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Jain

Linear Systems

Let x(m,n) and y(m,n) represent the input and output sequences respectively of a 2D-system. where y(m,n) = H[x(m,n)] This system is linear if and only if any linear combination of 2 inputs x1(m,n) and x2(m,n) produces the same combination of their respective outputs y1(m,n) and y2(m,n). ie; H[a1 x1(m,n) + a2x2(m,n)] = a1H[x1(m,n)] + a2H[x2(m,n)] = a1y1(m,n)+a2 y2(m,n) This is called linear superposition.

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module1 2

**Kronecker Delta Function
**

1-Dimensional Kronecker delta function is given by

n=0 1, δ ( n) = 0, otherwise

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**1-Dimensional Discrete Kronecker delta function
**

∞

Signal

Expansion

using

x ( n) =

∑ x(n ')δ (n − n ')

n '=−∞

x(n) = x(0)δ (n) + x(1)δ (n − 1) + x(2)δ (n − 2) = 1.δ (n) + (−1).δ (n − 1) + (1.5).δ (n − 2)

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2 dimensional Kronecker delta function is given by

1, m = 0, n = 0 δ (m, n) = 0, otherwise

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**2-Dimensional Discrete Kronecker delta function
**

∞ ∞

Signal

Expansion

using

x(m, n) =

∑ ∑ x(m ', n ')δ (m − m ', n − n ')

n '=−∞ n '=−∞

x(m, n) = x(0, 0)δ ( m, n) + x(0,1)δ (m, n − 1) + x(1, 0)δ (m − 1, n) + x(1,1)δ (m − 1, n − 1) = aδ (m, n) + bδ (m, n − 1) + cδ (m − 1, n) + d δ (m − 1, n − 1)

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Impulse Response

When the input is 2D Kronecker delta function at location (m’,n’), the output at location (m,n) is defined as

h(m, n, m ', n ') = H [δ (m − m ', n − n ')]

This is called impulse response. It can take negative as well as complex values. Output of any linear system can be given by

y (m, n) =

3/20/2012

∑ ∑ x(m ', n ')h(m, n, m ' n ')

m '=−∞ n '=−∞

CS04 804B Image Processing - Module1 7

∞

∞

**Point Spread Function (PSF)
**

The impulse response is called Point Spread Function (PSF) when the inputs and outputs represent a positive quantity such as the intensity of light in imaging systems.

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**Region of Support of Impulse Response
**

The smallest closed region in the mn-plane outside which impulse response is zero is called region of support of impulse response. Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter: has finite regions of support. Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter: has infinite regions of support.

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**Shift Invariant System
**

A system is shift-invariant, if a translation of the input causes same translation of the output. Shape of impulse response does not change as the impulse response moves about mn-plane. ie; h(m,n,m’,n’) = h(m-m’,n-n’)

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**Eigen Function of Shift Invariant System
**

Eigen function of a system is defined as an input function that is reproduced at the output with a possible change only in its amplitude. That is, output is a scaled version of input. For a linear shift invariant system, its eigen functions are given by j 2π ( ux + vy )

e

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Frequency Response

Output of the linear shift invariant system would be

∞ ∞

g ( x, y ) =

∫ ∫ h( x − x ', y − y ')e

−∞ −∞

j 2π ( ux ' + vy ')

dx ' dy '

= H (u , v)e j 2π (ux + vy )

H(u,v) is the Fourier Transform of impulse response and is called the frequency response of the system. It represents amplitude of the system response at frequency (u,v).

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**Optical Transfer Function
**

OTF is the normalized frequency response.

H (u , v) OTF = H (0, 0)

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**Modulation Transfer Function
**

Magnitude of OTF is MTF.

MTF = OTF H (u , v) = H (0, 0)

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Thank You

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CS804B, M1_4, Lecture Notes

CS804B, M1_4, Lecture Notes

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