Digital Image Processing Fundamentals | Gamma Ray | Computer Data Storage

Resmi N.G. Reference: Digital Image Processing Rafael C. Gonzalez Richard E.

Woods

What is a digital image?
An array of real or complex numbers represented by a finite number of bits.

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What is digital image processing?
Processing of a two dimensional image using a computer. Digital processing of any two dimensional data for storage, transmission and machine perception.

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Three Types of Processing
Low-Level
Both inputs and outputs are images. Involves primitive operations such as image preprocessing to reduce noise, contrast enhancement, and image sharpening.

Middle-Level
Inputs are images; Outputs are attributes extracted from images. Involves image segmentation (partitioning image into regions), classification or recognition of individual objects.

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High-Level
Working with recognized objects as in image analysis. eg; automated analysis of text
I. II. III. IV.

V.

Acquiring image of area containing the text. Preprocessing Segmenting individual characters. Describing characters in a form suitable for computer processing. Recognizing the individual characters.

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Origin of Image Processing
One of the first applications of digital imaging was in the newspaper industry. Early 1920’s- Introduction of The Bartlane Cable Picture Transmission system. Pictures were sent by submarine cable between London and New York. 5 distinct levels of grey.

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1929: Levels of grey increased to 15.

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1964: Pictures of moon transmitted by Ranger7 were processed using computers to correct various types of image distortion.

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Applications of DIP
Medical applications-to study X-ray images.

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Geographic Information Systems-to study pollution patterns from aerial and satellite images.

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Astronomy

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Applications classified based on their sources of energy
Electro-magnetic spectrum (gamma rays with highest energy to radio waves with lowest energy)

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Gamma-ray Imaging
Radioactive isotope emits positrons while it decays. Gamma rays are given off when a positron hits an electron. These are detected and image is created.

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X-ray Imaging
X-rays are generated using an X-ray tube(vacuum tube with a cathode and an anode).

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Imaging in Ultra Violet Band

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Imaging in Visible and Infrared Bands

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Remote sensing applications

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Other areas of application
Microwave band – Radar (explores inaccessible region’s of earth’s surface) Radio band – in medicine(Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and astronomy Acoustic Imaging (mineral and oil exploration over land and water) Synthetic Imaging Archaeology Physics Biology Defense Industry Machine perception
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Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing

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Image acquisition
Involves preprocessing such as scaling

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Image Enhancement
Brings out details that are obscured. Highlights certain features of interest in an image.

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Image Restoration
Improves appearance of an image Based on mathematical or probabilistic models of image degradation.

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Colour Image Processing
Colour is used to extract features of interest in an image.

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Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing
Wavelets are used:
for representing images in various degrees of resolution for data compression pyramidal representation

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Compression
Reduces the storage required to save an image or bandwidth required to transmit it.

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Morphological Processing
Tools for extracting image components that are useful in the representation and description of shape of image. eg; boundary extraction.

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Segmentation
Partitions image into its constituent parts or objects.

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Representation and description
Output of segmentation stage - Raw pixel data(either the boundary of a region or the region as a whole). Choosing a representation - one step in transforming raw data into form suitable for computer processing. Description(feature selection) deals with highlighting features of interest.

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Object Recognition
Assigning labels to objects based on its descriptors.

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Image Representation
Each digital image consists of a finite number of elements called picture elements or pixels. Each pixel has a particular location and value. Image representation concerns with charaterization of the quantity that each pixel represents.
Luminances of objects Absorption characteristics of body tissue Radar cross-section of target Temperature profile of a region
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Definition for a Digital Image
Any two dimensional function that bears information is considered an image. An image is defined as a two-dimensional function f(x,y), where x and y are spatial coordinates. Amplitude of ‘f’ at any pair of coordinates (x,y) is called intensity of image at that point. When x, y and amplitude values of ‘f’ are all finite, discrete quantities, the image is called a digital image.

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Knowledge Base

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Knowledge about the problem domain. Details regions of an image where information of interest is known to be located. Advantage: limits the search. Controls the interaction between modules.

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Components of an Image Processing System

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Image Acquisition
Two elements:
Image sensors Digitizer Image sensor – Physical device that is sensitive to the energy radiated by the object we wish to image. Digitizer – Converts sensing device output to digital form.

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Specialized Image Processing Hardware
High speed front end subsystem. Two elements:
Digitizer Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations in parallel on entire images. eg; averaging images for noise reduction.

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Image Processing Software
Consists of specialized modules that perform specific tasks. User can write code utilizing these specialized modules.

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Mass Storage
A must for image storage Image of size 1024 x 1024 pixels in which intensity of each pixel is an 8-bit quantity requires 1 MB of storage space. 3 categories: Short-trem (during processing) Online storage (for fast access) Archival (infrequent access, massive storage)
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Short-term:
Computer memory Frame buffers

Online:
Magnetic disks Optical media

Archival:
Magnetic tapes Optical disks

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Image Displays
Color TV monitors

Hardcopy devices
Laser printers, cameras, heat-sensitive devices.

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Thank You

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