlGwt ePsf] b]lvG5 . clewDd lje+u_

r]tgfx+ leSvj], sDd+ jbfdL .
41

42

To;}u/L pt'lgofd cyf{t Ct' jf k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf ePsf
km]/abnsf] cfwf/df lbg] xf] eg] yf]/}dfqfdf dfq cljZjf;sf] cf}+nf
p7\g;Snf / ;a}n] xf]nf g} eGg] ;sf/fTds pQ/ lbg]5g\ . o;sf]
pbfx/0fsf nflu cfw'lgs a}1flgsx?sf] j0f{g / s[ltd ;'gfdLsf 36gf
ljj/0faf6 yfxf kfpg ;lsG5 . a}1flgsx? eG5g\ sL ;d'b|sf] kfgLsf]
3gTj PSsfl; a9]/ a]nfa]nfdf ;d'b|sf] leqL txdf xnrn pTkGg x'G5 .
To;}u/L ;d'b| jf j/k/ e"sDk, klx/f] jf Hjfnfd'vLaf6 ;d'b|sf] kfgL
lj:yflkt x'G5 / 7"nf t/+Ëx? pTkGg x'g]ub{5g\ . o;/L cfPsf] 5fnnfO{ g}
;'gfdL eg]/ gfdfs/0f u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] pt'lgofdsf cg';f/ of] ;'gfdLsf]
j0f{g u/]df ;a}sf] ;xdlt / ljZjf;gLo g} b]lvG5 .
t/ o; 36\gfnfO{ lnP/ k|fs[lts km]/abn dfq} klg eGg ;lsb}g
. dfgL;x?n] k|s[ltdf u/]sf b'u{Gw kmf]x/d}nf] jf cs'zn cg}ltstf sDdlgofd_ sf] sf/0fn] ePsf] eg]/ klg ljZjf; ug{ of]Uo 5}g . cg}lts
sfo{x? u/]/ cs'zn jLh agfof} dfq} g} eGg ;S5f}+ . lrQlgofdnfO{ dfq}
klg k"/f cfwf/ agfpg ;Sb}gf}+ . To;}n] o:sf] oyfy{tfnfO{ a'e\mg
wd{lgofdsf] cfwf/df dfq /fd|f] pQ/ kfpg ;lsG5 .
a'4wd{fg';f/ s'g}klg 36\gfx? Pp6} sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'g ;Sb}gg\
ljleGg sf/0fx?sf] ld>0fn] ubf{ g} pTkGg ePsf x'G5g\ . To;}u/L 36\gf
36fpg] sf/0f x/]s sf/s w]/} 36\gfx?sf] sf/0f aGg ;Sb5 . :jfefljs
wd{nfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] of] ;f/f ;+;f/ g} kRrox?sf] ;DaGw / k/:k/
;xof]usf] sf/0f rln/x]sf 5g\ . o:sf] ;DaGw w]/} g} ulx/f] / z"Id 5 .
43

To;}n] ;du|?kdf s'g} klg Ps kmn jf 36gf w]/} kRro jf jLhx?sf]
sf/0faf6 pTkGg x'G5 jf kmn cg]s sf/0f cg]saf6 pTkGg x'G5 . To;sf]
sf/0f of] eof], o:sf] sf/0f Tof] eof] of] l;4fGt w]/} g} ;sf/fTds 5 .
To;}n] of] ;'gfdLnfO{ klg w]/}h;f]n] eg] em}+ vfln jftfj/0f kl/jt{gsf]
sf/0f -pt'lgofd_ dfq eGg ;lsGg . ;fy} of] xfdL dflg;x?n] u/]sf
cs'Zfn sd{df -–sDdlgofd_ dfq} klg eGg ;lsGg . lrQlgofd jf
k|dfbLsf sf/0fn] ubf{ k|s[ltnfO{ x]nr]qmfO{ u¥of}+, nfk/jfxL u¥of} . o;/L
k|dfbsf sf/0f cs'zn sfo{{x? xfdLaf6 k|s[ltdf eof] -–sDdlgofd_ oxL
cs'zn k|s[ltnfO{ nfk/jfxL ?kdf u/]sf sfo{x?sf] sf/0f jftfj/0fdf
kl/jt{g cfof] / ToxL kl/jt{gsf] kmn:j?k o;/L b'3{6\gf ePsf] xf] -–
jLhlgofd_ . o;/L eGbf ;fob xfdLdf s]xL g s]xL z+sfsf s'/fx? dgdf
pTkGg x'g ;S5g ls of] b'3{6gf :yfgx?df ga;]sfx?sf] s] bf]if lyof] / <
pgLx? t vfnL 3'Dgsf] nflu jf dgf]/Ghgsf] nflu uPsf lyP . olb
jftfj/0fdf NofPsf] kl/jt{g ePsf] eP ToxF s} afl;Gbfx?n] lsg
yf]/}dfqfdf Hofg u'dfP < cflb gfgf k|Zgx?sf] y'Dsf] cjZo aGg]5 .
To;}n] wDdlgofdsf cg';f/ of] b'vb 36\gf s'g} Ps sf/0faf6 geO{
ljleGg sf/0fx?sf] ;DaGwsf sf/0f ePsf] hgfp“b5 . cyf{t oxf“ eGg
vf]h]sf] tfTko{ s'g} klg 36gf cs:dft jf s'g} b}jsf] sf/0fn] x'g ;Sb}g .
of] 36gfsf] k5f8L w]/} sf/0fx?n] 3]/]sf x'G5g\ / tL sf/0fx? ;a} o;
k~rlgofd cyf{t oL kF“r k|sf/sf k|fs[lts lgodx?;+u ;DalGwt ePsf]
b]lvG5 .

44

lgZsif{
h] xf];\ of] ;'gfdL ;'vbsf If0fx?sf] cf/Dedf cfP/ b'vbdf
kl/0ft ul/lbo]f . ;f/f ;+;f/sf] cf“vfaf6 cf“;' em/fof] . of] h'g;'s}
sf/0fx?af6 36]sf] xf];\ jf w]/} g} sf/0fx?af6 ePsf] lsg gxf];\ . of]
36\gf 36\of] ;f/fnfO{ b'vL agfP/ uof] . casf] a'4wd{n] b'Oj6f s'/fx?nfO{
:ki6tf lbG5 Tof] xf] d]Qf -d}qLefj_ / s?0ff -bof / dfof_ . æb'vLsf] ;]jf
u/]sf] dnfO{ g} u/]sf] ;dfg xf]Æ egL eujfg a'4n] Ps d[To'sf] kvf{O{df
a;]sf leIf'sf] ;]jf kZrft eGg'ePsf] of] jfSon] xfdLx?nfO{ of] ;'gfdL
kLl8tnfO{ ;xof]u ug{lt/ pS;fp“b5 . To;}n] xfd|f] klxnf] st{Jodf of]
;'gfdLdf k/]/ ljt]sfx?k|lt d}qLlrQn] k'0o 5f]l8lbg' h'g :yfgdf k'u]sf
5g\ To; :yfgdf pgLx?sf] nflu s'g} b'Mv si6x? gxf];\ egL k'0o
5f]l8lbg' g} k|fyldstf xf] . tyf o; 36gfaf6 kLl8tx?nfO{ dfgl;s /
45

ef}lts cfjZosLo a:t'x?sf] k"lt{ / km]l/ b}lgs hLjgnfO{ v'zLdf abNgsf]
nflu xf};nfx? lbg' csf]{ Ps dxTjk"0f{ sfo{ xf] . h;/L k6frf/fsf]
hLjgdf cfk\mgf xL/f h:tf dfofn' 5f]/fx? ;fy} cfkm"nfO{ d'6' em}+ dfof ug]{
kltsf] Hofg cfk\mg} cf“vfsf] cuf8L nlu lbof] . cfk\mgf cfdf a'afsf]
;xf/fdf af“sL hLjg Joltt ug]{5' eg]/ 3/df k'Ubf /ftL cfPsf] aiff{t /
e'O{+rfnf]n] pxF“x? ;a}sf] Hofg k|f0f klg lnO ;s]sf] e]l6of] . o:tf] b'vb
36\gfn] ub{f of] b'vfO{nfO{ ;xg g;sL cfk\mgf] :d[lt xf]z ;d]t u'dfpg'
k/]sL lyOg\ . dfgl;s ?kn]
æb'vLsf] ;]jf u/]sf] dnfO{ g}
kfun ePsL lyOg . t/
eujfg a'4sf] e]6;+u} pxF“sf]
u/]sf] ;dfg xf]Æ
ckf/ d}qLk"0f{ jrg / s?0ffsf]
eujfg a'4
k|efjn] pgLn] cfk\mgf] :d[ltnfO{
lkmtf{ kfpg ;lsg / ;fydf pgLn] klg of] kl/jt{gzLn ;+;f/nfO{ a'em]/
k'gM goF“ hLjgsf] z'?jft ul/g\ .
To;}n] of] ;'gfdLdf k/]/ b'vb l:yltdf k'u]sfx? w]/} 5g\ hf]
dfgl;s ?kdf lj/fdL ePsf 5g\ . sf]xL To; 36gfsf] If0fnfO{ ;Dem]/ t
sf]lx To:sf] k|efjn] b'vL 5g\ . sf]lx cfkmGtx?nfO{ u'dfP/ t sf]xL
wg;Dkltsf] gfz eP/ . sf]lx cfkm\gf 5f]/f 5f]/LnfO{ u'dfP/ t sf]lx cfdf
a'afnfO{ u'dfP/ dfgl;s / zfl//Ls ?kn] thfj u|i6 ePsfx? cfh klg
w]/} ;+Vofdf 5g\ . To;}n] pgLx? k|lt d}qLefj / s?0ffn] ;xof]u jf
Tofusf] efjgf hufpg' g} pQd d+un tyf s'zn sd{x? dWo]df klg
46

cu|df cfpg]5 . h;/L k6frf/fn] tL b'vbsf If0fx?nfO{ e'n]/ gof
hLjgsf] z'?jft ug{ ;s]sL lyOg\ . To;}u/L of] 36\gfaf6 k|efljt ;a}n]
klg gof hLjgsf] z'?jf6 ug{ ;sf];\ tyf z'?jf6 u/fpg] k|oTgx?nfO{
of]hgf tyf sfo{Gjog ug{ tkm{ xftdf xft ldnfP/ ug{' kb{5 . h;n]
b'vLsf] ;xof]u ub{5 p:n] dnfO{ ;]jf ub{5 eg]/ eujfg a'4n] eGg' ePsf]
5 eg] h:n] wd{nfO{ lrG5 p:n] dnfO{ b]V5 . To;}n] rfx] af}4 xf];\ jf s'g}
c? wd{sf] xf];\ h:n] d}qL / s?0ffsf] efjn] b'vLx?sf] ;xof]u ub{5 p;n]
g} wd{nfO{ /fd|/L lrGg]5 . o;/L cfjZos kg]{x?sf] ;xof]u u/L Tofu
efjgfnfO{ hufO{ pgLx?sf] nflu ;Sbf] ;xof]usf ;fy} kl5 k'gM o:tf
b'3{6gfx? gxf];\ eGg] cfzfsf ;fy s'znsfo{sf] ;+roug{' / cs'zn
sfo{af6 ;s];Dd 6f9f /xg' / slxNo} b'isfo{ gug]{ tyf ;s];Dd c?sf]
enf] ug'{, g;s]df s'enf] gug'{ g} dg'io hLjgsf] nflu pQd d+un x'g]5 .

cfpg';\ of] 36gfdf k/]/ hLjg u'dfpg' ePsfx?k|lt k'0ofg'df]bg u/f}+ .

s]xL hfGg' kg]{ s'/fx?M
hfkfgLhefiffdf ;'gfdL (Tsunami) b'O{ zAb Tsu / Nami
sf] ld>0f xf] . ;' eGgfn] aGb/ufx jf 8'Ëf la;fpg] 7fp“ xf] eg] gfdL
eGgfn] 5fn jf lsgf/nfO{ gf3]/ cfPsf] 5fn jf aGb/ufx;Dd cfPsf] 5fn
eGg] a'lemG5 . h:nfO{ c+u|]hLdf harbor wave eGb5 .
;'gfdL s;/L pTkGg x'G5
!= ;d'Gb|df e"sDk cfpg' jf r6\6fg kmf6\g'af6
@= ;d'Gb|df Hjfnfd'vL lg:sg'
#= 7"nf] u|x ;d'Gb|df v:g'
$= k/df0f' ad ;d'Gb|d'lg k|l/If0f ug'{
;d'Gb|d'lg cfPsf] e"sDksf] sf/0f r6\6fg km6\bf cfPsf] 5fn !%
ldg]6df ;'dfqfdf k'Uof] .
#) ldg]6df cfGbfdfg dxf;d'Gb|df k'Uof]
! 306f #) ldg]6df yfO{n}08sf] ljleGg 6fk'x?df k'Uof]
@ 306fdf >Ln+sfsf] 6fk'x?df k'Uof]
# 306f #) ldg]6df dfNbLK;\df k'u]sf] lyof]
& 306fdf clk|msfsf] ;f]dflnofdf k'u]sf] lyof] .

cfpg';\ of] 36gfaf6 k|efljtx?nfO{ dfgl;s / zf/Ll/s If]qaf6 k'gM
alnof] agfpg] k|of; u/f}+ .

pxf“x? ;lxt ;a}sf] d+un xf];\, sNof0f xf];\, lg/f]uL xf];\ .

47

48

Pshgf u|fxssf] n'ufsf] lkml6Ë sfo{ lyof] . d p:s} k|ltIffdf
klv{ k;ndf k"hfkf7 u/]/ al;/x]sL lyP .
Pshgf 6}n/ -;'lrsf/_ cfl§b} d]/f] k;ndf cfO{ k'uLg\ / sfd]sf]
/ cfZro{?kdf o;/L eGg yfnL “r] yn] gfd XofË, dfO{ kfO{ b" /cx <”
cyf{t b/Lof -;d'Gb|_ df kfgL ;'s]sf] x]g{ hfGgf} .
d d]/f] k"hfsf] ;'/df /x]sf] lyPF, To;}n] p;sf] s'/fdf Tolt Wofg
g} lbOg . s]xL l5g kl5 km]/L d]/L efGhL uLtf csf]{ k;n 5f]8]/ d a;]sf]
k;ndf cfP/ lrRofpb} elG5g\ “dfO{h' dfO{h' yn] gfd XofË dfO{ kfO{ b"

¿ <” b/Lofsf] kfgL ;'s]sf] x]g{ hfGgf} dfO{h' eg]/ af]nfpg cfof] . d klg
cfwf ;s]sf] k"hfnfO{ 5f]8]/ Toqf] 7"nf] kfgLsf] b/Lofdf klg s;/L

;'gfdLsf tL tLvf If0fx?
ljxfgsf] slnnf] 3fdsf] k/5fofFx? l5lkb}+ uPsf] lyof] . ;w}+ em}
@^.!@.@))$ ut] rf/}lt/sf b'sfgx?df cfk\mgf Joj;fo ;+rfngsf nflu
vf]ln;s]sf lyP . ko{6sx?sf] TotL 3'O{rf] lyPg\ . d klg ;w}+ em} 3/sf]
sfdsfh ;s]/ cfk\mgf] Joj;fo ;+rfngsf] nflu b'sfg vf]Ng uPF . sl/a
laxfgsf] !) ah] cfk\mgf] b'sfg -–k;n_ vf]n]/ rf/}lt/ ;/ ;kmfO{ u/L
eujfg a'4sf] cuf8L a;L k"hfkf7 ub}{lyP . Tof] lbgsf] !)M#) df d]/f]

kfgL ;'s]/ uof] xf]nf eg]/ k;n b]lv rKkn g} gnufO{ bu'b}{ x]g{ uPF .
cfDd} ToxfF t ;a} dflg;x? Toqf] 7"nf] b/Lofsf] kfgL ;'s]s]f x]/]/ a;]sf
lyP . ;fFRr} g} Toqf] 7"nf] b/Lofsf] kfgL t ;'Svf x'g] u/L ;n{Ss} ;'s]/
afn'jf dfq b]Vg] ePsf] lyof] . kfgL t k/M k/ ;Dd cln cln dfq b]vfO{
lbGYof] . o:tf] t slxn] klg b]v]sf] lyPg . eGb} ;a}hgf lrRofpb} s/fpb}
u/]sf lyP . 6f9f 6f9f ;Dd kfgL gkfP/ plk|m/x]sf / 56kl6/x]sf df5fx?
b]lvGYof] . sf]lx kfgL geP/ 56kl6P/ pk|mL/x]sf tL df5fx? ;dfTg
nfu]sf lyP eg] sf]lx kmf]6f]x? lvRglt/ nfu]sf lyP . ;a}sf] d'vdf Ps}
k|sf/sf] s'/f] lyof] Tof] xf] slxNo} gb]v]sf] 36gf 36\of] . ;a}hgf crDd
eO{/x]sf lyP eg] ljleGg s'/fx? cfpg yfln;s]sf lyP .

49

50

of] 36\gfnfO{ s]lx l5g x]/]/ dgdf s]lxklg z+sf / pkz+sfx?

klg efUg lt/ nfu], sf]lx cfk\mgf b'sfglt/ kms{g nfu]sf lyP . sf]lx s]lx

glnO{ cfk'mn] cfwf jGbgf u/L ;ls;s]sf] kf7k"hf k'/f u5'{ eg]/ cfk\mgf]

klg x'Fb}g eg]/ j]jf:yf u/L a:g yfn], of] k|fs[lts kl/jt{gdf /dfpgyfn]

b]fsfgdf kms]{ . d kms{gsf] nfuL rflnPsf bzsbd lx8\g kfPsf] lyPg .

. of] k|fs[lts kl/jt{gnfO{ crlDdt eP/ x]g{df nfuL/x] . sf]lx eg] s] u/f}+

d}n] k5f8Laf6 lrRofpFb} cfPsf] cfjfh ;'g+] . ;fydf efu efu / bf}8 bf}8

s] gu/f}+ eP/ a:g]x? klg eP . sf]lx tf]lNnP/ a:b}5g\ eg] sf]lx 8/n]

kfgL kmsf]{ kfgL kmsf]{ eGg] cfjfhx? d]/f sfgx?df u'lGhPsf lyP . To:s}

efUg z'? ug{ yfn] .

cfjfhdf s] s] g eof] xf]nf eg]/ d klg kmgSs ks]{/ ;d'b| tkm{ x]/]sf]
lyP . ;a}hgf kfgL ;'s]sf] 7fpFdf uPsf dfgL;x?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{
efUgdf nfu]sf s/fpb} lyP . cfDd} Toqf] ;d'Gb|sf] kfgL 7"nf] d':nf] 5fn
eP/ u'Td'l6b} cfPsf] b]v]+ . To:tf] 7"nf] 5fn cfPklg Toltv]/ ;Dd t oqf]
ljwL ljufnf{ eg]/ t ;f]r]sf] klg lyPg . o:tf] eofgs d':nf]nfO{ klg
Vofn g} g/fvL dgdf s]lx klg cs'zn efjx? g/fvL of] 36gf x]/L/x]sL
cfk\mgL eflGhnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ kms{gsf] nflu af]nfP, eflGh “cfcf] b'sfg
x]g{, d k"hf ug{ uPF .”

o:tf] kl/l:yltnfO{ b]v]/ d]/f] dgdf s] z+sf pTkGg eof] s'lGg
cfk\mgf] b'sfg leq k;]/ eujfgsf] :yfgdf afln/fv]sf] d}galQ eujfgnfO{
jGbgf u/L lgefpg nfu]+ . elgG5 :d'lt ePdf ;a} yf]s l7s x'G5 eg]sf]
;lx g} /x]5 . To;kl5 b'sfgdf ePsf ;a} alQx?nfO{ aGb ug{lt/ nfu] .
alQx?nfO{ lgefO{;s]kl5 d ;w}+ k"hf ug{sf] nfuL rflxg] jGbgf k':ts /
hkdfnfnfO{ lnP/ b'sfg aflx/ cfPF / b'sfgnfO{ aGb u/]+ . aflx/ cfpFb}df
bl/oflt/ x]5'{ t Tof] kfgLn] ;d'Gb|eGbf dfyLsf] #) ld6/ hlt 6f9f kg]{
;8snfO{ gf3]/ cfO{;s]sf] lyof] . Tof] kfgL km]/L klxn] em} ;'s]/ uO{;s]sf]

d}n] olt dfq eg]/ s]lx kfO{nfx? rfn]sf] dfq s] lyPF Tof]

lyof] . ;]N;Dofg efO{ bl/ofdf kfgL ;'s]/ uPsf] / km]/L a9]sf] k|fs[lts

kfgLsf] 5fnn] t ;d'lGb| lsgf/df t'l/:t-ko{6s_x? a:gsf] nfuL /flvPsf

kl/jt{gsf] kmf]6f]x? lvr]/ kms]{sf] lyof] . p:nfO{ b'sfgdf tfNrf nufpg

s'l;{x?, d]rx? uh]{/ aufP/ cfk'm ;+u} nUof] . ;d'lGb| lsgf/nfO{ ;'Svf g}

lbPF / efuf}+ eGb} l/;6{ tkm{ nfUof}+ . kfgL km]/L klxn]sf] eGbf klg 7'nf] :j/

kf/]/ uof] . kfgL km]/L klxn]sf] em} ;n{Ss ;'s]/ uof] . ;fdfgx?sf] c6\6f]

u/]/ u't'Tt' ub}{ cfPsf] cfjfh 6f9f;Dd klg ;'lgGYof] . efu efu eGg] :j/

k6\6f] lyPg . of] kfgLsf] ;'sfO{;+u} ;a}hgf n n km]/L kfgL ;'s]/ uof] eGb}

u'Ghfodfg eof] . ;]N;Dofg efO{ klg c?x? em} otf / ptf ub}{ bf}l8g

s/fpg yfNof] . of] 36\gfsf] ;fydf ljleGg ts{ ljts{x? hf]8tf]8n] x'g

yfNof] . dfgL;x? pFrf] :yfgdf uP/ Tof] tdf;fnfO{ x]g{lt/ nfu] eg] sf]lx

yfNof] . s;}n] of] kfgL km]/L cfpFg]5 ca t efUg' kof]{ eGg] ;f]r]/ efUg]x?

prfO{ lt/ efUg yfNof] . To;} ;donfO{ x]/]/ d l/;6{sf] ejg -–a+unf]_ df
ePsf] dflyNnf] l;+lwdf a;]/ d}qLefjgf kf7 ug{ nfu]sf] lyPF .

51

52

d]/L eflGh s/fpFb} d a;]sf] 7fpFdf bf}8]/ cfO{g / elgg\ “dfOh'

;fydf pgLdfyL s?0ff klg hfUof] . To;} ;dodf d]/f] HjfO{ egfpFbf

dfOh' s] ul//fv]sL < kflUn t eOgf}+ < kfgL cfO;Sof] efu===” eGb}

g]kfnL /f0ff klg ToxL+ cfO{k'u]sf] lyof] . pm / d ldn]/ pgL df]6L

s/fpg yflng\ . d]/f] kf7ug]{ ;ls;s]sf] lyPg / lg/Gt/ g} kf7ub}{ lyPF .

yfO{gLnfO{ Tof] sfF6]bf/ af/nfO{ kf/ u/]/ 5'6sf/f lbgsf] nflu ;xof]u uof}{+

d]/f] c6'6tf / p:sf] s'/fdf Vofn g/fv]sf] b]v]/ pgL Pp6f df]6/afO{s

. p yfO{gL klg HjfO{sf] xft ;dft]/ sfF6fsf] af/ gf3]/ uO{g\ . xfdL klg

lnP/ dnfO{ g} 5f]8]/ efuL . d d}qLefjgf kf7ub}{ lyPF, ;]N;Dofg efO{

ToxL af/nfO{ kf/ub}{ clns pFrf] :yfgdf uP/ a:of}+ . xfdL kl5sfx?n]

;fgf] d'v nfP/ kmSof]{ . xfdL klg ca t efuf}+ lbbL eGb} d]/f] glhs cfof]

s;/L of] af6f]nfO{ kf/ uof]{ yfxf x'g ;s]g . t/ ;a}hgf ToxfFaf6 lg:s]/

. d rfxL+ cfk\mg} ;'/df kf7 ub}{ lyPF . efO{ ;]N;Dofgn] klg l9kL u/]/

efUb} lyof] . Tolts}df l/;6{df sfdug]{ Pshgf efO{n] afO{sdf a;]/ sfsL

efUgsf] nflu eGof] . d}n] klg p:sf] s'/fdf ljrf/ u/]+ / kl/l:yltnfO{ x]/]/

tkfO{ sxfF hfg'x'G5 d k'of{OlbG5' eGb} cuf8L cfP . p:sf] Tof] pbf/tfnfO{

x'G5 t hfpF t/ efu]/ sxfF hfg] eg]/ pQ/ lbPF . ;fydf p7]/ ;8sdf

b]v]/ d]/f cfFvfaf6 cf;'F cfpFnf em} eof] . t/ klg p:sf] Tof] pbf/tfnfO{

cfPF . efO{n] ;8skf/L prf] :yfglt/ efuf}+ eGof] . d}n] klg x'G5 t hfpF

lzi6?kdf gsfb}{ eg]

ltdL df]6/ ;fO{sn lnP/ cfpmF / dnfO{ 3/df 5f]8L lbg' eGb} k5f8Laf6
hfg] ljrf/ ub}{ uPF . efO{ klg df]6/;fO{sn lngsf] nflu uof] . d k5f8L
k'Ubf ToxfFsf] b[ZonfO{ b]v]/ dnfO{ g xf;f} g /f]cf}+ em+} ePsf] lyof] . ;a}
hgf tF5f8d5fF8 ub}{ Tof] tf/sf] kvf{nnfO{ lauf/L efUg vf]Hb}lyP . sf]xL

“sf]xL aft 5}g\, clxn] ldng efO{ afO{s lnP/ cfpFb}xf]nf .”
“sfsL klg s:tf] xf]nL kfgL cfO{;Sof] pxfF slxn] afOs lnP/
cfpg] xf] < cfpg';\, clxn] uO{xfnf}”+ eg]/ hf]8 uof]{ .

ToxL tf/sf] sfF6fdf clNemP/ cl8\s/x]sf] 5 eg] sf]xL l56f] l56f] l5/ g
xf] eGb} s/fO{/x]sf] lyof] . d]/f] cuf8L Pshgf df]6L cfO{dfO{ lyOg\ . p Tof]

p:sf] Tof] s'/fnfO{ ljrf/ u/]/ p:sf] afO{sdf a;]/ efUgsf] nflu

sfF6]bf/ af/nfO{ l5g{ vf]Hbf l5g{ ;ls/x]sL lyPg . p:sf] cGbfhL ()

tof/ eP+ . geGb} p:sf] afO{sdf a;]/ hfgnfu]s} ;dodf Pshgf ;fgL

lsnf] xf]nf . s] ug]{ ;a}nfO{ cfk\mgf] Hofgsf] dfof t nfUb5 g} rfx] Tof]

gfgL % jf ^ aif{sL xf]nL s]xL k/ ?Fb} u/]sL b]v]+ . p:sL cfdf stf xf]

hgfj/ g} lsg gxf];\ . p ljr/L klg of] eofgs 5fnnfO{ kf/u/L cfk\mgf]

a'af stf xf] s]xL yfxf lyPg, ljr/L gfgL Psn} ?Fb} lyOg\ . d p:sf]

Hofg arfpg sf]lz; ub}{l5g\ . t/ cfk\mgf] Tof] df]6f]kgn] ubf{ p:nfO{ afwf

cuf8L uPF / Tof] gfgLnfO{ l6k]/ d]/f] cuf8L /fv]+ . pgL t cflQP/ jf

eO/x]sf] lyof] . of] kl/l:yltnfO{ b]v]/ xf:g klg dg nfUof] t ?g klg .

8/fP/ ddf a]:;/L 6Ffl:;P/ a:g cfO{g . gfgL ;+u} xfdLx? /f]8lt/ nfUof}+

53

54

. s]xL k/ uO{;s]kl5 efO{ ldng klg afO{s lnP/ ToxfF cfO{k'Uof] . To;}n]

yKgsf] nflu t]nsf] kDklt/ nfUof}+ . t]nsf] kDkdf yf]/} dflg;x? dfq lyP

Tof] efO{sf] afO{snfO{ 5f]8]/ ldng efO{sf] ;fydf Tof] gfgLnfO{ lnP/ xfdL

. afOsdf t]n yKgsf] nflu xfdL kDkdf k;]+ . ToxfF Pshgf yfO{lg klg

tLg} hgf d]/f] 3/lt/ nfUof}+ . cfwf af6f]df k'Ubf sxfF hfg] eGb} cfl6\6P/

a;]sf] /x]5 . pgLnfO{ cfkm';+u NofPsf] ;fgf] gfgLsf] ljifodf ;f]Wg' kof]{

;a} hgf efUb} u/]sf] b]lvof] . xfdLx?nfO{ klg s] ug]{ s] gug]{ eO{/x]sf]

eGb} of] gfgLnfO{ tkfO{+ lrGg' x'G5 < eg]/ s] ;f]w]sf] lyPF . d]/f] zl//df

lyof] . ;fydf efO{n] 3/df k'of{pg dfg]g / lbbL ca t x'Gg x]g'{xf];\, xfdL

tfl:;P/ a;]sf Tof] gfgL t 8u'/]/ dnfO{ 5f]8L pgLsxfF uO{g\ . clg dnfO{

8fF8flt/ g} hfg'k5{ eGb} lnP/ hfgnfUof] . cfk'm ;fydf of] ;fgL gfgL klg

klg w'Ss eof] sL of] gfgLn] Tof] yfO{gLnfO{ lrg]sL /lx5] . s]lx s'znjftf{

lyOg\ . of] s:sf] gfgL xf] s]xL yfxf 5}g . p:sf] cfdf a'afn] slt

kZrft gfgLnfO{ 5f]8]/ xfdLx? km]/L cuf8L uof}+ .

vf]lh/x]sf xf]nfg\ < k'of{pF eGbf stf k'of{pg] s]xL yfxf ePg . To;}n]
gfgLnfO{ g} yfO{ efiffdf ltdL stf hfG5f}+ gfgL eg]/ ;f]w]+ . gfgLn] klg
8/fpbf] efjn] yfxf 5}g eg]/ pQ/ lbOg . ljr/LnfO{ klg s] yfxf xf]nL .
gfgL t 8/n] r'k nfu]/ d;+u 6fFl;P/ a;]sL lyOg\ . efO{ ldngn] klg of]
gfgLnfO{ stf 5f]8\g] t eGb} ;f]Wof] . o:tL ;fgL gfgLnfO{ sxfF 5f]8\g] <
aLr af6f]df 5f]8\g] t s'/} ePg . To;}n]

clnsk/ k'lu;s]kl5 ToxfFsf] jftfj/0fnfO{ x]/]/ ;'/lIft ePsf]
cg'ejn] s]lx cf/fd oxL+ lng' knf{ eg]/ ldng efO{nfO{ ToxL 5f]8\gsf]
nflu afOs /f]SglbPF . ldngefO{ ;u}+ xfdL b'a} ToxfF g} lj>fd u/]+ . d
ToxL+sf] Ps ?vd'gL uP/ a;]+ . ToxfFaf6 s]lx k/;Dd b]lvGYof] . o:tf]
kl/l:ytLdf s] ug]{ s] gug]{ s]lx ljrf/x? cfPsf] lyPg . To:tf]
kl/l:ytLdf eujfg a'4n] :d[ltjfg x'g'xf];\ . :d[ltjfg eof] eg] d[To' b]lv

“xfdL hxfF hfG5f}+ ToxL o:nfO{ klg lnP/ hfg] ;fydf xfdL

klg 8/fpg' kb}{g eg]/ b]zgf ug'{ ePsf] b]zgfnfO{ ;Dem]/ ToxfF d}n]

ar]df of] gfgL klg aR5 / xfdL d/]df of] gfgL klg xfdL ;+u} dg]{5 . s]

kl/qf0fsf] lstfj vf]n]/ km]/L d}qLkf7 ug{ z'?u/]+ . s/0fLo d6\7 s';n]g ===

yfxf, xfdL;+u s]xL lyof] xf]nf To;}n] xfdL;+u cfOg\” eGb} xfdLx? kxf8L

o;/L d}qLkf7 ub{}lyP, To;}a]nfdf g of] d}qLefjsf] k|efjn] xf] jf

efudf hfg nfUof}+ .

cfb/0fLo k"Hou'?j/ Ho'sf] d}qLefjn] xf] pxfFn] dnfO{ kmf]g ug'{eof] .
pxfFsf] kmf]g p7fPF, pxfFsf] cfjfh ;'g]/ d ?g klg ;sLgF / xfF:g klg

tL lar/L gfgLnfO{ klg lnP/ xfdLx? 8fF8flt/ nfUof}+ . xtf/df

;lsg . d]/f] dgn] pxfFsf] d}qL / s?0ffnfO{ yfDg g} g;Sg] ePsf] lyof] .

hfFbf s]xL g s]xL ;d:ofx?n] ;tfpFbf /x]5g\ . s]xL k/ k'lu;s]kl5

o:tf] kl/l:yltdf pxfFn] w]/} eGg'ePg . pxfFn] Pp6} jfSodf hf]8 lbg' eof]

afOsdf t]n sd eP/ uPsf] ;+s]6 lbof] . To;}n] t]n ;dfKt gx'b}+df t]n

xf];df a; pkfl;sf clxn] sxfF 5f}+ egL pxfFn] ;f]Wg'eof] . pxfFsf tL

55

56

d}lqk"0f{ jrgx?n] d]/f ;a} ysfO{nfO{ g} x/fO{ lbPsf] lyof] . pxfF;+usf] s]xL

dflg;x?sf] eL8 sd ePsf] / kl/l:ytL /fd|f] ePsf] cg'ej

l5gsf] s'znaftf{nfk kZrft pxfFn] ;a} eo c+t/fox? b"/ eP/ hfj;\,

ePsf] lyof] . s]xL ;do kZrft efO{n] ca t kfgL ;'Sof] xf]nf d Psrf]6L

;'vL xf];\ eGb} cfzLaf{b lbg'eof] / xfd|f] b'/;+rf/sf] af6f{nfk cGt eof] .

b'sfgdf x]/]/ cfpF5' eGb} h'?Ss p7\of] . kfgLsf] 8/ d;+u clxn] ;Dd

eGt]Ho" ;+usf] s'/fsfgL kZrft s]lx ;do;Dd :d[ltjfg eP/
a:g] k|oTg u/]+ . To;kl5 ;w}+ em}+ s]lx ;Nnfx ;'emfj lngsf] nflu a}+ssdf
a:g'x'g] xfd|f ;'hg eGt]nfO{ kmf]g u/]+ . kmf]g nufPsf] nfUb} nfu]g . kmf]g
gnfUbf clns g/dfO{nf] tyf dg lvGg ePsf] lyof] . km]/L 5fn b]lv efu]/
uPsL efGhLsf] ;Demgf cfof] . pgL sxfF s] ub}{ xf]lng eGb} pgLnfO{ km]fg
u/]+ t/ efGhLnfO{ klg kmf]g nfUb}g . efGhLsf] af/]df kL/ k/]/ cfof] . pgL
sxfF 5 s:tf] :yfgdf xf]nL s] ub}{5g xf]nL eGb} p:sf] ljifodf lrGtf eof]

x/fPsf] lyPg / p:nfO{ v6/fdf klg /fVg rfxGg y] . To;}n] p:nfO{
ghfgsf] nflu cg'/f]w u/]+ . t/ pm efO{ eg] x]g{ hfgsf] nflu g} tof/
eO{/x]sf] lyof] / hfg] sL hfg] eGb} lyof] . xf]Og lbbL d t Psrf]6L x]/]/ g}
cfpF5' / bf]sfgdf ePsf k};f / ;'gx? klg lnP/ cfpF5' . olt egL d]/f]
pQ/sf] cfzf g} gu/L pm afO{s lnP/ bf]sfg lt/ nfUof] . x'gtM k;ndf
s]lx k};f / ;'gx? afls g} lyP / ;fob s]lx t aRnf eGg] cfzfdf klg
a;]+ .

. To;}n] efO{nfO{ efGhL stf uPsL5] s]xL yfxf 5}g, To;}n] efGhLnfO{
vf]Hg hfg'knf{ eg]/ d'v cWof/f] agfP/ a;]sf efO{ ldngnfO{ eg] . efO{n]
klg o:tf] kl/l:yltdf sxfF vf]Hg hfg] lbbL eg]/ pQ/ lbof] . t/klg d]/f]
em'lqmbf] b'lvt cg'xf/ x]/]/ efO{ efGhLnfO{ vf]Hg lg:Sof] . d To; :yfgdf
PSn} a;]/ s] u? s] gu? eO{/x]sf]n] km]/L d}qLefjgf kf7 ug{ nfu] . s]xL
;dokl5 efO{ ldng d a;]sf] :yfgdf g} kms]{/ cfof] . efO{n] efGhLsf]
s'zn va/ klg Nofof] . efGhL t d'cËdfO{df 7"nf] /f]8 kf/u/]/ p:sf]
;fyLsf] 3/df a;L/x]sL /lx5 . of] va/n] d]/f] dg w]/} xb;Dd zfGt eof]
/ lrGtf sd eof] ;fydf pgL ;'/lIft ePsf] vj/n] d w'Ss ePF .

57

58

ldngefO{ uPsf] s]xL a]/ eO{;s]sf] lyof] . d PSn} a;]/ cfk\mgf] dgnfO{

kfgL t 36\of] lbbL t/=== olt eGb}df p:sf] af]nL 6'6\of] /

cfk\mgf] a;df /fv]/ clgTonfO{ :d/0f ub}{ d}qL efjgf ub}{lyPF . Pstkm{

nfdf] :jf; lnP/ km]/L ;fx; u/]/ eG5,=== t/ xfd|f] bf]sfgsf]

d]/f] dgn] o:tf] kl/l:ytLdf klg k"hfkf7 u/]/ s] ub}{5f} eg]/ s'/f u/]/

l;;fx? ;a} k'm6fn]/ kfgL leq uPsf] /x]5 . ;a} sk8fx? kfgLsf]

NofPsf] lyof] eg] csf{lt/ d]/f] dgnfO{ ;Demfpg lt/ nfUb}lyPF . dgdf

;fydf au]/ uO;s]5 . e'O{+df cln cln dfq sk8fx? 5f]8]/ uPsf

ljleGg k|sf/sf ljrf/sf t/Ëx? t/lËt eO{/x]sf lyP . kfgLsf] Tof]

5g\=== lbbL .

eofgs 5fn em} d]/f] dg 5rlNs/x]sf] lyof] . o:tf] b'vb kl/l:yltdf
pTkGg ePsf b'vb dgsf t/Ëx?nfO{ x]/]/ s]xL klg ljrlnt gx'g] sf]lz;
ub}{ lyPF . cfk'mn] hfg]sf l;s]sf :d[lt agfpg cfjZos ljwLx?nfO{ k|of]u
ub}{lyP+ . eujfg a'4n] 7"nf] n8fO{+df nfvf}+sf] l;kfO{x?nfO{ lhTg' eGbf
cfk\mgf] dgnfO{ lhTg' g} w]/} slyg eGg'ePsf] ;To g} /x]5 . of] d]/f]
dg;+usf] n8fO{+ clt g} slyg / s] x'b}5 / eO{/x]sf] 5 eg]/ a'e\mg} uf/f]
lyof] . c;kmntf k"0f{ dxf;+u|fddf nl8/x]sf] lyPF .

of] jfSosf] ;fydf p:sf] zAbx? cGTo ePsf] lyof] / p;n] d]/f]
cg'xf/df cg'xf/ ldnfpg ;s]g . p:nfO{ klg w]/} b'Mv nfu]sf] /x]5 /
cfFvfe/L cfF;' /fv]/ a;] . d tL p:sf afSox?nfO{ ljZjf; ug{ g} rfxGg
y]+ . ;fy} of] ;To ePsf] eP tfklg d o:nfO{ :jLsfg]{ kIfdf lyOg\ . d]/f
sfgx?af6 :jf; k|Zjf; lg:sg ;'? eP/ :j/ u'lGhPsf] h:tf] cg'ej x'g
yfln;s]sf] lyof] . To;}n] d}n] ;fgf] :j/df p:nfO{ km]/L ;f]w]+ “efO{ o;/L
lbbL ;+u gv]n g, o:tf] ePsf] xf]Og xf]nf .”

s]xL ;dosf] of] PsfGt aftf{nfk / Tof] ljkmn ;+u|fd kZrft
ldng efO{ lgGofp/f] :ofgf] d'v lnP/ kmSof]{ . p:sf] Tof] ;fgf] cg'xf/nfO{

d]/f] of] arg ;'g]/ efO{ ldng cfjfhdf s]xL hf]8 lbP/ cfFvfel/

b]v]/ dgdf emg c? t/Ëx? pn{g yfNof] . pm kms]{/ cfPsf] b]Vg] lalQSs}

cfF;' /fvL “xf] lbbL o:t} g} xf]” eg]/ eGof] . p:sf] cfFvfdf tlNs/x]sf tL

bf]sfgsf] xfnva/ ;'Gg] rfxfgfn] c? s]xL klg g;f]wL kfgL ;'Sof] t efO{

cfFvfsf df]6Lx? v:g yfNof] . o:tf] b'lvt cj:yfdf klg d o:tf] kmtfx

< xfd|f] bf]sfg s:tf] 5 < eg]/ Ps} jfSodf ;f]w]+ . d]/f] of] k|Zgsf] pQ/

s'/f u/]/ v]Ng ;S5' / lbbL < eGb} p:sf] Tof] ;xgsf] ;Ldf t'6\of] . kmgSs

lbgsf] nflu ldngnfO{ w]/} g} cK7\of/f] ePsf] dxz"; u/]+ . d'v e'mSqmfP/,

kms]{/ p ;'Fs ;'su/L ?g yfNof] . p:sf] ?jfO{nfO{ b]v]/ d]/f] dgsf] 38f

3'l/P/ ;fgf] d'vu/L ;fgf] :j/df pQ/ lbG5 .

klg t'6\of] . p:sf] Tof] ?jfO{n] d]/f cfFvfx? aGb eO{lbP . d]/f] dgsf] Tof]
ah|kftsf] b'MvnfO{ yfd]/ p:nfO{ zfGTjgf lbg pm;+u s'/f ug{sf] nflu km]/L
km]/L ;f]w] . p:sf] s'/fdf cem klg dnfO{ ljZjf; ug]{ ;fx; lyPg\ . p:sf]

59

60

?jfO{nfO{ b]v]/ s] eof] / efO{< s] eof] < lsg /f]Psf] < eGb} d cfkm'nfO{ g}

klg cuf8L b]v]sf] lyOg . d]/f] lbn l5of l5of eP/ cfpFb} lyof] . t/ klg

zfGTjgf lbg yfn]+ .

w}o{ u/]/ :d[ltjfg eO{ ;x]/ a:g] k|of; u/]+ . d]/f] lbn w]/} g} c;x\o

x]/ efO{ o;/L ltdL g/f]pm, s]6f] dfG5] eP/ klg o;/L ?g] xf]
eg] d]/f] s] xf]nf . klxnf tLg ;fn cuf8L klg d]/f] b'sfgdf
cfuf] nfu]/ ;a} b'sfg gfz eP/ uof] . d}n] km]/L d]x]gt u/]/
sdfPF . ddf s]xL /sd art x'g yfn]sf lyP . ca t s]xL ug{
;S5' eg]/ ;f]r]sf]dfq lyPF . Tof] klg kfgLn] aufP/ nUof] .
cfk'mn] u/L cfPsf] sd{ g} o:tf] /x]5 s] ug]{, t/]/ tfg{ ;Sb}g .
tLg ;fn cuf8L t cfunfuL x'Fbf ;a} v/fgL eP/ uof] . o;kfnL
kfgLn] aufP/ nu]klg s]lx jLpsf] ?kdf ePklg t 5f]8]/ uPsf
5g\ . o:df lkms/ -wGbf_ gdfg km]/L sdfpF5' .
d}n] pm d]/f] sfdbf/nfO{ t xf};nf lbPF, ;DemfPF t/ dnfO{ o;/L
s:n] xf};nf b]nfg / < d]/f] 5ftLdf k/]sf] Tof] ah|kft k'm6\g] g} eO;s]sf]
lyof] . d]/f] sfdbf/sf] dgn] t of] ljgfznfO{ yfDg;s]sf] lyPg . Tof]
p:sf] b'sfg klg xf]Og . p:sf] s]xL klg lau|]sf] lyPg, t/ p:nfO{ klg
o:tf] b'Mv nfUof] . Tof] d]/f] b'sfg lyof], d]/f ;fdfgx? lyP, /ftlbgsf]
sdfO{ lyof] d]/f cfFvfdf kfgLsf] 5fn?kL cfF;' klxn] b]lv g} t}/g
yfln;s]sf lyP . d cfk\mgf] dgdf k/]sf] Tof] JoyfnfO{ yfDg g;Sg]
eO{;s]sf] lyPF . d]/f] lbndf k/]sf] of] b'vfO{nfO{ dnd nufO{lbg] sf]xL lyPg
. cfzf / e/f];f lbg]x? sf]xL lyPgg\ . d]/f] ;xf/fsf] gfddf d}n] s;}nfO{
61

x'gu] /L b'Vg yfNof] . Pstkm{ tLg ;fn b]lv s:tf] d]x]gt b'Mv si6 u/]/
sdfPsf] ;DklQsf] ljgfzn] dgdf czflGt lyof] eg] csf]l{ t/ km]/L km]/L
o:tf] ah|kft ePsf]n] dgdf cem c? b'Mv nfu]sf] lyof] . Ps dgn]
gsf/fTds ljleGg s'/fx?df v]Ng] df}sf kfPF eg] csf]{ dg tLg;fn
cuf8Lsf] cfunfuL kZrft lbg/ftsf] d]x]gtaf6 d}n] of] Joj;fonfO{
;Dxfn]+, ;DklQ ;Dxfn]+ . cfh cfP/ km]/L o;/L gfz ePsf] b]v]/ d]/f] dg
emg ?g yfNof] . d}n] o:tf] s'g g/fd|f] sd{ u/]sf] lyPF xf]nf / To:sf]
kl/0ffd cfh ef]Ug' kl//x]sf] xf]nf eg]/ ljleGg s'/fx? ddf pTklQ x'g
yfNof] .
o;/L d]/f] dgdf ePsf t/+ux?nfO{ ;Dxfn]/ /fVg] k|of; ub}{/x]+ .
;f/f ;DklQ g} gfz eP/ uof] t/ d ?g klg ;lSbg lyPF s/fpg klg
;lSbg lyP lsgsL efO{sf] ?jfO{n] d]/f cfF;'x? ;'sL ;s], cfF;'x? cfFvf
leqaf6 g} ljno eO{ lbP . k/fof cfkmGt eP/ cfO{lbof] t/ cfkmGt k/fof
eO{lbPsf] lyof] . w]/}a]/ ;Dd d cNdndf k/]sf] lyPF . cfk'mnfO{ ;DxfNg]
sf]xL lyPg . To;}n] k|ltIf0f xf]zdf a;]/ sfd lng k|oTg ul//x]+ . ;fydf
cfk'mdf ePhltsf] ;f/f zlStnfO{ at'n]/ efO{nfO{===
efO{ To;f] eP xfdL b'sfgdf hfpF g t, s:tf] l:ylt 5 x]/f}+, /
ePsf] ;fdfgnfO{ at'n]/ /fvf}+ .
62

TolQs}df efO{sf] ?jfO{df sd eof] / xf]Og lbbL clxn] hfg'

;fgf] ?vd"gL kv]{/ al;/x]sf] lyP . To:t}df Pshgf lrg]sf] ;fyL

vt/f 5, kfgL cem} zfGt ePsf] 5}g km]l/ klg cfpFg] ;Defjgf 5 eg]/

df]6/afO{sdf cfPsf] b]v]/ p:nfO{ /f]sL ;f]Wg] ljrf/n] lkm lkm eg]/

;a}hgf ToxfFaf6 eflu;s]sf 5g\ eg]/ hjfkm lbof] . p:sf] hjfkm;+u} ;a}

;Daf]wg ub}{ afOs /f]Sg nufP . p:sf] /f]sfO{sf] ;fydf g} d}n] lkm gfd

s'/fx? cGTo ePsf] lyof] . cfcfk\mgf ljrf/sf] t/+ux?df 8'Ag afWo

k]g ofË/fO{ afË cyjf bfO{ clxn] kfgL s:tf] 5 eg]/ ;f]w]+ . d]/f] na{/fpFbf]

agfPsf lyP / s]xL a]/sf] nflu xfdLx?sf] ljrdf ;Ggftf 5fPsf] lyof] .

k|Zgsf] hjfkmdf p;n] xa{/fpFb} o;f] eGof] .

ToxfF vfnL xfjfsf] x'O{O ub}{ t]hutL uO{/x]sf] cfjfh dfq ;'lGYof] . Tof]
;GgftfnfO{ 6f]8]/ efO{ ldngn] eGof]
lbbL a? d uP/ b'sfgsf] 8/fhdf ePsf /sd / ;"gx? rfF8}
lnP/ cfp5', dnfO{ ToxfFsf] rflax? lbg';\ .

clxn]nfO{ s]xL eGg g} ;Sb}g . d oxfF a;]sf] g} w]/} aif{ eO{;Sof]
a'9f] eO{;s]+ . o:tf] slxNo} g b]v]sf] 5' g t ;'g]sf] g} lyP . o:tf] x'G5
egL slxNo} klg rfn kfPgf}+ . w]/} g} eofgs 5 / ljZjf; ug{ of]Uo 5}g .
o;/L pleP/ g} ljleGg s'/fx? s]lxl5g uof}{ . aftf{nfksf]

p:sf] Tof] ;fx;nfO{ d}n] ;dy{g u/]+ t/ p:sf oxfF sf]lx 5}gg\

cGtdf p;n] oxfF ga;L clns pFrf] :yfgdf uP/ a:g] ;Nnfx lbof] .

ljb]zdf a;]/ g]kfndf ;a} kl/jf/nfO{ x]g'{ k5{, ljb]zdf sfd ug{sf] nflu

To:t}df d}n] klg uP/ klg sxfF hfg] ;f/f åLk g} kfgLn] 3]/]sf] 5 eg]/

a;]sf] 5 . To;}n] d p:sf] HofgnfO{ klg vt/fdf /fVg rfxGg y]+ To;}n]

lg/fzfhgs hjfkm lbPF . d]/f] of] lg/fzfhgs hjfkmnfO{ ;'g]/ p;n]

cem} 8/ 5 eg] ghfpF efO{ kl5 g} ;+u} hfpFnf, lsg Hofg v6/fdf /fVg]

glhssf] 8fF8fdf ;+u} hfcf}+ . ToxfF w]/} dfgL;x? uO{/x]sf 5g\

egL p:nfO{ /f]s]+ . l;dl;d] aiff{ x'g nfu]sf] lyof] . To;kl5 b'a}hgf

cfzfhgs af6f] b]vfPsf] lyof] Tof] s'/f ;'g]/ clxn] g} k'uf}+ h:tf]u/L sxfF

;8ssf] glhs} /x]sf] Pp6f ?vd'gL a;]/ of] 36gfsf] ljifodf ;f]Rb} cfk\mg}

lt/ eg]/ b'O{g;f]lr ;f]w]+ . p:n] klg d h:tf] c1fgLnfO{ dfof u/]/ pm

;f]rfO{sf] ;+;f/df 8'a]/ s'/]/ a:g yfn]+ . cfk\mgf] Hofg ;a}nfO{ dfof nfUg]

ToxfF eGb} cf}+nfn] b]vfP/ pSt prf]efunfO{ b]vfP/ eGof] . p:n] b]vfPsf]

:jefljs g} xf] . of] 36gfb]lv 8/fP/ cfk\mgf] Hofg hf]ufpgsf] nflu

cf}+nfsf] ;fydf dfyL x]bf{ pSt prfO{+df Pp6f ;fgf] 3/ b]vfO{lbPsf] lyof] .

dfgL;x? cfk\mgf uf8Lx? a]:;/L a]:;/L bf}8fO{ /x]sf] b[ZonfO{ x]/]/ a:g

d / ldng efO{n] klg p:sf] s'/fdf ljZjf; u/]/ hfg] lgwf] uof}+ . To:t}df

yfn]+ . Psaf6 csf]{ ub}{ uPsf] b[Zo x]b}{ lyof}+ . sxfF hfg] s] ug]{ s]xL klg

p;n] cfk\mgf] afOsnfO{ lj:tf/} cuf8L nUof] eg] xfdLn] klg p:sf] kl5

lg0f{o ug{ ;s]sf] lyOg . xfdL b'a} hgf Tof] l;dl;d] kfgLdf leh]/ Tof]

kl5 afO{s lnP/ uof}+ .

63

64

eg]/

dfyL 8fF8fdf k'uL;s]kl5 yfxfkfP+ Tof] 3/df s]xL s]6fx? klxn]

pxfFsf] :j/ ;'Gg] ljlQSs} d}n] klg s]xL eGg ;lsg, ;kmfO{ lbg ;lsg, of]

g} cfP/ ;/0ffyL{ eP/ al;/x]sf lyP . Tof] bfO{n] tL s]6fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg

36gfsf] ljj/0f lbg g} ;lsg . d]/f] af]ln g} aGb ePsf] h:tf] ePsf] lyof]

ub}{ eGg'eof] .

. pxfFnfO{ lj:tf/df atfpg g;s]klg of] ;'gfdLsf] af/]df s]lx atfPsf]

P s]6fx? ltdLx? sf]7f aflx/ uP/ a; . oxfF Tof] lbbLnfO{
cf/fd ug{nfO{ ldnfO{ b]pm .

lyP+ . To:t}df d]/f] kmf]gsf] Aof6/L klg sd ePsf] ;+s]6 cfO{;s]sf] lyof] .
To;}n] ;'hg eGt]nfO{ kmf]g kmsf{pg' eGb} d}n] kmf]g /fv]+ . d]/f] k|ltpQ/df
;'hg eGt]n] klg kmf]g kmsf{p5' eGg'ePsf] lyof] t/ pxfFsf] kmf]g cfPg .

“s]xL 5}g bfh" d aflx/ g} a:5' ” eGb} pxfFsf] Tof] pbf/tfnfO{

d]/f] kvf{O{sf If0fx?df ljleGg s'/fn] 7fpF lnO{;s]sf] lyof] . d pxfFsf]

:jLsf/ / ;Ddfg u/]+ . s]6fx?n] klg pxfFsf] s'/fnfO{ dfGof] / dnfO{ leq

kmf]gsf] k|ltIffdf kmf]gdf s'/]/ al;/x]+ t/ pxfFsf] kmf]g cfpFb} cfPg .

a:gsf] nflu aGbf]a:t ul/lbof] . wd{ eg]sf] klg slt 7"nf] /x]5 . o:tf]

pxfFsf] kmf]gsf] kvf{O{nfO{ ;xg g;sL d}n] km]/L pxfFnfO{ kmf]g nufPF .

kl/l:yltdf sfd cfpFg] g} ;Rrf ldq eG5g\ . Tof] bfO{sf] cg'xf/ sfnf]

pxfFn] kmf]g p7fpg' eof] . b'O{k6ssf] kmf]gsf] cfjfh;+u} ;'hg eGt]n] kmf]g

ePklg pxfFsf] dg t :jR5 / ;kmf g} lyof] . pxfFk|lt b'vLx?sf] nflu

p7fpg' eof] .

ckf/ dfof / :g]x lyof] . ToxfF sf]7fleq Pshgf yfO{gL lbbL klg klxn] g}
cfP/ al;;s]sf] /x]5 . To;}n] Tof] k"/f sf]7f g} xfdL cfO{dfO{x?sf] nflu

xNnf], eGt] Ho"’ tkfO{nfO{ kmf]g ug'{;\ eg]sf] xf]O{g <

5f]l8bPsf] lyof] . xfdLx? lar s]lx ;fwf/0f s'/fsfgL eof] / k'gM xfdLx?

tkfO{nfO{ kmf]g ubf{ nfUb} nfUb}g sltrf]lt nufO{;s]+, eg]/ pxfFn]

Ps cfk;sf] ;kgfsf ;+;f/df 8'Aof}+ . s]xL l5gsf] lj>fd kZrft To:t}df

pQ/ lbg'eof] . “clxn] tkfO{+ sxfF x'g'x'G5, ;'/lIft :yfgdf t a:g' ePsf]

km]/L Psrf]l6 ;'hg eGt]sf] ;Demgf cfof] . x'gtM pxfFklg k"ms]6df pkf;s

5<” k"gM ;f]Wg'eof] .

pkfl;sfx?nfO{ e]6\gsf] nflu cfh ljxfg oxfF cfO{k'Ug' x'g] of]hgf lyof] .
sf/0fj; s]lx gldn]sf] sf/0f cfpg'ePsf] lyPg . To;}n] pxfF;+u s'/fug]{

pxfFn] ;fydf s]xL klg xF'b}g ljrf/ k"j{s xf]z /fv]/ a:g'xf];\,

ljrf/n] pxfFsf] gDa/ lyr]+ . o;kfln eg] aNn aNn pxfFsf] gDa/ nfUof] /

c? s'g}s'/fsf] lrGtf klg lrGtf glng';\, eg]/ af/Daf/ :d[ltjfg x'gsf]

pxfFn] kmf]g p7fpg' eof] . pxfFn] kmf]g p7fpg' eP tfklg pxfFsf] :j/ k|i6

nflu eGg' x'bF } cfzLaf{b lbg'eof] . s]lxa]/ kl5 km]/L kmf]g u5'{ eGb} s]lx

ePsf] lyPg . pxfF s'g} csf]{ :yfgdf sfdsf] nflu hfFb} ug'{ ePsf] /x]5 .

l5gsf] s'/fsfgL 6'6\of] .

65

66

csf]{tkm{ cfdfsf] dg g xf] . cfk'm o:tf] 36gfdf rf/}lt/af6

5f]/LnfO{ ;Demfpb} u/]sf] lyPF . To:t}df ;'hg eGt]sf] kmf]g cfof] . To;}n]

kfgLn] 3]/]/ a;]sf] 5', s] x'G5 s]xL yfxf 5}g, t/ 5f]/Ln] l6 le x]/]/ kL/

5f]/LnfO{ ;'hg eGt]sf] kmf]g cfof] kl5 u/]/ Nofpg]5' clxn] ;'hg eGt];+u

ub}{ xf]lng, cflQP/ al;sL xf]lng\ eg]/ ptflt/ ;Demgf cfof] . a}+ssdf

klxnf s'/f u5'{ x} eGb} kmf]g sf6\of] . ;'hg eGt]sf] kmf]g p7fPF . pxfFsf]

a;]sL 5f]/L b'Mv u/]/ a;]sL xf]lng\ eg]/ 5f]/Lsf] kmf]gdf kmf]g u/]+ . nfdf]

:j/klg sd kL/ lnPsf] h:tf] lyPg . d}n] kmf]g p7fpg] lalQSs} “clxn]

:jf;lnP/ p:nfO{ xf};nf lbg] ljrf/n] nfdf] :jf; lnP+ . cfdfnfO{ klg

tkfO{x? sxfF x'g'x'G5” eg]/ ;f]Wg' eof] .

s]xL ePsf] 5}g / ;'/lIft g} eg]/ egf}+ eg]/ kmf]g nufPsf] lyP . 5f]/Ln]
x]Nnf] cfdf eg]/ af]n]sf] :j;n] clns ;lhnf] ePsf] lyof] .efUoj;\, pgLn]

“xfdLx? clxn] Pp6f 8fF8fdf ;'/lIft 7fpFdf 5f}+ eGt] hL . kL/

of] va/ ;'lg;s]sf] /x]g5 . To;}n] ;':t/L nfdf] :jf; lnP/ 5f]/LnfO{ of]

gdfGg';\” eg]/ pxfFsf] k|Zgsf] hjfkm t lbPF . t}klg oxfF ;'g]sf] vj/

36gfsf] ljifodf s'/f u/]+ . ;fydf ;fGt kf/fn] 5f]/LnfO{ ;DemfPF .

rfFxL ;'/lIft h:tf] lyPg . To;}n] pxfFnfO{ h:tf] 36gf 3lt/x]sf] lyof] /

x]/ 5f]/L, oxfF bl/ofsf] kfgL w]/} a9]/ ;a}lt/ g} kfgL g}

To; ljifodf b]v]sf] / ;'g]sf s'/fx?nfO{ To;/L g} pxfFnfO{ atfO{lbPF .

kfgL eO;s]sf] 5 . ;a} hgf clxn] kxf8sf] prfO{+df a;]/

“clxn]sf] nflu t ;'/lIft :yfgdf g} 5' eGt] hL . t/ o;/L

x]l//x]sf 5g\ . cfdf klg olx+ g} al;/x]sf] 5' . ltdL of]

kfgL cfPsf] t slxn] klg ;'g]sf] lyPg . slt;Dd kfgL dfyL cfpF5

va/ ;'g]/ cflQ+b} xf]lng\ eg]/ cfdfn] kmf]g u/]sf] x'F . 5f]/L

yfxf 5}g . xfdL t kfgLn] 3]/]sf] of] ljrsf] cfO{n}08df 5f}+ . rf/}lt/

ltdL cflQg' kb}{g x}, cfdf clxn] ;'/lIft :yfgdf g} 5' .

kfgL g} kfgL 5 . rf/}lt/af6 kfgL a9]/ cfof] eg] t efUg] af6f] g}

kL/ lng' kb}{g .

5}g eg]/ s'/fx? ub}{ lyPF .”

o:tf] va/ ;'Gbf kL/ gdfGg' klg s;/L Û p:sf] :j/ na{/fpg

of] s'/fn] pxfFnfO{ klg clns emg kL/ ePsf] lyof] . t/klg

yfNof] . d}n] s]lx ePsf] 5}g eGbf klg p:sf] dgn] dfg]sf] h:tf] b]lvb}g .

;'hg eGt]n] “Tolt ;Dd t x'Fb}g xf]nf / o:tf] g;f]Rg' a? xf]z agfP/

t/ klg d}n] gxa{/fpb} pgLnfO{ ;Demfpg yfn]+ . pgLn] klg d]/f] cuf8L t
l7s 5 eg]/ egL, t/ pgLsf] dgdf klg o:t} 5fn t kSs} g} au]sf] x'g'

s]lx lg0f{o ln+bf klg xf]z k"j{s lng';\, cflQP/ xa{/fP/ glng';\” eGb}

kb{5 eg]/ p:sf] :j/ / d dfyL lnPsf] kL/af6 yfxf x'GYof] . o;/L d d]/f]
67

68

e/f];f lbg'eof] . pxfFsf tL d}qL efjsf] ;fydf d}n] km]/L xfdLx?sf]
;'/Iffsf] cfzfnfO{ a9fP/ pxfFnfO{ o:tf] eg]+
“eGt], oxfF xfdLnfO{ va/ kfPsf] cg';f/ -yfO{_ /fhfn]

oxL s'/fsfgLsf ;fy ;w}+ em}+ dnfO{ s]lx rfO{G5 ls < eg]/
;f]Wg'eof] . sfd geP klg argn] ePklg w]/} g} xf};nf ldNbf/x]5g\ .
pxfFsf] of] jfSon] of] kl/l:yltnfO{ ;DxfNgsf] nflu dnfO{ cem emg ;fxz
ldNof] . cfk\mgf] 5f]/LnfO{ t of] clgolGqt / clglZrt aftfj/0fsf] ljifodf

xfdLnfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf n}hfgsf] nflu x]lnsf]K6/ k7fpFb}5 /] .

eg]sf] lyOg . o:tf] clglZrt 36gfaf6 pgLnfO{ b'vL agfpg klg

yfO{n}08sf] k|wfgdGqL klg cfpFb}5g\ eG5g\ .”

rfxGgy]+ . To;}n] ;'hg eGt]nfO{ d}n] km]/L oxfF xfd|f] kL/ lng' kb}{g eGt]hL,

8/ / eon] rf/}lt/ 5fPsf] Tof] kl/l:yltdf h:tf] ;'Gof] / ;f]Rof]
To;/L g} d}n] ;'hg eGt]nfO{ eGg nfu]sf] lyPF . h:tf] ;'s} e/f];fsf
s'/fx? u/]tf klg cGtdf Pp6} jfSo x'GYof] . v} s]xL e/f];f 5}g, s] x'g] xf]

xfd|f] s]xL 7]ufg 5}g s] x'G5 eGg ;lsGg, To;}n] 5f]/LnfO{ ofb u/Llbg';\ /
;DemfO{lbg';\ eg]/ ;fydf ;'/Iffsf] nflu c? s]xL h?/L ;"rgfx? klg
pxfFnfO{ lbO/fv]+ .

s]xL yfxf 5}g . ddf p7]sf tL ;f/f t/+ux?nfO{ d}n] To:t} eGt]hLnfO{

o;/L pxfF;+usf] s'/fsfgL t'lu+Psf] lyof] . s]lxa]/ kl5 5f]/Ln]

eGg yfn]sL lyPF . Ps kl5 csf]{ ub}{ pxfFnfO{ d]/f tL tLvf If0fx?nfO{

klg of] 36gfsf] ;dfrf/ ;'g]sL /lxl5g\ / cflQb} kL/n] dnfO{ kmf]g ul/g\ .

j0f{g u/]sf] lyP+ . d]/f tL s'/fx?nfO{ ;'g]/ pxfFn] klg dnfO{ w]/} e/f];f

d}n] kmf]g p7fpg] lalQSs} pgLsf] :j/ kL/n] u'GHof] .

lb+b} lxDdt / ;fx; lbg'eof] . k6frf/f tyf c? af}4u|Gydf ePsf
pbfx/0fx? lbb}+ dnfO{ cfzf / cfwf/ lbg'eof] . ;fRr} g} k6frf/fn] cfk\mgf]

“cfdf, of] s] eof] < eGb} hf]8n] ?g yflng\ . “cfdf clxn] g}

;a} n'6fof] . 3/af/ kl/jf/ ;a} n'6]/ uP kl5 xf]z geP/ dfgl;s ?kdf

3/ kmls{g';\” eGb} hf]8n] emg ?g yflng\ . s:tf] h6g -;Dxfn]/_

kfunL ePsL lyO{g\ . kl5 a'4sf] pkb]z :j?k xf]z lkmtf{ kfP/ cfk\mgf]

ul//fv]sf] d]/f] dg yfDg g;Sg] em} eP/ cfof] . t/ klg 5f]/Lsf] cuf8L

hLjgnfO{ ;fy{sdfq agfPsL lyO{g . of] b'Mvsf] ;+;f/df k"gM cfpg gkg]{

?g ;lsg . cfFvfaf6 cfF;' emof]{ t/ :j/nfO{ ;Dxfn]/ /fVg] k|oTg u/] .

u/L c/xt klg eP/ hfg' ePsf] lyof] . To;}n] xf]z / xf}znf eg]sf] w]/} g}

d]/f] ?jfO{n] pgL emg ?g]l5g / b'vL x'g]l5g\ eGg] 8/n] d]/f b'MvnfO{ yfd]/

dxTjk"0f{ /x]5 .

p:nfO{ ;Demfpg yfn]+ . :d[lt eg]sf] TotL 7"nf] /x]5 . d}n] cfk'm;+usf]
;Dk"0f{ zlStnfO{ at'n]/ pgLnfO{ eg] .

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70

x]/ 5f]/L, cfdf clxn] kmls{g' x'Gg . clxn] ;Dd cfdfnfO{ s]xL
klg ePsf] 5}g . xfdLx? ;a} ;'/lIft 7fpFdf 5' . d oxfF PSn} a;]sf] x}g .
pgL klg sxfF dfG5] / Û pgLn] klg To;f] eP d ToxfF cfpF5'
eg]/ eGg yflng\ . of] jrgn] dnfO{ emg bf]wf/df kf/]sf] lyof] . dnfO{ w]/}
g} cfktdf kfof]{ . oxfFsf] l:yltnfO{ atfpF eg] emg kL/ lng] 8/ 5 . km]/L
pgL oxfF cfplng eGg] klg TolQs} dnfO{ 8/ lyof] . To;}n] clns dgnfO{
yfd]/, alnof] u/]/ 5f]/LnfO{ ;DemfPF .

;a}hgf cfk\mgf] Hofg hf]ufpgsf] nflu ljleGg ?kn] dgdf s'/f v]nfP/
a;]sf 5g\ . ;a}sf cfk\mg} ;d:ofx? lyP . To;} ;dodf Pshgf clns
sfnf] cg'xf/sf] cUnf] efO{n] rf/tNn] l6lkmgdf vfgf /fv]/ lbbL vfgf
vfg';\ eg]/ Tof] l6lkmg d]/f] cuf8L /fv]/ ;'?Ss uof] . d}n] klg dgdf
s]lx g;f]lr “wGojfb” eg]/ pxfFnfO{ pQ/ lbPF . rf/}lt/ lgofn]/ x]bf{ ToxfF
a:g'x'g' w]/}n] vfgf vfPsf] /x]g5 . w]/} dfG5]x? klg d]/f] cf;kf;df lyof]
t/ Tof] cghfg JolStn] dnfO{ dfq vfgf lbP/ uPsf]n] d crDd ePF .
o:tf] kl/l:yltdf To;} t vfg] d]/f] dg lyPg . km]/L jfgk|mfsf] lbg cyf{t

“x]/ 5f]/L, h;/L ltdLn] cfdfnfO{ dfof u5f}{ . alxgL

pkf];y wf/0f ug]{ lbg klg lyof] To;}n] ci6zLn wf/0f u/]sL lyPF . To;}n]

uLtfnfO{ klg pgsL cfdfn] dfof u5]{ . ldng bfh'sf]

!@ ah] kl5 vfgf gvfg' Ps lzn klg of] ci6zLndf kb{5 . vfgf cfk\mgf]

klg a'9L 5, :ofgL gfgL 5, cfdf a'af 5, s] pgLx?nfO{

cuf8L ePsf]n] slt aHof] xf]nf eg]/ 38L x]/]+ . To;a]nf t lbpF;f]sf] Ps

dfof nfUb}g / < clg s;/L cfdf dfq} pgLx?nfO{ 5f]8]/

alh;s]sf] lyof] . ljsfn ef]hg eO;s]sf] lyof] . To;}n] vfpF of gvfpF

5f]/Lsf]df cfpg] < cfdf cfof] eg] ;a} g} cfpg' k5{ .

b'ljwfdf k/]+ . Pslbnn] eg] ljr/f efO{n] Toqf] b'Mv u/]/ vfgf NofP/ lbof]

bf]sfg klg To:;} k/]sf] 5 . bf]sfg s:n] x]g]{ t < kfgLn]

. olt w]/}hgfsf] ljrdf klg d PSn}nfO{ lbP/ uof] . To;}n] vfO{ lbpF em+}

gaufPsf ;fdfg dfq eP klg t ;DxfTg' kof]{ gL 5f]/L .

nfUof] . km]/L csf]{ dgn] eg] “xf]Og, eof] vfFlbg d]/f] zLn 6'6\5 . emg

oxfF cfdf dfq} xf]Og 5f]/L, c? klg w]/} hgf 5g\ . s]

o:tf] ljklQdf k/]sf] a]nfdf cfk\mgf] zLnnfO{ laufg'{ x'Gg” egL zLnnfO{

pgLx?nfO{ cfk\mgf] Hofgsf] dfof 5}gg\ / < vt/f eP ;a}

clwi7fg u/]/ gvfO{sg vfgfnfO{ To;} 5f]8] . To; kl5 ToxfF ePsf

hgf efUg]5g\ / cfdf klg efU5' gL t .”

dflg;x?;+u of] 36\gfsf ljifox? ;lxt ljleGg ts{ ljts{x? dgdf

o;/L 3/ glhssf] kxf8sf] Ps 5]pmdf a;]/ cfk\mgf] 5f]/LnfO{

v]nfP/ / c?;+u s'/fx? ub}{df sl/j lbpF;f]sf] tLg alh;s]sf] lyof] .

;DemfpFb} lyPF . ToxfF sf] ;+u ;Nnfx lng] s:nfO{ s] eGg] s]lx yfxflyPg .
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72

cfsfz;kmf eP/ cfPsf] lyof] .

g t tfNrf lyof] g t ;fdfgx? g} . gofF l;hg -–Jofkf/sf] ;do_ sf]

kfgL a9\nf eg]/ 8/ sd eP/ cfO;s]sf]

nflu eg]/ el/Psf] b'sfg clxn] vfnL ePsf] 5 . dnfO{ t ;kgf em} nfUg

lyof] . To;}n] ;a}n] ca t cfpFb}g xf]nf,

yfNof] . b'sfgsf] ;a} ;dfgx? kfgLn] aufP/ nlu;s]sf /x]5g\ . b'sfgsf]

b'sfgdf uP/ x]g'{knf{ eg]/ eGg yfn] . efO{

;a} lz;fx? k'm6fn]/ ;Dk"0f{ ;dfgx? nlu;s]sf /x]5g\ . o:tf] b'sfgsf]

ldngn] klg o:tf] eGof] M

:j?knfO{ b]v]/, d g t ?g ;Sy]+ g xf:g g} . d]/f cfFvfsf cfF;'x? ;'s]/

lbbL, ca xh'/nfO{ d ?ddf -–
3/df_ k'of{OlbG5' . clg d / eflGh
uP/ b'sfgdf afFsL /x]sf] ;fdfgnfO{
;DxfN5' . lbbL hfpF, xh'/ klg cf/fd ug{ hfg';\ .

uPsf lyP . cf]7df xfF;f]x? x/fP/ uPsf lyP . s]xL l5gsf] nflu d]/f
cfFvfx?n] TjfNn k/]/ of] eofgs b[ZonfO{ x]l//x]+ . of] s] ePsf] xf]nf eg]/
of] b[ZonfO{ b]Vbf ;kgf h:tf] klg nfU5, t/ ;kgf xf]Og\ . ljkgfdf g}
ePsf] egf}+ eg] of] s] ePsf] xf]nf < ljZjf; ug{ g} w]/} cK7\of/f] b[Zo lyof]
. of] s;/L eof] < s] of] kfgLn] g} u/]sf] xf] / < eg]/ ljleGg s'/fx?

p:sf] Tof] pbf/tfnfO{ d}n] w]/} g} sb/ u/]+, t/ p:nfO{ dfq d

dgdf v]Ng yfNof] . kms]{/ bl/ofdf x]5'{, bl/of t klxn]sf] em} cfk'mn] s]xL

vt/fdf /fVg rfxGgy]+ . d klg hfg] ljrf/n] “xf]Og, efO{ d klg ltdL

klg gu/]sf], s]xL klg yfxf gkfPsf] h:tf] u/L s]xL gljuf/]sf] h:tf] u/L

;+u} hfG5', hfpF .” eg]/ xfdLx? b'sfglt/ cfof}+ . oxfFsf] b[io b]v]/ w]/} g}

r'krfk vNn vNn cfjf; ub}{ pk]lIftkgn] al;/x]sf 5g\ . p:sf] Tof]

?g dg nfUof] . s:tf] ;'Gb/ :yfg clxn] cfP/ d;fg3f6 jf kmf]x/ k\mofSg]
:yfg h:tf] s'?k ePsf] lyof] . htftt} lxnf] / kmf]x/n] el/Psf lyP .
;fdfgx? otfptL 5l//x]sf lyP . lx+8\g] hUuf klg lyPg . dgnfO{ yfd]/
yfDg g} g;lsg] eO;s]sf lyP . t/ klg tL b'Mv bb{x?nfO{ ;Dxfn]/
cfk\mgf] b'sfgdf cfPF . b'sfgdf cfO{k'Ubf b'sfgsf] kl/l:yltnfO{ b]v]/ dg
yfDg g} ;lsg . d]/f gogx?n] cfF;' /f]ls/fVg ;s]g . cgfof; tL cfF;'x?
t'?? emg{ yfNof] . 5f]8]/ hfg' eGbf klxn] ;'/Iffsf] nflu tfnf nufP/

lgb{oL / zfGtn] dgdf clns l/; klg p7\of] . t/ ljr/fnfO{ klg s] yfxf
xf]nfg\ / < p:n] ug{ rfx]/ u/]sf] t kSs} g} xf]Og xf]nf eg]/ cfk\mgf]
dgnfO{ ;DemfPF . of] s] ePsf] eg]/ s]xL klg ljrf/ g} ug{ ;lsg . o;/L
g} d]/f] dgdf ljleGg s'/fx? v]Ng yfNof] . slxn] b'sfgnfO{ x]5'{ t slxn]
bl/ofsf] Tof] tdfzf x]l//x]sf] kfgLnfO{ . cfFvfnfO{ ljZjf; g} nfUb}g lyof] .
o;/L g} dgdf ljrf/x? p7\b} cfpFbf dnfO{ of] s] ePsf] xf]nf eg]/ ;f]Rg
/ lat]sf s'/fx? ofb x'g yfNof] .

uPsf] b'sfg clxn] t lrGg g} g;Sg] kl/l:ytLdf kl/0ft eO;s]sf] lyof] .
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74

tLg;fn klxn] 3/af6 cfP/ kftËdf -k'ms]6sf] Ps Joj;flos

3/df eflGh klxn] g} cfP/ a;]sL /lx5] . 3/df eflGh;+u e]6

:yfg_ b'sfg vf]n]/ a;]+ . s]lx k|ult ePsf] ;dodf cfunfuL eP/ ;a}

eof] . pgL klg 8/n] s]xL af]Ng ;lsg] cj:yfdf lyOg . p:sf] cg'xf/

v/fgL eP/ uPsf] lyof] . of] 36gf klg ToxfF 5f]8]/ oxfF gfO{ofËdf -

b]Vg] ljlQSs} kftËsf] b'sfgdf cfunfuL eP/ b'Mv em]n]sf If0fx?sf]

k'ms]6sf] csf]{ :yfg_ cfP/ Jofkf/ u/]+ . oxfF ;/]sf] klg tLg;fn gf3]/

;Demgf cfof] . d}n] cfk'mnfO{ yfDg g} ;lsg . p:nfO{ c+ufnf] xfn]/ ?g

rf/df k'Ub}lyof] . s]lx cfzf / e/f];fsf lj?jfx? knfpg yfln;s]sf lyP

yfn], d]/f] ?jfO{n] p:sf cfFvfdf el/Psf tL cfF;'x? /f]Sg ;s]g . pgL klg

. t/ tL lj?jfx? hldgdfyL cfpg g} gkfpb} km]/L of] kfgLn] aufP/

hf]8n] ?g yflng\ . xfdL b'a}hgf dfO{h' / eflGh c+ufnf] df/]/ ?g yfNof}+ .

nuLlbof] . lat]sf] hGddf d}n] w]/} g} g/fd|f] kfk u/]sL /x]5' xf]nf To;}n]

xfdLx?nfO{ ;Demfpg] sf]xL klg lyPg . xfdLx?sf] Tof] tLg aif{sf] ;f/f

o:tf] k'gMk'g eO/x]sf] xf]nf eg]/ dxz"; x'gyfNof], ;fydf d]/f] lbn ;f/} g}

;a} tx; gx; eO;sf] lyof] . s]lx a]/sf] Tof] ;f]s / ;GtfknfO{ ;Dxfn]/

b'Vof] . d]/f dgn] of] ;xg ;s]g / aNn d]/f] cfFvfaf6 cfF;'sf] wf/

eflGhnfO{ c+ufnf] df/]/ ?b} xf]zdf cfP/ o:tf] eg],

cgj/t emof]{ . ;a} 36\gfnfO{ ;lDem ;lDem ?g yfn] . rf/}lt/ ;a} hgf
d'6' ldrL ldrL, 5f6Ldf xfGb} /f]Os/fO{ g} /x]sf] b[io lyof] . s:n] s:nfO{

“eflGh, xfdLn] t w]/} g} kfk sd{ u/]/ cfPsf /x]5f}+ .

;Demfpg], ;Demfpg]x? sf]lx g} lyPgg\ . ;a}n] cfk\mgf] 3/sf] /f]6LnfO{

klxnf klg xfd|f] b'sfg cfuf]n] hn]/ gi6 eof] . clxn] km]/L

u'dfPsf g} lyP . e/f];f / ;fGTjgf lbg]x? sf]lx klg lyPg . d]/f ;Dk"0f{

kfgLn] nUof] .”

zlSt / zl// g} lh0f{ eP/ uof] . d]/f zl// uNg yfNof] . o:tf]
kl/l:yltdf klg a]n'sL km]/L kfgL a9\5 /] eGg] xNnf x'g yfNof] . ;a}hgf
8/n] ;s] hltsf] ;fdfgx?nfO{ lnP/ ;'/lIft :yfgdf hfgnfu] . efO{
ldngn] klg “lbbL, d tkfO{nfO{ 3/ k'of{OlbG5' . cf/fd ug{ hfg';\ xfdLx?

d]/f tL jfSox?sf] cGt t ePsf] lyof], t/ xfd|f] ?jfO{df sd
ePsf] lyPg . eflGhsf] ?jfO{ klg emg a9]/ cfPsf] lyof] . xfdL b'a}n] w]/}
b'Mvsi6 u/]/ tL ;DkQLnfO{ hf]8]sf] lyP . d]/f] x/]s If0fdf dnfO{ ;xof]u
ub}{ cfPsL pgL lyOg . To;}n] d}n] km]/L xf};nfsf] nflu eg]MM

o:nfO{ ;DxfN5f}” eGof] . d klg o;a]nf ;Dddf w]/} g} yfls;s]sf] lyPF /
un]sf] dxz"; u/]sf] lyPF . To;}n] p:sf] s'/fnfO{ gsfg{ ;sLg / gfO{

“eflGh s]xL s'/f 5}g\, cfuf]n] xfd|f] ;a} ;dfgnfO{ v/fgL

gegL :jLsf/]/ 3/ kms]{ . ldng efO{n] dnfO{ 3/;Dd k'of{pg cfof] .

agfO{lbPsf] lyof] . clxn] kfgLn] t xfdLnfO{ w]/} g} 5f]8]/

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76

uPsf] 5 . xfdL km]/L sdfO{ ug{ ;S5f}+ . lxsdt ug'{k5{

5f]/Lsf] kmf]gx? cfpFYof] . slxn] lbbLn] u/]/ NofpFYof] eg] slxn] efO{n]

.”

u/]/ NofpFYof] . To;t}df slxn] ;fyLx?n] t slxn] u|fxsx?n] kmf]g u/]/
xfd|f xfnva/x? lng] u/]sf lyP . ;ft ;d'Gb| kf/sf u|fxsx?n] klg kmf]g

o;/L cfk'mn] cfkm}nfO{ g} zfGTjgf lbg' / ;Demfpg'sf ;fy}

u/]/ NofPsf lyP . Ps tkm{ pxfFx?n] kmf]g u/]/ NofPsf] b]v]/ v'zL nfUYof]

eflGhnfO{ klg ;Demfpg yfn]+ . o:t}df ;fFemsf] $.% alh;s]sf] lyof] .

/ xf}znf klg a9\Yof] eg] csf]{ tkm{ cfk'mdf 36]sf] Tof] 36gfnfO{ ofb ub}{

lat]sf 36gf / cfhsf] of] 36gfaf6 ePsf] IfltnfO{ ;DemL ;DemL ?g

?g grfFxfbf grfFxfb} klg cfFvfaf6 cfF;' aUg] ub{Yof] . d]/f cfFvfx? /ftf

cfpFYof] . cfFvfaf6 cfF;' To;} g} aUg yfNYof] . s]xL klg ;f]Rg g} ;lsg /

/ftf eO{ ;'g]/ cfO;s]sf lyP t/ cfF;' emg{ /f]s]sf lyPgg\ . ;dosf] s'g}

ljrf/ klg ug{ ;lsg sL of] s] eof] / s;/L eof] .

k6\6f] lyPg . cfsfz cWof/f]sf] c+ufnf]df ;dlk{t ePklg d]/f tL If0fx?

3/df cfP/ klg dgdf zfGt lyPg . l6le vf]n]/ x]5'{ w]/} h;f]

ljxfgsf] Tof] 5fn;+u} uPsf] cfk\mgf] Joj;fon] dgdf t/+ux? pTkGg

o:s} ljifodf g} va/x? lbO{/x]sf lyP . To;a]nf yfxf kfPF of] 7"nf]]

u/fpg /f]s]sf lyPgg\ . cfFvfaf6 cfF;' emfg{ 5f]8]sf lyPgg\ . ;f/f /ft g}

eofgs 5fnnfO{ ;'gfdL eGbf /x]5g\ . ;fy} of] ;'gfdL xfd|f] :yfgdf dfq

g t ;'Tg ;s]+ g t /f]P/ g} a:g;s]+ . ;'tf}+ lgGb|f g} nfUb}g lyof] .

Iflt k'of{Psf] geO{ w]/} :yfgdf / b]zdf klg cfP/ Iflt kf/]sf] /x]5 .

?g /f]sf}+ t cfFvfaf6 cfF;' em/]sf] em/} lyof] . t/ klg /fte/L

w]/}sf] Hofg uPsf] / ;DklQx? gfz ePsf va/x? cfpg yfNof] . nfvf}+sf]

slxn] s:sf] t slxn] s:sf] kmf]g cfpFb} /x]sf]n] w]/} g} xf}znf ldNof] .

;+Vofdf x/fPsf] / slt;Dd gfz uof]{ eGg] ljifodf To;a]nf;Dd klg

w]/}h;f] ;a} hfGg] lrGg] JolStx?n] kmf]g u/]/ xfdLx?sf] xfnva/ ;f]w]/

yfxf gePsf va/x? lbO{/x]sf lyP . of] t ;fFRr} g} k|nojfg / gf;jfg

NofPsf lyP . k/fO{ cfkmGt eO{lbof] t/ glhssf] cfkmGt eg] 6f9f

5fn g} /x]5 .

al;lbPsf] dxz'; ePsf] lyof] . of] eofgs va/ ;'g]/ klg Ps zAb klg

3/df cfO{;s]kl5 slxn] cfkmGt tyf ldqx?nfO{ d}n] kmf]g u/]+

cfPg . s:tf] 5 < sxfF 5f}+ < pgLx?sf] ;xof]usf] ck]Iff u/]sL t lyO{g

eg] slxn] c?n] u/]/ Nofof] . ;f/f lbg} kmf]gdf s'/fx? eO{/fVof] . 3l/ 3l/

t/ klg glhssf] gftfn] pgLx?af6 s]lx ;fGTjgf / xf};nfsf] zAbx?sf]

g} O;fgaf6 cfrfg ofO{ -7"nf] eGt]_ sf] kmf]g cfpFYof] . xfdLx?sf] xfnva/

dfq ck]Iff /fv]sL lyPF . ;f/f cfzfx?sf] cGt eO{;s]sf /x]5g\ . t/klg

;f]Wb} x'g'x'GYof] . 3l/ 3l/df ;'hg eGt] hL kmf]g cfpFYof] t slxn] 3/af6

eGt] cfrfgx?, 5f]/L / lbbL efO{ tyf ;fyLx?sf] xf};nfn] ddf zlSt
pTkGg eP/ cfPsf lyP / of] efUosf] v]nsf] hLjgdf n8\g] ;fx; at'Nb}

77

78

lyPF . eujfg a'4n] eGg'eP em} cfk\mgf] gfy cfkm} xf] c? xf]Og . csf{n] t

ar] 5f]8]sf ;fdfgx?nfO{ t hDdfug{' g} kg]{ eof] . of] sdhf]/ ;+:sf/nfO{

vfnL xf};nf / k|/0ffdfq lbg] ub{5g\ . af6f]df lx8\g] sfd eg]sf] cfkm}n]

af]s]/ kfgLn] 5f]8]/ uPsf ;fdfgx? Pslqs ug{'kg]{ lyof] . To;}n] of]

ug'{ kb{5 . o;/L of] bf]>f] k6ssf] wg;Dkltsf] Ifoaf6 hlt b'Mv nfUof]

sdhf]/ eO{;s]sf of] z/L/ ?kL ;+:sf/nfO{ af]s]/ tL ;fdfgx?nfO{

Tof] eGbf klg cd"No wg eg]/ kfPsf] eGg' g} “xf]z jf :d[lt” xf] .

at'Ngsf] nflu efO{ ldngsf ;fydf b'sfgdf uPsf lyof}+ . eflGh ljr/L

:d[ltjfgnfO{ d[To'n] klg 5'g ;Sb}g / cfjZostf cg';f/ lg0f{o lng ;Sg]

lxhf]sf] 36gf / /fte/Lsf] g;'tfO{n] laxfgdfq ;'t]sLn] pgLnfO{ 3/d}

/ ;lx af6f]df uP/ cfk\mgf] hLjgnfO{ ;fy{s agfpg ;Sg] /x]5 . a'4wd{df

5f]8]/ xfdLx? dfq uof}+ .

cfP/ wd{sf s'/fx? ;'Gg] / To;/L g} zLn ;dfwLnfO{ cfkm"n] ;Sbf] a9fP/
cg'ud0f u/]/ cfk\mgf] hLjg ;fy{stf kfPsf] cg'ej u/]+ . wGo d}n]
;dodf g} af}4wd{sf] 1fg kfP/ o:tf] b'vb ;dodf klg :d[ltjfg eO{ of]
dxf5fnaf6 u|l;t ePklg dgnfO{ ;Gt'ngdf /fv]/ lg0f{o lng] / sfo{
ug{df ;kmn eP . To;}u/L d}lqefjgfsf] klg w]/} g} k|efj kbf]{ /x]5 eg]/
yfxf kfP+ . To;}sf] ;xof]u :j?k d]/f tL 38Lx? laTof] tyf eGt]u0fx?sf]
d}lqefjn] w]/} g} xf};nfsf ;fy} km]/L p7]/ sfd ug]{ zlSt kfPsf] lyP .
o;/L g} oL ;'gfdLsf tL d]/f b'vsf If0fx? Tof] /ft laTof] / slxn]
lgbfO5' s]xL g} yfxf ePg .

b'sfgdf k'u]/ ToxfFsf] l:yltnfO{ b]v]/ km]/L km]/L klg ?g
cfpFbYof] . t/ klg cfF;'nfO{ lgn]/ lxDdt u/]/ kfgLn] 5f]8]/ uPsf
;fdfgx? at'Ng yfNof}+ . cfFvfsf cfF;'x? ;DxfNb} tL 5f]8]/ uPsf sk8fx?
at'Ng yfn]+ . c? ;fyLx? klg kfgLn] s]xL t 5f]8]/ uPsf xf]nfg sL eg]/
vf]Hg lx+8]sf lyP . ;a}hgf km]/L
cfk\mgf] hLjgsf] of] b}lgs
rqmnfO{ rnfpgsf] lgldQ gofF
e/f];f / cfzfx?sf] ;fydf tL
5f]8]/ uPsf ;fdfgx? at'Ng

@&.!@.@))$ laxfg sl/a % ah]sf] ldld{/] pHofnf]sf] ;fydf

yfn]sf lyP .

cf/fd ul//x]sf] :yfgaf6 p7]/ cfpg] k|of; u/]+ . /fte/Lsf] Tof] ?jfO{ /

sf]xL ToxL bl/ofsf]

kmf]gdf ul/Psf] aftf{nfksf] sf/0fn] xf]nf l/+utf nfu] em}+ nfUof] . z/L/sf]

cuf8L uP/ p:nfO{ lgofn]/

;f/f /ut g} 6fpsf]df r9]sf] em}+ eof] / 6fpsf] b'v]/ lj/fdL g} x'g] em}+

x]l//x]sf 5g\ eg] sf]xL ToxfF x]/L

eP/ cfPsf] lyof] . t/ s] ug]{, 6fpsf] b'v]sf] ePklg Tof] ;'gfdL 5fnn]

?g nflu/x]sf lyP . bl/ofsf]

79

80

kfgL eg] d}n] s]xL klg u/]sf] 5}g h:tf] u/L Pstkm{ zfGtn] al;/x]sf]
b]v]/ Ps dg t ?g nfUb5 eg] csf]{dgn] p:nfO{ bf]if b]vfpg yfNb5 .
t/ s] ug]{ ljr/f bl/ofnfO{ klg t o:tf] ug]{ ljrf/ lyPg xf]nf . k/:k/sf]
sf/0f p;+u ePsf] Tof] kfgLn] grfFxfb} klg cfk\mgf] 7fpFdf hfFbf ;a}
u'6\d'l6P/ uof] . of] dxf5fn ;'gfdL s]xL If0fsf] ePtfklg o:n] s/f]8f}+sf]
;+Vofdf wg;DklQ gfz u/]/ uof] . nfvf}+sf] Hofg lnP/ uof] . sof}+nfO{
t'x'/f agfP/ uof] t sof}+nfO{ PSnf] 5f]8]/ uof] . o:sf] cfh;Dd klg
plrt n]vfhf]vf lbg ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ . k|fs[lts k|sf]knfO{ s:n] tfg{
;Sb5 / < tf/]/ tfg{ ;Sb}g . To;}n] hf] eP/ uof], ;f] uof] . ca km]/L
o:tf] slxNo} klg gxf];\ / s;}nfO{ klg o:tf] 36gfdf k/]/ b'MvL x'g
gk/f];\ .
Pj+ ;a} s'/fx? o;k|sf/ g} 5g\ .

81

82

d/0fwDd
g ;lGt kQftf0ffo r lktf g lk aGwjf
cQs]gfle kGg:; glTy kftL;' tf0ftf
PtdTy:; sTjf kl08tf] ;Lt ;+j'Qf]
lglj jfgudg+ dUu+ lvKkd]j lj;f]wo ..
hj dRr'/fhsf] xftdf kl/;s]sf] x'G5, d]/f] 5f]/f 5 5f]/L 5, cfdf a'af
/ w]/} cfkmGtx? 5g\ pgLx?n] arfpnf eg]/ cfzf gug{', pxfFx?n] klg
xfdLnfO{ arfpg ;Sb}g . o:tf] a'em]/ kl08thgx? ck|dfbL eP/
zLnwd{df k|ltl:yt eP/ cfk\mgf] hLjgnfO{ ;'wf/]/ cGtdf cfWoflTds ;'v
k|fKt u/]/ hLjgnfO{ ;kmndo agfpg] ub{5g\ .
cle0xkRrj]Sv0f wd{
!= h/f wDd]lx h/+ cgtLtf]
xfdLx?sf] a}z uP/ a'9f] x'g' :jefljs wd{ xf] . o;af6 xfdLx? aRg
;Sb}gf}+ .
@= Joflw wDd]lx Joflw cgtLtf]
xfdLx?sf] zl//df km]/abnsf] sf/0f cfpg] /f]ufbLaf6 x'g' :jefljs
wd{ xf] . o;af6 xfdLx? aRg ;Sb}gf}+ .
#= d/0f wDd]lx d/0f+ cgtLtf]
xfdLx?sf] cfo' k"0f{ eP/ d[To' x'g' :jefljs wd{ xf] . o;af6 xfdLx?
aRg ;Sb}gf}+ .

sDd:;sf]lDx
sDdbfofbf]
sDdof]lg
sDd aGw'
sDdkl6;/0f
o+ sDd+ sl/:;lGt
sNof0f+ jf kfks+ jf
t:; bfofbf] elj:;lGt

sd{ dfq xfd|f] xf] .
sd{ g} xfd|f] bfob xf] .
sd{n] g} csf]{ hGd lbG5 .
sd{ g} xfd|f cfk\mgf aGw' xf] .
sd{ g} xfd|f] z/0f xf] .
h:tf] sd{x? u/]sf 5f}+
rfx] s'znk'0o xf];\ jf kfk sd{
To; sd{sf] eflubf/, bfofb xfdL cfkm} x'g]5f}+ .

k/nf]s:; kl6Tyf
;Aa] ;Qf dl/:;lGt
d/g+tlDx lhljt+
obf sDd+ uld:;lGt
k'~`kfk kmn'kuf
lg/o+ kfk sDdGtf
k'~` sDdf r ;'Uult+
t:df s/o\o sNof0f+
lgro+ ;Dk/flos+
k'~`flg k/nf]sl:d+
kl6Tyf xf]lGt kfl0f0f+ ..
;a} k|f0fLx? d/]/ hfg' g} kb{5 . d[To'af6 g} ;a} k|f0fLx?sf] hLjg
cGTo x'g] ub{5 . h:tf] sd{ k'0o jf kfk u/]sf 5f} To;s} kmn cg';f/
hfg'kg]{5 . kfk sd{ ug]{x? gs{df hfg]5g\ . k'0o ug]{x? ;'utLdf hfg]5g\ .
To;}n] x] dfgj eljiodf sNof0fsf] nfuL s'zn k'0o sd{x?sf] ;+ro ug{
l;s . s'zn k'0o sd{ g} eljiodf cfpg] hLjgsf] nfuL ;'vs/ /
nfebflos x'g]5 . s'znk'0o sd{x?af6 g} eljiodf cfpg] hLjgdf /fd|f]
k|lt:yf ldNg]5 .

k'0o

bbtf] k'~`+ kj8\9lt ;+odtf] j]/+ g rLolt
s';nf] r hxflt kfks+ /fu bf]; df]xSvof ; lgAa'tf]lt ..

$= ;Aa]lx d] lko]lx dgfk]lx gfgf efjf] ljgf;efjf]
o;/L cfk\mgf dgkg]{ / dg gkg]{ ;a}hgf ljleGg ?kn] ;Tj / ;+vf/
cGTo eP/ g} uPsf x'G5g\ .

uR5] cg';f/ bfgsd{ ugf{n] k'0o a9\5, ;+odn] ;fwf/0f zq'b]lv lnP/
sfd, qmf]wflb j}/efjsf] pl5Qf] u/fpF5, 1fgLx?n] kfksf] gfdlgzfgf g}
/fVb}g / /fu, å]if / df]xsf] Ifo u/]/ p cfWoflTds ;'v lgjf{0fufdL
x'g;Sg]5 .

83

84

k"0ofg'df]bg

sfdgf

Ob+ gf] ~fftLg+ xf]t', ;'lvtf xf]Gt' ~fftof] . of] k'0osf] k|efjn] d]/f ;a}
1ftLaGw'x? ;'lv xf]pg\ .

Oldgf k'~~f sDd]g, df d] afn ;dfudf] . o; k'0osf] k|efjn] d'v{x?sf]

PQfjQf r cDx]lx, ;Det+ k'~~f;Dkb+ .

o;/L hltklg xfdLx?n] k'0o
;+ro uof}{

;Aa] b]jfg'df]bGt', ;Aa ;DklQ l;l4of .. tL ;a} k'0onfO{ ;a} b]jtfx?n]

;+ut slxNo} klg ug{ gk/f];\ .
;t+ ;dfudf] xf]t', ofj lgAafg klQof .. ;a} hGddf lgjf{0f geP;Dd
;Tk'?ifx?sf] g} ;+ut ug{ kfpm .
ObDd] k'~~f+ cf;jSvof jx+ xf]t' .

o; k'0osf] k|efjn] d]/f ;a}

klg cg'df]bg u?g\ pxf+x? klg
o:sf efuLbf/ xf]pg\ .
PQfjQf r cDx]lx, ;Det+ k'~~f;Dkb+ .

o;/L hltklg xfdLx?n] k'0o
;+ro uof}{

;Aa] e"tfg'df]bGt', ;Aa ;DklQ l;l4of .. tL ;a} k'0onfO{ ;a} cb[io
k|f0fLx?n] klg cg'df]bg u?g\
pxfx? klg o:sf efuLbf/
xf]pg\
PQfjQf r cDx]lx, ;Det+ k'~~f;Dkb+ .

cf>jx? d'St eP/ hfpg\ .
ObDd] k'~~f+ lgAafg:; kRrof] xf]t' .

lgjf0f{sf] x]t' xf];\ .
ObDd] k'~~f+ cx+ dftf lkt/f] r

of] k'0osf] k|efjn] d]/f cfdf
a'af ;lxt

lxt ;Qf r ;Aa] ;Qf ;'lvtf ejGt' .

cfkmGtx? ;lxt Oi6ldqx? ;a}
/ ;a} k|f0fLx? ;'lv /xf];\ .

o;/L hltklg xfdLx?n] k'0o
;+ro uof}{

;Aa] ;Qfg'df]bGt', ;Aa ;DklQ l;l4of .. tL ;a} k'0onfO{ ;a} k|f0fLx?n]
klg cg'df]bg u?g\, pxfFx? klg
o:sf efuLbf/ xf]pg\
85

cfh xfdLn] u/LPsf] k'0o

86

Gfdf] t:; eujtf] c/xtf] ;Ddf;Da'4:; ...
;+j]ukl/lsQgkf7
Ow tyfutf] nf]s] pKkGgf] c/x+ ;Ddf;Da'4f], wDdf] r b]l;tf]
lgoflgsf], pk;ldsf] kl/lgAaflgsf] ;Daf]wufdL ;'utKkj]lbtf], do+ t+ wDd+
;'Tjf Pj+ hfgfd, hfltlk b'Svf, h/flk b'Svf, d/0f+lk b'Sv+,
;f]skl/b]jb'Svbf]dg:;'kfof;flk b'Svf, clKko]lx ;Dkof]uf] b'Svf], lko]lx
ljKkof]uf] b'Svf], olDkR5+ g nelt t+lk b'Sv+, ;+lvQ]g k~r'kfbfgSvGwf
b'Svf .

b; kf/dL kf7
!= bfg kf/dL ;DkGgf], bfg pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], bfg k/dTykf/dL ;DkGgf],
d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f] eujf .
@= ;Ln kf/dL ;DkGgf], ;Ln pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], ;Ln k/dTykf/dL ;DkGgf],
d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f] eujf .
#= g]SvDd kf/dL ;DkGgf], g]SvDd pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], g]SvDd k/dTykf/dL
;DkGgf], d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f]
eujf .
$= k~`f kf/dL ;DkGgf], k~`f pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], k~`f k/dTykf/dL
;DkGgf], d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f]
eujf .
%= ljl/o kf/dL ;DkGgf], ljl/o pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], ljl/o k/dTykf/dL
;DkGgf], d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f]
eujf .

87

^= vGtL kf/dL ;DkGgf], vGtL pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], vGtL k/dTykf/dL
;DkGgf], d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f]
eujf .
&= ;Rr kf/dL ;DkGgf], ;Rr pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], ;Rr k/dTykf/dL
;DkGgf], d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f]
eujf .
*= clw6\7fg kf/dL ;DkGgf], clw6\7fg pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], clw6\7fg
k/dTykf/dL ;DkGgf], d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf],
O{ltlk ;f] eujf .
(= d]Qf kf/dL ;DkGgf], d]Qf pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], d]Qf k/dTykf/dL ;DkGgf],
d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f] eujf .
!)= pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], pk]Svf pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], pk]Svf k/dTykf/dL
;DkGgf], d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f]
eujf .
b; kf/dL ;DkGgf], b; pkkf/dL ;DkGgf], b; k/dTykf/dL
;DkGgf], d]Qf d}qL s?0ff d'lbtf pk]Svf kf/dL ;DkGgf], O{ltlk ;f] eujf .
a'4+ ;/0f+ uR5fdL, gdfldx+ .
;fw'

;fw'

;fw'

5f]6f] kl/ro
oL b;kf/dLx? eujfg a'4 sf/swd{ cyf{t pxfaf6 k"0f{ ug'{
ePsf wd{x? x'g\ . of] tLg txsf 5g\
!= kf/dL

@= pkkf/dL

88

#= k/dTykf/dL

oL kf/dLx?nfO{ ljleGg ?kdf ljefhg u/]/ AofSVofg u/LPsf 5g\ .

Kff7 u/]df oL kmn kfpg' x'g]5 .

s= sf/swd{ jf sfo{af6 ljefhg

;fjse"dLdf hGd rfxg' x'G5, b;kf/dL cEof; ug'{

!= kf/dL

c?n] u/]sf s'znsfo{nfO{ cg'df]bg ug'{

kRr]sa'4e"dL cfzf /fVg' x'G5, b; kf/dL / b; pkkf/dL cEof; ug'{

@= pkkf/dL

c?nfO{ u/fpg' jf ug{] cg's"n jftfj/0f tof/ u/Llbg'

a'4e"dLsf] pk]SIff /fVg'x'G5, b;kf/dL, b; pkkf/dL / b; k/dTykf/dL
cEof; ug'{

#= k/dTykf/dL cfkm}n] ug'{kg]{
v= wfld{s?kn] ljefhg ug'{
!= kf/dL

z'4wd{df cz'4 ldl>t ePsf]

@= pkkf/dL

z'4wd{df cz'4 ldl>t gePsf]

#= k/dTykf/dL wd{ h'g z'4 klg gePsf] cz'4 klg gePsf]

d}qL efjgf
cx+ cj]/f] xf]ld, cJofkHhf] xf]ld, cgL3f] xf]ld, ;'vL cQfg+ kl/x/fld,
cx+ ljo do\x+ cfrfl/o'kHemfofdftflkt/f] lxt;Qf dHemlQs;Qf j]/L;Qf,
cj]/f xf]Gt', cJofkHhf xf]Gt', clg3f xf]Gt', ;'vL cQfg+ kl/x/Gt',

u= ;do cg';f/ ljefhg

b'Svfd'RrGt' oyfn4 ;DklQtf] dfljuR5Gt', sDd:;sf .

!= kf/dL

dg 4f/f clwTyfg u/]/ cEof; ug'{

@= pkkf/dL

jrg 4f/f clwTyfg u/]/ cEof; ug'{

#= k/dTykf/dL sfo 4f/f clwTyfg u/]/ cEof; ug'{
3= ufXf]kgaf6 ljefhg

ejt' ;AadËn+

;a} k|sf/sf dËn ldnf];\ .

/SvGt' ;Aab]jtf

;a} b]jtfx?n]] /Iff u?g\ .

;Aaa'4fg'efj]g

;a} a'4sf] cfg'efjsf] k|efjn]

!= kf/dL

z/L/ aflx/sf ef}lts a:t' / ;DklQ bfg

;AawDdfg'efj]g

;a} wd{sf] cfg'efjsf] k|efjn]

@= pkkf/dL

zf/Ll/s c¨ Pj+ /ut cflb bfg lbg'

;Aa;+3fg'efj]g

;a} leIf';+3sf] cfg'efjsf] k|efjn]

;bf ;f]lTy ejGt'’t] .

;a}sf] ;w}+ dËn xf];\, sNof0f xf];\ .

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M The Buddhavihara Temple
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M ;x–;+:yfks tyf k|aGws≤ yfO{ g]kfn af}4 ;f];fO{lt, yfO{n}08
M ;+:yfks÷;Dkfbs – Dhamma News, PBSUK
M ;x–;Dkfbs÷;+of]hs –The Friend’s Dhamma, UK
M ;Nnfxsf/ – g]kfn a'4wd{ ;f];fO{lt, nG8g
M ;x–k|lzIfs –The Buddhavihara Temple
Kings Bromley, DE13 7HR, UK

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