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Serena Edinger

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Chi}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid2230492 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ld Psychology: Service Learning

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
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\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672 \tab
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Volunteering with eight year olds at Mac Farlane Elementary
is proving to be an insightful and overall enjoyable experience.
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

I chose third grade students to complete the first half of my service learning based on
their level of informed curiosity and somewhat advanced ability to make relations with
their environment. I feel as if this is an interesting stage in their lives a

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

far as capabilities and interests go. Their statements tend to be well though out but
sometimes rather far fetched or irrational. For instance, during an independent reading
session, a male child questioned whether Alan Armstrong, the author of his boo

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 k\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

, was related to Lance Armstrong, the competitive biker. I chose this age group for their
ability to make these types of associations and the humor in their curiosities. Also, they
are capable of sharing topics of great detail, explaining things with an

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 eager attitude. They seem to be
eager to share situations, especially those in which they learn something ne}{\rtlch\fcs1
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w. Devin, a Hispanic boy from N}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid8485672 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ew York told me about his
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s allergic reaction to cats. He described the redness of his skin, the
associate\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

d itching, and potential trip to the hospital. With wide eyes and an enthusiastic voice, he
went on to explain how the doctor recommends that he jump in the pool after the onset of
the symptoms. He explained that the chlorine of the pool was helpful in

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 r\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 elieving the symptoms. This
ability to make connections and overview interesting situations displays another reason I
find this group interesting to work with. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24

\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid2230492 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 His advanced level of
making connections \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 indicates that he is in
Piaget\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \rquote \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s preoperational
stage. }{

\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672

\par \tab \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 These student\hich\f0 \rquote \loch\f0 s enthusiasm
and openness to new ideas gives me a positive attitude towards
th\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

e experience. They seem to be excited about my visits and share their life stories with
me.

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid2230492 \tab }{\rtlch\fcs1
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\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 My decision to choose first graders to compare with third
grad

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ers stemmed from the monumental developments that are
taking place between these two stages.\~ I chose these groups in hopes of capturing some
of the transitions between Piaget's preoperational stage and concrete operational.\~

In addition, I was interested\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 in
testing their capabilities and comparing them with the standards that are discussed in the
text.\~ }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Through the
experience, I hope to match their behaviors with those of the developmental norms
and}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

identify those that \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 vary from the normal}{\rtlch\fcs1
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Through this experience I hope to explore the thought process involved with their
statements and compare their individual rates of development. I\hich\f0 \rquote \loch\f0
m very interes\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

ted in their varied levels and individual mental capacities. I\hich\f0 \rquote \loch\f0 m
especially eager to learn more about their }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid8485672
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 backgrounds and influences.

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid614363 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Question
#2}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid2230492

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Upon entering the elementary school, I immediately
rece\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

ived a positive vibe, displaying all the contributors to a positive learning environment.
The staff was helpful and friendly and the school was decorated with work done by the
children. The children respond to visitors very }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24

\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 well,}{\rtlch\fcs1
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controlled e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 nthusiasm to my presence. I feel as if I

\hich\f0 \rquote \loch\f0 m able to relate to each child in a different way, even with the
impressive diversity of the schooling system. They seem eager to make relations to me
and get to know me better.

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 This is an ideal situation to
com\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

plete my learning experience. The classes are unique, keeping not only the students, but
myself entertained and learning new things. They foster an environment in which
diversity is embraced and respect is encouraged. Children attend two Spanish classe
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

a week in which they learn the basics of the Spanish language. In addition, the children
have roots in a variety of different locations. I am able to appreciate this. Their practices
give me a great deal of respect towards the school.

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 From the very b\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

eginning, I noted the positive attitudes of the children towards learning and completing
projects. I would most directly attribute this to the active learning process that is
encouraged in the schooling system. The children seem genuinely happy to be th

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 re.

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 I am enjoying the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid614363 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 kids,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid8485672 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

especially their curious remarks and senses of humor. I feel as if they feel a connection
with me and some of the kids run to hug me as I leave. They are always helpful in
pointing out the obvious to which I smile and appea\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

r amazed.

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Perhaps my biggest surprise in regards to the schooling
system was their advanced and specialized methods of teaching. Technology was
appropriately implemented into the learning process and computers were used

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

as helpful tools to the students. One aspect of the experience that impressed me was their
attentiveness to the special abilities of each student. For instance, the students are
required to complete a survey on the computer, which are electronically eva

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 l\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

uated and translated into their most effective means of learning. This survey is printed
out and put in a portfolio in order to best accommodate this student in the learning
environment. I found this system to be rather impressive.

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 I was also impressed\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

by the diversity of the school, including Spanish classes and focusing on familiarizing
students with various cultures. The students seemed to be responding positively to this
focus on diversity and will undoubtedly be at an advantage because of these p
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 r\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 actices.

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
Question #3

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0

I was surprised by their extensive ability to make relations and form logical ideas. In one
situation, the students were standing in line to get their picture taken and spotted a bee.
The students screeched, \'93\loch\f0 A bee, a bee!}{\rtlch\fcs1

\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653 \loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0
\'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 The teacher shush\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 ed
them saying, \'93\loch\f0

\hich\f0 Lets go guys, be alert\'94\loch\f0 \hich\f0 . The students detected an
unintentional pun in the phrase \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 be alert\'94\loch\f0 \hich\f0 and
began laughing hysterically and saying, \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 Bee alert! Bee alert!

\'94\loch\f0 while imitating siren sounds. I found this association to be humorous and
e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 n\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 lightening. }{\rtlch\fcs1
\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid2230492 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

This can be connected with Piaget\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \rquote
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s preoperational learning stage. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24
\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid2230492\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 The first \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 and third grade students
were a great combination for comparison.\~

Another interesting factor that was available for comparison was a great variation in
teaching style.\~ As far as temperament and attachment styles, the students seemed to be
split rather e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 v\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 enly.\~

The first graders surprised me more in terms of their developmental limitations.\~
Working with this age group forced me to bring myself down to a lower level and
recollect what my thought processes were at that time.\~ The students sit with their pe

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 n\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 cils tightly gripped and stare at a
simple multiplication problem, baffled.\~

At first, I was surprised by this, but then through my readings and connections with the
typical development rate, I was able to relate to their mindset with more ease.\~ I even
d\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 u\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

g up an old folder from my first grade years when I was home for Thanksgiving
break.\~\hich\f0 I found a simple multiplication test in which I'd gotten a \'93\loch\f0
\hich\f0 D\'94\loch\f0 on.\~ I'd approximated the answer of 2X3 to be 17.\~

It brought back a flood of memories, including my paren\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
t\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s being very concerned over the grade.\~

By attempting to recollect my own rate of development with that of the kids I'm working
with, I'm able to re}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid2230492
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 late on a more personal level.\~}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24

\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 I al}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid614363 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 so found that their }{\rtlch\fcs1
\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid2230492 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 awareness
of}{\rtlch\fcs1

\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 new concepts
an\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 d sometimes na\'ef\loch\f0 ve assumptions make
them humorous to converse with. A }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid614363 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 third grade }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24
\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 boy told me at lunch that
he didn\hich\f0 \rquote \loch\f0

t drink strawberry milk because another boy told him it wasn\hich\f0 \rquote \loch\f0 t
manly. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid2230492
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 This displays a mon\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

umental development in self-evaluat\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ion and a
child\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \rquote \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s inclusion of }
{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 other

\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \rquote \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s opinions in their views
of themselves. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

I was surprised by his prolonged reaction to this comment. I felt as if the
chil\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 dren were intelligent yet still gullible. They seemed
unquestioning when spoken to in a voice of authoritativeness.

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Prior to this course, I was unaware that standards of
comparison could be so accurate, especially through the application of Piaget's theory.\~
Pi

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 aget's theory suggests that there are certain limitations in
regards to cognitive development and these limitations were very evident in the age
groups I worked with.\~

For instance, while the first graders were capable of adding simple addition such as
'4\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 +\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 1', they seemed to have
difficulti\ltrpar \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

es adding numbers like, '8+3' since it means transferring the one to the next column.\~
Third graders on the other hand, are capable of performing this addition with ease.\~
Piaget's ability to attribute this contrast in abi\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

lity to cognitive limitations, and the accuracy of it impressed me.\~\hich\f0 His argument
that first grade students are unable to \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 change existing cognitive
structures\'94\loch\f0

enough to incorporate the complexity of multiplication or division (Vasta, Miller, &
Ellis, 200\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 4, 18).\~ In addition, most of the first graders are
still in the level that Piaget terms the preoperational stage.\~

They are unable to take on the on the viewpoints of others.\~ As a result, they are often
unable to follow multiple rules of classification.\~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 These
standards of development seem to apply to the majority of the students even\~

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 though\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 MacFarlene is a very
diverse school, teaching children of various backgrounds.\~ I believe that these contrasts
in development were what surprised me the most.\~ Thoug

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 h I was aware that children develop quickly, it seems as if
their mental process expands a significant amount between the ages of six and
nine.\~\hich\f0 While the children in the first grade class were playing games such as

\'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 making and breaking words\'94\loch\f0 in which
th\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 y used letter tiles, the third
graders were creating their own metaphors and similes.\~

First graders are still attempting to formulate words and master the skill of reading while
third graders are making rather complex associations}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid614363

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 FOUR
\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 From my observations and conversations, Mac Farlane
Elementary is perceived as a desirable and rather pre\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

stigious school. One of the parents informed me that she was very satisfied with the
schooling system. She even mentioned that her kids had to be on a wait list in order to
attend. The small size that makes the school desirable also makes it competitiv

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 .

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Within the classroom, I was impressed by their creative
and thoughtful approach to learning. The activities were organized based on the
students\hich\f0 \rquote \loch\f0

individual interests and participation was encouraged. It seemed to be well-planned and
organized based o\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

n the most conducive environment to learning. The students followed an hour by hour
schedule that was strict but included activities that the students enjoyed. A mosaic bench,
made by students was displayed outside and the students made their own Andy W

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 a\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

rhol prints. They were all part of the musical program. Participation was widespread and
the students were immersed in their material. I feel as if their positive response to the
learning environment indicates a successful learning experience.

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Several\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 students
were separated for \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 advance d math\'94\loch\f0

in order to maximize their learning capabilities. I feel as if this distinction of talent
allows the students to excel in their own specific areas.

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 The students wear shirts that read, \'93\loch\f0
We must become the cha\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 nge we want to see, -Ghandi
\'94\loch\f0 \hich\f0

. These quote overviews the enthusiasm and motivation that the staff and kids have
towards the learning process. Their cafeteria displays this positive model as well with a
banner hanging that reminds, \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Healthy}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24
\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid8485672 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 choices,
health\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 y minds\'94\loch\f0

and a well-balanced meal served to the children. This emphasis on good eating practices
is reinforced in the class room as well, where nutrition is a main focus.

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Perhaps the only amendment I might suggest is in
regards to the bonding between ch\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

ildren. I feel as if group work and bonding of the small group would be a positive
addition to the classroom. This would help establish a connection between the students
and their peers, developing a support group advantageous to learning.

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
Question #5

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 During the \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 bring your parent to
school\'94\loch\f0 activity\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

, first grade students who brought their father to class seemed to interact more positively
with the male teacher.\~

Assuming that it was their choice to bring their father to school, rather than their mother,
this led me to conclude that their attachment \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
w\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 as closer with their father than their mother.\~

Following this observation, I began to wonder whether there was a correlation between
the level of attachment with a sex-specific parent, the teacher's gender, and the student's
overall success in class.\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

The purpose of this study is to identify if there is a correlation between the }{\rtlch\fcs1
\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 attachments}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 a child exhibits
towards a single parent, the corresponding sex of the teacher, and how this }{\rtlch\fcs1
\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 affects}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 their level of
success in terms of interactions and performan\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

ce. Taking previous observations into account, it can be hypothesized that those who
display a closer attachment with their father are expected to be more responsive to a male
teacher and vice versa.\~

It will be a longitudinal study since it will monitor \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
t\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 he development of children over a four month period.\~\line
The study will begin by identifying ten first graders who display a secure attachment with
their mother and ten first graders who display a closer emotional bond with their father.\~
In order to pinpoin\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 t

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 this bond, researchers would have parents and children
complete questionnaires in which questions were asked regarding their attachment
level.\~

The parents would be given questions regarding their children and how they respond in
specific situations.\~ Fo\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 r\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

instance, the questions would address topics such as wariness of strangers, attitude
towards novel situations, and behavior exhibited towards the parents.\~\hich\f0

The questionnaires given to the children would address their feelings towards their
parents and \'93\loch\f0 w\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 h\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
\hich\f0 at if\'94\loch\f0 scenarios.\~

Multiple choice answers would then be provided.\~ Following the selection of the
children, they will be split into two equal groups of five girls and five boys each.\~ Also,
half of each of these children will display a secure attachment

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 w\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ith their mother and the others a
strong emotional bond with their father.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~ Half of the students will be
placed in a learning environment with a well-respected female }{

\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 teacher}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

and the others with a well-respected male teacher.\~ Materials will be
ta\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ught in a highly similar manner and pace.\~

In regards to maximizing their learning capacity, the behavior exhibited in a classroom
with a respected female and a respected male teacher would be compared.\~ Their
success and performance will be measured as d\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 e

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 pendent variables, recorded through testing and
observation.\~ Their age and attachments to their parents will remain constant.\~ The
gender of the teacher based on their attachment level will be an independent variable.\~

Performance will be based on an ach\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
i\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 evement scale in which the students are rated from 1-100.\~
It will be based on their scores on certain tests of ability, interaction and knowledge.\~

After two months of regular schooling in these environments, the teachers will be
switched and their level\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 of
development will be recorded again.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~

Gender of the children will not be accounted for in this particular study.\~ Perhaps in a
further study, genders could be separated and perhaps varying results would be
obtained.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~ In order to evaluate\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 the results, two separate bar graphs could be made to
compare the results of the students whose attachments were closer with their male parents
and those who were closer with their female parents.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~ A\~

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 positive\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 correlation between
performance and th\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 e same sex teacher as the parent they are
securely attached to signifies that my hypothesis was correct.\~}{\rtlch\fcs1

\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 SIX

\par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Number six}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 : }{\rtlch\fcs1
\af0\afs24

\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \line \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Dear
Editor}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 , }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \line \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

The obedient children of our current schooling system sit in straight-backed chairs with
their hands folded, raise their hands when they know the answer to a question and never
shout out. This is the type of behavior that seem\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

s to be promoted in schooling systems.\~\hich\f0 However, one must question whether
reprimanding children for \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 acting out\'94\loch\f0

is detrimental to the developmental process of children. In this type of environment, it
seems as if activity is discouraged rather than fost\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

red and varying learning styles may be negatively impacted.\~ Especially as researchers
suggest there are various types of intelligence outside the realm of the standard IQ, this
standard for acceptable behavior in a classroom seems to be questionable.\~

I \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 m\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ean to suggest that perhaps
the system that childr\ltrpar \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 en are thrust into is promoting
only select outlets of intelligence.\~

It is for this reason that I believe teaching methods, especially regarding their styles of
and reasons for }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
punishment}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24

\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 should be
called\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 into question.\~\hich\f0 In response to behaviors in
which children \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 act out\'94\loch\f0

, the teachers should instead question whether their learning styles and intellectual areas
of talent are being addressed through the classroom curriculum.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~
Observing a third gra\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 d

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 e classroom, I witnessed a \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0
disobedient student's\'94\loch\f0

hand shoot up into the air as he exploded with enthusiasm like a firecracker. He was so
enthusiastic to answer the question that was asked that he nearly fell off the edge of his
seat, his eyes focused on\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 the teacher.\~ This level of enthusiasm would be recognized
with merit in many situations as a child ages.\~

However, the teacher jerked her head in his direction, gave him a look that made him
hang his head, and called on a different student.\~ Instead of r\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

cognizing his enthusiasm on any level at all, the child was given a red mark on his desk,
meaning that he would be unable to play later that day.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~

In this situation, maintaining the order of the classroom seemed to outweigh
transforming this child\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 '\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s
enthusiasm into a creative outlet.\~ This eight year old boy's excitement was doused by
the }{

\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 teacher\hich\f0 \rquote \loch\f0 s}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24
\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

stone glare, perhaps decreasing the likelihood that the child will feel comfortable
responding to questions in the future.\~ The stared at his desk long
af\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 terwards and seemed embarrassed by the red mark in front
of him.\~
The punishment did nothing to further his learning and the lack of explanation for the
behavior may negatively impact the children.\~ Due to response inhibition, other children
witnessing th\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 i\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

s punishment may show decreased levels of enthusiasm since their classmate was scolded
for }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 this (}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta, Miller, &
Ellis, 2004, 30).\~ It must be noted that if it is not explained to a child what piece of their
behavior is unfavorable, they may confuse the re

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 asoning behind the punishment.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~ While
some schooling systems attempt to shape all children into one mold of intelligence,
differences in intelligence must be embraced.\~

As children's temperaments' differ from one another, it only makes sense to
ad\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 d\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 a means by which children
can best exhibit their talents in the curriculum.\~\hich\f0 A child that has great \'93

\loch\f0 \hich\f0 social intelligence\'94\loch\f0 will not be able to further this talent
through sitting in a classroom without open discussion.\~ In the same sense, a child who
has \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 a\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

high level of creative intelligence will not maximize their learning potential through
standard classroom activities.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~

A similar situation in a first grade class was handled in a more acceptable way in which
the teacher matched the enthusiasm of \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
t\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 he child.\~

He acted as if he was just as excited about the child about obtaining the answer, and
announced for two of the students to write the answer down on a piece of paper, close
their eyes and show it to the class.\~ He then allowed the class to vote

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 o\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 n the correct answer.\~\hich\f0
This means of dealing with children's temperaments displays a type of \'93\loch\f0
\hich\f0 emotional intelligence\'94\loch\f0 on the part of the teacher.\~

\hich\f0 Psychologists Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey identify this intelligence as the
\'93\loch\f0 ability to perceive and express \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

motion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate
emotion}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179
\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'94\loch\f0 (}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Skowronek, Class
presentation on Intelligence).\~ Teachers must utilize and recognize these different facets
of intelligence instead of choosing a specific, ide\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

al model of intelligence.\~ By recognizing the many temperaments, learning styles, and
types of intelligence that students exhibit, classroom activities can be based
accordingly.\~\line }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Sincerely,

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Serena\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Edinger

\par \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 SEVEN

\par }\pard \ltrpar\ql
\li0\ri0\sa200\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\ri
n0\lin0\itap0\pararsid3753653 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Question #7

\line Through this experience, I've become far more involved with
ch\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ildren than I otherwise would have.\~

During a normal semester, I may have shrugged off volunteer work when times got busy
and therefore not benefited fully from the experiences.\~ However, this semester gave me
motive and reason to maintain a rather steady\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 pattern of volunteer work.\~ After completing this journal, I
feel as if I have a more solid backing of facts that I can apply to the situations I
encounter.\~

This new knowledge base will certainly affect my attitude and approaches to situations
in which c\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 h\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ildren are involved.
As Sternberg notes in his triarchic }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 sub
theory}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 , \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 experience affects
intelligence\'94

\loch\f0 \hich\f0 and \'93\loch\f0 intelligence affects experience}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24
\ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0
\'94\loch\f0 (}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0

\f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Skowronek, Class
presentation on Intelligence).\~ This newly acquired intelligence will allow me to
experience the wo\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

rld through new eyes, considering concepts of which I was once unaware.\~ I will be
better able to appreciate childhood behaviors that I once took for granted.\~\~ I am more
likely to involve myself with children-related activities in the future.\~\line

\~\~\~\~\~\~\~ Re\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 l\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ating this
information to my experiences as I go makes the situations more interesting to analyze.\~

In addition, I'm able to actually delve into the minds of children by asking questions that
I know will produce a related answer.\~ As far as involvement
go\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

s, now that I'm familiar with the stages of development, presented by a variety of
psychologists, I am able to identify variants from the norm.\~

Since I am already familiar with this through this experience, I think it would be
interesting to become invol\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 v\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ed
with children who show learning deficits and are mentally inhibited/advanced.\~

Making a comparison to what I've already learned would be really fulfilling.\~\line
\~\~\~\~\~\~\~ I plan on volunteering at a hospital over the summer and this experience
has increased \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 t\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

he chances that I will request working with children.\~ The main reason is, as I
previously noted, that it is much more interesting to interact with a group if I have a
knowledge base and I am able to make connections.\~

Not only would it be more intellectu\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
a\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 lly fulfilling to work with a group that I was familiar with
but it makes the situations more enjoyable.\~

For instance, when children are watching a magic show, it is much more enjoyable to
watch their reactions if you are able to understand the certain l\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
i\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

mitations that they have in their cognitive process.\~ So a preoperational child of Piaget's
theory may not be advanced}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
enough}{\rtlch\fcs1

\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
in cognitive ability to understand the truth of magic tricks taking place.\~ They may not
be able to comprehend how some of the tr\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
icks are being done, because they cannot manipulate as many variables in their heads as
the operational children are capable of.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~

In contrast, activities like this are almost nearly as interesting to watch with children of
the operational period.\~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

It makes it interesting because with this background knowledge I'm now able to predict
what their behavioral responses will be.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~

Merely being able to predict these responses to situations makes me want to further my
work with children, applying wh\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 a\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

t I know that may facilitate the learning process, and testing my hypothesis in comparison
with the theories I've learned.\~\line }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Question # 8\line

Not only does this alter my opinion about how children view the world, but it alters my
beliefs on how a child s\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 hould be treated.\~

I am better able to understand children's cognitive limitations based on their levels of
development and what expectations are out of range based on different models of
development.\~ In my experience, Piaget's model relates surprisingly

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 well to the stages that children
progress through.\~ An example of these limitations based on stages is that of cognitive
advancement.\~\~

A first grader may still have difficulties understanding the concept of multiplication, not
because their IQ is lower t\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 h\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 an
that of a third grader, but their stage of development is less advanced.\~

\hich\f0 As Piaget recognizes, the first graders are very unlikely to grasp the complexity
of this math, even though the third graders labeled it as \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0
easy\'94.\~\loch\f0 In the future, I'll be able t\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 o

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 attribute these levels of understanding more to biological
processes than I had in the past.\~ However, my recognition of the effect of children's
environment on their responses has been influenced as well.\~

Not until I observed these classrooms for an ex\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
t\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ended period of time was\ltrpar \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
\hich\f0 I able to recognize the real impact of the environment, especially through \'93

\loch\f0 \hich\f0 social referencing\'94.\~\loch\f0 I found that, especially in the first grade
class, if the teacher laughed at something she was reading aloud, the children were
guara\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 nteed to mirror this behavior.\~\hich\f0
On the contrary, if a student was acting \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 inappropriately\'94\loch\f0 ,
then the children used social referencing to determine the correct way to act in the
situation.\~\line

I recognize the effects that parenting styles have on the
developm\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 e\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 nt of the child and
positive detrimental effects of substandard living conditions.\~

This experience shined light upon the differences in mental process and capability.\~ I
now recognize the limitations that must be expected, as a basic standard across the
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 w\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 orld.\~\line

I was surprised that I was able to identify and match distinct temperaments.\~ Even over
the course of the first few hours I spent with the children, their individual temperaments
were apparent in their responses to questions.\~ Also, I had inexplica

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 b\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ly been expecting the third
graders to be more vocal than the first graders, perhaps due to their increased knowledge
as they got older.\~

However, the level of activity of the first graders seemed to match the activity of the
third graders, while in diffe\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 r\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ent
ways.\~

Though the classroom atmosphere may have had a large influence, I was impressed by
the level of vocalization and sociability that a lot of the first graders exhibited.\~\line
\~\~\~\~\~\~\~

Though we made the connection with the text with the development
of\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 self-esteem, I became
increasingly aware of the levels at which self-esteem and self-evaluation
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

affected\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 the way children learned.\~ Though undoubtedly
based on different achievements and goals, the role of social comparison and the relation
of personal ach\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

ievement to others seemed to be one of the key factors in the children's learning
processes.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~\hich\f0 Piaget notes that children in the preoperational
stage of development are only beginning to understand \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0

representational intelligence\'94\loch\f0 , which limits thei\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
r\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 ability to \'93\loch\f0 solve problems on a
representational level\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'94\loch\f0 (
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta, Miller, & Ellis, 2004, 226).\~ It is not until the
operational stage of development that a child is able to truly handle this type of cognitive
reasoning.\~ By comparing the first grade students

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 to the third grade students, I was able to distinguish these
phases in their demeanor.\~ As the third grade students played a board game, one boy
rolled an undesirable 'two' with the dice.\~\hich\f0 \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0

Aw man,\'94\loch\f0 \hich\f0 he said laughing, \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 I wish the die would
die\'94.\~\loch\f0 My ears \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 p\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

erked when I heard this correlation, relating it to what we'd just learned. This statement
makes a distinct relation to children's newfound ability to make connections on this
representational level.\~

They also displayed this ability through their use of \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
m\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 etaphors.\~

As the teacher read the children a book on the third grade level, the children were
instructed to raise their hands when they heard a metaphor or simile.\~\~ They sometimes
caught ones that I'd missed!\~ Curious to compare the two groups, I asked

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 a\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 first grader what he
thought it meant to \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 stick out like a sore thumb\'94.\~\loch\f0

While the third graders explained in surprising detail, the first graders seemed rather
confused.\line \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Typical Moment: First Grade\~\~\~\~\line

The students at the first grade level were given an assignment to identify the time on a
series of clocks.\~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 The teacher passed back graded quizzes,
which were graded, though graded rather leniently.\~

After getting her quiz, Tashima noted her score and then, without hesitation, began to
compare her score with the score of the children around her.\~ She noted to
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 o\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ne child that they\~

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 both\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 missed the same clock
problem.\~\~\hich\f0 Tashima showed an eager attitude towards sharing her test grade
with those around her and whether they got a \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 smiley\'94\loch\f0

\hich\f0 or a star for being \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 a star student\'94.\~\line
\~\~\~\~\~\~\~\loch\f0 These actions are known by psycho\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
logists as social comparison.\~

Social comparison is a process by which students compare their abilities to those of
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 others (\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta, Miller, & Ellis,
2004, 500).\~

This process is an important means to which students further their learning process and
track th\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 eir progress in comparison with their peers.\~\hich\f0

Studies have found that the information that students compare varies with age and that
the first grade years begin to \'93\loch\f0 increasingly involve academic
performance\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'94\loch\f0 (\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

Vasta, Miller, & Ellis, 2004, 500).\~ Researchers\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0
even go on to suggest that the children's \'93\loch\f0 self-evaluative remarks become
positively associated with the number of social comparisons they make

\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'94\loch\f0 (\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta, Miller, &
Ellis, 2004, 500).\~ Therefore, those that achieve lower on the exams are less likely to
compa\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

re their results with those of others, potentially even at this first grade level.\~ This
illustrates the large effects that a child's self-evaluations may have on their
development.\~

Those with a low level of competence, including a low self evaluation
on\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 their capabilities, including
what they aspire to achieve,\~

may result in a much lower level of interaction and corresponding learning than would a
child with a higher level of competence.\~ As the children advance, their likelihood to
engage in social com\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 p\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

arison depends more and more heavily on their level of competence and the scores they
achieve.\~ As they become older, they are less likely to share a negatively graded piece of
work rather than if they are graded well.\~

An increased level of self-consciou\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
s\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ness and self-awareness as the children ages most likely
results in their decreased willingness to engage in social comparisons as they age.\~\line

Atypical moment: First Grade\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~ A girl that sat in front of me in the first
grade class generally seemed to \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 b\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
e rather outgoing, responsive to questions and overall a good student.\~

She always smiled really big at me, showing all of her teeth.\~ On my third or fourth
visit to the class, I overheard the child's parent talking to the teacher off to the side in the
m\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 o\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

rning, explaining that they had just decided to get a divorce and had just attempted to
explain the situation to the child.\~

The parent/teacher relationships seem to be beneficial to student success at Macfarlene
and are more extensive than mine ever were\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 at my elementary school.\~

In any case, the child's behaviors in class seemed to be affected by it.\~\hich\f0 She
seemed to have a \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 sad face\'94\loch\f0 on for the hours I was there,
and told a classmate about it with a big nod and little frown.\~\line

Though not a typical situatio\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 n\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 in
the lives of many, there are recognizable adverse effects of this separation of the family.\~
It has been noted that\line Typical Moment: Third Grade\line

When the third grade teacher turned her back, Cedric poked the boy sitting next to him in
the rib just hard\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 enough to cause
irritation.\~

The boy, who was working on a ditto, shot him a rather baffled glance.\~ When he went
back to his work, Cedric poked him again, this time laughing a little evil laugh.\~ The
victim of the probing let out a \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 whimper

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 in which the tea\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 cher's eyes
automatically fell towards Cedric.\~ Cedric, please keep your hands to yourself.\~

Cedric cast his eyes downward in shame but soon after stomped on the foot of the person
sitting beside him.\~ After speaking with the teacher, I confirmed that
thi\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

act of aggression wasn't the least bit randomized.\~\hich\f0 In fact, she pointed out that
there was rarely a day or even a few hours that went past where his actions \'93\loch\f0
\hich\f0 added challenge\'94\loch\f0 to the learning environment.\~

\line It can also be noted that male violence is often\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 physically while female violence is generally more
emotionally based.\~\hich\f0

Scientific studies indicate that this level of aggression and somewhat undesirable
temperament may be a result of \'93\loch\f0 higher-than-average levels of
testosterone\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'94\loch\f0 (\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

Vasta, Miller, & Ellis, 20\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 04, 543).\~ However, perhaps the
strongest corresponding factor to aggressive behavior is parental
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 genes (\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta, Miller, & Ellis,
2004, 544).\~
Twin studies support this theory, displaying\~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
more\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 similar levels of aggression between identical twins
than frater\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 nal \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 twins (

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta, Miller, & Ellis, 2004, 544).\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~
Though this research shows strong findings, it has also been questioned whether learning
principles may be the key factor in aggressive behavior.\~ The resulting gen

\ltrpar \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 der differences may in fact play a
ma\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 jor role as well.\~ In essence, this would suggest that
Cedric was aware of these gender differences and expects less disapproval for these
actions.\~

\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~ By calling the origin of Cedrics behavior into question, it is also
possible to predict his temper\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 a\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
ment as an infant.\~ Based on his aggressive behavior, he was most likely a\~

\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'93\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 difficult\'94\loch\f0
infant, based on Thomas and Chess's Goodness of Fit \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 model
(\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta, Miller, & Ellis, 2004, 451).\~

This link can be made through studies in which infant temperaments are
co\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 rrelated with a child's later behaviors.\~\hich\f0 Studies
show that \'93\loch\f0

temperament is quite a good predictor of which children display greater amounts of
aggression\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'94\loch\f0 (\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta,
Miller, & Ellis, 2004, 544).\~

Perhaps one of the most interesting concepts to relate to the r\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
easoning behind this temperament is that of evolutionary significance.\~\hich\f0
Following a \'93\loch\f0 cross-cultural study of babies

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 during\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 a drought in East
Africa\'94\loch\f0 , it was found that babies with more difficult temperaments were more
likely to \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 survive\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

due to the increased\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 amount of attention
provided(456)!\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Atypical Moment: Third
Grade\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~

During gym time, Daniel usually participated with the rest of the kids, playing
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 dodge ball\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 , kicking soccer balls,
or playing catch.\~ He generally exhibited excitement t\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

owards gym class but this day he refused to play and sat on the bench lining the
building.\~ A couple classmates approached him and asked him why he didn't want to
play.\~\hich\f0 Danny responded that he wasn't in the mood to play soccer and \'93

\loch\f0 \hich\f0 just didn't want to\'94.\~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 Sitting with the boy for a little while, I again asked
him, \'93\loch\f0 why don't you want to play?\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'94\~

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 He then reeled off a line that I had to have him repeat
because it was jumbled.\~ He repeated what he said and this time I picked up the }
{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

ide\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 a}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 of it.\~\line
\~\~\~\~\~\~\~ Apparen\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0

tly his brother had told him that soccer was a girl's sport and that it was a \'93\loch\f0
\hich\f0 pansy sport\'94.\~\loch\f0 \hich\f0 Even though I assured him that this wasn't
true and \'93\loch\f0 look at all the guys playing out there!

\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0 \'94\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 he shook his head when
asked to play.\~ We played catch on the sidel\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ines.\~\hich\f0
The gym teacher asked him if \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 maybe next time\'94\loch\f0

he would play and he nodded.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~ This situation, obviously one that
doesn't occur on the day to day basis, displays that level at which an opinion of a
respected individual may affect that way a c\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 h

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ild behaves.\~ A child's ability to view themselves through
the eyes of others, or the Looking-glass self may have had a large effect as to why he
reacted the way he did.\~\hich\f0 This illustrates that idea that \'93\loch\f0

the portraits we paint of ourselves are based on ho\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
w\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 we think others see us\loch\af0\dbch\af37\hich\f0
\'94\loch\f0 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 (Vasta\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

, Miller, & Ellis, 2004, 493).\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~ This situation shows that with the
inclusion of other's opinions in their evaluations of themselves, often come confusion and
complications.\~\hich\f0 Though incorporating \'93\loch\f0

the looking glass sel\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 \hich\f0 f\'94\loch\f0 into their cognitive
awareness may benefit them in terms of social interaction, it can be noted through
situations like this that it sometimes has a negative effect.\~

\par }\pard \ltrpar\ql
\fi720\li0\ri0\sa200\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustri
ght\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid3753653 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

Typical moment: Third Grade\~\~\~\~\line I could see the third grader, Olana,
staring\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 intently at me through my peripheral vision.\~ She
hadn't met me on a personal level yet, but her eyes seemed to be glued to me.\~

Every time I looked up at her she would look down at her desk.\~ She whispered in a
friend's ear while throwing quick glances \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
a\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 t me.\~

As if in response to her whispers, her friend grabbed her hand and pulled her towards
me.\~\hich\f0 Olana she shook her head, silently mouthing \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0
no\'94\loch\f0 , while gritting her teeth at her friend and trailing her feet.\~

When she caught me looking, she stopped resi\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
s\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ting and walked over to me.\~ Her friend spoke for her as
she looked at her feet.\~\hich\f0 \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0

She was just wondering if 'Serena' was your first or your last name, because she has a
sister named Serena.\'94\~\loch\f0 \hich\f0 The girl chimed in,
\'93.\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Because the teacher said your name was
M\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0

\hich\f0 iss Serena and I wasn't sure if it was your first name or last name\'94.\~\loch\f0 I
told her that it was my first name and she nodded, smiled gently and returned to her
seat.\~

Olana's behavior in the situation was not one that was exhibited only towards me or
toward\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 s\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 strangers.\~

Throughout my observations at MacFarlene, she seemed to exhibit inactive, shy
characteristics frequently.\~\line \~\~\~\~\~\~\~

In addition to being able to identify Olana's stable temperament, displaying shy
behaviors, more can be recognized through this\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 interaction when isolating the cause.\~\hich\f0

The teacher told me later that she probably didn't want to leave her seat because it was
\'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 against the classroom rules\'94\loch\f0 or that nobody had approved
her to stand.\~ This led me to believe that Olana's moral reasoning, a

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 l\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 ong with her
temperament}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1
\af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid3753653\charrsid9969179
\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0
of course, was what led her to be hesitant to approach me.\~\hich\f0 In support of this
assumption, researchers have \'93\loch\f0 \hich\f0 identified fearfulness as an inborn trait
that influences whether children will internalize\'94\loch\f0

certain rules and standards.\~\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Therefore, I concluded that it
was, in part, Olana's fearfulness that made her morally aware of her actions and their
potential \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 consequences (

\hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 Vasta}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0
\f0\fs24\insrsid3753653 \hich\af0\dbch\af37\loch\f0 , Miller, & Ellis, 2004,
532).\~}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\fs24\insrsid614363\charrsid8485672

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